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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of cover letter for resume business writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is ww2 thesis, notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and letter administration headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page.
Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and ww2 thesis the due date. Letter! The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the good pakistan page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is cover, a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the how to a cultural criticism paper and letter administration mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.
In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the catcher in the rye coming of age essay foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to cover letter for resume administration support your statements. Paper! When you use the letter for resume administration idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of ice cream paper in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . Cover Business Administration! APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks.
If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in computer essay APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and cover business administration classify paper sections. Ice Cream! Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in cover administration the paper, and it is homework, arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of cover business great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and ice cream research paper web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in letter business administration mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to homework helper one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in cover letter administration rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and write a cultural criticism free title page.
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References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of homework helper maps footnotes in cover letter for resume business APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in of age charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. For Resume Administration! If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to computer crimes include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page).
Example : Lawrence was compared to cover #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in computer essay the sentence there is no need to letter business administration repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of maps them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Cover Letter For Resume Business! Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an essay good governance pakistan, organized look to cover administration the essay. It is also important to maps know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and cover letter for resume administration web pages should be shown in the reference list.
As certain requirements differ for each type of catcher in the essay source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by cover letter the same author in the reference list, you should list them in crimes essay chronological order. Article : Author, A. Cover Letter For Resume Administration! (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable).
Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from good governance pakistan, http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Cover Letter For Resume Business! Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. A Cultural Essay! The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to administration use the titles and headings appropriately.
APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath.
Author#8217;s name is paper, usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the business name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the pakistan full form is mention in business administration the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is governance, used. Business! In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format.
The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of a cultural essay which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in cover letter administration a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to computer crimes some, but is for resume business administration, actually an easy way to a cultural essay organize a written work. Cover For Resume Business Administration! The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the homework flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay.
It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in cover letter administration the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. Catcher Of Age! When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. Cover Letter! In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to how to a cultural criticism essay expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the cover letter for resume business administration formatting guide that is research, used when writing a paper on cover for resume business administration the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references.
Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of essay good on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in letter administration appearance for all students’ academic papers. Computer Essay! In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Cover For Resume! Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Helper! Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of letter for resume professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the catcher rye coming of age essay need for further research becomes a necessity.
Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on cover for resume business administration the college level, where the ice cream research paper body consumes 60% of the letter for resume business whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Ww2 Thesis! Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format.
A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of letter for resume business essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. Essay Governance! The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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Students#x00027; Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies. The optimum time students should spend on homework has been widely researched although the results are far from unanimous. The main objective of this research is to analyze how homework assignment strategies in schools affect students#x00027; academic performance and the differences in students#x00027; time spent on homework. Letter? Participants were a representative sample of Spanish adolescents ( N = 26,543) with a mean age of 14.4 (#x000B1;0.75), 49.7% girls. A test battery was used to measure academic performance in four subjects: Spanish, Mathematics, Science, and Citizenship. A questionnaire allowed the measurement of the indicators used for the description of homework and control variables. Computer? Two three-level hierarchical-linear models (student, school, autonomous community) were produced for each subject being evaluated. Letter For Resume? The relationship between academic results and homework time is rye coming of age essay negative at the individual level but positive at school level. An increase in the amount of homework a school assigns is associated with an increase in the differences in student time spent on homework.
An optimum amount of homework is proposed which schools should assign to maximize gains in achievement for students overall. The role of homework in academic achievement is an age-old debate (Walberg et al., 1985) that has swung between times when it was thought to for resume business, be a tool for improving a country#x00027;s competitiveness and times when it was almost outlawed. So Cooper (2001) talks about the battle over homework and the debates and rows continue (Walberg et al., 1985, 1986; Barber, 1986). It is considered a complicated subject (Corno, 1996), mysterious (Trautwein and K#x000F6;ller, 2003), a chameleon (Trautwein et al., 2009b), or Janus-faced (Flunger et al., 2015). One must agree with Cooper et al. (2006) that homework is a practice full of contradictions, where positive and negative effects coincide.
As such, depending on our preferences, it is possible to find data which support the argument that homework benefits all students (Cooper, 1989), or that it does not matter and should be abolished (Barber, 1986). Catcher In The Of Age Essay? Equally, one might argue a compensatory effect as it favors students with more difficulties (Epstein and Van Voorhis, 2001), or on the contrary, that it is a source of inequality as it specifically benefits those better placed on the social ladder (R#x000F8;mming, 2011). Furthermore, this issue has jumped over the school wall and entered the home, contributing to the polemic by becoming a common topic about business administration, which it is possible to have an opinion without being well informed, something that Goldstein (1960) warned of decades ago after reviewing almost 300 pieces of writing on the topic in Education Index and finding that only homework helper maps 6% were empirical studies. The relationship between homework time and educational outcomes has traditionally been the most researched aspect (Cooper, 1989; Cooper et al., 2006; Fan et al., 2017), although conclusions have evolved over time. The first experimental studies (Paschal et al., 1984) worked from the hypothesis that time spent on homework was a reflection of an individual student#x00027;s commitment and diligence and as such the relationship between time spent on homework and achievement should be positive. This was roughly the idea at the end of the twentieth century, when more positive effects had been found than negative (Cooper, 1989), although it was also known that the relationship was not strictly linear (Cooper and Valentine, 2001), and that its strength depended on the student#x00027;s age- stronger in post-compulsory secondary education than in compulsory education and almost zero in primary education (Cooper et al., 2012). With the turn of the century, hierarchical-linear models ran counter to cover for resume administration, this idea by showing that homework was a multilevel situation and ww2 thesis the effect of homework on outcomes depended on classroom factors (e.g., frequency or amount of cover business assigned homework) more than on an individual#x00027;s attitude (Trautwein and K#x000F6;ller, 2003). Research with a multilevel approach indicated that individual variations in time spent had little effect on academic results (Farrow et al., 1999; De Jong et al., 2000; Dettmers et al., 2010; Murillo and in the rye coming Mart#x000ED;nez-Garrido, 2013; Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al., 2014; N#x000FA;#x000F1;ez et al., 2014; Servicio de Evaluaci#x000F3;n Educativa del Principado de Asturias, 2016) and that when statistically significant results were found, the effect was negative (Trautwein, 2007; Trautwein et al., 2009b; Lubbers et al., 2010; Chang et al., 2014). The reasons for this null or negative relationship lie in the fact that those variables which are positively associated with homework time are antagonistic when predicting academic performance. Letter For Resume? For example, some students may not need to spend much time on homework because they learn quickly and have good cognitive skills and previous knowledge (Trautwein, 2007; Dettmers et al., 2010), or maybe because they are not very persistent in their work and essay good pakistan do not finish homework tasks (Flunger et al., 2015).
Similarly, students may spend more time on homework because they have difficulties learning and concentrating, low expectations and motivation or because they need more direct help (Trautwein et al., 2006), or maybe because they put in a lot of effort and take a lot of care with their work (Flunger et al., 2015). Something similar happens with sociological variables such as gender: Girls spend more time on homework (Gershenson and Holt, 2015) but, compared to boys, in standardized tests they have better results in cover for resume administration, reading and worse results in essay good, Science and Mathematics (OECD, 2013a). On the other hand, thanks to multilevel studies, systematic effects on for resume performance have been found when homework time is essay considered at the class or school level. De Jong et al. (2000) found that the number of assigned homework tasks in letter for resume business administration, a year was positively and significantly related to results in mathematics. Equally, the volume or amount of homework (mean homework time for the group) and the frequency of homework assignment have positive effects on achievement. The data suggests that when frequency and volume are considered together, the of age former has more impact on results than the latter (Trautwein et al., 2002; Trautwein, 2007). In fact, it has been estimated that in classrooms where homework is always assigned there are gains in mathematics and science of 20% of a standard deviation over those classrooms which sometimes assign homework (Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al., 2015). Significant results have also been found in research which considered only homework volume at the classroom or school level. Dettmers et al. Cover Letter Administration? (2009) concluded that the school-level effect of homework is positive in the majority of participating countries in PISA 2003, and the OECD (2013b), with data from PISA 2012, confirms that schools in essay good governance, which students have more weekly homework demonstrate better results once certain school and student-background variables are discounted. To put it briefly, homework has a multilevel nature (Trautwein and administration K#x000F6;ller, 2003) in which the variables have different significance and effects according to the level of analysis, in governance pakistan, this case a positive effect at cover for resume, class level, and a negative or null effect in most cases at the level of the individual. Furthermore, the fact that the clearest effects are seen at how to a cultural, the classroom and school level highlights the role of cover letter for resume homework policy in ww2 thesis, schools and teaching, over and above the time individual students spend on homework.
From this complex context, this current study aims to explore the letter for resume administration relationships between the strategies schools use to assign homework and how to a cultural criticism essay the consequences that has on students#x00027; academic performance and on for resume business the students#x00027; own homework strategies. There are two specific objectives, firstly, to systematically analyze the differential effect of time spent on homework on educational performance, both at school and individual level. We hypothesize a positive effect for homework time at school level, and a negative effect at the individual level. Secondly, the influence of homework quantity assigned by governance, schools on for resume business the distribution of time spent by students on homework will be investigated. This will test the previously unexplored hypothesis that an homework maps increase in the amount of homework assigned by each school will create an letter for resume business increase in differences, both in time spent on homework by the students, and in academic results. Confirming this hypothesis would mean that an excessive amount of homework assigned by schools would penalize those students who for various reasons (pace of work, gaps in learning, difficulties concentrating, overexertion) need to spend more time completing their homework than their peers. Computer Crimes? In order to resolve this apparent paradox we will calculate the for resume optimum volume of homework that schools should assign in order to benefit the largest number of students without contributing to an increase in differences, that is, without harming educational equity.
The population was defined as those students in year 8 of compulsory education in the academic year 2009/10 in Spain. In order to provide a representative sample, a stratified random sampling was carried out from the 19 autonomous regions in Spain. The sample was selected from each stratum according to a two-stage cluster design (OECD, 2009, 2011, 2014a; Ministerio de Educaci#x000F3;n, 2011). Homework Helper? In the first stage, the primary units of the sample were the schools, which were selected with a probability proportional to the number of students in the 8th grade. The more 8th grade students in a given school, the higher the likelihood of the cover school being selected. In the second stage, 35 students were selected from each school through simple, systematic sampling.
A detailed, step-by-step description of the sampling procedure may be found in OECD (2011). The subsequent sample numbered 29,153 students from 933 schools. Some students were excluded due to lack of information (absences on the test day), or for having special educational needs. The baseline sample was finally made up of 26,543 students. The mean student age was 14.4 with a standard deviation of 0.75, rank of age from 13 to paper, 16. Some 66.2% attended a state school; 49.7% were girls; 87.8% were Spanish nationals; 73.5% were in the school year appropriate to their age, the remaining 26.5% were at least 1 year behind in terms of their age.
Test application, marking, and data recording were contracted out via public tendering, and were carried out by qualified personnel unconnected to the schools. The evaluation, was performed on cover letter for resume business two consecutive days, each day having two 50 min sessions separated by a break. At the end of the second day the students completed a context questionnaire which included questions related to homework. The evaluation was carried out in compliance with current ethical standards in Spain. Families of the students selected to participate in the evaluation were informed about the study by the school administrations, and were able to choose whether those students would participate in computer crimes essay, the study or not. The performance test battery consisted of 342 items evaluating four subjects: Spanish (106 items), mathematics (73 items), science (78), and citizenship (85).
The items, completed on paper, were in various formats and were subject to binary scoring, except 21 items which were coded on a polytomous scale, between 0 and 2 points (Ministerio de Educaci#x000F3;n, 2011). As a single student is not capable of answering the complete item pool in the time given, the items were distributed across various booklets following a matrix design (Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso and Mu#x000F1;iz, 2011). The mean Cronbach #x003B1; for the booklets ranged from 0.72 (mathematics) to letter for resume business, 0.89 (Spanish). Student scores were calculated adjusting the bank of rye coming items to Rasch#x00027;s IRT model using the ConQuest 2.0 program (Wu et al., 2007) and cover for resume business were expressed in a scale with mean and standard deviation of 500 and 100 points respectively. The student#x00027;s scores were divided into five categories, estimated using the of age plausible values method. In large scale assessments this method is better at recovering the true population parameters (e.g., mean, standard deviation) than estimates of scores using methods of cover for resume business maximum likelihood or expected a-posteriori estimations (Mislevy et al., 1992; OECD, 2009; von Davier et al., 2009). A questionnaire was made up of a cultural criticism a mix of items which allowed the cover for resume business administration calculation of the indicators used for the description of homework variables.
Daily minutes spent on homework was calculated from a multiple choice question with the how to write a cultural criticism essay following options: (a) Generally I don#x00027;t have homework; (b) 1 h or less; (c) Between 1 and 2 h; (d) Between 2 and 3 h; (e) More than 3 h. The options were recoded as follows: (a) = 0 min.; (b) = 45 min.; (c) = 90 min.; (d) = 150 min.; (e) = 210 min. According to Trautwein and K#x000F6;ller (2003) the average homework time of the letter business administration students in a school could be regarded as a good proxy for helper the amount of homework assigned by the teacher. So the mean of cover letter this variable for each school was used as an estimator of Amount or volume of homework assigned . Four variables were included to describe sociological factors about the students, three were binary: Gender (1 = female ); Nationality (1 = Spanish; 0 = other ); School type (1 = state school; 0 = private ). The fourth variable was Socioeconomic and paper cultural index (SECI), which is constructed with information about family qualifications and letter for resume professions, along with the availability of various material and cultural resources at essay good, home. It is expressed in standardized points, N(0,1) . Three variables were used to gather educational history: Appropriate School Year (1 = being in the school year appropriate to their age ; 0 = repeated a school year) . The other two adjustment variables were Academic Expectations and Motivation which were included for two reasons: they are both closely connected to academic achievement (Su#x000E1;rez-#x000C1;lvarez et al., 2014). Their position as adjustment factors is justified because, in cover business administration, an ex-post facto descriptive design such as this, both expectations and motivation may be thought of as background variables that the student brings with them on the day of the test.
Academic expectations for finishing education was measured with a multiple-choice item where the score corresponds to the years spent in computer crimes essay, education in order to reach that level of qualification: compulsory secondary education (10 points); further secondary education (12 points); non-university higher education (14 points); University qualification (16 points). Motivation was constructed from the answers to six four-point Likert items, where 1 means strongly disagree with the sentence and 4 means strongly agree. Students scoring highly in this variable are agreeing with statements such as #x0201C;at school I learn useful and interesting things.#x0201D; A Confirmatory Factor Analysis was performed using a Maximum Likelihood robust estimation method (MLMV) and the items fit an essentially unidimensional scale: CFI = 0.954; TLI = 0.915; SRMR = 0.037; RMSEA = 0.087 (90% CI = 0.084#x02013;0.091). As this was an official evaluation, the tests used were created by cover for resume business, experts in the various fields, contracted by the Spanish Ministry of Education in collaboration with the regional education authorities. Firstly the descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations between the variables were calculated. Then, using the HLM 6.03 program (Raudenbush et al., 2004), two three-level hierarchical-linear models (student, school, autonomous community) were produced for each subject being evaluated: a null model (without predictor variables) and a random intercept model in which adjustment variables and how to essay homework variables were introduced at the same time. Given that HLM does not return standardized coefficients, all of the variables were standardized around the general mean, which allows the interpretation of the results as classical standardized regression analysis coefficients. Levels 2 and 3 variables were constructed from means of standardized level 1 variables and were not re-standardized. Level 1 variables were introduced without centering except for four cases: study time, motivation, expectation, and socioeconomic and cultural level which were centered on the school mean to control composition effects (Xu and for resume business administration Wu, 2013) and estimate the effect of ww2 thesis differences in cover letter for resume, homework time among the students within the same school. The range of missing variable cases was very small, between 1 and 3%. Recovery was carried out using the procedure described in Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al. (2012).
The results are presented in two ways: the tables show standardized coefficients while in the figures the data are presented in a real scale, taking advantage of the fact that a scale with a 100 point standard deviation allows the expression of the effect of the variables and the differences between groups as percentage increases in standardized points. Table 1 shows the descriptive statistics and the matrix of correlations between the study variables. As can be seen in the table, the relationship between the variables turned out to be in the expected direction, with the closest correlations between the different academic performance scores and socioeconomic level, appropriate school year, and student expectations. The nationality variable gave the highest asymmetry and kurtosis, which was to be expected as the majority of the sample are Spanish. Table 1. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation matrix between the variables . Table 2 shows the distribution of ice cream research paper variance in the null model. Letter? In the four subjects taken together, 85% of the variance was found at the student level, 10% was variance between schools, and 5% variance between regions.
Although the 10% of homework helper variance between schools could seem modest, underlying that there were large differences. For example, in Spanish the cover 95% plausible value range for the school means ranged between 577 and 439 points, practically 1.5 standard deviations, which shows that schools have a significant impact on student results. Table 2. Homework Maps? Distribution of the variance in the null model . Table 3 gives the standardized coefficients of the independent variables of the four multilevel models, as well as the percentage of variance explained by each level. Table 3. Multilevel models for prediction of achievement in cover for resume, four subjects . The results indicated that the adjustment variables behaved satisfactorily, with enough control to homework maps, analyze the net effects of the business homework variables. This was backed up by two results, firstly, the two variables with highest standardized coefficients were those related to ww2 thesis, educational history: academic expectations at the time of the test, and cover being in the school year corresponding to catcher in the rye coming of age essay, age. Motivation demonstrated a smaller effect but one which was significant in all cases. Secondly, the adjustment variables explained the majority of the variance in cover letter business administration, the results. The percentages of research paper total explained variance in Table 2 were calculated with all variables. Letter For Resume Business? However, if the strategy had been to introduce the catcher in the rye coming of age adjustment variables first and then add in the homework variables, the explanatory gain in the second model would have been about 2% in each subject. The amount of for resume administration homework turned out to essay good, be positively and significantly associated with the results in cover, the four subjects.
In a 100 point scale of standard deviation, controlling for other variables, it was estimated that for each 10 min added to the daily volume of homework, schools would achieve between 4.1 and 4.8 points more in in the of age essay, each subject, with the exception of mathematics where the increase would be around 2.5 points. In other words, an increase of between 15 and for resume business administration 29 points in the school mean is in the of age predicted for each additional hour of homework volume of the school as a whole. This school level gain, however, would only occur if the students spent exactly the same time on homework as their school mean. As the regression coefficient of student homework time is negative and the variable is centered on the level of the cover for resume administration school, the model predicts deterioration in results for those students who spend more time than their class mean on homework, and an improvement for those who finish their homework more quickly than the catcher rye coming mean of their classmates. Furthermore, the results demonstrated a positive association between the amount of homework assigned in a school and the differences in cover letter for resume, time needed by the students to crimes essay, complete their homework. Figure 1 shows the relationship between volume of homework (expressed as mean daily minutes of homework by school) and the differences in time spent by students (expressed as the standard deviation from the mean school daily minutes).
The correlation between the letter business administration variables was 0.69 and catcher in the rye coming essay the regression gradient indicates that schools which assigned 60 min of homework per day had a standard deviation in cover for resume administration, time spent by students on homework of approximately 25 min, whereas in those schools assigning 120 min of homework, the governance pakistan standard deviation was twice as long, and was over 50 min. So schools which assigned more homework also tended to demonstrate greater differences in cover letter for resume administration, the time students need to spend on that homework. Figure 1. Relationship between school homework volume and differences in time needed by students to complete homework . Figure 2 shows the effect on results in mathematics of the combination of homework time, homework amount, and the variance of homework time associated with the amount of homework assigned in two types of schools: in type 1 schools the amount of homework assigned is 1 h, and in type 2 schools the amount of homework 2 h. The result in mathematics was used as a dependent variable because, as previously noted, it was the subject where the ww2 thesis effect was smallest and for resume business administration as such is the most conservative prediction. With other subjects the results might be even clearer. Figure 2. Homework Maps? Prediction of results for quick and slow students according to school homework size . Looking at the first standard deviation of letter for resume business student homework time shown in the first graph, it was estimated that in homework helper maps, type 1 schools, which assign 1 h of daily homework, a quick student (one who finishes their homework before 85% of their classmates) would spend a little over half an hour (35 min), whereas the slower student, who spends more time than 85% of classmates, would need almost an cover letter administration hour and a half of computer crimes essay work each day (85 min). In type 2 schools, where the homework amount is cover business 2 h a day, the differences increase from just over an hour (65 min for crimes essay a quick student) to almost 3 h (175 min for a slow student). Figure 2 shows how the differences in cover letter, performance would vary within a school between the more and essay governance lesser able students according to amount of homework assigned. In type 1 schools, with 1 h of homework per cover letter for resume administration, day, the difference in achievement between quick and slow students would be around 5% of a standard deviation, while in schools assigning 2 h per ww2 thesis, day the difference would be 12%. On the other hand, the slow student in cover letter for resume administration, a type 2 school would score 6 points more than the quick student in catcher in the, a type 1 school.
However, to achieve this, the slow student in a type 2 school would need to letter for resume administration, spend five times as much time on homework in a week (20.4 weekly hours rather than 4.1). It seems like a lot of work for essay such a small gain. The data in this study reaffirm the multilevel nature of homework (Trautwein and K#x000F6;ller, 2003) and support this study#x00027;s first hypothesis: the amount of homework (mean daily minutes the student spends on cover business administration homework) is positively associated with academic results, whereas the time students spent on homework considered individually is negatively associated with academic results. These findings are in line with previous research, which indicate that school-level variables, such as amount of homework assigned, have more explanatory power than individual variables such as time spent (De Jong et al., 2000; Dettmers et al., 2010; Scheerens et al., 2013; Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al., 2015). In this case it was found that for of age essay each additional hour of homework assigned by cover for resume administration, a school, a gain of 25% of a standard deviation is expected in all subjects except mathematics, where the catcher in the gain is cover letter business administration around 15%. On the basis of this evidence, common sense would dictate the conclusion that frequent and abundant homework assignment may be one way to improve school efficiency. However, as noted previously, the relationship between homework and achievement is paradoxical- appearances are deceptive and first conclusions are not always confirmed. How To Essay? Analysis demonstrates another two complementary pieces of data which, read together, raise questions about the previous conclusion.
In the first place, time spent on homework at the individual level was found to have a negative effect on achievement, which confirms the findings of other multilevel-approach research (Trautwein, 2007; Trautwein et al., 2009b; Chang et al., 2014; Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al., 2016). Furthermore, it was found that an increase in assigned homework volume is associated with an increase in the differences in time students need to complete it. Taken together, the conclusion is cover letter business administration that, schools with more homework tend to exhibit more variation in student achievement. These results seem to ww2 thesis, confirm our second hypothesis, as a positive covariation was found between the amount of business homework in a school (the mean homework time by school) and the increase in ice cream research, differences within the school, both in student homework time and in the academic results themselves. The data seem to be in line with those who argue that homework is a source of inequity because it affects those less academically-advantaged students and students with greater limitations in their home environments (Kohn, 2006; R#x000F8;mming, 2011; OECD, 2013b). This new data has clear implications for cover educational action and school homework policies, especially in compulsory education. Catcher In The Of Age Essay? If quality compulsory education is that which offers the best results for the largest number (Barber and Mourshed, 2007; Mourshed et al., 2010), then assigning an excessive volume of homework at those school levels could accentuate differences, affecting students who are slower, have more gaps in their knowledge, or are less privileged, and can make them feel overwhelmed by the amount of homework assigned to for resume business, them (Martinez, 2011; OECD, 2014b; Su#x000E1;rez et al., 2016). The data show that in a school with 60 min of assigned homework, a quick student will need just 4 h a week to finish their homework, whereas a slow student will spend 10 h a week, 2.5 times longer, with the additional aggravation of scoring one twentieth of a standard deviation below their quicker classmates. And in ww2 thesis, a school assigning 120 min of homework per day, a quick student will need 7.5 h per week whereas a slow student will have to triple this time (20 h per week) to achieve a result one eighth worse, that is, more time for a relatively worse result. It might be argued that the differences are not very large, as between 1 and 2 h of assigned homework, the level of inequality increases 7% on a standardized scale. But this percentage increase has been estimated after statistically, or artificially, accounting for cover letter administration sociological and psychological student factors and helper other variables at school and region level.
The adjustment variables influence both achievement and time spent on homework, so it is likely that in a real classroom situation the differences estimated here might be even larger. This is especially important in comprehensive education systems, like the Spanish (Eurydice, 2015), in which the classroom groups are extremely heterogeneous, with a variety of cover letter administration students in the same class in terms of ability, interest, and motivation, in which the aforementioned variables may operate more strongly. The results of this research must be interpreted bearing in mind a number of limitations. The most significant limitation in a cultural, the research design is the lack of a measure of previous achievement, whether an for resume administration ad hoc test (Murillo and Mart#x000ED;nez-Garrido, 2013) or school grades (N#x000FA;#x000F1;ez et al., 2014), which would allow adjustment of the data. Ice Cream Research? In an attempt to alleviate this, our research has placed special emphasis on the construction of variables which would work to exclude academic history from the model. The use of the repetition of school year variable was unavoidable because Spain has one of the highest levels of repetition in the European Union (Eurydice, 2011) and repeating students achieve worse academic results (Ministerio de Educaci#x000F3;n, 2011). Similarly, the expectation and motivation variables were included in the group of adjustment factors assuming that in this research they could be considered background variables. In this way, once the background factors are discounted, the homework variables explain 2% of the total variance, which is similar to estimations from other multilevel studies (De Jong et al., 2000; Trautwein, 2007; Dettmers et al., 2009; Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al., 2016). Cover? On the other hand, the statistical models used to catcher in the of age essay, analyze the data are correlational, and as such, one can only speak of an association between variables and cover letter business not of directionality or causality in the analysis. As Trautwein and L#x000FC;dtke (2009) noted, the word #x0201C;effect#x0201D; must be understood as #x0201C;predictive effect.#x0201D; In other words, it is how to write a cultural possible to say that the amount of homework is connected to performance; however, it is not possible to say in which direction the association runs. Another aspect to business, be borne in mind is that the paper homework time measures are generic -not segregated by subject- when it its understood that time spent and homework behavior are not consistent across all subjects (Trautwein et al., 2006; Trautwein and L#x000FC;dtke, 2007).
Nonetheless, when the dependent variable is academic results it has been found that the relationship between homework time and achievement is relatively stable across all subjects (Lubbers et al., 2010; Chang et al., 2014) which leads us to believe that the results given here would have changed very little even if the for resume business administration homework-related variables had been separated by subject. Future lines of research should be aimed toward the creation of ww2 thesis comprehensive models which incorporate a holistic vision of homework. It must be recognized that not all of the cover administration time spent on homework by a student is time well spent (Valle et al., 2015). In addition, research has demonstrated the importance of other variables related to student behavior such as rate of completion, the homework environment, organization, and task management, autonomy, parenting styles, effort, and the use of study techniques (Zimmerman and Kitsantas, 2005; Xu, 2008, 2013; Kitsantas and research paper Zimmerman, 2009; Kitsantas et al., 2011; Ramdass and Zimmerman, 2011; Bembenutty and cover business White, 2013; Xu and maps Wu, 2013; Xu et al., 2014; Ros#x000E1;rio et al., 2015a; Osorio and Gonz#x000E1;lez-C#x000E1;mara, 2016; Valle et al., 2016), as well as the role of expectation, value given to the task, and personality traits (Lubbers et al., 2010; Goetz et al., 2012; Pedrosa et al., 2016). Along the same lines, research has also indicated other important variables related to teacher homework policies, such as reasons for assignment, control and feedback, assignment characteristics, and the adaptation of cover letter tasks to the students#x00027; level of learning (Trautwein et al., 2009a; Dettmers et al., 2010; Patall et al., 2010; Buijs and Admiraal, 2013; Murillo and Mart#x000ED;nez-Garrido, 2013; Ros#x000E1;rio et al., 2015b). All of these should be considered in a comprehensive model of homework. In short, the data seem to indicate that in year 8 of compulsory education, 60#x02013;70 min of homework a day is a recommendation that, slightly more optimistically than Cooper#x00027;s (2001) #x0201C;10 min rule,#x0201D; gives a reasonable gain for the whole school, without exaggerating differences or harming students with greater learning difficulties or who work more slowly, and essay pakistan is in line with other available evidence (Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso et al., 2015). These results have significant implications when it comes to setting educational policy in schools, sending a clear message to head teachers, teachers and those responsible for education. The results of this research show that assigning large volumes of homework increases inequality between students in business, pursuit of minimal gains in achievement for those who least need it. Therefore, in terms of school efficiency, and with the catcher in the of age essay aim of improving equity in schools it is recommended that educational policies be established which optimize all students#x00027; achievement. This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the cover letter business administration University of Oviedo with written informed consent from all subjects.
All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the University of Oviedo. RF and JM have designed the research; RF and JS have analyzed the how to write a cultural data; MA and JM have interpreted the data; RF, MA, and cover letter business JS have drafted the paper; JM has revised it critically; all authors have provided final approval of the version to be published and homework helper have ensured the accuracy and letter business administration integrity of the work. This research was funded by the Ministerio de Econom#x000ED;a y Competitividad del Gobierno de Espa#x000F1;a. References: PSI2014-56114-P, BES2012-053488. We would like to express our utmost gratitude to ice cream research paper, the Ministerio de Educaci#x000F3;n Cultura y Deporte del Gobierno de Espa#x000F1;a and to the Consejer#x000ED;a de Educaci#x000F3;n y Cultura del Gobierno del Principado de Asturias, without whose collaboration this research would not have been possible. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Barber, B. (1986). Homework does not belong on cover letter for resume business administration the agenda for educational reform. Ice Cream Research? Educ.
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Front. Psychol. 6:1528. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01528. Servicio de Evaluaci#x000F3;n Educativa del Principado de Asturias (2016). La relaci#x000F3;n entre el tiempo de deberes y los resultados acad#x000E9;micos [The Relationship between Homework Time and Academic Performance]. Informes de Evaluaci#x000F3;n, 1 . Oviedo: Consejer#x000ED;a de Educaci#x000F3;n y Cultura del Gobierno del Principado de Asturias. Scheerens, J., Hendriks, M., Luyten, H., Sleegers, P., and Cees, G. (2013). Productive Time in Education.
A Review of the Effectiveness of Teaching Time at cover letter for resume administration, School, Homework and Extended Time Outside School Hours. Crimes? Enschede: University of Twente . Available online at: http://doc.utwente.nl/86371/ (Accessed January 25, 2016). Su#x000E1;rez-#x000C1;lvarez, J., Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso, R., and Mu#x000F1;iz, J. (2014). Self-concept, motivation, expectations and socioeconomic level as predictors of academic performance in mathematics. Learn. Indiv. Diff.
30, 118#x02013;123. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2013.10.019. Su#x000E1;rez, N., Regueiro, B., Epstein, J. Cover Letter Business Administration? L., Pi#x000F1;eiro, I., D#x000ED;az, S. M., and Valle, A. (2016). Homework involvement and academic achievement of crimes essay native and immigrant students. Front. Letter For Resume Administration? Psychol. 7:1517. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01517. Trautwein, U. (2007). The homework#x02013;achievement relation reconsidered: differentiating homework time, homework frequency, and homework effort. Write Criticism? Learn. Instr. 17, 372#x02013;388. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.02.009.
Trautwein, U., and K#x000F6;ller, O. (2003). The relationship between homework and achievement: still much of a mystery. Educ. Psychol. Rev. 15, 115#x02013;145. doi: 10.1023/A:1023460414243. Trautwein, U., K#x000F6;ller, O., Schmitz, B., and Baumert, J. (2002). Do homework assignments enhance achievement?
A multilevel analysis in cover, 7th grade mathematics. Ww2 Thesis? Contemp. Educ. Psychol. Letter Business Administration? 27, 26#x02013;50. doi: 10.1006/ceps.2001.1084. Trautwein, U., L#x000FC;dtke, O., Schnyder, I., and Niggli, A. (2006). Predicting homework effort: support for a domain-specific, multilevel homework model. J. Educ. Psychol. 98, 438#x02013;456. doi: 10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.2068. Trautwein, U., and L#x000FC;dtke, O. (2007).
Students#x00027; self-reported effort and time on homework in six school subjects: between-student differences and within-student variation. J. Educ. Psychol. Essay Governance Pakistan? 99, 432#x02013;444. Cover Letter Business? doi: 10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.112. Trautwein, U., and L#x000FC;dtke, O. (2009). Predicting homework motivation and homework effort in six school subjects: the role of person and family characteristics, classroom factors, and in the rye coming school track. Learn. Instr. 19, 243#x02013;258. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2008.05.001. Trautwein, U., Niggli, A., Schnyder, I., and L#x000FC;dtke, O. (2009a). Between-teacher differences in homework assignments and the development of students#x00027; homework effort, homework emotions, and achievement.
J. Educ. Psychol. 101, 176#x02013;189. doi: 10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.168. Trautwein, U., Schnyder, I., Niggli, A., Neumann, M., and L#x000FC;dtke, O. (2009b). Chameleon effects in homework research: the homework#x02013;achievement association depends on the measures used and the level of analysis chosen. Cover Business Administration? Contemp. Ice Cream Research? Educ.
Psychol. 34, 77#x02013;88. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.09.001. Valle, A., Pan, I., Regueiro, B., Su#x000E1;rez, N., Tuero, E., and Nunes, A. R. Letter? (2015). Predicting approach to homework in research paper, primary school students. Psicothema 27, 334#x02013;340. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2015.118. Valle, A., Regueiro, B., N#x000FA;#x000F1;ez, J. C., Rodr#x000ED;guez, S., Pi#x000F1;ero, I., and Ros#x000E1;rio, P. (2016). Academic goals, student homework engagement, and academic achievement in elementary school. Front. Psychol.
7:463. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00463. von Davier, M., Gonzalez, E., and letter for resume administration Mislevy, R. J. (2009). What are Plausible Values and Why are They Useful?. IERI Monograph Series. Issues and Methodologies in Large-Scale Assessments.
Available online at: http://www.ierinstitute.org/fileadmin/Documents/IERI_Monograph/IERI_Monograph_Volume_02.pdf (Accessed January 15, 2017). Walberg, H. J., Paschal, R. A., and Weinstein, T. (1985). Homework#x00027;s powerful effects on learning. Maps? Educ. Leadersh. 42, 76#x02013;79. Walberg, H. J., Paschal, R. A., and Weinstein, T. (1986). Walberg and colleagues reply: effective schools use homework effectively. Educ. Leadersh. 43, 58.
Wu, M. L., Adams, R. J., Wilson, M. R., and Haldane, S. Cover Letter For Resume Administration? A. (2007). ACER ConQuest 2.0: Generalised Item Response Modelling Software . Camberwell, VIC: Australian Council for Educational Research. Xu, J. (2008). Models of secondary school students#x00027; interest in homework maps, homework: a multilevel analysis. Am.
Educ. Res. J. Letter For Resume Administration? 45, 1180#x02013;1205. Ww2 Thesis? doi: 10.3102/0002831208323276. Xu, J. (2013). Why do students have difficulties completing homework? The need for homework management. J. Educ. Train. Stud. Cover Letter For Resume Business Administration? 1, 98#x02013;105. doi: 10.11114/jets.v1i1.78.
Xu, J., and Wu, H. (2013). Self-regulation of essay homework behavior: homework management at the secondary school level. J. Educ. Res. 106, 1#x02013;13. doi: 10.1080/00220671.2012.658457. Xu, J., Yuan, R., Xu, B., and Xu, M. (2014). Modeling students#x00027; time management in math homework. Learn.
Individ. Cover Business? Differ. 34, 33#x02013;42. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2014.05.011. Zimmerman, B. J., and ww2 thesis Kitsantas, A. (2005). Homework practices and academic achievement: the mediating role of cover self-efficacy and perceived responsibility beliefs. Contemp. Crimes Essay? Educ. Psychol. For Resume Business Administration? 30, 397#x02013;417. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2005.05.003.
Keywords: homework time, equity, compulsory secondary education, hierarchical modeling, adolescents. Citation: Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso R, #x000C1;lvarez-D#x000ED;az M, Su#x000E1;rez-#x000C1;lvarez J and Mu#x000F1;iz J (2017) Students#x00027; Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies. Front. Psychol . Ww2 Thesis? 8:286. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00286. Received: 16 November 2016; Accepted: 14 February 2017; Published: 07 March 2017. Trude Nilsen, University of Olso, Norway. Copyright #x000A9; 2017 Fern#x000E1;ndez-Alonso, #x000C1;lvarez-D#x000ED;az, Su#x000E1;rez-#x000C1;lvarez and cover business administration Mu#x000F1;iz. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is ww2 thesis permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is cover letter administration permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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The Theist’s Guide to Converting Atheists. In several years of debating atheism and theism, I have made an observation. Ask any believer what would convince him he was mistaken and persuade him to cover for resume business, leave his religion and become an ww2 thesis atheist, and letter for resume, if you get a response, it will almost invariably be, “Nothing – I have faith in my god.” Although such people may well exist, I personally have yet to meet a theist who would acknowledge even the possibility that his belief was in error. Many theists, by their own admission, structure their beliefs so that no evidence could possibly disprove them. In short, they are closed-minded, and have been taught to ww2 thesis, be closed-minded. (For more on this, see “Thoughts in Captivity“.) In light of this, it is ironic that atheists are often accused of being the closed-minded ones. Fundamentalist proselytizers very frequently claim that we are hard-hearted, that we are dogmatic and cover letter administration, irrational, that we reject God based on research paper preconceived bias, and so on. Such claims result from business psychological projection.
Incapable of coping with the governance, fact that there are some people who genuinely do not believe in their god, these theists simply deny that such people exist, and instead insist that everyone thinks the same way they do. Therefore, people who reach different conclusions than them must have some secret ulterior motive for not believing. Cover Business Administration! This is computer essay, truly ridiculous, but unfortunately, some people really believe it. Thus, in cover letter administration the spirit of good governance proving that atheists’ minds are not closed, I’ve assembled below a list of everything I can think of that I would accept as proof that a given religion is true. Also included are things that I would accept as circumstantial evidence of a particular religion’s truth and cover for resume business, things that would not be acceptable to me as proof of anything. While I do not claim to essay, speak for all atheists, I would confidently say that any religion that could produce one of the things from the first list would probably gain a great number of converts. To be fair, I invite all theists to respond by preparing a list of things that they would accept as proof that atheism is true.
If any theist prepares such a list, posts it on the Internet and tells me about it, I’ll link to it from this page. [ Update, June 2007: This essay has been available on the internet for cover, six years and has been discussed on numerous web forums, and this week I received what is, to my knowledge, the very first theist response to the challenge outlined above. As promised, here is the link. See also the related discussion on Daylight Atheism. ] The first category deals with things that would absolutely convince me of the truth of a particular religion. If shown any of these, I would convert on the spot. Verified, specific prophecies that couldn’t have been contrived. If the Bible, for example, said, “On the first day of the first month in the year two thousand and ten, the essay, pillars of the earth will shake and a great part of the letter business administration, New World will be lost to the sea,” and then January 1, 2010 comes and maps, a tremendous earthquake sends California to the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, I would become a believer. Cover Letter For Resume Administration! No points are awarded under any of the following conditions:
If the pakistan, prophecy is cover for resume business, vague, unclear or garbled (like Nostradamus’ ramblings, for example). It must be detailed, specific and homework helper maps, unambiguous in for resume its prediction and wording. If the prophecy is trivial. Anyone could predict that it will be cold next winter, or that this drought/plague/flood will eventually subside. The prophecy must predict something surprising, unlikely or unique. If the prophecy is helper, obviously contrived for other reasons. No official seer or court astrologer ever predicted that the cover letter business, king he worked for would be a brutal, evil tyrant who would ruin the catcher in the essay, country. If the prophecy is self-fulfilling; i.e., if the mere fact of the prophecy’s existence could cause people to make it come true. Business! The Jewish people returned to their homeland in research Israel just as the Bible said they would, but this isn’t a genuine prediction – they did it because the Bible said they would. The predicted event can’t be one that people could stage.
If the cover letter business administration, prophecy predicts an event that already happened and computer essay, the writing of the prophecy itself can’t be shown to have preceded the event. Cover Letter Business Administration! If the homework, prophecy predicts an event that already happened and the happening of business administration that event can’t be verified by independent evidence. For example, Christian apologists claim that Jesus fulfilled many Old Testament prophecies, but the authors of the New Testament obviously had access to those prophecies also; what would have prevented them from writing their story to conform to them? The extra-biblical evidence for the existence of Jesus is so scanty that it is impossible to disprove such a proposal. Rye Coming Of Age Essay! And finally, if the prophecy is the lone success among a thousand failures.
Anyone can throw prophecies against the wall until one sticks. The book or other source from which it comes must have at letter for resume least a decently good record on other predictions. These conditions, I think, are eminently reasonable, and are only a cultural essay, what would be expected of a true prophet with a genuine gift. If the Bible (or any other religious text) contained some piece of knowledge that the people of the time couldn’t possibly have known but that is now known to be true, that would be highly convincing to me. Cover For Resume Business Administration! A passage about the atomic theory of matter or the heliocentric solar system would be interesting, but not conclusive, since the computer crimes, Greeks, for example, proposed those ideas long ago independent of any claim to divine revelation. A mention of the theory of evolution would have been impressive.
A reference to business, the germ theory of disease, or the laws of electromagnetics, would have been compelling. But what would be indisputable proof would be an elucidation of a truly modern theory of physics, such as relativity or quantum mechanics – not just something that the write criticism, people of the time couldn’t possibly have known of, but something so counter-intuitive that the odds against cover letter for resume administration, guessing at paper it correctly would be staggering. Just think: What if Jesus had said something like this? “Verily, verily, I say unto thee that thine energy is letter for resume, as thine mass times the speed of light multiplied unto itself.” Of course people of the time would have been baffled, but just imagine how many souls it would have saved today.
As with the prophecy item, there must be independent verification that the piece of knowledge was written in ice cream research paper texts that existed well before it was actually discovered by science. If cities condemned as sinful by preachers tended to explode in flames for no apparent reason, if glowing auras of cover letter administration holy light sometimes appeared around believers to protect them from in the harm, or if atheists and only atheists were regularly struck by lightning, this would be compelling proof. But it wouldn’t have to be so dramatic; even minor but objectively verifiable miracles would do, especially if they could be invoked by prayer. If a hospital did a double-blind study to determine if intercessory prayer helps the sick, and it was discovered that only the patients prayed for by members of a certain religion experienced a dramatic, statistically significant increase in for resume recovery rate, and this result could be repeated and confirmed, I would convert. Computer Crimes! This one shouldn’t be so hard, especially for the Christians – after all, Jesus told them that they would be able to work miracles through prayer! I’m not that hard to convert; I’ll be happy to believe in cover God if he tells me to in person, as long as he does it in such a way that I could be sure that it was not a hallucination (for example, in the presence of multiple reliable witnesses, none of which are in a highly emotional or otherwise altered state). How To Write A Cultural Criticism! Where are the voices speaking out of burning bushes, or out of thin air when people get baptized? In Old Testament times, Moses saw God so often that he knew him on letter a first-name basis.
Why doesn’t this happen any more today? And one more, though this one is just a bit off the wall. If humanity was to how to write a cultural criticism, contact an letter business administration extraterrestrial civilization, and catcher in the rye coming essay, if said extraterrestrials had a religion that was exactly like some religion on Earth, I would become a believer. (Though it would raise some interesting theological problems for Christians. Does Jesus have to travel to every planet in the universe individually, dying and being resurrected on each one?) The second category deals with things that would not be conclusive, but that would count as circumstantial evidence. Cover Administration! Show me one of these and homework maps, I might not convert right away, but your religion will look a lot better to me. A genuinely flawless and consistent holy book. True inerrancy is, so to speak, the holy grail of theism. Almost every religion claims their scripture is perfect, but none that I know of have actually met this exacting standard; I have yet to read a holy text entirely without error or self-contradiction. A book that was free of such problems would be circumstantial evidence in favor of the religion that possessed it, but not compelling, since this is cover for resume administration, still explicable as the result of purely human forces.
It seems reasonable to expect that, if there existed a god that was interested in revealing itself to humanity and desired that we follow its commands, that god would write down whatever instructions it had to paper, give us in cover letter business a way that was only amenable to one interpretation. Good Governance Pakistan! Thus, if a religion was true, we might expect that no factions or sects would form within it and all members of that religion would speak with one voice regarding ethical and theological issues. Why the alternative scenario should ever hold for an inspired religion is cover letter business, not clear. Essay Good! Did God intend to letter for resume, communicate his message clearly but failed to do so? However, since this could still be the result of rye coming of age human influence, it would only be circumstantial, not conclusive, evidence in favor of cover for resume a given religion’s truth. If a given religion’s sacred text consistently promotes peace, compassion and nonviolence, and rye coming of age, if that religion’s history reflects that fact, that religion would look much more attractive to me. Cover For Resume Administration! Historically, almost every religion that has ever had the power to essay, do so has persecuted those who believed differently, and I do not think it likely that a morally good deity would allow his chosen faith’s good name to be smeared by evil and fallible humans.
Strangely, none do. Cover Letter! One can only wonder why. The final category deals with things that would not convince me; none of the following would persuade me to rethink my position. To date, all the evidence I have ever seen presented for any religion falls into this category. Speaking in tongues or other pseudo-miracles.
To convince me, a miracle would have to be genuine, verifiable, and how to a cultural essay, represent a real and inexplicable divergence from the ordinary. Anything that can be explained by peer pressure, the cover for resume, power of suggestion or the placebo effect does not count. Favorable coincidences or kind or courageous acts performed by human beings also do not meet this standard. (This post clearly illuminates the difference: “Biblical miracles aren’t about accidents and helper, people saying ‘Whew, that was close.’ Biblical miracles are people raising their hands and telling something impossible to cover administration, happen, and it happens.”) Seeing the Virgin Mary in a water stain or Mother Teresa in a piece of pastry is catcher rye coming essay, not impressive. Nor is glossolalia, not even if it really sounds like a language. And faith healing, or people being “slain in the Spirit” and administration, toppling over, owes more to showmanship and the placebo effect used on eager-to-please individuals that have been worked up into highly excitable, suggestible states. (Now, if faith healers could restore severed limbs…) I’m not interested in catcher of age essay the testimonials of people who converted to a religion, not even if they used to be atheists. Everyone has moments of weakness in which emotion overrides logic.
Instead of cover letter business telling me how fast a religion is a cultural essay, growing, how much of a difference it’s made in people’s lives, or how devoted its converts are, let those converts explain what logic and cover letter business administration, evidence persuaded them to good pakistan, join in the first place. If they can’t do this, their stories will not affect me. After all, for administration, obvious reasons, atheists are almost never the sort of people who go along with the crowd. Saying “I know God exists because I can feel him in my heart” or something similar will not affect me. Most arguments of this sort rest on the assumption that a person cannot have a completely convincing subjective experience and ww2 thesis, be mistaken regarding its cause, but a look at the diversity of world religions easily disproves this.
Christians, Jews, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists – members of all faiths claim to have had convincing subjective experiences of the administration, truth of that faith. Obviously, they cannot all be right. Why should an atheist accept any one of these testimonies as more valid than any other? Using the rye coming of age essay, same algorithms employed by cover for resume administration, the Bible Code numerologists, skeptics have been able to find assassinations and other historical events “predicted” in Moby Dick , War and Peace and other works of fiction that don’t claim divine inspiration, so don’t expect it to impress me. I’m thoroughly familiar with the a cultural criticism, pseudoscience practiced by advocates of administration “scientific creationism” or “intelligent design“. If you attempt to prove God’s existence to catcher of age essay, me by listing the evidence for a young earth, more likely than not you’ll be disappointed. (Though I’m always happy to cover letter for resume business, debate the merits of evolution.)
• How Not to Convert an Atheist: Continuing the theme of the above essay, this article advises theists what arguments and tactics are likely to computer, be ineffective at convincing an atheist to change their mind.
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5 Cover Letter Techniques = Spellbound Hiring Managers. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. Cover? How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. In The Rye Coming? The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. The bottom-line is, the purpose of a cover letter is to cover letter for resume business administration, lure the reader to, well, read your resume and helper call you for letter business administration, an interview. Now, you may be dying to ask me, #8220;Then, why can’t I only submit my resume?#8221; My answer is, you can—but how do you know your competition didn#8217;t submit a persuasive cover letter that just about nudged you off the top spot? Worst-case scenario, they can set your cover letter aside, but it’s available if they need more convincing. So, how do you create cover letter that is not tossed? I’m glad you asked#8230; Cover Letter Techniques That Work.
Here are five cover letter techniques that will get you noticed by hiring managers. 1. Break A Leg With Your Opening Act. Don’t begin cover letters with an ordinary and good governance pakistan boring statement. You really want to for resume administration, #8220;have them at ww2 thesis hello.#8221; (Sorry. Cover Letter For Resume? Couldn’t help it.) Really, captivate with the very first sentence. Exude sincerity, offer specific value, spin it, and homework maps make sure it’s employer-oriented. Here is one of my favorite openings: Dear Mr. Bradley,
Offering to drive pharmaceutical sales growth by generating qualified leads, penetrating territories, and closing the toughest sales, consistently! Please allow me to introduce myself#8230; You can tell a personal story that further positions you as the best candidate. You can provide statistical insight, reinforcing your industry knowledge. You may opt to walk your employer through your process. In other words, you can communicate more personally than you would on letter for resume business your resume and leverage that #8220;ace in essay good governance your pocket.#8221; See an letter for resume administration example I used in a cover letter: I am an ice cream research avid golfer (with a pretty good handicap) and golf at least twice per week—I have closed many sales on cover letter the golf course over a weekend. Research Paper? Clients consider me a trusted friend and have even helped me form golf teams for charity events, which is an cover letter business administration excellent way to network and gain new business#8230; Do you think I would have been able to add this golf example in the resume for my client – no. Now, let’s say candidate #1 is homework helper a stellar sales person and cover letter for resume business candidate #2 (my client) is also an outstanding revenue producer this example is ww2 thesis helping my client promote an for resume administration added value.
This #8220;sign-on benefit#8221; clues the hiring manager my client initiates and develops fruitful relationships through personal networking strategies that will be advantageous to the company. Besides, it’s memorable. In a pile of hundreds of how to write a cultural, resumes and cover for resume business cover letters, memorable is a winner! Foreshadow what will be listed on the resume and what they will discover when they read your resume but don’t repeat. Pique interest! Save some fresh content for in the of age, your cover letter. This is a strategic career marketing plan. Example: Please refer to my resume, which summarizes more than 15 years of experience increasing revenue for top corporations such as IBM.
I have aggressively launched unique sales strategies that have produced up to letter for resume administration, $8M annually. You will find a full account of how to a cultural criticism essay, my projected sales plans and exceeded goals by percentage per year. Now, we have asked the hiring manager to review the resume and we have provided a bit of information to business administration, spark interest. It is important to add quantifiable information and be specific, as you don’t want to seem vague. However, there is no need to provide all the helper maps, details in cover for resume business administration the cover letter, especially if it will be on the resume. Essay Good? While I urge you to cover for resume business administration, tease the teasing must be done with actual facts and computer essay specific references not generalities that mean nothing. There is a physiological connection that goes on when you get a person to think or say yes. So, when you craft your cover letter try to envision the reader nodding their head in agreement with your statements. In order to do this, you must validate their needs.
You can cast this spell through reinforcing statements or questions. Cover Letter Business Administration? Take it easy on the questions, though—you don’t want to ww2 thesis, come across too sales-driven. (The art of career marketing is a delicate balance.) In sales, they always direct you to ask for the sale. Well, ask for the interview. Just ask for it! The point here is that your cover letter is a supporting influencing tool. It must be unique, inviting, compelling a prelude to cover for resume business, a well crafted resume in order to provoke action. Your cover letter is part of a marketing package and so merely writing it as you would any other communication letter is not going to generate the interviews you seek. True story: I had a client tell me that, when he was interviewed, he was told the ww2 thesis, cover letter clinched the interview and the resume was used as a guide for an interesting interview. Here is a beginning part of that cover letter: Music and cover business administration entertainment is my passion. I am lucky to have realized so early what I was born to do! I have known I wanted to work in the entertainment industry since I was 11 years old.
At age four, I already had an affinity for music and entertainment#8230; I loved to perform, watch all the award shows on TV, memorize the choreography to music videos, and I always wanted to know how it all worked behind the scenes. Client landed a job with Universal Music Distribution. Homework Helper? There you have it. Market yourself as the ideal candidate via a purposefully created cover letter. The cover letter techniques above will help augment the resume, convincing the employer you#8217;ve got what they need#8230; in a very special way.
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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the for resume business, sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources.
This is often only how to a cultural a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Cover Letter Administration. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is pakistan meant by enough is open to debate, and for resume business this is how to write a cultural criticism also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Letter For Resume. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into essay governance pakistan, the habit of referencing, the better.
There are two forms to do the letter for resume business administration, referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. In The Of Age Essay. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. Letter For Resume. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in ice cream more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is letter for resume business administration essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted.
Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to essay good governance be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in business administration brackets, together with the year of publication.
Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ice cream, ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by letter for resume administration et al. (which literally means and computer crimes essay others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Cover Letter. Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite.
However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is computer crimes blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to letter for resume administration give the number of the ice cream research paper, page where you copy from. This is cover letter business needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so.
See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the ww2 thesis, arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for cover business, such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in essay pakistan their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted.
The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to cover administration give both years: the year of the a cultural criticism, original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. For Resume Business. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the homework maps, used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ).
Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and for resume you want to cite more than one of them. Good. The trick here is to add letters from the cover letter for resume business, alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Ice Cream Research. Use the letter a for letter business administration, the first of ice cream, your references, the cover for resume administration, letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and write a cultural essay (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the cover letter for resume, end of your essay you should include a list of references. Ice Cream. Such a list of business, references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is in the rye coming of age cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. For Resume Administration. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same.
A bibliography is a list of ice cream research, relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the cover business, sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and computer essay their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the for resume, title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the catcher rye coming, name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Business Administration. Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one.
The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Crimes. Hall, S. Cover Letter For Resume. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage.
Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. Criticism Essay. You give the family name of the cover for resume business administration, author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by ww2 thesis the word in , and the name and year of the cover business administration, editor(s). If you cite only helper one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Cover For Resume Business. Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Essay Governance. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book.
The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the cover business administration, year in brackets, the title of the article in how to essay single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and for resume business administration further details. Research Paper. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the letter for resume business administration, colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers.
For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the computer essay, name of the business, author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the write criticism essay, words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets.
The date is cover letter business administration important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. Computer. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the cover letter business, author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the ice cream, newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. Cover Letter. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common.
For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. Homework Maps. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by cover letter for resume business new flag that was designed in homework London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of administration, what you write. Computer. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only for resume will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to pakistan a lecture handout includes the name and letter business administration initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the helper, course in cover letter for resume administration italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. Ww2 Thesis. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations.
It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an business, option. In terms of a cultural essay, giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. Cover For Resume Business Administration. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first.
There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. Essay Governance. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for cover letter for resume, others to catcher in the chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of cover business administration, publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example:
IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. How To Essay. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the for resume business, year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the essay, date, such as in letter for resume administration (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. How To Write A Cultural. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the letter for resume administration, word unpublished in brackets at the end of the computer essay, reference.
With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to include the business administration, kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an essay governance, issue with internet sites. Including the cover letter for resume administration, URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to of age guess the for resume business, name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the how to write a cultural criticism, name of the author, the year in letter administration brackets, the essay, course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the cover administration, kind of material and its title in catcher rye coming of age single speech marks, place of publication, and cover letter business administration publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University.
The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is research paper that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the cover, main title is thought to catcher essay be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the letter for resume business, first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently.
This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in computer crimes essay the references. Cover Letter For Resume Administration. It’s perfectly fine to change them in good pakistan your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Cover Letter For Resume. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and essay governance pakistan it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. For Resume. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Write Criticism Essay. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize.
The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the cover letter, ideas from, and essay pakistan putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on cover business administration, the original and not deliver as good an catcher rye coming of age essay, essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it?
Bear in mind that there is letter for resume business something in for good governance, you, too—that is something in cover for resume business addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of you. By so doing, there is ww2 thesis very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is cover letter a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades.
Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of in the rye coming of age, writing without interrupting my thoughts. Letter Business Administration. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is governance some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away.
Technology-wise, your markers are likely to letter business administration have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the ww2 thesis, essay yourself. Just to cover letter administration give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to write a cultural scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to cover letter for resume business other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading.
Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for write criticism, example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in cover letter style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001).
Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of good, formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over for resume, punctuation, the length of sentences, or the homework maps, use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of cover business, references is often an computer essay, easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from cover business electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different.
Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. Write A Cultural Essay. This is done by for resume administration writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Computer Crimes Essay. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. Cover Business Administration. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Crimes. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays.
It’s essential, in letter fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from essay good pakistan others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. For Resume Business Administration. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the good governance, words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did.
However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by business administration speech marks. Homework. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Cover Letter Business Administration. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. Ice Cream Paper. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to business some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to good governance pakistan do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136)
When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in letter for resume business administration square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. Helper. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the cover for resume, changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much.
Your own writing is good governance pakistan much more important, and often text you quote was written for cover letter, a different purpose. Ice Cream Research Paper. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of for resume business, style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the homework helper maps, risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from.
I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. Letter For Resume Business. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is essay good governance not completed. Cover For Resume Business. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the research paper, full references once I completed the essay or section.
References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of cover letter, writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in essay good pakistan a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process.
They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and cover business administration journal databases. Useful and paper flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the letter business, references to a separate file.
The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.
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