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Bill Maher's Dangerous Critique of mwr resume builder Islam. There#39;s a constructive way for liberals to oppose illiberalism, and the constant character, then there#39;s the approach the comedian took. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster. The Absurdity of the Nobel Prizes in Science. Sterilizing a Child, for mwr resume, a Better Life. The Needless Complexity of Academic Writing. Bill Maher, meet Arthur Schlesinger Jr.

Last Friday, the cranky comedian, aided by atheist author Sam Harris, enraged actor Ben Affleck by calling Islam, in Harris’s words, “the mother lode of bad ideas.” Then on Monday, Maher condemned liberals for being so afraid of literary essay being called Islamophobes that they won’t denounce brutality committed in Islam’s name. “We’re liberals!” Maher declared about mwr resume, himself and Harris. Uconn Honors Program? “We’re liberals … we’re trying to stand up for the principles of builder liberalism! And so, y’know, I think we’re just saying we need to identify illiberalism wherever we find it in the world, and honors program, not forgive it because it comes from [a group that] people perceive as a minority.” Schlesinger would have been able to relate. Mwr Resume? In his 1949 manifesto, The Vital Center , the Harvard historian and future Kennedy administration aide attacked what he called “doughface” liberals. Borrowing a term for pre-Civil War northerners who had refused to denounce slavery, Schlesinger deployed it against liberals who refused to denounce Soviet communism. “The infiltration of contemporary progressivism by Communism,” he wrote, “has led to custom essay help, the same self-flagellation [that prevented doughfaces from denouncing slavery], the same refusal to take precautions against tyranny.” Schlesinger’s point then, and mwr resume builder, Maher’s now, is that the enemies of liberals do not reside only on the right.

In the 1930s and 1940s, some liberals grew so focused on the struggles against fascism and detection image processing, racism—struggles in mwr resume builder which communists proved staunch allies—that they refused to acknowledge Joseph Stalin’s crimes. Today, some liberals are so focused on the struggle against help American militarism and Islamophobia that they can’t muster much outrage against ISIS. According to Schlesinger, occupying the builder, Vital Center means opposing totalitarianism wherever you find it, regardless of whether it claims the mantle of progressivism, as the Soviet Union did during his time, or anti-imperialism, as jihadists do now. Essay? So far, so good. Where Maher goes wrong is in forgetting two other lessons of the liberal anti-totalitarian tradition. The first is to be precise about what you’re opposing. The second, to not get so carried away with your own virtue that you end up justifying terrible crimes. Mwr Resume Builder? Let’s start with the point about precision. At their best, the liberals of the early Cold War trained their fire on Stalin, a particular ruler in a particular country at a particular moment in time.

When they began making sweeping generalizations about communism per se—forgetting that communist regimes and thesis detection image processing, movements varied depending on their time and place—they got in trouble. In the 1940s and 1950s, the myth of a monolithic communist movement blinded some liberals to the fact that European socialists and communists—many of whom had their own national loyalties—could prove effective allies against Soviet power. “A recalcitrant Communist Yugoslavia,” in mwr resume builder George Kennan’s words, “proved more resistant to i dedicate this to my, Soviet Communist pressures than any non-Communist regime would have been likely to do.” Even more tragically, in mwr resume the 1960s, some Cold War liberals could not distinguish between the communism of Joseph Stalin and the communism of Ho Chi Minh. By seeing Ho only as a communist, they overlooked the fact that many Vietnamese saw him primarily as an anti-colonialist. And by pretending that the ideological distinctions between North and South Vietnam resembled the single sex education, ideological distinctions between East and West Germany, pro-war liberals ignored the reality that in Indochina, America’s allies were no more democratic than its communist foes. “The tragedy of Vietnam,” wrote Schlesinger in 1967, “is the tragedy of the catastrophic overextension and misapplication of valid principles.” And the engine of that overextension and misapplication was ignorance. Most pro-war liberals simply didn’t know enough about Vietnam to realize that their anti-communism was leading them astray. As Graham Greene wrote of Alden Pyle, the idealistic CIA agent in his novel, The Quiet American , “He was impregnably armoured by his good intentions and mwr resume builder, his ignorance.” Maher is similarly armored today.

It’s one thing to denounce the Saudi monarchy for its fanatical illiberalism. Like Stalin’s dictatorship, it’s a particular regime in a particular place. But to imply that Islamism—and by extension organizations such as Tunisia’s Ennahda Party or Turkey’s AKP, both of which have won democratic elections—are just milder versions of ISIS is dangerously sloppy. As Kennan insisted again and again, national circumstances often play a larger role in determining how cultures and political systems function than do transnational beliefs. That’s especially true when the thesis to my father, ideology isn’t even Islamism but Islam. Maher wants Americans to denounce Islam because while “all religions are stupid, Islam just happens to be the mwr resume builder, one right now, in thesis this century, that’s most dangerous and violent.” That’s a wild overgeneralization. “Islam” is not violent or peaceful, dangerous or benign. Like every great religion, it includes a vast array of diverse and often contradictory teachings, which different people interpret in different ways in different places and times. Yes, in builder some Muslim-majority countries, women and religious minorities are treated brutally. But that has far more to do with their particular national circumstances than with the single sex education, fact that Muslims populate them. After all, other Muslim-majority countries have elected female heads of state. To lump together Indonesia and Yemen because both countries are mostly Muslim makes about as much sense as lumping together Ireland and mwr resume, the Dominican Republic because both countries are mostly Catholic.

Restraining the evil that lurks within our own culture requires facing our own history of terrible crimes. Single Sex Education Persuasive? The second lesson from the mwr resume, Cold War is that while anti-totalitarianism is important, it can become an excuse for America’s own misdeeds. Persuasive? In 1954, eager to prove their anti-communist bona fides in the face of McCarthyite attacks, liberal stalwarts Hubert Humphrey, Paul Douglas, and John F. Kennedy introduced legislation banning the mwr resume builder, American Communist Party—thus using America’s crusade against Soviet repression to massively repress free speech here at home. America’s war in Vietnam, justified as a struggle for thesis cancer detection using image processing, freedom and human rights, took close to a million lives. When Affleck told Maher that America has “killed more Muslims than they’ve killed us by an awful lot … and somehow we’re exempt from these things because they’re not really a reflection of what we believe in. We did it by accident,” he was making a crucial point. Mwr Resume Builder? As the great liberal Cold War theologian Reinhold Niebuhr stressed, nations, like individuals, are often unable to essay help com, acknowledge the degree to which selfish interest infects their supposed pursuit of mwr resume builder high principle. Restraining the custom essay help com, evil that lurks within our own culture requires facing our own history of, and ongoing capacity for, terrible crimes.

It requires trying to see largely Christian America the mwr resume, way we are seen by the Muslims whose cities we have bombed. By contrast, declaring that the essential barbarism in today’s world lies elsewhere—not even just in a foreign regime or movement but in an entire religion—lets us off easy. “The pride and self-righteousness of powerful nations,” wrote Niebuhr, “are a greater hazard to i dedicate this father, their success than the machinations of their foes.” It took the mwr resume, Vietnam War for quotes in a essay, Schlesinger to builder, truly appreciate that point. Given America’s experience in help the Middle East over the last decade, Maher has no excuse. The Harrowing Personal Stories of Syrian Refugees, in Their Own Words. Mwr Resume? A documentary film crew travels to Greece to capture the perspectives of new arrivals. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster.

The president told residents to be “very proud” they hadn’t endured a “real catastrophe” like Katrina, doing little to erase the impression that he sees hurricane relief more as a political story than a human one. Making his first appearance in hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico since Maria’s landfall, President Trump offered a hearty round of congratulations to uconn honors, federal relief efforts and thanked the mwr resume, island’s governor. But the president also suggested Maria was not a “real catastrophe,” made an odd and misleading comparison to the death toll from Hurricane Katrina, and joked about how the hurricane would affect the federal budget. It was a typically strange, disjointed appearance by the president, and it came just days after Trump spent much of the weekend picking fights with the gardener essay, mayor of mwr resume San Juan and insisting that, against all evidence, the recovery effort had largely responded to quotes literary, Puerto Rico’s needs. At Muniz Air Force Base, Trump was eager to praise the work of federal agencies, including FEMA, the Air Force, the Navy, and the Coast Guard, amid a chorus of criticism that Washington’s response has been too slow and too small. But that praise led him in strange directions. A small group of mwr resume builder programmers wants to change how we code—before catastrophe strikes. T here were six hours during the night of April 10, 2014, when the entire population of Washington State had no 911 service. People who called for help got a busy signal.

One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to break into her house. When he finally crawled into her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. The man fled. The 911 outage, at the time the largest ever reported, was traced to software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Cancer? Operated by a systems provider named Intrado, the server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to 911 dispatchers around the country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for how high the counter could go.

They picked a number in mwr resume builder the millions. The Absurdity of the Nobel Prizes in Science. They distort the nature of the scientific enterprise, rewrite its history, and overlook many of its most important contributors. This morning, physicists Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne, and thesis using image processing, Barry Barish received the mwr resume, Nobel Prize for Physics, for their discovery of gravitational waves—distortions in the fabric of space and time. The trio, who led the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project that recorded these waves, will split the uconn program, 9-million-Swedish-krona prize between them. Perhaps more importantly, they will carry the status of “Nobel laureate” for mwr resume, the rest of their lives. But what of the other scientists who contributed to the LIGO project, and whose names grace the three-page-long author list in the paper that describes the discoveries? “LIGO’s success was owed to hundreds of researchers,” astrophysicist Martin Rees told BBC News. “The fact that the Nobel Prize 2017 committee refuses to make group awards is causing increasingly frequent problems and custom essay, giving a misleading impression of how a lot of mwr resume science is actually done.” Sterilizing a Child, for a Better Life. I Dedicate To My Father? Though it can tread dangerously close to mwr resume builder, eugenics, some parents argue that sterilization improves quality of life for their disabled children, and themselves.

When Sophie Carter entered puberty, her parents had more to dread than just a temperamental adolescent. Sophie is now 31 but still has the intellectual capacity of a three-year-old. There were no concerns about drugs or boyfriends and no chance of having “the talk” about sex with her. The hardest part for Sophie’s Sydney-based parents was managing her periods. I Dedicate This Father? “She has an older sister and a younger sister and we tried to get her to use pads, but it just didn’t work,” said Merren Carter, Sophie’s mother. “People talk about stigma associated with menstruation but there was none of that at mwr resume our house. Uconn Thesis? I will always remember a dinner party where [Sophie] proudly showed her pad to mwr resume, all of our visitors.” The Needless Complexity of Academic Writing. A new movement strives for simplicity. “Persistence is one of the great characteristics of a pitbull, and I guess owners take after their dogs,” says Annetta Cheek, the co-founder of the D.C.-based nonprofit Center for Plain Language.

Cheek, an anthropologist by training who left academia in the early 1980s to work for the Federal Aviation Commission, is responsible for something few people realize exists: the this thesis father, 2010 Plain Writing Act. In fact, Cheek was among the first government employees to champion the use of clear, concise language. Once she retired in 2007 from the mwr resume builder, FAA and gained the freedom to thesis, lobby, she leveraged her hatred for gobbledygook to builder, create an actual law. Take a look at recent information put out by many government agencies such as the Department of Veterans Affairs , the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau—if it lacks needlessly complex sentences or bizarre bureaucratic jargon, it’s largely because of Cheek and her colleagues. Two Dark American Truths From Las Vegas. On the certainty of single sex education persuasive essays more shootings. Beyond the mwr resume, scores of people who have been killed and the hundreds who have been wounded in essay help com Las Vegas today, thousands of other people, though not visibly or directly injured, have had their lives changed forever. Children and builder, parents. Husbands and wives. Brothers and sisters.

Something is instantly and thesis detection using processing, permanently gone from their lives. Co-workers and friends. Members of churches or sports leagues or the PTA. Mwr Resume Builder? Customers and essay help, clients and builder, students. Father? Neighbors and casual acquaintances at the coffee shop or the bar.

The rest of mwr resume their days will be different and program thesis, shadowed because of this massacre. “Children, I want to explain why Coach Franklin won’t be leading our soccer team any more. Something bad happened, and . ” Why are so many kids with bright prospects killing themselves in Palo Alto? The air shrieks, and life stops. First, from far away, comes a high whine like angry insects swarming, and builder, then a trampling, like a herd moving through. The kids on this to my father their bikes who pass by the Caltrain crossing are eager to get home from school, but they know the drill. Builder? Brake. Wait for the train to pass. Five cars, double-decker, tearing past at 50 miles an hour.

Too fast to see the faces of the Silicon Valley commuters on board, only a long silver thing with black teeth. A Caltrain coming into uconn program thesis, a station slows, invites you in. But a Caltrain at a crossing registers more like an ambulance, warning you fiercely out of its way. The kids wait until the passing train forces a gust you can feel on your skin. The alarms ring and the red lights flash for a few seconds more, just in case. Then the gate lifts up, signaling that it’s safe to cross. All at once life revives: a rush of bikes, skateboards, helmets, backpacks, basketball shorts, boisterous conversation. “Ew, how old is that gum?” “The quiz is next week, dipshit.” On the road, a minivan makes a left a little too fast—nothing ominous, just a mom late for pickup.

The air is again still, like it usually is in spring in Palo Alto. Mwr Resume Builder? A woodpecker does its work nearby. A bee goes in search of jasmine, stinging no one. In the 1930s, the Germans were fascinated by the global leader in codified racism—the United States. There was no more extravagant site for Third Reich political theater than the spectacular parade grounds, two large stadiums, and congress hall in Nuremberg, a project masterminded by Albert Speer. From 1933 to essay, 1938, he choreographed massive rallies associated with the annual conference of the Nazi Party, assemblies made famous by Leni Riefenstahl’s stunning documentaries of mwr resume builder 1933 and 1935, The Victory of Faith and Triumph of the Will . Nuremberg was the setting for quotes in a, the September 1935 “Party Rally of Freedom,” at which a special session of the Reichstag passed, by acclamation, legislation that disqualified Jews as Reich citizens with political rights, forbade them to marry or have sex with persons identified as racial Germans, and prohibited any display by Jews of national colors or the new national flag, a banner with a swastika. The world’s most powerful information gatekeepers neglected their duties in Las Vegas. Again. In the crucial early hours after the Las Vegas mass shooting, it happened again: Hoaxes, completely unverified rumors, failed witch hunts, and mwr resume builder, blatant falsehoods spread across the internet. Thesis Cancer Detection Image? But they did not do so by themselves: They used the infrastructure that Google and Facebook and YouTube have built to mwr resume, achieve wide distribution. These companies are the most powerful information gatekeepers that the world has ever known, and yet they refuse to take responsibility for essay help, their active role in damaging the quality of information reaching the public.

BuzzFeed ’s Ryan Broderick found that Google’s “top stories” results surfaced 4chan forum posts about a man that right-wing amateur sleuths had incorrectly identified as the Las Vegas shooter. A New History of the First Peoples in the Americas. The miracle of modern genetics has revolutionized the story anthropologists tell about mwr resume builder, how humans spread out across the Earth. Honors Program Thesis? Europeans arriving in the New World met people all the mwr resume, way from the frozen north to custom help, the frozen south. All had rich and mature cultures and established languages. Builder? The Skraeling were probably a people we now call Thule, who were the ancestors of the Inuit in Greenland and Canada and the In?upiat in Alaska. The Tai?no were a people spread across multiple chiefdoms around the Caribbean and Florida.

Based on thesis cultural and language similarities, we think that they had probably separated from earlier populations from South American lands, now Guyana and Trinidad. Mwr Resume? The Spanish brought no women with them in gardener essay 1492, and mwr resume, raped the gardener character essay, Tai?no women, resulting in builder the first generation of “mestizo”—mixed ancestry people. What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef? What can an individual do about climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch.

Research shows that using curse words can persuade everyone from voters to quotes in a literary essay, your co-workers. What Can People Do to Get Better at builder Learning? Build the discipline of curiosity. Get 10 issues a year and save 65% off the thesis to my, cover price.

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literature surveys Monoterpenes are important constituents of mwr resume builder many essential oils and are used extensively as flavouring agents in the food industry. Citral and linalool, both acyclic monoterpenes have been shown to cause peroxisome proliferation in the liver of uconn program thesis rats (Jackson et al. ,1987; Roffey et al. , 1990). Peroxisome proliferators like clofibrate and many other hypolipidaemic agents when given to rodents result in an increase in the transcription of genes for proteins involved in peroxisome ?-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids and in the morphologically detectable proliferation of peroxisomes Reddy et al. , 1983; Hawkins et al. , 1987). This phenomenon was also observed in rodents fed a diet rich in long-chain fatty acids but with a smaller response (Neat et al. , 1980). These agents have been shown simultaneously to enhance transcription of the gene for cytochrome P450IVA1 and increase the cellular content and activity of this enzyme (Gibson et al. , 1982; Gibson, 1989). Based on these findings and studies conducted on a diverse number of hypolipidaemic agents, a correlation was proposed between the ability of various agents to induce cytochrome P450IVA1 and cause peroxisome proliferation (Sharma et al. , 1988; Lake et al. , 1984). A number of mechanisms were proposed to explain this correlation. Sharma et al. Mwr Resume? (1988) proposed that the induction of cytochrome P450IVA1 by help, hypolipidaemic agents increases fatty acid w-hydroxylation and the formation of fatty dicarboxylic acids which cannot readily be metabolised by the mitochondria, therefore, the peroxisome is presented with a substrate overload which adapts by proliferation in mwr resume, order to chain shorten these dicarboxylic acids for subsequent mitochondrial metabolism. Reddy et al. have proposed that peroxisome proliferators exert their effects by a ligand-receptor mediated mechanism (Reddy and Lalwani, 1983; Rao and Reddy , 1987; Reddy and Rao, 1986; Lalwani et al. , 1987) which causes both the essay help com, induction of peroxisome ?-oxidation and transcription of the mwr resume, gene coding for the enzyme. Peroxisome proliferators are structurally diverse, therefore, a receptor theory could only thesis cancer detection using image, be possible if: the receptor binds to a ligand conformation which is structurally common to different peroxisome proliferators, the builder, receptor has different binding sites for different classes of peroxisome proliferators, there are different receptors for single persuasive essays the classes of peroxisome proliferators but all leading to mwr resume, the same effect.

Recently, a mouse receptor (mPPAR, for mouse peroxisome proliferation activated receptor) has been isolated that is the constant character activated by peroxisome proliferators (Issemann and Green, 1990; Dreyer et al. , 1992). Lock et al. (1989), link inhibition of the mitochondria into the correlation. Administration of DEHP results in mwr resume, a transient accumulation of small droplets of neutral lipid in the liver (Mann et al. , 1985; Mitchell et al. , 1985) which disappear when the peroxisomes are induced. The long-chain dicarboxylic acids (LCDCA) are also able to stimulate 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA in isolated rat hepatocytes in culture (Lock et al. , 1989). In some cases, a correlation does not exist (Roffey et al. , 1990). Roffey et al. found that whilst citral induced peroxisome proliferation and cytochrome P450IVA1, linalool caused induction of peroxisome enzymes but not cytochrome P450IVA1.

Lazarow et al. (1982), observed that while bezafibrate does induce peroxisome ?-oxidation enzymes it does not elicit peroxisome proliferation in rat. Virtually all agents that induce proliferation of peroxisomes also induce hepatomegaly (Grasso and Hinton, 1991). Studies with fenofibrate (Price et al. , 1986), trichloroethylene (Elcombe et al. Essay? , 1985) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (Mitchell et al. , 1985) have shown that peroxisome proliferators and liver growth correlate and builder, are dose-dependent. The liver enlargement and increased enzyme activity regress on thesis cancer detection cessation of treatment (Elcombe et al. , 1985). There is increasing evidence that prolonged treatment with peroxisome proliferating agents results in damage to hepatocytes and to an increase in cell turnover. Cells in mitosis are particularly susceptible to damage. It is thought that persistent tissue damage and cell regeneration may lead to builder, tumour formation. Peroxisome proliferators, in this thesis to my father, addition also stimulate cytosolic hydrolase (Meijer and DePierre, 1987) in mice which may form diols from fatty acid epoxides due to the action of H 2 O 2 . They inhibit glutathione peroxidase and builder, superoxide dismutase activity (Ciriolo. However, the peroxisomes of the constant gardener other animal organs and plant tissues lack this core, and so they are difficult to distinguish from the builder, many other membrane-bound vesicles seen in electron micrographs unless histochemical staining (for example catalase) is used. One feature of peroxisomes is that they are inducible and, therefore, an administration of the hypolipidaemic drug clofibrate to rats leads to a tenfold increase in number of peroxisomes per liver cell. Literary Essay? In certain yeasts grown on methanol, the peroxisomes can occupy almost the whole volume of the cytoplasm.

Peroxisomes are involved in lipid degradation and biosynthesis. A ?-oxidation pathway similar in function to that of mitochondria is present in peroxisomes. However, the peroxisomal pathway differs from that of mitochondria in several important respects: mitochondrial acyl-CoA oxidation is builder dependent upon the constant the presence of carnitine, since the builder, formation of acyl carnitine catalysed by carnitine acyl transferase is an absolute requirement for the transport of the literary essay, fatty acid moiety through the inner mitochondrial membrane. Builder? A carnitine dependent transport system for acyl-CoAs does not exist in peroxisomes, it can catalyse the degradation of very-long-chain fatty acids (C 20 or greater), it does not act on short fatty acids (C 6 or less), the single, first enzyme in the pathway is an FAD-linked acyl CoA oxidase, rather than the FAD-linked dehydrogenase of the builder, mitochondrial pathway, the first reaction is this thesis father coupled to the formation of H 2 O 2 , the other enzymes are distinct gene products specific to builder, the peroxisome. In the peroxisome ?-oxidation pathway, a fatty acid (usually C 8 - C 22 or more) is activated to an acyl-CoA derivative by the constant essay, an ATP-dependent acyl-CoA synthetase located in the peroxisome membrane. All subsequent reactions take place in the peroxisome matrix. The fatty acyl-CoA is reduced with the utilization of oxygen to trans-2-enoyl-CoA, yielding hydrogen peroxide; this reaction is catalysed by acyl-CoA oxidase, the rate limiting enzyme of peroxisomal ?-oxidation. Mwr Resume? The next two reactions are catalysed by a bifunctional protein possessing the activities of single sex education persuasive essays enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The final reaction of ?-oxidation is carried out by mwr resume builder, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase which cleaves 3-ketoacyl-CoA into help com acetyl-CoA and a saturated acyl-CoA with two carbons less than the original molecule. The newly formed acyl-CoA then re-enters the ?-oxidation pathway. Builder? Each removal of two carbons results in the generation of one molecule of hydrogen peroxide.

The components of the peroxisomal ?-oxidation system differ significantly from enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid ?-oxidation with respect to i dedicate this thesis to my, their molecular and catalytic properties. Builder? For example, peroxisomal ?-oxidation does not require carnitine and is not inhibited by potassium cyanide. Isolated rat hepatic peroxisomes contain two carnitine acyltransferases in the organelle matrix (Markwell et al ., 1973, 1976, 1977; Moody and Reddy, 1974), carnitine acyltransferase and a transferase for medium-length chains such as octanyl carnitine. Their substrate specificity suggests that the C 2 and C 8 acyl-CoA products of hepatic peroxisomal ?-oxidation are converted to the corresponding carnitine derivatives and then passively diffuse out thesis cancer detection processing of the mwr resume, peroxisomes into the cytoplasm. Thus peroxisomal ?-oxidation may provide acetyl units for single persuasive essays other cellular synthesis, or the acyl carnitine products may be further oxidised in the mitochondria.

The question to be addressed is, why is there the mwr resume builder, need for the carnitine acyltransferase, if the fatty-acyl-CoA can passively diffuse into i dedicate this to my and out of the membrane? Mention has not been made of acylcarnitine translocase which functions as the carrier for acylcarnitine. If it is obligatory that the fatty acyl-CoA be converted to acylcarnitine products, then a carrier behaving like a translocase should exist at the membrane. Inhibiting either the acylcarnitine transferase or the translocase should inhibit fatty acid uptake by mitochondria, overload the peroxisome with substrates for its ?-oxidation pathway, inhibit either the acylcarnitine transferase at the peroxisome or the translocase which then cannot transport products out, therefore, there will be swelling of the peroxisome since the mwr resume builder, fatty acyl-CoA can easily diffuse into gardener the matrix, and as a homeostatic mechanism result in peroxisome proliferation in order to compensate for the overload, leading to mwr resume, a futile cycle, since the products cannot be transported out, unless a mechanism comes into play to make the membrane more permeable, leading to diffusion of not only the help com, products (fatty acids) but also H 2 O 2 . The cytochrome P450IVA1 is a member of the cytochrome P450IV isoenzyme. It is also called a fatty acid w-hydroxylase because it exhibits a high preference for hydroxylation of the terminal (w) methyl group over the thermodynamically favoured internal (w-n) methylene groups. The relative strengths of a methyl (-98Kcal/mol) and a methylene (-95Kcal/mol) C-H bond makes it thermodynamically more difficult to mwr resume builder, insert an oxygen into the C-H bond of a terminal methyl group than the adjacent methylene group (Kerr , 1966). The oxidation of fatty acids by cytochrome P450 enzymes not specifically designed to carry out w-hydroxylations yields primarily w-1 and w-2 hydroxylated products (Tanaka et al. , 1990). The fatty acid w-hydroxylase represents approximately 1-2% of the cytochrome P450 in uninduced rat liver microsomes and 16-30% after induction with clofibrate (CaJacob et al. , 1988). The preference for w-hydroxylation may be due to a limited substrate access to the ferryl oxygen at the active site. Some differences have been found between the members of the single sex education persuasive essays, P450IV family in relation to substrate specificity and their tissue expression.

The liver P450IVA1 is mwr resume builder active in the w-hydroxylation of lauric acid but does not metabolise prostaglandins, whereas the lung P450IVA1 catalyses the w-hydroxylation of thesis cancer detection using image processing several prostaglandins but not lauric acid (Tamburini et al. , 1984; Matsubara et al. , 1987). The liver P450IVA1 exhibits a narrow substrate specificity by metabolizing both lauric acid and arachidonic acid relatively well (Bains et al. , 1985) but not the prostaglandins (Matsubara et al. , 1987). Using the method of rationlization by molecular modelling of the substrates by Bains et al. it could be possible to see if the cyclic monoterpenes could be a substrate for P450IVA1, which I doubt. Some of the acyclic monoterpenes like citral are substrates because of their linear conformation which could be arranged in either trans (neral) or cis (citral) conformations. They can easily be superimposed unto the mwr resume, structure of lauric acid and arachidonic acid. The cyclic monoterpenes might possibly be substrates for persuasive essays the P450IVA4 since this enzyme prefers the prostaglandins which have a central cyclopentane ring. Mwr Resume? If metabolism or some favourable reaction conditions does open the ring of the cyclic monoterpenes, then it could be possible for quotes essay them to become substrates for the P450IVA1 (wishful thinking).

Twenty eight cyclic terpenes were studied using COMPACT computer graphic studies and none was found to builder, be likely substrates for either P4501 or P450IIE (Lewis et al. , 1992). The cyclic monoterpenes are members of a class of quotes in a literary essay compounds called the terpenoids which are biosynthesised by the acetate-mevalonate pathway. Theoretically the terpenoids are derived from the five-carbon isoprene unit (the running horse). The isoprene rule, states that all terpenoids are multiples of the isoprene unit (i.e. C 10 , C 15 , C 20 , etc.), although this is not strictly obeyed by natural products. Acetyl-CoA is the source of all the carbon atoms in Terpenes. ?-hydroxy-?-methylglutaryl-CoA is converted to mevalonate in a 2-stage reduction by NADPH catalysed by mwr resume builder, ?-hydroxy-?-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. In the second stage, mevalonate is phosphorylated by program thesis, ATP to form several active phosphorylated intermediates. By means of a decarboxylation, the active isoprenoid unit, isopentenylpyrophosphate is formed. Builder? The next stage is the condensation of a molecule of isopentenylpyrophosphate and 3,3-dimethylallylpyrophosphate to form Geranyl pyrophosphate. Earlier chemists hypothesized a direct participation of isoprene in the in-vivo synthesis of terpenes. This hypothesis was supported by the possible formation of character dipentene from two isoprene units by a simple Diels-Alder process and by builder, the wide occurrence, amongst essential oils, of compounds with the dipentene structure.

Dipentene found this way is racemic. It is particularly abundant in turpentine oil. Its two optically active forms (+)limonene and (-)limonene are found respectively, in citrus fruit oil (oranges and lemons etc.) and peppermint oil. Other dipentene derivatives are widely distributed in essay help com, nature. An objection to this early postulate, however, was that ISOPRENE itself did not appear to be present in nature and builder, could only be obtained by the pyrolysis of certain monoterpenes. The monoterpenes can occur in: acylic monocyclic bicyclic forms as hydrocarbons and as oxygenated derivatives such as; alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, ketones, oxides and esters. Possible pathways for the formation of the cyclic monoterpenes in the project.

An interesting stereochemical feature of many terpenes is the essay, fact that both enantiomers (optically active isomers) exist in nature. In some cases, a plant species produces only one of the enantiomers, whereas, a different species may produce both. As with many other natural product compounds that exist in enantiomeric forms, such as alkaloids and amino acids, the physiologic responses elicited by mwr resume builder, each isomer can differ. Thesis? For example, (+)carvone has an odour of caraway, whereas, (-)carvone produces a spearmint odour. These observations lend support to the stereochemical theory of olfaction which proposes that different kinds of olfactory receptor sites are in the nose. Odorant molecules could lodge on these sites and builder, would have shapes and sizes (varying in the constant character, stereochemistry) that were complementary to the shape and size of the particular receptor. A proper fit at the receptor would be required to initiate a nerve impulse that would register in the brain the perception of the odour. Spearmint or ordinary garden mint consists of the dried leaf and flowering top of Mentha spicata . It has stalkless leaves and flower-clusters in a slender spike. Spearmint oil is prepared steam distillation of builder Mentha spicata or of Mentha cardiaca and should not contain less than 55#37; of carvone.

Oil of thesis cancer processing spearmint contains from 45 to mwr resume builder, 60#37; (-)carvone, 6 to 20#37; of alcohols, and 4 to 20#37; of esters and terpenes, mainly (-)limonene and cineole. The optically isomeric form of carvone, (+)carvone is found in to my, oil of caraway and builder, oil of dill. Carvone when present in a plant appears to honors program, co-occur with limonene. Peppermint consists of the dried leaf and flowering top of Mentha piperita . It has almost hairless leaves and oblong heads of flower-clusters. Peppermint oil is the volatile oil distilled with steam from the builder, fresh overground parts of the flowering plant of Mentha piperita, rectified by distillation. Contains not less than 44#37; menthol. American peppermint oil contains from 50 to 78#37; of literary free (-)menthol and from 5 to mwr resume, 20#37; combined in various esters such as the cancer using, acetate. Mwr Resume Builder? It also contains (+)menthone, (-)menthone, cineole, (+)isomenthone, (+)neomenthone, and (+)menthofuran. The biogenetic arrangement for thesis detection using image the various species of builder Mentha is as follows: Peppermint oil is custom essay help a common flavouring ingredient used in builder, chewing gums (Greenhalgh, 1979), toothpaste, confectionery and pharmaceutical products. A short-term oral toxicity study on male and female rats for i dedicate this to my father 28 days demonstrated that peppermint oil causes brain lesions at doses of 40 and 100mg/kg bw/day which was confined to the white matter especially of the builder, cerebellum (Thorup et al. Honors Thesis? , 1983a).

Since peppermint oil consists of all the mwr resume, compounds mentioned above, further studies were carried out to identify the culprit, and also find out if the oil or any of essay its components is mutagenic because of its extensive usage. Mwr Resume Builder? Pulegone and cancer image, menthol were inverstigated in rats (Thorup et al ., 1983b), by gavage for 28 days. Pulegone at 80 and 160mg/kg bw/day caused histopathological changes in liver and in the white matter of the cerebellum. No signs of mwr resume encephalopathy was observed in rats given menthol. The toxicity of i dedicate thesis to my menthol was studied on mwr resume four different in vitro systems (Bernson and uconn honors, Pettersson, 1983) covering organ, cellular and subcellular levels. 0.5mM menthol caused osmotic swelling and leakage of mitochondrial membrane on isolated rat liver mitochondria. It was suggested that menthol causes a deterioration of biological membranes. Mwr Resume Builder? The acute oral LD 50 value was reported as 3300mg/kg ( Opdyke, 1976). In a different study, peppermint oil, menthol, menthone and pulegone were investigated in-vitro for their mutagenic potential in the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome test. Peppermint oil, menthol and pulegone were tested on salmonella tester strains TA 1537, TA98, TA1535 and TA100 at concentrations of gardener character essay 800, 160, 32 and 6.4µg per plate and did not demonstrate any mutagenic properties. Builder? Menthone on the other hand gave mutagenic responses with TA1537 (dose level 32 and 6.4µg per i dedicate, plate without S9) and with TA97 (dose levels 800, 160, 32 and 6.4µg per plate without S9 and dose levels 160 and mwr resume builder, 32µg per plate with S9).

Thus it was concluded that menthone is mutagenic in the Ames Test (Anderson and literary, Jensen, 1984). An in-vivo 28 days test on male and female rats was done with menthone at mwr resume dose levels of 200, 400 and 800mg/kg bw/day. Cyst-like spaces were seen histopathologically in the white matter of the cerebellum of the two highest dose groups ( Madsen et al ., 1986). Essay? The no-effect level for pulegone was 20mg/kg bw/day; menthol 200mg/kg bw/day and mwr resume builder, menthone lower than 200mg/kg bw/day. From an quotes literary earlier study by Parke and Rahman , (1969) that terpenoids caused an induction of the drug metabolising enzymes, Madyastha et al ., (1985) tested the effects of pulegone on cytochrome P450 and found that pulegone when fed to rats at a dose of 400mg/kg once daily for 5 days destroyed cytochrome P450 and haem but the reaction was reversible since discontinuation of treatment returned the builder, enzyme levels to control levels within 4 days. This effect was restricted to pulegone alone since there was no significant loss in cytochrome P450 when the rats were pretreated with menthone or carvone. Since the three compounds are structurally similar, it was concluded that an exocyclic double bond allylic to a ketone as seen in pulegone may be the i dedicate this thesis to my father, structural feature neede for the destruction of cytochrome P450. Builder? Ketone alone as seen in menthone or endocyclic double bond allylic to carbonyl function as in the case of carvone, do not cause haem linked destruction of cytochrome P450. The reduction in the level of sex education essays liver microsomal cytochrome P450 and haem was accompanied by massive hepatotoxicity with an increased serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and a decreased glucose-6-phosphatase ( Moorthy et al ., 1989).

A significant decrease in mwr resume builder, amino pyrine N-demethylase was also noticed after pulegone administration. Pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital potentiated the hepatotoxicity caused by pulegone, whereas, pretreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene protected from it. It seems, P450IIB is literary converting pulegone to a reactive intermediate which then is responsible for these observed effects. Mwr Resume Builder? Menthofuran (II) a metabolite of pulegone was found to be responsible for at least half of the hepatocellular necrosis caused by pulegone ( Thomassen et al ., 1988). Another study have indicated that another metabolite, unsaturated -ketoaldehyde (III) is the ultimate chemically reactive metabolite ( McClarahan et al ., 1989). When menthofuran (II) was incubated with rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH and O 2 , the -ketoaldehyde (III) was formed (Madyastha and Raj, 1990). Quotes Literary? The allylic alcohol readily undergoes intramolecular cyclization followed by dehydration to menthofuran.

It was proposed that the -ketoaldehyde (III) formed from mwr resume builder, menthofuran (II) contributed to the toxicity mediated by pulegone in two ways: the -ketoaldehyde can covalently bind to the macromolecules resulting in toxicity. it acts as a precursor in the formation of a putative ultimate toxic metabolite p. Uconn Program Thesis? cresol (VIII) (Madyastha and Raj, 1991. Limonene is a hydrocarbon monoterpene. It occurs in citrus fruits, mint, myristica, caraway, thyme, cardamon, coriander and many other oils. d-Limonene, a major component in many essential oils of builder citrus fruits is rapidly absorbed from the quotes literary, gastrointestinal tract and rapidly eliminated with no significant accumulation in the rat (Igimi et al ., 1974). Mwr Resume Builder? It is converted in man and in some other species of animals into two glycols, one of which is d-limonene 8,9-glycol as the major metabolite, and the other d-limonene 1,2-glycol as the minor one (Watabe et al ., 1981). d-Limonene exposure to air formed limonene oxide which caused skin sensitization in rabbits but not d-limonene (Karlberg et al ., 1991). To My Father? Out of many terpenes, d-limonene was found to be one of the most effective agents to solubilize cholesterol (Nishimura, 1972) and has been developed as a preparation to dissolve cholesterol gallstones by infusing into the gall bladder and / or the bile duct. The effects of d-limonene on lipids and drug metabolizing enzymes in Rat livers were studied (Ariyoshi et al ., 1975) and after a single oral dose of d-limonene (200-1200mg/kg) no effects were observed on liver triglyceride, microsomal protein, cytochrome b 5 , and the drug metabolizing enzymes.

Glycogen content was slightly decreased at doses higher than 800mg/kg, and cytochrome P450 and d-aminolaevulinic acid synthetase activity was slightly increased at 1200mg/kg. After repeated treatment (400mg/kg/day) for 30 days, the relative liver weight and hepatic phospholipid content were only slightly increased, and liver and mwr resume, serum cholesterol were decreased 4 and 8#37; respectively of the phospholipid fatty acids, palmitic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were increased and stearic acid was decreased. Cancer Detection Using Processing? Aminopyrine demethylase and aniline hydroxylase were increased 26 and 22#37; respectively, and cytochrome P450 and b 5 were likewise increased 31 and 30#37;. The d-ALA synthetase activity, the rate limiting enzyme in porphyrin biosynthesis was increased after single treatment with d-limonene at 1200mg/kg but not affected after repeated treatment for 30 days. Mwr Resume? This may partly be due to the rapid turn-over rate of d-ALA synthetase itself (Tschudy et al ., 1964; Bonkowsky et al ., 1973). d-Limonene was found to have chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity against chemically induced mammary ( Elegbede et al ., 1984; Maltman et al ., 1989), lung and stomach (Wattenberg and in a literary, Coccia, 1991) cancer in rodents.

When fed during the promotion/progression stage of mammary carcinogenesis, limonene inhibited the development of tumours induced by either 7,12 dimethylethylbenz(a) anthracene, which requires metabolic activation to its carcinogenic form or nitrosomethylurea, a directly acting carcinogen. Dietary limonene non competitively inhibits avian and rat liver HMG-CoA reductase activity and thereby reduces serum cholesterol levels and affects other aspects of mammalian isoprene metabolism as well ( Qureshi et al ., 1988). In mammals, mevalonic acid is builder metabolised to many isoprene species i.e.haem, cholesterol, tRNA's, ubiquinones etc. Custom Essay Help? Cells treated with lovastatin (a potent inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase) cease to grow and do not completely resume growth when cholesterol, ubiquinone or dolichol is added to the medium ( Goldstein and Brown, 1990; Maltese, 1990). Mwr Resume? Isoprenylation of proteins like low molecular weight, ras like GTP-binding proteins including p2 ras is required for custom com cell growth and mwr resume, division.

Limonene significantly and selectively inhibits isoprenylation of ras-like small G-proteins while having no effect on the isoprenylation of several other proteins (Crowell et al ., 1991). The mevalonate pathway produces isoprenoids that are vital for diverse cellular functions, ranging from cholesterol synthesis to growth control. Several mechanisms for feedback regulation of low-density-lipoprotein receptors and two enzymes involved in mevalonate biosynthesis ensure the production of sufficient mevalonate for several end-products. Manipulation of this regulatory system could be useful in treating certain forms of cancer as well as heart disease. Essay Help? The bulk product of mevalonate metabolism, cholesterol is obtained from two sources; endogenously by synthesis from mwr resume, acetyl-CoA through mevalonate and exogenously from receptor-mediated uptake of plasma LDL (low-density- lipoprotein). Mevalonate is also incorporated into non-sterol isoprenoids, as shown on the right.

Mevalonate homeostasis is achieved through sterol-mediated feedback repression of the genes for HMG-CoA synthase, HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor, as shown on the left and post-transcriptional regulation of HMG-CoA reductase by thesis cancer, one of the nonsterol isoprenoids shown on the right. Cholesterol --- involved in membrane structure, Haem A and mwr resume builder, ubiquinone --- which partake in in a essay, electron transport, Dolichol --- required for glycoprotein synthesis and. Isopentyladenine --- present in some transfer RNAs. Growth-regulating p21 ras proteins, encoded by ras protooncogenes and oncogenes, and builder, nuclear envelop proteins are covalently attached to farnesyl residues, which anchor them to the constant gardener character, cell membranes. Inhibition of mevalonate synthesis prevents farnesylation of these proteins and builder, blocks cell growth. It is possible that the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic action of d-limonene against mammary, lung and stomach cancers may be due to its inhibition of the mevalonate pathway. There is thesis cancer detection using no information as to if other terpenoids espercially the hydrocarbon monoterpenes similar in structure to limonene (even l-limonene) inhibit mevalonate synthesis in mammals. d-Limonene was found to inhibit N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) carcinogenesis of the forestomach and lung of female mice. d-Limonene and the citrus fruit oils can inhibit the tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, NKK-induced carcinogenesis when administered 1 hour prior to carcinogen challenge ( Watterberg and Coccia, 1991). Although limonene can be consumed by mwr resume builder, rats (Elson et al ., 1988; Kodama et al ,. 1976) dogs (Webb et al ., 1990) and humans Kodama et al ., 1976) without toxicity, male rats alone exhibit nephrotoxicity (Webb et al ., 1989).

Limonene has been routinely consumed by humans without apparent adverse effects. Animal studies have indicated that this compound can be nephrotoxic under certain experimental conditions. Several studies have reported that the mature male rat treated with d-limonene and a wide variety of hydrocarbons, is the only species and sex to help com, develop a unique form of nephrotoxicity that is mwr resume characterized by help, the following specific triad of mwr resume changes observed under the light microscope; an thesis detection image exacerbation of hyaline droplet accumulation, which is mwr resume normally found within the cytoplasm of proximal convoluted tubule epithelial cells in male rats, granular cast formation in the outer zone of the program, renal medulla and multiple cortical changes collectively classified as chronic nephrosis. In order to assess if this type of nephrotoxicity occurs in a non-rodent species, the dog was used as a model (Webb et al ., 1990), but was found to be refractory to mwr resume, the hyaline droplet nephropathy observed in male rats. Since this type of d-limonene nephrotoxicity is specific to the male rat, it may be inappropriate for honors program thesis interspecies extrapolation and human risk assessment. The cause of this toxicity was attributed to the reversible binding of d-limonene-1,2-oxide, a metabolite of builder d-limonene to alpha 2µ -globulin (Lehman-McKeman et al ., 1989; Dietrich and Swenberg, 1991) a naturally occurring low molecular weight urinary protein that is persuasive essays found in abundance only in adult male rats (Swenberg et al ., 1989). The complex formed is more resistant to lysosomal degradation than alpha 2µ -globulin alone. Mwr Resume Builder? The reduced degradation of alpha 2µ -globulin-limonene complex leads to an accumulation of this complex in the proximal convoluted tubule leading to the morphological changes characteristic of essay help alpha 2µ -globulin nephropathy. Mwr Resume Builder? Because alpha 2µ is a low molecular weight protein it is readily filtered at the glomerulus. Approximately 50#37; of alpha 2µ is absorbed in the proximal tubule and the remainder is excreted in the constant essay, the urine ( Neuhaus et al ., 1981). The proteins undergo endocytosis and are concentrated into vesicles called phagosomes which fuse with lysosomes.

Proteases in the phagolysosomes cleave the proteins at various sites forming amino acids and peptides which are returned back to the circulation. Mwr Resume Builder? The function of the alpha 2µ is mainly as a carrier of lipophilic molecules. The mechanism of protein droplet accumulation is that the protein forms a complex with either d-limonene or its metabolite, making the protein more resistant to gardener essay, hydrolysis. These form crystalloid protein droplets which is associated with cytotoxicity. Mwr Resume? The injured cell is released from the basement membrane and sloughs into the lumen where it collects in granular casts in the thin loop of Henle or is excreted in the urine. As a consequence of cell death, there is regeneration of neighbouring cells. The increased cell proliferation enhances the likelihood of an quotes in a literary increase in spontaneous mutational events and also encourages clonal expansion of initiated cells.

The development of alpha 2µ -nephropathy is dependent on the presence of mwr resume alpha 2µ , since strains of rats, like the NBR (NCl-Black-Reiter) rat which are deficient in alpha 2µ -globulin, female rats and thesis detection image, other species that do not synthesize this protein do not develop this disease ( Borghoff, 1990; Dietrich and mwr resume builder, Swenberg, 1991). Is it possible then that the olefinic bonds of other monoterpenes when metabolised to the epoxides may also bind to this transport protein?

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Feeding Your Cat: Know the Basics of Feline Nutrition. If you do not want to read this entire webpage, please review this shortened version: Feeding Your Cat – Short version – 4 pages (updated November 2013) Many readers of this website have kindly donated their valuable time to builder translate this important information into various languages. Com? Please click PDF options for more information. Diet is the brick and mortar of health.

This web page lays out some often-ignored principles of feline nutrition and mwr resume explains why cats have a better chance at optimal health if they are fed canned food (or a balanced homemade diet) instead of dry kibble . Putting a little thought into gardener character essay what you feed your cat(s) can pay big dividends over their lifetime and very possibly help them avoid serious, painful, and costly illnesses. An increasing number of nutrition-savvy veterinarians, including board-certified veterinary internists, are now strongly recommending the feeding of canned food instead of dry kibble. The three key negative issues associated with dry food are: 1) water content is builder too low. 2) carbohydrate load is too high. 3) type of protein – too high in plant-based versus animal-based proteins. In addition, dry food is very heavily processed which includes being subjected to high temperatures for a long time resulting in alteration and destruction of nutrients. Dry food is also often contaminated with bacteria, fungal mycotoxins, storage mites/cockroaches and their feces, etc. Most people who are concerned about their own nutrition have heard nutritionists say “shop the perimeter of the image grocery store.” This statement refers to the push to builder get humans to focus on fresh food – not overly processed food found in boxes and cans. Where do you think kibble would reside in this scenario? Definitely not in the “perimeter”!

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Every living creature is “fine” until outward signs of a disease process are exhibited. That may sound like a very obvious and basic statement but if you think about it…… Every cat with a blocked urinary tract was “fine” until they started to strain to urinate and either died from a ruptured bladder or had to mwr resume be rushed to the hospital for emergency catheterization. Every cat on the Feline Diabetes Message Board was “fine” until their owners started to recognize the signs of diabetes. Every cat with an inflamed bladder (cystitis) was “fine” until they ended up in severe pain, started passing blood in their urine, and began to refuse to use their litter box because they associated it with their pain. Every cat was “fine” until the feeding of species-inappropriate, hyperallergenic ingredients caught up with him and he started to show signs of food intolerance/IBD (inflammatory bowel disease). Every cat was “fine” until that kidney or bladder stone got big enough to uconn cause clinical signs. Every cancer patient was “fine” until their tumor grew large enough or spread far enough so that clinical signs were observed by the patient.

The point is that diseases ‘brew’ long before being noticed by the living being. This is why the statement “but my cat is healthy/fine on mwr resume, dry food” means very little to me because I believe in preventative nutrition – not locking the barn door after the horse is gone. I don’t want to end up saying “oops……I guess he is not so fine now!!” when a patient presents to me with a medical problem that could have been avoided if he would have been feed a species-appropriate diet to begin with. Of course, in order to be on board with the preventative nutrition argument, a person has to understand the following facts: 1 ) All urinary tract systems are much healthier with an appropriate amount of honors program thesis, water flowing through them. 2) Carbohydrates can wreak havoc on cats’ blood sugar/insulin balance. 3) Cats inherently have a low thirst drive and need to consume water *with* their food. (A cat’s normal prey is.

70 – 75% water – not the very low 5-10% found in dry food.) 4) Cats are strict carnivores which means they are designed to get their protein from meat/organs – not plants. Cats are obligate (strict) carnivores and are very different from dogs in mwr resume builder their nutritional needs. What does it mean to be an ‘obligate carnivore’? It means that your cat was built by Mother Nature to get her nutritional needs met by this thesis father, the consumption of a large amount of animal-based proteins (meat/organs) and derives much less nutritional support from plant-based proteins (grains/vegetables). It means that cats lack specific metabolic (enzymatic) pathways and cannot utilize plant proteins as efficiently as animal proteins. It is mwr resume very important to remember that not all proteins are created equal. Proteins derived from uconn program animal tissues have a complete amino acid profile. (Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Think of them as pieces of a puzzle.) Plant-based proteins do not contain the full complement (puzzle pieces) of the critical amino acids required by an obligate carnivore. The quality and composition of mwr resume builder, a protein (are all of the puzzle pieces present?) is also referred to as its biological value . Humans and dogs can take the sex education persuasive essays pieces of the builder puzzle in the plant protein and, from gardener those, make the missing pieces.

Cats cannot do this. Mwr Resume? This is why humans and processing dogs can live on a vegetarian diet but cats cannot. (Note that I do not recommend vegetarian diets for builder dogs.) Taurine is one of the sex education persuasive most important nutrients present in meat but it is mwr resume builder missing from single persuasive essays plants. Mwr Resume? Taurine deficiency will cause blindness and heart problems in cats. The protein in dry food, which is uconn honors program thesis often heavily plant-based, is not equal in quality to the protein in canned food, which is meat-based . The protein in dry food, therefore, earns a lower biological value score. Because plant proteins are cheaper than meat proteins, pet food companies will have a higher profit margin when using corn, wheat, soy, rice, etc. Andy – 18 years ago as a kitten. He still enjoys his meat! Veterinary nutritionists and builder pet food company representatives will argue that they are smart enough to custom essay help com know *exactly* what is missing from mwr resume builder a plant in terms of nutrient forms and amounts – nutrients that would otherwise be in this thesis father a meat-based diet. They will then claim that these missing elements are added to their diets to make it complete and balanced to sustain life in mwr resume builder an obligate carnivore. Does anyone really think that humans are that smart?

This is the kind of sex education persuasive, arrogance that has led to fatal errors in mwr resume builder the past. Not all that long ago (1980s) cats were going blind and dying from honors program heart problems due to this arrogance. It was discovered in mwr resume builder the late 1980s that cats are exquisitely sensitive to taurine deficiency and our cats were paying dearly for uconn honors thesis humans straying so far from nature in order to increase the profit margin of the pet food manufacturers. There are several situations that can lead to mwr resume a diet being deficient in taurine but one of them is using a diet that relies heavily on plants (grains, etc.) as its source of protein. Instead of lowering their profit margin and going back to nature by thesis, adding more meat to mwr resume the diets, the pet food companies simple started supplementing their diets with synthetic taurine.

This may be all well and this to my father good for builder this particular problem, but how do we know that we are not blindly going along unaware of other critical nutrients that are missing from a plant-based diet? Why are nutritionists so arrogant to think that we can safely stray so far from what a cat is designed by single persuasive, nature to eat? Also note that synthetic taurine is manufactured from a chemical reaction and all taurine (at least that I know of) comes out of builder, China. Essay Com? Given that country’s horrible track record with regard to food safety, I certainly would not want to depend on taurine from China’s chemical synthesis to meet my cats’ taurine needs. With regard to the overall protein amounts contained in dry versus canned food, do not be confused by the listing of the protein percentages on the packaging. Mwr Resume? At first glance, it might appear that the dry food has a higher amount of protein than the essay com canned food—but this is mwr resume builder not true on a dry matter basis which considers the food minus the water. Most canned foods, when figured on a dry matter basis, have more protein than dry food. And remember, even if this was not the gardener character essay case, the percentage numbers do not tell the whole story. Builder? It is the protein’s biological value that is critical. Let’s ask ourselves the following question: How many cats become ill or die from these species-inappropriate diets yet the custom patient’s diet is never even questioned as a possible cause of the mwr resume illness or death? We cannot answer that question definitively but I have no doubt that the answer would be “many”.

Do cats survive on these heavily (synthetically) supplemented plant-based diets? Yes, many of them do. Do cats thrive on these diets? No, they do not. Please pay special attention to quotes in a the words *survive* versus *thrive* as there is builder a very big difference between the two states of health. Robbie – hunting his dinner. Fresh vs Highly Processed with Synthetic Supplements. There are two basic ways to meet our nutrient needs: Eat fresh food with a short ingredient list – or at character essay least one that does not resemble a science experiment full of long names that are hard to pronounce. Eat highly processed foods that have had much of their nutrient content destroyed or altered, with food chemists ‘fixing’ the deficit with synthetic supplements. This type of unhealthy diet is consumed under the mwr resume builder assumption that humans know exactly what was destroyed or altered during processing and what needs to be added back and in essay com what form and amount.

Again, people are simply not that smart. While canned food is builder not ‘fresh,’ per se, dry food undergoes a harsher processing. Single Persuasive Essays? It has been cooked at mwr resume very high temperatures for a long period of time. The extensive cooking required to thesis remove most of the water from the mwr resume builder food (70% moisture reduced to 5-10% moisture) significantly alters the biological value of the protein sources and damages other vital nutrients. Nutritionists then have to guess which nutrients – in detection using image processing what form and amounts – were destroyed by this cooking process and then try to add them back into the diet. Occasionally ‘real food’ is used instead of builder, synthetic supplements but those long and i dedicate father hard-to-pronounce names on the ingredient list describe chemically synthesized nutrients. Given that humans will never be as smart as nature – we will never know every detail of a cat’s normal prey – it is mwr resume builder obvious that there is a risk when greed cause humans to stray so far from a cat’s natural diet.

We Are Feeding Cats Too Many Carbohydrates. Note: I have stopped using the term “grain-free” since it has become somewhat meaningless. Many companies (e.g., Blue Buffalo) tout that their products are “grain free” but then they just load up the in a literary essay food with high carbohydrate ingredients like potatoes and builder peas which are not grains but still contribute a significant carb load (and plant-based protein) to using processing the food. Mwr Resume Builder? The “grain-free” descriptive has become very deceptive and misleading. In their natural setting, cats—whose unique biology makes them true carnivores–would not consume the high level of carbohydrates (grains, potatoes, peas, etc.) that are in the dry foods (and some canned foods) that we routinely feed them. You would never see a wild cat chasing down a herd of biscuits running across the plains of Africa or dehydrating her mouse and quotes in a topping it off with corn meal. In the wild, your cat would be eating a high protein, high-moisture, meat/organ-based diet, with a moderate level of fat and mwr resume builder with only i dedicate this thesis to my father, approximately 1-2 percent of mwr resume builder, her diet consisting of carbohydrates . The average dry food contains 35-50 percent carbohydrate calories. Thesis Cancer Detection Using Image Processing? Some of the cheaper dry foods contain even higher levels. This is NOT the diet that Mother Nature intended for mwr resume your cat to eat.

Many canned foods, on the other hand, contain approximately less than 10 percent carbohydrates. Please note that not all canned foods are suitably low in uconn honors program carbohydrates. For instance, most of the Hill’s Science Diet (over-the-counter) and the Hill’s ‘prescription’ diets are very high in carbohydrates and are not foods that I would ever choose to feed. Cats have a physiological decrease in the ability to builder utilize carbohydrates due to the lack of specific enzymatic pathways that are present in other mammals, and they lack a salivary enzyme called amylase. Cats have no dietary need for in a essay carbohydrates and, more worrisome is the builder fact that a diet that is essay high in carbohydrates can be detrimental to their health as explained below.

With this in mind, it is as illogical to feed a carnivore a steady diet of meat-flavored cereals as it would be to feed meat to builder a vegetarian like a horse or a cow, right? So why are we continuing to the constant gardener feed our carnivores like herbivores? Why are we feeding such a species-inappropriate diet? The answers are simple. Grains/potatoes are cheap. Dry food is convenient. Affordability and mwr resume builder convenience sells. However, is a carbohydrate-laden, plant-based, water-depleted dry food the best diet for essays our cats?

Absolutely not. Obligate carnivores are designed to eat meat/organs – not grains/vegetables – and mwr resume builder they need to thesis image consume water with their food as explained below. Opie’s pictorial at Feline Urinary Tract Diseases is a ‘must see’ for any cat caregiver who insists on feeding dry food. The first paragraph of mwr resume builder, that page is as follows: If I could have the reader of this webpage take away just one word from this discussion, it would be “water.” If your cat is on a properly hydrated diet of 100% canned (or homemade) food – and no dry food – you stand a very good chance of never needing to read this webpage. Water is an extremely important nutrient that contributes to overall health in every living creature. Honors Program? Couple this with the mwr resume fact that cats do not have a very strong thirst drive when compared to other species, and you will understand why it is critical for persuasive essays them to ingest a water-rich diet. The cat’s lack of builder, a strong thirst drive can lead to the constant character essay low-level, chronic dehydration when dry food makes up the bulk of mwr resume, their diet especially if they have any level of kidney insufficiency. A cat’s normal prey contains approximately 70 – 75 percent water.

Dry food only i dedicate this thesis to my father, contains 5-10 percent water whereas canned foods contain approximately 78 percent water. Canned foods therefore more closely approximate the natural diet of the builder cat and honors program are better suited to meet the cat’s water needs. I hear the reader saying: “But my cat drinks a lot of water so dry food is just fine for him!” A cat consuming a predominantly dry food diet does drink more water than a cat consuming a canned food diet, but in the end, when water from all sources is added together (what’s in their diet plus what they drink), the cat on mwr resume builder, dry food consumes approximately half the amount of in a essay, water compared with a cat eating canned food. Put another way, a cat on a canned food diet consumes approximately double the amount of mwr resume builder, water consumed by honors, a cat eating dry food when all sources (food and water bowl) are considered. This is a crucial point when one considers how common kidney and bladder problems are in mwr resume the cat. Think of canned food as ‘flushing out’ your cat’s bladder several times each day.

Please keep in mind that when your cat starts eating a more appropriately hydrated diet of canned food, his urine output will increase which is a very good thing for bladder health. Because of i dedicate this to my, this increase in urine production , litter boxes need to be scooped more frequently or more boxes need to be added to the home. Please see The Litter Box From Your Cat’s Point of mwr resume, View for essay help reasons why I strongly feel that clumping litter is the only sanitary choice of litter to use for cats. Builder? Non-clumping litters do not allow you to remove all of the custom essay com urine and are not sanitary litters. Toby – very lean, energetic and athletic on a proper diet. He is 18 years old and still runs around like a kitten. Learn How To Read a Pet Food Ingredient Label. For more details regarding pet food ingredient labels, see Commercial Foods. Note: If you are tempted to write to me to ask what food you should feed to your cat, understand that specific advice cannot be provided via email. Mwr Resume? If someone wants to discuss the persuasive information contained on this site in more detail, an appointment for builder a phone consultation needs to be set up. Before you get too confused and frustrated when reading this section, I will say at the outset: I would much rather see a cat eat any canned food versus any dry food – regardless of quality level of the canned or dry food.

This includes Friskies, 9-Lives, Fancy Feast, etc., canned options. I am so tired of seeing cats suffering tremendously from thesis using image processing blocked urethras and mwr resume other urinary tract diseases because of Man’s love affair with dry food. Try not to drive yourself nuts when picking out a canned cat food. Single Essays? The fact that you are feeding canned food and not dry food is 90% of the battle so just do the best that you can – given the information below, the information on the Commercial Foods page, and also the Cat Food Composition chart linked in the sidebar for builder future reference. When using that chart, just focus on the first four columns and father the last column if you care about mwr resume, calories/can. Uconn Honors Program? The first four columns show the caloric distribution which is the builder best way to in a analyze food. I ignore the dry matter basis columns.

I mentioned above that you should refrain from builder “driving yourself nuts” but after becoming increasingly frustrated with the commercial pet food industry in 2003, I started making my cats’ food. See Making Cat Food for the constant gardener more information. Mwr Resume Builder? I got tired of dealing with all of the pros and cons associated with the commercial options and the ‘unknowns.’ However, putting my controlling nature aside, let’s move forward into the commercial pet food world. When reading this section, two words need to be firmly in your mind: composition (the percentage of protein, fat, and carbohydrate in the food) ingredients. Unfortunately, pet food labels are not held to the same standard as human food labels. Quotes Essay? This means that pet food labels are seriously lacking in mwr resume usable information when compared to a package of food for a human. The “guaranteed analysis” numbers that you find on a can of literary, food for protein, fat, and water (moisture) are listed as “minimums” and “maximums” which, by definition, are inaccurate. Plus, the labels never list the carbohydrate amount which is very frustrating because we are trying to mwr resume builder stay under 10% carbohydrate calories. This makes it impossible to accurately evaluate the honors thesis food in terms of composition unless you are willing to call the company and ask for their ‘ typical nutrient analysis ‘ which is data that comes from builder testing an actual batch of using image processing, food. During the summer of 2012, I spent over 1,000 hours calling.

45 pet food companies to gather data for mwr resume my Cat Food Composition chart. However, understand that pet food companies can change their formulations at any point in time so if you desire the most up-to-date information, you will need to call the individual companies. The ingredient list can help us out – but only in some ways. For instance, if you do not see high carbohydrate ingredients such as grains, potatoes, peas, etc., listed on the label, it is in a essay a safe bet that the food is low in carbohydrates. However, if these high carbohydrate ingredients are listed, you have no idea of the amount in the food and, therefore, no knowledge of the carbohydrate level. Without knowing the actual amount of each ingredient, we have no indication of the impact of the ingredient on the nutritional profile of the food. Only the composition value will answer that question. This is why it is important to not just consider the builder list of ingredients but to also look at the Cat Food Composition chart, or call the company for the information. A good example of the above issue is a food like canned Wellness.

At first glance, this food may be dismissed as inappropriate for a carnivore because it contains several high carbohydrate ingredients in the form of fruits and cancer processing vegetables, including potatoes which are very high in starch (carbohydrate). However, the low carbohydrate level (3-5%) tells us that the builder amount of quotes, fruits and mwr resume builder vegetables is very low. Again, we would like to stay under 10% of calories coming from carbohydrates. Grains and potatoes should be absent from this thesis father a cat’s diet but, unfortunately, they are cheap so they are included in many commercial cat foods. Think ‘profit margin’. Grains/potatoes are cheaper than meat. Stay away from builder food with gravy and sauces because they usually use high carbohydrate thickeners. Soy contains phytoestrogens and soy also negatively influences the thyroid gland. Given how common hyperthyroidism is in the cat, soy has no business being in gardener character cat food.

Unfortunately, soy is mwr resume a common ingredient used by many pet food manufacturers – especially Purina – because it enhances their profit margin. When considering allergies , the ingredient list is useful since we don’t care how much of the offending ingredient is in the food. The bottom line is single essays that we don’t want any of the mwr resume builder ingredient to be present. Fish/seafood, beef, lamb, corn, wheat, and soy tend to be the most hyperallergenic ingredients for cancer detection image the cat – especially fish/seafood. By-products are always a controversial subject but it makes much more sense to mwr resume builder feed animal-based by-products to a cat than it does to feed grains or potatoes. This Thesis? Therefore, do not shy away from the more economical foods like Friskies or 9-Lives if you cannot afford the more expensive canned foods without by-products. I would much rather see a cat eating an all-by-product canned food than any dry food. This is because even the cheaper canned foods have the ‘Big Three’ covered: 1) high in water. 2) usually low in carbohydrates.

3) the mwr resume protein is from animals – not plants. By-products are not necessarily low quality protein sources. In fact, they can be extremely nutritious. However, there is more variability when quality is being considered when compared to muscle meat. By-products are discussed in more detail on the Commercial Foods page in this section. The higher priced canned foods that I referenced above, have a muscle meat listed as the in a essay first ingredient. A muscle meat will be listed as “chicken,” or “turkey,” etc., not “chicken by-products” or “chicken by-product meal,” or “chicken broth” or “liver”.

“Chicken meal” is technically a muscle meat but the term “meal” denotes that it has been rendered (cooked for a long time at mwr resume builder very high temperatures) and is lower in quality than meat that has not been as heavily processed. A “meal” product is thesis detection using image processing more commonly found in dry foods. Mwr Resume? By-products can include feet, intestines, feathers, egg shells, etc., which are less nutritious (less biologically valuable/digestible) than meat. Avoid foods listing “liver” as a first ingredient. Thesis? (Example: Purina’s prescription diet DM canned for feline diabetic patients. There are far better options available that are healthier and not as expensive.) Liver is a very nutritious organ meat – and should be present in small amounts – but it should never be the mwr resume builder first ingredient as it is very high in vitamin A and possibly D and you don’t want to feed too much of those vitamins. Character Essay? Liver is cheaper than muscle meat so it will increase a company’s profit margin when used in high amounts. Preservatives are important ingredients that we need to pay attention to.

BHA, BHT, and ethoxyquin are extremely questionable in terms of safety. Please note that Hill’s has always used BHT, and ethoxyquin in builder many of their products although recently I have noticed that these chemicals have been removed from some of the constant character, their foods. Be sure to check the current labels. Other companies abandoned the practice of using these chemicals as preservatives long ago – opting for more natural and safer methods. Also, please take note of a recent deceptive move by Hill’s whereby they have incorporated into their labeling the word “maize” as a substitute for mwr resume the word “corn”. Maize IS corn and since this company is well aware of the fact that consumers are becoming more savvy about honors, pet food ingredients, they have decided to try to mwr resume builder disguise the corn in their diets by calling it “maize”. Hill’s is hoping that consumers stay ignorant regarding the fact that maize is essay corn. I do not use products made by Hill’s (including their over-the-counter and “Prescription Diets”) since there are always healthier options available.

Marketing labels such as “ natural, ” or “ premium, ” or “ veterinarian recommended, ” or “prescription” are not necessarily indicative of high quality so please be careful not to fall into that trap. “ Indoor only ” is mwr resume builder another meaningless marketing label that is nothing more than an enticing gimmick. This label originally started out in the dry food market but it has now made its way to canned food labels. Cats did not stop being obligate carnivores just because we put a roof over their heads. If you are thinking about feeding any ‘breed-specific’ food, please see this link for some straight-forward comments about the utterly absurd claims that these companies make regarding these diets. A Siamese is thesis to my no different from Persian or a Maine Coon – or an ‘alley cat’ – when considering optimal dietary composition. Builder? No matter the i dedicate this thesis father breed, the cat is mwr resume builder still an obligate carnivore. Royal Canin was one of the first companies to come out with these breed specific diets as a marketing gimmick. The labels on Hill’s over-the-counter products contain a statement that says “Veterinarian Recommended.” Unfortunately, many of my colleagues do, indeed, recommend products made by Hill’s (as well as Purina, Iams, and thesis detection using processing Royal Canin) and mwr resume this is a testament to uconn honors program the fact that most veterinarians are not well-versed in proper feline nutrition and simply defer to these large companies that have huge marketing budgets. These large budgets include substantial sums of money dedicated to mwr resume builder sponsoring – including very heavy advertising – our professional meetings and infiltrating veterinary schools to get students ‘married’ to sex education essays their products.

Keep in mwr resume builder mind that a large marketing budget does not equate with the manufacturing of high quality or healthy products. Let’s move on to the veterinarian ‘prescribed’ diets which are also known as “therapeutic” or “prescription” diets. “ Prescription/therapeutic diet ” is another label that is persuasive certainly not indicative of a high quality diet or one that is necessary. These diets represent an area of the commercial cat food industry that is builder very misleading and, quite frankly, a source of embarrassment for thesis cancer this profession. Many of these very expensive products contain corn, wheat, and soy which have no logical place in your cat’s diet. These diets are often very high in carbohydrates and, of mwr resume builder, course, all of the dry versions are water-depleted . Many of gardener character essay, them also contain by-products as the main – and often only – source of protein. While by-products can be very nutritious (and this really is the least of my concerns regarding these diets), they are cheaper than muscle meat so one would think that as much as these diets cost, the builder companies could include some muscle meat, in addition to by-products, for a more consistent source of high quality protein. (See by-products on thesis image, the Commercial Food page for more details.) Study the ingredient list for mwr resume Hill’s dry i/d while keeping in thesis mind that cats are obligate carnivores. This dry food is 29% carbohydrates on a dry matter basis and is, of course, water-depleted.

The ingredients are as follows: Chicken By-Product Meal, Brewers Rice, Corn Gluten Meal, Whole Grain Corn, Pork Fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid), Powdered Cellulose, Dried Chicken, Chicken Liver Flavor. The base ingredients and composition mirror those of builder, many dry foods found in essay pet stores and supermarkets. Also, this is a very good example of the ingredient splitting rule. This rule states that ingredients have to be listed very specifically which works in the pet food manufacturers’ favor.

It allows the mwr resume grain fractions to the constant gardener essay be broken up into smaller components which places them lower on the list since ingredients are listed by weight. However, when all of the grain fractions are added up, their contribution to the diet (including the protein content) often greatly outweighs the first ingredient . I have asked many times on VIN (Veterinary Information Network – the who’s who of veterinary specialists from all over the world) just what makes this diet worthy of being called a “Prescription Diet for Feline Gastrointestinal Health” or, for that matter, what makes it an optimal diet to feed to any cat? I have never received an mwr resume builder answer and the VIN threads have had Hill’s representatives participating. My questions about the quotes in a literary quality and composition of builder, their prescription diets are always met with dead silence. It is important to character essay note that most of these diets do not have robust clinical feeding studies supporting their safety for long-term feeding or even for builder use in custom essay treating the various diseases they target. On the contrary, we have plenty of evidence to mwr resume show that feeding water-depleted, high carbohydrate, plant-based diets to carnivores does not honor their carnivorous make-up but, instead, promotes disease in processing this species. It is also critical to understand that there is mwr resume builder no independent agency overseeing these diets’ medical claims. None.

Zero. Including the FDA. The fox is definitely guarding the henhouse and the FDA shows no interest in remedying the the constant character essay situation. The FDA has ‘punted’ the responsibility of scrutinizing these diets for mwr resume efficacy, safety, and suitability to the veterinarian but most veterinarians are very poorly educated in the area of nutrition. This field of custom essay help, study is not emphasized in veterinary schools and the minimal course work that is builder required, is often taught by custom, people who have strong ties to mwr resume the pet food industry. These are also usually the honors program thesis same people who are advising general practitioners on all matters of nutrition. After recognizing this situation, you will see an obvious and very significant conflict of interest. Mwr Resume Builder? In the end, the members of uconn honors program, my profession allow Hill’s, Purina, Iams, and Royal Canin to mwr resume builder dictate what ends up in our patients’ food bowls. Here is an excerpt from the using image “ Veterinarian-Prescribed Diets/OTC Options” paper that I am working on: ‘Prescription Diet’ trademark – marketing tool creates false perception. As an example of the serious lack of regulatory oversight, Hill’s secured trademark status for the term “prescription diet” in 1990 thus reinforcing the perception that, like prescription medications, their diets are subject to intense scrutiny and mwr resume testing.

However, nothing could be further from the truth. There is a strong argument to be made that no trademark protection should be granted for any marketing label containing the word “prescription” given the strong potential to seduce the essay help com buyers of these products into a false sense of security growing out of the assumption that anything labeled “prescription” has been put through multiple layers of regulatory and testing paces. If any product – including food – is allowed to carry a “prescription” label, it needs to be held to the same standards as a prescription medication. Otherwise, the word “prescription” becomes no more than a marketing label, and mwr resume as such, should hold no more credibility than any other marketing slogan. To quote the FDA/CVM Communications Staff Deputy Director: “‘Prescription diet’ is an industry-coined term and holds no legal meaning.” In other words, these diets contain no ingredient that actually requires a prescription. The trademarked term “prescription diet” is simply a clever marketing tool between Hill’s and veterinarians . The sale of the constant gardener essay, these diets is restricted (by Hill’s, not by builder, law) to veterinarians only. Single? In return, Hill’s enjoys a boost in perception of builder, quality brought about by this profession’s endorsement of their products. However, this perception of quality is undeserved and quotes in a literary essay this incestuous relationship jeopardizes the integrity of our profession. I want to make it clear that probably 99% of all veterinarians who ‘prescribe’ these diets truly feel that they are doing the best for their patients. Mwr Resume Builder? The companies (Hill’s, Purina, Iams, Royal Canin) that manufacture the uconn honors program thesis ‘alphabet’ diets have done a wonderful job marketing their products to veterinarians, making it difficult to builder refrain from single sex education persuasive essays falling into the trap of using them.

These companies make it very easy for us. If a cat comes in builder with kidney disease? We can just grab k/d, or NF, or LP without any critical thought. If a cat comes in uconn honors thesis with a urinary tract problem? Easy – take some c/d off the shelf. Given a veterinarian’s busy schedule and stressful life, one can see just how seductive the use of the ‘alphabet’ diets are. However, contrary to what is often believed by both the veterinarian and the client, the ‘therapeutic/prescription’ diets sold in builder veterinary hospitals are not formulated for optimal health of a carnivore and, in many cases, are actually detrimental to the constant gardener essay the patient’s health.

In addition, they are simply not necessary and mwr resume do not optimally address the problems they claim to literary essay treat. Add to this the very high price tag on these diets and mwr resume we have what I consider to be a very big ‘black eye’ for the profession. The only time I ever use a prescription diet (canned s/d) is discussed here on the Urinary Tract Health page. Canned s/d is occasionally used but only temporarily ( 2-4 weeks) pending re-evaluation of the patient. Instead of defaulting to the ‘alphabet’ diets, I can always find an the constant gardener character over-the-counter diet or formulate a homemade recipe for my patients that leaves more money in mwr resume the client’s wallet and much better nutrition in the cat’s food bowl. Regarding making cat food: People often overestimate what it takes to make a nutritious meal for their cat and i dedicate to my father assume that it means slaving away in the kitchen every day. I can assure you, it is mwr resume much easier than that. Since 2003, I have spent a few hours in the kitchen 4-6 times a year making food for honors thesis my cats which is a very small price to pay for the control that I have over what goes into their food bowls. I do not feed any commercial food to my own cats and mwr resume builder I would definitely never feed them any “prescription” diets. I would love to see veterinarians stop being so ‘married’ to the diets they reach for every day and single persuasive essays learn the basics of optimal feline nutrition and builder start considering the uconn honors program use of higher quality, lower cost, over-the-counter – or homemade – diets. Their patients – and their clients’ bank account – will be a lot better off for mwr resume builder it.

Common Feline Health Problems and Their Ties to the constant character essay Diet. There is a very strong and extremely logical connection between the way that we are currently feeding our obligate carnivores and many of the life-threatening diseases that afflict them. Diabetes: Diabetes is a very serious – and mwr resume difficult to manage – disease that is single not uncommon in cats. We do not know all of the causes of this complex disease but what we do know is that many diabetic cats cease needing insulin or have their insulin needs significantly decrease once their dietary carbohydrate level is decreased to a more species-appropriate level than that found in many commercial foods. Given this fact, and mwr resume given what we know about how the cat processes carbohydrates, it is not a stretch to say that high carbohydrate diets could very well be a significant factor in causing diabetes in some cats. Please see this paper discussing the elevated blood glucose in cats after eating a high carbohydrate meal: There are countless cases of successful diabetic remission when cat caregivers remove all dry food and all high carbohydrate canned food from their cat’s diet. In addition to the issue of carbohydrates and how they affect the blood sugar level of some cats, dry food is very calorie dense, is very palatable, and is usually free-fed.

This often leads to obesity . Fat cells produce a substance that makes the other cells in the body resistant to insulin. This promotes the single persuasive essays diabetic state. It is very important to understand the mwr resume builder impact that a low carbohydrate diet has on in a, the insulin needs of mwr resume, a diabetic cat. If you have decided to start feeding your diabetic cat a low carbohydrate diet, please do not change the diet until you review my Feline Diabetes page – especially the custom help STOP sign section – otherwise you will be putting your cat in danger. Please also be aware that many veterinarians underestimate the favorable impact that a low carbohydrate diet has on builder, the insulin needs of the essay patient and they do not lower the insulin dose enough. Mwr Resume Builder? If the insulin is not lowered accordingly, an overdose of insulin will occur which can be life-threatening. I strongly suggest that all caretakers of diabetic cats home-test to monitor blood glucose levels using a standard glucometer as a matter of quotes essay, routine. Careful monitoring is especially important when implementing a diet change.

Many veterinarians prescribe expensive diets such as Purina DM (Diabetes Management) and Hill’s m/d but you can do much better for mwr resume builder your cat (and your pocketbook) by feeding other more nutritious – and lower carbohydrate – canned foods. See the Cat Food Composition chart. I Dedicate Thesis To My Father? You should aim for a diet that derives less than 10% of builder, its calories from carbohydrates. The less expensive foods like Friskies, 9-Lives, and Fancy Feast are also fine to feed. Kidney Disease (CKD – formerly called “CRF”) : Chronic kidney disease is probably the quotes leading cause of mortality in the cat. It is troubling to think about the role that chronic dehydration may play in causing or exacerbating feline kidney disease. And remember, cats have a less than optimal water balance – especially CKD cats that are losing a lot of water via their ‘leaky’ kidneys – when they are on a diet of predominantly dry food. The prescription dry ‘renal diets’ such as Hill’s k/d – which are commonly prescribed by veterinarians – contain only mwr resume builder, a small amount of thesis cancer detection image processing, moisture ( 10% versus 78% for builder canned food) leaving your cat in a less than optimal state of water balance.

I have no other word for dry ‘renal’ diets other than “atrocious” given their water-depletion, low protein amount, and honors program thesis the low biological value of the builder protein (plant vs animal-based) that they are comprised of. In A Literary? I would have to be stranded on mwr resume builder, a desert island with no other food source before I would ever consider feeding these diets to any cat in my care. Regarding hydration, I must say that I find it truly amazing when I hear about the quotes in a literary very large numbers of cats receiving subcutaneous fluids while being maintained on a diet of dry food. This is an extremely illogical and unhealthy practice and mwr resume every attempt should be made to thesis cancer detection image processing get these cats on builder, a diet that contains a higher moisture content. Please also note the following list of the literary first four ingredients of mwr resume builder, Hill’s dry k/d after reviewing this section on reading a pet food label – and bearing in custom help mind that your cat is a carnivore.

This diet (or any other dry ‘renal’ diet) would never find its way into a food bowl owned by any cat in my care. The first three ingredients are not even a source of meat and the fourth ingredient is a by-product meal which is not necessarily an unhealthy source of mwr resume builder, protein but it would be nice to see some muscle meat (“chicken”) in this product. Brewers rice, corn gluten meal, pork fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid), chicken by-product meal. The purpose of this ‘prescription’ diet is to restrict protein which, unfortunately, it certainly does. However, please understand that there are no studies showing that restricting protein to this level will prevent further deterioration of kidney function.

‘Renal’ diets restrict protein to the point that many cats – those that are not consuming enough of the diet to essay provide their daily protein calorie needs – will catabolize (use for fuel) their own muscle mass which results in muscle wasting and builder weight loss. This internal breakdown of the cat’s own muscle mass will cause an increase in creatinine (and BUN) which needs to be cleared by custom essay com, the kidneys. The rise in creatinine and BUN, and mwr resume builder muscle wasting, can lead to an often-erroneous conclusion that the patient’s CKD is worsening. Of course, the same deterioration can occur in any cat that is not consuming enough protein, but the level of protein in these diets is character not only at mwr resume an extremely low level , it is in an incomplete form for a carnivore . Note that they are often made up mainly of plant proteins – not meat proteins – especially the dry versions. Cystitis (bladder inflammation), Urethral Blockage, Bladder/Kidney Stones: Please see Feline Urinary Tract Health for a more detailed discussion. The first paragraph on persuasive essays, that webpage states: If I could have the reader take away just one word from this discussion, it would be “water”.

If your cat is on a properly hydrated diet of 100% canned food – and no dry food – you stand a very good chance of never needing to builder read this webpage. Cystitis is an extremely common and very painful problem in help the cat. Mwr Resume? Stones are also very common and can lead to a life-threatening urinary tract blockage. I sincerely hope that these pictures of Opie make a huge impact on anyone who is still not convinced that dry food causes significant suffering in many cats. Rest assured that veterinarians deal with blocked cats extremely frequently which is heartbreaking considering how rarely cats block when on all canned food – especially with added water.

Cystitis can lead to inappropriate urination (urinating outside of the using image litter box) and builder stones can cause a fatal rupture of the thesis detection image processing bladder by blocking the outflow of urine. Any cat that is mwr resume builder repeatedly entering the cancer detection using image litter box but not voiding any urine is in need of IMMEDIATE medical attention! This is one reason why it is so important to use a clumping (scoopable) litter. Mwr Resume Builder? Clumping litter allows you to see just how much, if any, urine is essay being voided. It is important to note, however, that “crystals” are not the same thing as stones.

Crystals are often a normal finding in a cat’s urine and it is not necessarily appropriate to put the cat on a “special urinary tract” formula when these are found in the urine. Important: I often see too much clinical significance placed on the identification of builder, crystals in the urine without regard to how the urine sample was handled. Single Sex Education? It is very important to mwr resume builder understand that crystals will often form once outside of the this father body within a very short (30-60 minutes) period of time. If the veterinarian does not examine the urine right away and mwr resume builder either sends it to an outside laboratory or uses a free-catch sample that the owner brought from uconn home, an mwr resume builder erroneous diagnosis of crystals may be made. Essay Com? This is called a “false positive” report and builder results in quotes literary essay unnecessary worry on the part of the owner and often leads to mwr resume builder the cat being placed on an inappropriate, low quality diet. With regard to single sex education overall kidney and bladder health, I cannot stress strongly enough how important water is in both the prevention and treatment of mwr resume, diseases involving this organ system.

When a cat is on a diet of water-depleted dry food, they produce a more highly concentrated urine (higher urine specific gravity – USG) and they produce a lower volume of urine (often half of what a cat on canned food produces) which means that a higher concentration of crystals will be present in this thesis father the urine. This increases the chance of these crystals forming life-threatening stones. It is builder also thought that the i dedicate thesis father highly concentrated urine may be very irritating to the bladder wall in some cats, predisposing them to painful cystitis. Please keep in mind that a cat has a very low thirst drive and mwr resume builder is designed to get water with their food. A diet of canned food will keep a proper amount of water flowing through the urinary tract system and help maintain its health. Adding 1-2 TBS of water (plain or flavored – such as tuna water, clam juice, chicken or beef broth) per thesis cancer using image processing, meal is also very beneficial. Make your own tuna water by taking one can of tuna and mwr resume builder mixing the contents into 3 cups of water. Mash it up and let it sit for. 15 minutes. Pour the water into i dedicate this to my father covered ice cube trays.

Freeze to prolong the freshness. Use covered trays to keep the water tasting and smelling fresh. Water fountains may also help cats consume more water but feeding a water-rich diet is builder much more effective in increasing your cat’s water intake than water fountains or multiple bowls of literary essay, water sitting around your house. If you are still worrying about small amounts of builder, crystals in your cat’s urine, consider this analogy: Crystals in detection using image processing cat urine are as normal as the leaves that fall on your driveway. However, if you don’t regularly hose down or sweep your driveway, those leaves will build up and pretty soon you will not be able to get your car out of the garage.

This is what happened to mwr resume builder Opie above. His ‘driveway’ (urethra) got blocked and the constant gardener character he was unable to pass any urine resulting in a tremendous amount of suffering and builder a life threatening situation. If you picture crystals as the quotes leaves in this analogy, it is easy to see how canned food does a better job of flushing out your cat’s bladder – several times each day – than dry food does. To repeat, crystals are not necessarily an abnormal finding in cat urine. However, they can become a problem if Man continues to mwr resume insist on feeding the cat a water-depleted diet. Mindy and Mikie.

Urine pH is single sex education persuasive essays also often considered when discussing urinary tract problems but we really need to stop focusing so heavily on builder, pH. I Dedicate Thesis Father? Again, a proper amount of water in the diet is the important issue here – not urine pH. Many of the mwr resume often-prescribed feline lower urinary tract diets are formulated to make the urine acidic but it is thought that these low magnesium, acidifying diets may actually exacerbate painful cystitis. Also, these acidifying diets often end up promoting calcium oxylate stone formation and i dedicate thesis to my can also lead to hypokalemia (low potassium in the blood) which can cause or exacerbate kidney disease. It is also important to note – for those people still stuck on worrying about the urine pH – that there are many factors which determine the pH of urine and only one of them is diet. Urine pH varies throughout the day and mwr resume builder using one pH measurement from a single urine sample is uconn honors program thesis very misleading and is not terribly helpful information. With regard to dry food and mwr resume builder urinary tract health, aside from the lack of water in this type of diet, there is also a correlation between the consumption of thesis detection, a high carbohydrate diet and the formation of struvite crystals as shown by this study because carbohydrate diets promote an alkaline urine. Veterinarians often prescribe Hill’s Prescription dry c/d for urinary tract problems but again, these diets are only builder, ten percent water and contain a high level of using image processing, species-inappropriate ingredients and builder questionable preservatives.

They are also very high in carbohydrates with dry c/d containing 42 percent of honors program thesis, its dry weight as carbohydrates. Please note the first few ingredients in c/d while remembering that your cat is builder a carnivore: Brewers rice, chicken by-product meal, corn gluten meal, pork fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and essays citric acid),chicken liver flavor, taurine, preserved with BHT and mwr resume BHA. Brewers rice, corn gluten meal, chicken by-product meal, pork fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and honors program thesis citric acid), chicken, chicken liver flavor, fish oil, Note that Hill’s removed the mwr resume builder BHA and BHT but are now using more corn gluten meal and less chicken by-product meal. Diet is not the only issue involved with cystitis but it is an important one and one that we can control. Stress is essay help also thought to mwr resume builder play a very significant role in cystitis and even cats that are fed a 100 percent canned food diet may experience bouts of cystitis. This is a very frustrating disease to deal with and essay one that the veterinary community does not have all the answers for. What we do know is that decreasing stress and mwr resume builder increasing the water content of the i dedicate thesis to my father diet are the most important management issues to address. The water content of the diet is builder easy to control – feed canned food with added water. The stress issue is another matter and is not always easy to address since cats can be very sensitive and are often ‘silent’ in their stress.

Cystitis can be extremely painful and i dedicate this thesis father it is very important to address pain management in these cats. Remember: pain = stress and mwr resume builder we are trying to minimize the program thesis stress in these patients. Buprenex is a good choice for a pain medication and mwr resume I often dispense it for the client to have on custom essay, hand for chronic cystitis patients – as long as the client understand the critical importance of close monitoring of the patient to make sure he is passing urine and is not obstructed. (I say “he” because males have a long, narrow urethra and are much more apt to block than females but females can also experience an builder obstructed urethra.) Buprenex is superior to single sex education Torbugesic which has been used for pain management in the cat in the past. (Burprenex is a prescription medication that you must get from your veterinarian.) Unfortunately, many veterinarians overlook pain medications as a very important part of the treatment of mwr resume, this common feline problem. A very important note on antibiotic usage in these cases: Most cases of cystitis are sterile. In other words, they are not the result of an infection and the patient should not be placed on antibiotics. 1% of cats with cystitis that are under 10 years of age have a urinary tract infection, yet many veterinarians place these patients on antibiotics when these drugs are not warranted . Most cats under 10 years of essay help, age produce a very concentrated urine (USG greater than 1.035) and bacteria do not grow well in concentrated urine. In cats over 10 years of age, infections are more common but that still does not mean that older cats with cystitis should automatically be put on antibiotics. Mwr Resume? The reason that an in a essay older cat is more prone to urinary tract infections is because kidney disease is more common in this age group and so these cats will have a more dilute urine which is not as hostile to bacterial growth. Diabetes and hyperthyroidism are also more common in cats over builder, 10 years of age and both disease render the custom com patient more prone to urinary tract infections.

20% – or less – of all older cats that present with lower urinary tract signs (see Feline Urinary Tract Health – Cystitis) actually have an infection so. 80% of this age group exhibiting these clinical signs do not need to be put on builder, antibiotics. A urine culture and single sex education essays sensitivity (C S) should be run to check for an infection, especially if the patient has a low urine specific gravity or is diabetic. It must be kept in mind that even with a low USG, most cases of cystitis are not due to an infection. This is why it is important to run a C S before placing the patient on antibiotics. Antibiotics are NOT harmless drugs and they need to be used with more critical thought than is currently happening in builder both human and veterinary medicine. This is gardener essay especially true of Convenia . Please do not allow that drug to be injected into your cat without reading my Convenia webpage first. A C S test identifies the builder bacteria (if present) and tells the veterinarian which antibiotic is appropriate. Single Persuasive Essays? The urine for a C S needs to be obtained by way of cystocentesis which involves using a syringe and needle to mwr resume builder obtain urine directly from the bladder. This is not a painful procedure for the cat and this method is the only way to single sex education essays obtain a sample for accurate information in order to properly treat with antibiotics. One problem, however, is that a sample may be difficult to obtain without waiting a couple of hours since cats with cystitis urinate frequently and builder often do not have enough urine in their bladder to honors program get a good sample.

To get around this problem, your veterinarian can give the your cat a dose of subcutaneous (just under the mwr resume skin) fluids. The patient is essay then put into a cage without a litter box. Within a couple of hours (or less), the bladder is usually full enough to obtain a urine sample via cystocentesis. We have to stop treating all cases of cystitis with antibiotics without supporting evidence of an infection! Cystitis will often recur in these patients and this painful health problem can be very frustrating to deal with.

On a good note, most cats will have their clinical signs spontaneously resolve even without any treatment. In fact, it has often been said, jokingly, that a cat with cystitis will often stop exhibiting clinical signs within seven days with antibiotics and in one week without antibiotics. Unfortunately, when people don’t understand this issue, antibiotics often get the credit when they had nothing to do with the mwr resume builder patient’s improvement. When this happens, the abuse of antibiotics continues. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): IBD can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and/or constipation in the cat. IBD can also present with weight loss as the detection image processing only clinical sign. There are many unanswered questions with respect to this disease process, but it is logical to mwr resume start to “treat” a gastrointestinal problem in the cat with a species-appropriate diet considering that it is detection using food that ‘bathes’ the problem area. Too often these cats are treated with a high level of steroids and builder a prescription grain-laden dry food diet.

I feel very strongly that this common therapeutic regimen dismisses the very significant role that a proper diet plays in custom com our IBD patients. Mwr Resume Builder? There are an impressive number of anecdotal reports of cats that were terribly ill with IBD that exhibit dramatic improvement when all dry food was removed from their diet and uconn honors program a grain-free/low-carb canned food was fed instead. Taking it even one step further, there are many reports of cats with IBD that improved tremendously on a balanced homemade diet. Mwr Resume? (See Making Cat Food for a balanced recipe.) Some cats do need steroids (temporary or long-term) but we need to focus more heavily on feeding these patients an appropriate diet rather than simply relying on immunosuppressive medications. Robbie had severe diarrhea for gardener two years until put on mwr resume, a species-appropriate homemade diet. Hairballs: The frequent vomiting of quotes essay, hairballs can be a symptom of IBD. “Frequent” is hard to define, in mwr resume builder this case, but if your cat is vomiting hairballs on a weekly basis do not just assume that this is simply normal feline behavior. I often receive emails asking what the literary best diet is to mwr resume builder feed to cats suffering from hairballs. The bottom line is that as much hair as possible should be prevented from getting into the cat in the first place.

This is accomplished with daily brushing or, in i dedicate to my father some cases, shaving the cat if hairballs are creating serious problems. Amber loves going naked in the summertime. I understand that shaving cats is not an easy task and is, therefore, not a ‘quick fix’ for this problem but it is an option for mwr resume serious cases. Amber can only i dedicate this thesis to my, be shaved when she is under general anesthesia. Builder? Therefore, almost every summer she gets a dental cleaning and body shave to keep her comfortable during the this to my father hot summer months. She never had a problem with hairballs even with a full coat but she is a lot happier without her long hair when the weather is hot. Hairball problems are not just associated with long hair coats.

Shorthaired cats – especially double-coated cats – can also have problems with hairballs. Builder? However, a healthy intestinal tract should be able to deal with hair normally ingested by the cat. That said, if we want to help our cats out in this area, we need to brush them daily. Trying to ‘chase’ hair after it has gained entrance into thesis detection the cat’s intestinal tract is futile. Diet is not the answer and neither are any of the ‘hairball remedies’ on the market. Builder? As one well-respected feline medicine specialist often states “this is not a grease deficiency!”

Obesity: Obesity is an extremely common and very serious health problem in cats. Overweight cats are four times more likely to develop diabetes than cats that are at an optimal weight. Bennie before being rescued Obese cats cannot clean themselves properly resulting in painful skin inflammation in program thesis their perineal area Just after I broke Bennie out of jail Obese cats suffer from painful orthopedic problems Mindy and Molly – just after Molly discovered how good canned food is for her obese but carnivorous body. Obligate carnivores are designed to mwr resume builder meet their energy needs with a high protein, moderate fat diet with little to no carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are minimally used for energy and quotes in a essay those that are not used are converted to mwr resume and stored as fat. The so-called “light” diets that are on the market have targeted the fat content as the nutrient to be decreased. The choice is then to raise either the protein or carbohydrate content of the diet, or both.

Since animal-based protein (meat and organs) is more expensive than carbohydrates (grains/potatoes/peas), pet food manufacturers raise the carbohydrate levels in gardener character these foods making them very species-inappropriate and unhealthy. An optimal weight loss diet should be: high in protein (over 40% of calories), moderate in fat (under 50% of builder, calories), low in carbohydrates (under 10% of custom essay help, calories), and high in mwr resume builder water. When looking at the Cat Food Composition chart, you will note that there are not many examples of this profile. Why? Because fat is gardener essay cheaper than protein. The calories from protein + fat + carbs must = 100%. If the carbs are kept below 10%, that leaves 90-95% of the calories to be divided between protein and mwr resume builder fat. Protein is to my father expensive.

Fat is cheap. Mwr Resume Builder? Therefore, low carb diets are usually high in fat. Examples of uconn honors, nice profiles include Friskies Classic Pates, some Fancy Feast varieties, Weruva Paw Lickin’ Chicken, Tiki Puka Puka Luau, and Tiki Koolina Luau. You will notice that many of the higher protein diets are fish-based but it is not a good idea to mwr resume builder feed fish to thesis using image processing cats. Or, at least not as their main diet. Fish can be high in mercury, high in PBDEs (fire retardant chemicals linked to hyperthyroidism), high in phosphorus (not good for older cats’ kidneys) and mwr resume builder can be very addicting. To My Father? It is best to feed poultry-based diets to cats. Water content of the diet is builder very important. Studies have shown that cats lose weight much easier on thesis detection image, canned food versus dry. Dry food is very calorically dense and is high in carbohydrates which are not as satisfying to a cat as protein is.

Many cats on the commercial ‘light’ or ‘less active’ diets either do not lose weight or do lose weight but also lose muscle mass along with the loss of fat. Builder? This is i dedicate not our goal. The goal is to lose fat while maintaining muscle mass. In several studies, cats fed a high protein/low carbohydrate diet lost weight but maintained their lean body mass in comparison to cats fed a high carbohydrate/low fat diet. Many caretakers feed very small amounts of these “light” diets hoping that their cat will lose weight. However, feeding a small amount of mwr resume, a diet that is inappropriate for the species is not the answer! The caretaker often ends up with either a crabby, overweight cat or a thinner cat that may have lost too much muscle mass.

See Molly’s and Bennie’s story of in a essay, weight loss on this site’s Feline Obesity page to read about how these sweet cats went from inactive obese cats that could barely walk or clean themselves to healthier, happier felines. Molly had great difficulty walking and mwr resume cleaning herself due to her obese condition which was brought on by the uconn program thesis consumption of dry food. Kittens, however, loved using her for a pillow. Molly’s veterinarian had prescribed Hill’s Prescription dry r/d for her and instructed her caretaker to feed Molly only very small portions – and to put a shock collar on builder, her to keep her away from her housemates’ food. This is the constant obviously not sound – or humane – obesity management advice. Hill’s Prescription r/d is mwr resume a very poor quality, high carbohydrate (35%) diet that contains the following inappropriate and unhealthy ingredients including a high level of fiber which a feline intestinal tract is not designed to process: Chicken by-product meal, corn meal, powdered cellulose 18.5% (a source of uconn, fiber),corn gluten meal, chicken liver flavor, vegetable oil, taurine, L-carnitine, preserved with BHT, BHA and ethoxyquin.

Brewers Rice, Chicken By-Product Meal, Corn Gluten Meal, Powdered Cellulose, Chicken Liver Flavor, Soybean Oil. Note that Hill’s removed the builder BHA and BHT but a plant-based protein is now the predominant protein source instead of an animal-based protein. This diet is even more unhealthy than it used to be. There are much more species appropriate – and less expensive – ways to address feline obesity. However, if you are contemplating the use of the grain-free, high protein/low carb dry foods, please understand that these diets are very calorie-dense and often lead to weight gain , in addition to being detrimental to urinary tract health because of their water-depletion. Hepatic Lipidosis (Fatty Liver Disease): This is the most common metabolic liver disease of uconn honors, cats. Cats that go longer than. 3 days without eating, for mwr resume builder any reason, are in quotes literary danger of developing this serious, and often fatal, disease. Even though thin cats can end up with hepatic lipidosis, overweight cats are much more prone to experiencing this disease.

Feeding a high-protein, low-carbohydrate canned diet helps keep cats at an optimal, healthy body weight and, in turn, makes them less likely to end up with fatty liver disease. Dental Disease: Long-standing claims that cats have less dental disease when they are fed dry food versus canned food are grossly overrated, inaccurate, and are not supported by studies. This frequently stated (among veterinarians and lay people) myth continues to harm cats by perpetuating the idea that their food bowls need to be filled up with an unhealthy diet in builder order to keep their teeth clean. The idea that dry food promotes dental health makes about uconn honors thesis, as much sense as the idea that crunchy cookies would promote dental health in a human. First, dry food is hard, but brittle, and merely shatters with little to no abrasive effect on the teeth. Second, a cat’s jaws and builder teeth are designed for shearing and i dedicate this to my father tearing meat – not biting down on dry kibble. Mwr Resume? Third, many cats swallow the majority of their dry food whole. There are many factors – known and unknown – that contribute to in a literary dental disease cats such as genetics, viruses, diet, and the fact that cats do not brush their teeth like humans do. There remain many unanswered questions concerning the fact that cats often suffer from mwr resume poor dental health but one very obvious answer lies in the fact that humans feed cats a diet that does not even come close to what they would eat in their natural state. When cats consume their prey in the wild, they are tearing at flesh, hide, bones, tendons, and ligaments. This is a far cry from the consistency of dry or canned food.

Neither dry kibble nor canned food comes close to mimicking a cat’s normal diet of mice, birds, rabbits, etc. Given what a cat does eat in nature, it makes much more sense to be feeding part of the custom com diet in the form of large chunks of meat (as large as you can get your cat to chew on) or gizzards (tough and fibrous) which a cat’s teeth are designed to chew. Raw meat is ‘tougher’ to chew than cooked meat so I prefer to use raw meat – or lightly baked to kill the surface bacteria – to promote dental health. See Making Cat Food – Dental Health. Notice the phrase “part of the diet” in the above sentence. It is very important to understand that plain meat (ie – without bones or another source of calcium) is very unbalanced since there is mwr resume builder minimal calcium in meat. I Dedicate To My Father? Remember that when a cat eats his normal prey, he is consuming the bones along with the meat. When fed as a supplement to most commercial canned foods, it is safe to feed. 15 – 20% of the daily calories in the form of builder, plain meat. For example, if a cat is eating 6 ounces of thesis cancer using, canned food per day, you could feed him 5 ounces of canned food plus 1 ounce of mwr resume, chunked muscle meat per day. When people ask me “how often should my cats be fed chunks of meat?”, I reply “how often do you brush your own teeth?”

And speaking of brushing teeth , this is, by far, the best way to uconn promote your cat’s dental health. See this video for more information. Please pay close attention to mwr resume builder the statement in single sex education persuasive essays the video regarding a thorough dental exam by your veterinarian before starting a brushing program. Many cats have very painful mouths but show no outward signs of this pain. Builder? If you try to brush your cat’s teeth in the face of a painful mouth, you will end up with a cat that is scared – along with developing a strong aversion to toothbrushes. If this aversion occurs, you may never get him to accept tooth brushing once you have addressed the custom essay com painful mouth with your vet. With regard to frequency, once-daily is optimal.

By the time 72 hours have passed, the mwr resume builder film on custom essay com, the teeth becomes permanent so shoot for at least every other day. Please understand that I am not saying that canned food is builder necessarily better for teeth than dry food. For optimal dental health, a cat should not be eating either canned or dry food since neither food type promotes a healthy oral cavity but we have to work with what is practical in a typical home setting and feeding a cat a ‘whole carcass prey’ diet is not terribly practical – even if it would be great for their teeth. The compromise is to help at least give them some muscle meat to chew on, in mwr resume addition to essay brushing their teeth if possible, and to stop fooling ourselves into thinking that dry food promotes dental health in our cats. I am often asked about ‘dental’ diets such as Hill’s t/d but if someone has read to this point on this webpage, it will be understood that these diets represent the epitome of ‘tunnel vision’ nutrition. All ‘dental’ diets are all dry (water-depleted), all are all high in mwr resume builder carbohydrates, and all contain species-inappropriate ingredients, and essay as such, even if they do impart any measurable effect on mwr resume builder, dental health, they wreak havoc on this to my father, the rest of the body. It is mwr resume builder wise to feed for the health of the custom essay help com *whole* cat, not just one part of him. Hill’s t/d (34% carbohydrates): Chicken By-Product Meal, Brewers Rice, Corn Gluten Meal, Powdered Cellulose, Whole Grain Corn, Pork Fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and mwr resume builder citric acid), Chicken Liver Flavor. Saint Molly never met a kitten she didn’t treat as her own. Feline Asthma/Allergic Airway Disease: Many cats have had their respiratory symptoms (coughing/difficulty breathing) subside considerably, or disappear completely, once they were placed on a grain-free canned food diet, or a meat-based homemade diet.

Some of these struggling cats may have been reacting to storage mites or cockroach antigens that are present in essay help dry foods, or they may have been reacting to the gluten (protein fraction) part of the mwr resume grains that are present in dry foods. Sadly, many cats exhibiting debilitating lung disease are simply put on an immunosuppressive dose of honors, steroids – while still being fed an inappropriate diet. While steroids are necessary in many cases of airway disease, they are not addressing the mwr resume root of the problem which can, in many cases, be an allergy to proteins in the form of species-inappropriate grains, and essay com insect antigens. Steroids can cause diabetes in cats and also render them vulnerable to infections from viruses, bacteria, and fungal agents so it is very important to mwr resume builder make sure you have ruled out diet as a cause of the cat’s respiratory symptoms. Robbie and Calvin flexing their muscles. Dry food is far from a clean, safe, and pathogen-free source of thesis, food for mwr resume your cat. Please see this section on my Making Cat Food page which details just a few of the many pet food recalls due to sex education persuasive essays contamination of mwr resume builder, commercial pet food with deadly chemicals, bacteria (salmonella, etc.), fungal mycotoxins, and storage mites. The issue of rancid fats in character essay dry food is also discussed on the Making Cat Food page. Fungal mycotoxins are deadly chemicals produced by molds.

Molds are very common contaminants of grains but molds can be found in many different food sources. In mid January 2011, 200 cows died from eating moldy sweet potatoes that were mixed into their feed. There is no doubt in my mind that many cats and dogs have become ill from the builder contaminants that are often present in the constant character essay dry pet foods yet nobody (including the veterinarian and pet owner) puts 2 + 2 together and realizes that the diet is the mwr resume builder source of the pet’s illness. Keep in mind that dry foods are not refrigerated and they sit in warm warehouses, on pet store shelves, and in persuasive your cupboards for weeks or months before your pets consume them leading to mwr resume builder increased bacterial growth and rancid fats. At the very least, dry food should be kept in the refrigerator but it is better to just refrain from sex education essays feeding this type of food completely. Transitioning Dry Food Addicts to Canned Food. This is the hard part. Cats, like children, often resist what is builder best for them.

The two most frequent comments that I hear from people when trying to cancer detection using image convince them to feed their cats a healthier diet are “my cat won’t eat canned food” and “but my cat really likes his dry food.” Children really like potato chips and ice cream but that certainly does not mean those food items constitute optimal nutrition. The transition process often involves much more than just plunking down a new food item. Time, patience and tricks are often required. One reason that cats like dry food so much is because the pet food companies do not play fair when manufacturing this sub-optimal food source. They coat the mwr resume kibble with extremely enticing animal digest sprays which are very pleasing to a cat – making a poor quality diet very desirable to the target animal. In addition to the aforementioned coating of program, dry food with animal digests, another issue is one of a crunchy texture which is mwr resume builder very different from canned food.

Cats are very resistant to such a drastic change in the texture of their food. If you are convinced that getting your cat off of dry food is the way to go, read on for some tips on gardener character, how to accomplish this. The key is to do it slowly and with patience and incorporate various tricks for the stubborn cats. The most important issue is actually making the mwr resume change , not how fast you accomplish it. I must say that my cats tested every ounce of program, patience I had over a 3 + month period of time during their transition from dry to mwr resume builder canned food.

They had been on dry food their entire lives and did not recognize canned food as food. My cats ranged in age from the constant essay 2 years to mwr resume 10 years at sex education the time of the transition. The single biggest mistake I see people make time and again is to mwr resume builder say that their cat “won’t touch” the new food and then panic and fill up the bowl with dry food. In many cases, it is simply not that easy to get cats off of help com, dry food. Mwr Resume? (See Molly’s Story for a look at one very stubborn cat.) There are two categories of cats – those that will eat canned food and cancer detection using image those that will be extremely resistant to mwr resume builder eating anything other than dry food. If your cat falls into the first category, lucky you. These cats will take to it with the attitude of “finally – an appropriate diet for my species.” In this case, if your cat has been on all dry food, or only receives canned food as an custom occasional ‘treat’, start by feeding canned food in increasing amounts. Gradually decrease the dry, taking about a week to fully switch the cat over to mwr resume builder 100 percent canned food. Some cats may experience softer stools during the transition. I do not worry if this happens and tend to single sex education persuasive essays ‘ride it out.’ If diarrhea results from the diet change you will either need to builder experiment with different canned foods or slow the transition down and do it over a period of several weeks.

Note that in over 40 years spent in this profession, I have never met a cat that needed dry food to stay healthy but some need to be transitioned more slowly than others. The average cat should eat. 180 – 220 calories per day which will be found in 5-6 ounces of the the constant character average canned food. However, note that high protein/low fat/low carb foods like Weruva Paw Lickin’ Chicken and some Tiki Cat varieties are very low in calories (see the Cat Food Composition chart – far right column) so you will need to feed much more than 5-6 ounces which can get quite expensive. The necessary daily caloric intake should be split between 3-4 meals/day (or just free-fed if they are not overweight). When determining how much you should be feeding your cat once transitioned to canned food, keep it simple. Too fat? Feed less. Too thin? Feed more. Andy and Calvin.

If you are unlucky like I was, and your cat does not recognize the fact that he is a carnivore and would live a healthier life if eating canned food, (or a homemade diet) then you will have some work to do. Some cats that have been on dry food for their entire life will be quite resistant to mwr resume builder the diet change and may take several weeks or longer to gardener make the builder transition to thesis father a healthier diet. For ‘resistant-to-change’ cats, you will need to builder use the normal sensation of i dedicate this thesis to my father, hunger to builder help with the transition. For this reason, it is very important to stop free-feeding dry food. This is the in a literary first, and mwr resume builder very critical, step.

You need to uconn honors program establish set mealtimes. They are not going to try anything new if their bowl of junk food is in front of them 24/7. Cats do not need food available at all times. It really is mwr resume okay for them to experience a hunger pain! That said, it was very hard for me to listen to my cats begging for uconn thesis food even though I was strong in mwr resume my conviction that I was heading them in the best direction for com optimal health. It truly was a stressful time for me and them. Builder? Actually, I think it was harder on me!

This is uconn honors where many people fail and just give in and fill up the mwr resume dry food bowl. There were a few times when I had to call my ‘sponsor’ and was instructed to “just leave the house if you can’t take looking into those eyes!” I left the house. Those pitiful little cries of this, “I have not had food for two WHOLE hours!” were hard to builder take. But, lo and help com behold, they were just fine when I returned. Mwr Resume? Not one cat had died from hunger. On the detection using other hand, do not attempt to withhold food for long periods of mwr resume builder, time (greater than 24 hours) with the i dedicate this thesis to my hope that your cat will choose the new food. You need to ‘convince’ them that a high quality canned food really is mwr resume good for them, rather than to try starving them into uconn thesis it – which does not work anyway. Builder? Allowing a cat to go without food – especially an overweight cat – for a long period of time (greater than 48 hours) can be quite dangerous and may result in hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver disease). Hepatic lipidosis can also develop when a cat consumes 50% or less of his daily caloric requirements over cancer detection using image processing, a period of many days. The definition of “many” varies from cat-to-cat. For this reason it is mwr resume builder important to understand that you need to thesis have some idea of the calories from canned food combined with the calories from mwr resume builder dry food that your cat is consuming on a daily basis while you are implementing the transition to canned food.

I have never seen a cat develop hepatic lipidosis when consuming at least 15 calories per pound per day. Thesis? This number is figured on lean body weight , not fat weight. If your cat weighs 18 pounds but really should weigh 12 pounds, please make sure that he is consuming. 180 calories per mwr resume builder, day. Processing? (12 pounds lean body mass X 15 calories/pound/day = In reality, the cat in builder the above example would probably be completely safe at single sex education only 150 calories per day. If you have a small female cat that should only weigh 9 pounds, please make sure that she is builder consuming at least 135 calories per day. Canned foods never list the calorie content on the can but many dry foods do list this information on the bag. A rough guideline for the calorie content of most canned foods that are 78% moisture is. 30 calories/ounce but can range from the constant essay 20 to mwr resume 40 calories/ounce as shown by the chart linked above. Most cats will lose some weight during the transition to canned food. Given that a very high percentage of cats are overweight to begin with, this is thesis using image a favorable result of the diet change – as long as they do not lose too much weight too fast.

A cat should never lose more than 1-2% of his body weight per week. I highly suggest that all cat caregivers weigh their cats periodically especially if they are over 10 years of mwr resume, age. This will help ensure a safe transition to a healthier diet and, in general, weight loss is often the first sign of ill health for any reason. I make it a point to weigh my cats at least once each month especially since they are now over 10 years of age. Here is a scale that is reasonably priced: Salter Baby and help Toddler scale. It weighs to mwr resume the nearest 1/2 ounce and has a ‘hold’ button on it that helps obtain an accurate weight even for a cat that is moving around a bit. Here is sex education essays another scale that may be even better because its base is builder as long as the scale.

Red Cross Baby Scale. This is important for custom essay cats that are trained to walk onto it otherwise, scales like the builder Salter one linked above may tip. Uconn Honors Program Thesis? This would scare the cat and harm the builder scale. All of my cats lost weight during the three months that it took to switch them to canned but none of them became too thin. They slimmed down to this father a nice lean body weight – losing fat while maintaining their muscle mass. They also became much more active. If your cat is overweight, please see the builder Feline Obesity page. Resign yourself to the fact that you will be very frustrated at com times and mwr resume builder you will be wasting canned food as they turn up their nose at it. Also, you may want to immediately switch your cat to a dry food that has fewer calories from carbohydrates than most dry foods. (e.g., EVO) The low-carb dry foods are very high in i dedicate father fat and therefore are very calorie dense.

These foods must be portion-controlled otherwise, your cat may end up gaining weight. Mwr Resume? Note that dry Innova EVO has 612 calories per gardener character, cup. One quarter of a cup contains 153 calories so be very careful to pay attention to how much of these high calorie dry foods you feed. The caloric needs of an mwr resume average cat can range between 150 – 250 calories/day depending on their lean body weight and uconn honors program activity level. The low-carb dry foods are also very high in builder phosphorus. This is in a literary essay especially detrimental for cats with compromised kidney function. And, of course, these low-carb dry foods are water-depleted – just like all dry foods – putting your cat at risk for serious urinary tract problems. They are also cooked at very high temperatures in order to mwr resume dry them out. I do not recommend these dry foods for long-term feeding for all of the i dedicate thesis to my father reasons stated above.

Please use them only as transition diets. Be sure to mwr resume builder stay away from any “light” varieties since those types of foods are very high in in a carbohydrates. Here are some various tricks for the stubborn ones. Keep in mind that different tricks work on builder, different cats: If your cat has been eating dry food on a free-choice basis, take up the food and establish a schedule of 2 – 3 times per day feedings . I really do prefer just twice-daily feedings when trying to transition them. Uconn Program Thesis? A normal, healthy hunger response after 12 hours goes a long way to convince them to try something new.

If you want to take the transition very slowly, you can feed the amount that your cat normally consumes in a 24 hour period – split up into two feedings to get him used to meal feeding. Many people, however, are unsure as to how much their free-fed cat really eats so I would start off by figuring out the calories that your cat needs to maintain his weight if he does not need to lose any weight. Leave the mwr resume dry food down for 20 minutes, and single sex education persuasive then remove any uneaten portion. Repeat in 8-12 hours depending on if you are feeding 2 or 3 times per day. During the first few days of transitioning to a set schedule, you can offer canned food during the dry food meals, or in-between meals. The stubborn ones, however, will not touch it. Do not despair – all cats will eventually eat canned food if their caregiver is determined, methodical, and patient enough.

Once your cat is on a schedule you will notice that he is mwr resume builder more enthusiastic about food during his proper mealtimes and will be much more inclined to try something new. Again, most cats only need 150-250 calories/day. The dry food bag should tell you how many calories are in a cup of custom help com, food but if it does not, you can call the company. Once the cat has transitioned to mwr resume canned food, I prefer to either free-feed them (if they are not too fat) or to put out single persuasive, a meal 3-4 times per mwr resume, day. Small cats in the wild eat 8-10 small meals per day. I do not worry about leaving canned food out for up to single persuasive essays 12 hours at a time. Keep in mwr resume builder mind that a lion is not going to eat his entire prey immediately. Persuasive? Once you have established scheduled mealtimes, you will most likely need to start feeding a bit less at each mealtime in order to get the normal sensation of hunger to work in your favor.

Again, we are trying to mwr resume builder use the normal sensation of hunger to help us out. We are not trying to starve the cat into single sex education persuasive essays the diet change. Once your cat is on mwr resume builder, a schedule of meal-feeding instead of free-feeding, try feeding a meal of canned food only. If he will not eat it – and uconn program the very stubborn ones won’t – try not to get frustrated – and do not put down dry food. Try some of the other tips listed below. If he still will not eat the canned food, let him get a bit hungrier. Offer the canned again in a couple of hours – or just leave it out. Some cats will be more apt to try something new if they keep walking by it and seeing/smelling it. Try a different brand/flavor or a different ‘trick.’ Once it has been. 18 hours since he has eaten anything, give him just a small amount (1/4 of a cup – or less if it is mwr resume EVO) of his dry food – keeping track of his daily caloric intake . Remember to be patient. Exercising your cat with a tassel toy before feeding can also help stimulate his appetite.

Cats’ noses are much more sensitive than ours are. Quotes In A Literary? They can smell the builder dry food in the cupboards. I suggest either putting it in single the refrigerator or putting it in a tightly sealed container. If they can smell it, they will hold out for it. Some people recommend getting it out of your house completely, but this is not possible when you are dealing with a very stubborn cat that needs a bit of time and patience to mwr resume make the transition happen. Help? The following worked for my cats: Sprinkle a very small amount of tuna – or any other favorite treat (some cats do not like fish and would prefer cooked chicken) – on top of the canned food and then once they are eating this, start pressing it into the top of the new food. Mwr Resume Builder? (The “light” tuna is better than the fancy white tuna because it has a stronger smell. Or, Trader Joe’s makes a Cat Tuna that is very stinky.) Be careful to decrease the quotes amount of fish as soon as possible. Health problems can occur with a predominantly fish-based diet. Plus, you do not want to create a situation where your cat will only eat very fishy foods. Builder? Make sure that any refrigerated canned food is warmed up a bit. Essay? Cats prefer their food at ‘mouse body temperature’.

Try offering some cooked (or raw – whole meats, rinsed well or partially baked) chicken or meat baby food . One of the goals is to mwr resume builder get your cat used to eating food that does not crunch. He needs to get used to a different texture. Also, chicken is a great source of protein to point him in the proper direction toward a high protein, low carbohydrate diet. If he eats the chicken, he may head right into eating canned food. Then again….he may not. Try sprinkling some parmesan cheese on the canned food. Quotes In A Essay? Most cats love parmesan cheese and this trick has been very successful for me.

Try a product called FortiFlora – feline version. Builder? Most cats LOVE FortiFlora and this has recently become my favorite trick . This is a probiotic made by Purina but you are not going to use it for its probiotic properties. You are just going to use it as a flavor enhancer. The base ingredient in FortiFlora is animal digest – the very substance that makes dry food so very enticing to cats. The directions say to use 1 package/day – and this father you can use this much if you want to builder – but this amount is not usually necessary. You may only need.

1/4 of literary essay, a package – or much less – with part mixed into the food and part sprinkled on mwr resume, top of the food just as you would use salt and pepper on your own food. FortiFlora can be purchased online but an easier product to find is Temptations treats . I trap a lot of feral cats for spaying/neutering purposes and this is one of the best baits that I can use. These tasty treats can be found at most pet stores. Put a few in a baggie and crush them with a hammer. Use the crushed treats as described for the FortiFlora above. There are numerous freeze dried meat treats on the market that you can also sprinkle on top of the canned food. Halo’s Liv A Littles is a popular choice. Speaking of texture, a common question is single persuasive essays “can I just soak the mwr resume dry food in water?” I hedge more than just a bit at this question. Program Thesis? Dry food often has a very high bacterial content. Mold is also often found in builder dry food.

Both organisms flourish in moist environments. There have been many deaths of dogs and father cats secondary to builder eating mold mycotoxins, vomitoxins and custom essay com aflatoxins which often contaminate the grains found in mwr resume dry food. If you want to try the trick of wetting down the dry food to alter the texture, please leave it out for only 20-30 minutes then discard it. Try dipping some dry food pieces in the juice from the canned food. Some cats may refuse to eat it if the dry food even touches the canned food. But if he will eat it with a bit of canned juice on it, try the ‘chip and dip’ trick . Scoop up a tiny bit of canned food onto the piece of dry food. Put them on a separate plate from his small portion of dry food. Some cats will eat their small portion of dry and then go investigate the the constant gardener character essay dry food with a tiny bit of canned on it. Going one step further, try adding a few small pieces of the canned food to the small portion of dry food. Your cat may pick around the canned food but will get used to the smell – and texture – even if he does not eat any pieces of the new food. Crush some dry food and sprinkle it on the top of the canned food.

If you do not think it will upset your cat, try gently rubbing a bit of canned food or juice on mwr resume, the cat’s gums This may get him interested in the constant essay the taste and texture of the new food – but do it gently . You do not want to make this a stressful situation and create a food aversion. (This trick is commonly used to get just-weaned kittens used to eating canned food.) If you do not think it will upset your cat , use your finger to put a tiny bit of canned food or juice on his paw for him to mwr resume builder lick off. This has not worked for me in the two cats I have tried it on but it is another idea. Make sure you do it without stressing your cat. Cancer Image Processing? Again, you do not want to create a food aversion. If you have a multiple cat household, some cats like to eat alone in a less stressful environment, so you may need to take these cats into a separate, quiet room to think about the error of mwr resume, their ways – their carbohydrate/dry food addiction. Once in a quiet setting, away from the other cats, two of my cats would eat canned food/tuna ‘meatballs’ by hand. Single Persuasive Essays? Not from a bowl, mind you, but only from my hand. I’m not sure who was being trained. Builder? They did eventually start eating from a bowl after a few hand feedings. Try various brands and flavors of canned foods.

Try Friskies, 9-Lives, Fancy Feast, etc. Many cats prefer the cancer processing foods that are all by-products and turn their noses up when offered the by-product-free diets like Wellness, etc. Mwr Resume? You can worry about feeding a a different canned food later if you want to and you can always mix different types of food together. Custom Essay Com? The initial goal is just to get your cat used to eating canned food and not dry kibble. And remember what I said above. I would much rather see a cat eating a canned food like Friskies, 9-Lives, or Fancy Feast rather than any dry food.

Syringe-feeding is also another option but has to be done with finesse and patience so as to avoid a food aversion. If you choose to builder syringe-feed, your goal is not to feed him a full meal. Sometimes just syringing a 1-2 cc’s can ‘jump-start’ your cat into eating the canned food – maybe not the first time but it will at least get him to taste the essay com new food and experience a foreign texture. The best way to syringe-feed is to kneel on the floor with your cat between your legs so he is mwr resume builder facing the same way as you are. Then, using a small (1cc/TB) syringe, slip it in the side of his mouth and give about 1/2 cc at a time. He may spit it out but you are just trying to character essay get him used to the taste and texture, not stress him.

Few canned foods will make it through the tip of a syringe but human meat baby food works well for this trick. Mwr Resume Builder? You can also water it down a bit if you need to. If you want to use canned cat food instead of baby food, you will need to cut the quotes in a end off of the syringe so that the opening is as big as the barrel. Make sure that the tip is mwr resume builder smooth. If you do not want to cut the tip of the syringe off, you will need to puree a pate (versus chunks) type of food. I puree Wellness for literary essay this. I run it through the blender with a small amount of water ( 3-4 tablespoons/5.5 ounce can). Then I strain it to remove anything big enough to clog the mwr resume small tip of the syringe. Wellness is also a balanced diet – unlike human baby food. Even though human baby food is not a balanced diet for long-term use, it is a great tool that can be used to this to my father help transition a cat to a texture that he is mwr resume not used to.

I did have to take drastic measures for a foster cat named Molly. She was dangerously obese (20 lbs – double what she should have weighed) and would not eat canned food even after two weeks of syringe-feeding her. Quotes Literary Essay? She needed to go in for a dental so while she was under general anesthesia, I put in a feeding tube. This took the mwr resume builder stress off of both of us. Com? After two weeks of feeding her via the tube she started licking the canned food from my fingers then suddenly decided it was time to eat it. Builder? She then started to finally lose weight. Before the to my 7 lbs weight loss, she could barely walk, could not clean herself, and was quite possibly headed for mwr resume diabetes. Don’t give up. One of thesis detection image, my barn cats ate dry food for the first 12 years of builder, her life. She would never touch the canned food that the other cats ate.

Then, one day, she found her ‘inner carnivore’ and started eating canned food out of the blue! I was shocked. That was 4 years ago and i dedicate she has been on a 100% canned food diet since she made the switch. These are just a few tricks that you can try. Different tricks work on different cats. The key is to be patient. Remember, it took me three months to get my cats on 100% canned food. Most cats, however, will not take this long. Calvin and Andy are at mwr resume builder a much healthier weight since discontinuing all dry food. Homemade Diets and i dedicate thesis father Commercial Raw Meat Products. Many people have a strong negative reaction to builder the idea of feeding their cat raw meat but this is what a carnivore is designed to eat.

Keep in mind that there are no hibachis or stoves in uconn program thesis the wild. Also, wild cats do not always consume their prey in its entirety immediately upon killing it so the meat that they eat is not always from a fresh kill. Cats are very different from humans with respect to builder their susceptibility to ‘food poisoning’. Cats have a much shorter transit time through their intestinal tract than humans do (about 12 – 16 hours for essay help com the cat versus 35-55 hours for the human). This is a very important point because the more time bacteria spend in the intestinal tract, the more they multiply, eventually leading to intestinal upset. That said, not all sources of raw meat are created equal.

For instance, I will not feed pre-ground supermarket meat in a raw form. I buy only whole cuts of meat which can be thoroughly rinsed prior to grinding or they can be partially baked to mwr resume kill the surface bacteria. Please see the Safety section on my Making Cat Food page for more information. A properly handled and prepared raw or semi-cooked meat diet has much less bacteria in thesis detection using processing it than many commercial dry foods. Commercial pet foods may also contain high levels of mwr resume, mold toxins from grains which are never a danger in the constant character essay a grain-free raw meat diet. Please see the Dangers of Dry food section on my Making Cat Food page that discusses the common contamination issues associated with dry food. There are several ways to prepare a homemade diet which are discussed on my Making Cat Food page.

My cats have been thriving for mwr resume builder the past 11 years on quotes essay, a diet that I prepare using either ground whole carcass rabbit (fed raw) from a reputable farm, or whole meats (chicken thighs) from builder Whole Foods Market that I grind myself after partially baking. I add just a few supplements and water to complete the diet. Note that the picture of the blue containers below is an old one. I now use Ball or Kerr Wide Mouth pint-size canning/freezing jars because I am trying to get away from plastic. Robbie waiting for dinner Cat food headed for the freezer. People are often overwhelmed or intimidated by the idea of making their cat’s food but, in reality, it’s quite simple – as long as you follow a balanced recipe . I make cat food once every few months and freeze it.

Making your own cat food doesn’t mean slaving in the kitchen every day–trust me, if it did, I wouldn’t be doing it. A few hours in i dedicate this to my the kitchen 4-6 times a year is a very small price to pay for having complete control over what goes into your cat’s food bowl. If you are interested in preparing your own cat food, see Making Cat Food. Interestingly, the Making Cat Food page is the second most visited page on this website – second only to this home page. I am very pleasantly surprised to mwr resume builder see that so many people are willing to make their cat’s food. One common mistake people make when feeding a home-prepared diet is sex education thinking that a cat can live on meat alone – without bones as a source of calcium.

While meat must be the primary component of builder, a feline diet, there is to my father not enough calcium in mwr resume meat (without the bones) to essay provide a proper calcium-to-phosphorus ratio. Always remember that calcium is not an optional ‘supplement’ but is a very critical component of the diet. The bones must be ground with the meat (preferable), or bone meal must be added to the recipe. (I am a stickler for using fresh bone – not bone meal.) Another way to mwr resume feed a raw meat diet is to i dedicate this to my purchase ready-to-feed frozen commercial pet diets. Many people feed these diets with great results. Unfortunately, as is mwr resume also true with canned foods, these products vary a great deal with respect to quality and ingredients. Many of these products use only to my father, poultry backs and necks which have a very high bone:meat ratio and, subsequently, a very high mineral load . Some products also contain items such as vegetables in builder a much higher quantity than would be found in a cat’s natural diet. Plus, the the constant character vegetables in these diets are obviously not predigested as they would be if consumed with the mwr resume builder cat’s prey.

This is a very important point that many people seem to forget when deciding to feed vegetables to carnivores. Cats do not have a physiologic requirement for vegetables and actually lack the enzymes needed to break down this food source for efficient utilization. If you choose to feed a commercially prepared raw pet food, you must do some homework – including calling the company to see if they have had their food analyzed for in a things like phosphorus amount and the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio. The Ca:Phos should not be any higher than 1.8:1.0 and the overall phosphorus level should not be above. You should also look at the percentage of vegetables and fruits. Less than 5% is builder reasonable. Personally, I won’t feed commercial raw diets since there are too many unknowns in terms of bacterial content and mineral composition. I prefer to make my own. Congratulations if you have made it to this point in this article.

You must really care about custom essay help com, feeding your cat a healthy diet and are open to new ideas regarding their nutritional needs. Mwr Resume Builder? This paper has outlined what constitutes optimal nutrition for an obligate carnivore in a home environment as well as discussed some diseases that a poor diet can cause. The most common complaint that I hear from people is that their cat will NOT eat canned food and persuasive will ONLY eat dry food. My cats fell into this category which was not surprising since they had been on mwr resume builder, a 100 percent dry food diet their entire lives and uconn honors program thesis ranged in age from 2 -10 years at mwr resume builder the time of the transition to thesis cancer detection processing a healthier diet. It took me several months to convince them that they are carnivores and need meat – and not in a dry, overly processed form that also includes far too many carbohydrates and too little water.

It was a little rough, at times, since two of my cats get very crabby with their housemates when they are hungry. These boys were occasionally taken into a separate room during the transition period and fed some dry food because I do not like unrest in my home. Surprisingly, one of my most stubborn dry food addicts is now happily eating a homemade raw or partially baked meat/bones/organs diet that he actually likes better than the canned food. To be very honest, it does my heart good to see my little carnivores gnawing on mwr resume, meat – eating a diet that was meant for their species. Thesis Cancer Using? My cats are now eating a species-appropriate diet consisting of raw or partially baked meats (chicken, turkey, and rabbit), finely ground bones, and mwr resume organs using a properly balanced recipe. Some people feed part homemade and program thesis part commercial canned for variety and convenience. Mwr Resume? However, I prefer to quotes in a literary essay stick to only what I make for them and do not feed any commercial food.

I have not fed any dry food to my cats for 14 years and I can’t imagine ever feeding my cats this type of diet again. Cats do not need, or benefit from, any dry food in their diet. They also do not need access to builder food 24 hours a day although my cats are pretty much free-fed. Many people who are at work all day worry that their cat will suffer without access to food continuously. Thesis Using? A healthy cat will not perish if she does not have food available at all times.

However, I routinely left canned food out for up to 12 hours at a time for my foster cats and builder kittens when I was involved in essay com rescue work. Keep in mind that a cat’s gastrointestinal tract is much different from ours. If you are worried about leaving canned food out, you can always leave part of the food out at a normal (‘mouse body’) temperature and part of it frozen . The frozen portion will thaw within a few hours and will add some time to the freshness of the food. Mwr Resume? This is also a great trick if you need to be gone for this 24 hours or if your pet sitter can only come every 24 hours when you go on vacation. There is never any reason to revert back to builder putting out a bowl of dry food since cats should be checked on – including having their litter box cleaned – at single sex education persuasive essays least once every 24 hours anyway. Normally litter boxes should be cleaned at least twice-daily so if they are only going to be cleaned once-daily, you should consider adding another box or two….keeping mind that once there are more than 2-3 ‘items’ in a box, it is builder dirty and needs to be scooped in this thesis father order to be fair to your cat(s). Everyone’s lives are different and builder there are several ways to successfully feed your cat high quality nutrition. The goal of this paper is to arm you with knowledge regarding the special dietary needs of your cat so you can make an informed decision on how and single sex education persuasive essays what to feed while striking a balance that works for both of you.

PDF options for this paper: English: Short version – 4 pages (updated November 2013) English: Full version – 18 pages (older writing – August 2010) Spanish (short version) – 7 pages: Swedish (short version) – 13 pages: French – 28 pages: Chinese – 15 pages: Dutch (short version) – 4 pages: Italian (short version) – 5 pages:

Italian – 20 pages: Arabic (short version) – 11 pages: Turkish (short version) – 6 pages. Information on this site is for general informational purposes only and is provided without warranty or guarantee of any kind. This site is not intended to replace professional advice from your own veterinarian and nothing on this site is intended as a medical diagnosis or treatment.

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