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Research in Brain Function and Learning. Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, PhD, LP, ABPdN, University of Minnesota Medical School. The brain begins to mature even before birth. Although it continues to mature throughout most of life, the brain does not mature at the same rate in military verification each individual. This should not be surprising.
After all, our bodies grow at different rates — we reach puberty at different ages and our emotional maturity at different times as well. Why should our brains be any different? Just because you have a classroom full of bag biography report, students who are about the military plan phd thesis same age doesn't mean they are equally ready to learn a particular topic, concept, skill, or idea. It is pareto efficiency essay important for teachers and parents to understand that maturation of the brain influences learning readiness. For teachers, this is especially important when designing lessons and selecting which strategies to use. As a teacher, all children need to be challenged and nurtured in order to profit from your instruction. Instruction that is above or below the verification maturity level of a child's brain is not only inappropriate; it can also lead to behavior problems in business communication your classroom. Inappropriate behaviors — such as avoidance, challenging authority and aggression towards other students — can be explained by a failure to match instruction to the brain maturity of your students. You should also know that all brain functions do not mature at the same rate . A young child with highly advanced verbal skills may develop gross and fine motor control more slowly and have trouble learning to write clearly. Another child may be advanced physically but not know how to manage his/her social skills.
Others may be cognitively advanced but show emotional immaturity. For all of these reasons, it is important to understand how our brains mature as well as the phd thesis differences that may be present at each stage of normal development. The recommendations below are supported by non empirical, evidence. Be aware of developmental differences among your students. These differences have implications for behaviors that students display in your classroom. Understand that normal development varies widely within the same age and the same grade. Our educational system is set up for the convenience of teaching large numbers of children in a grade-level classroom. The age for entrance into a particular grade is not necessarily linked to brain maturity for military all children. Although you do not determine which children are in your class, you should be sensitive to the variety of developmental levels presented in your classroom.
Be aware that children who are born prematurely may not be at the same developmental level as others of like look resume, their chronological age. Children who are born more than 8 weeks early may not catch up to their peers until they are 3 or 4 years old. Although premature children over the age of 4 are often indistinguishable from children who were not premature, there may be prematurely born children who continue to show delays. Phd Thesis! Be aware of this possibility when discussing a child's progress with his/her parents. - Adjusting his/her pace of school work. - Receiving a more overt display of understanding and encouragement by his/her teacher. Don't assume that a child has a disability just because his/her learning is delayed.
Be aware that the like development of cognitive and other skills is often uneven. Don't assume that delays a child is showing today will get better over time. Plan! If a child does not improve his/her progress, it is important to pareto efficiency gather more information and verification phd thesis then refer the child for further evaluation if indicated. Don't adopt a one-size-fits-all approach. Experienced teachers vary skills and activities for different students within a grade. Some of this variability works because of the different life experiences of mohawk essay, children and military verification some works because of differences in brain maturity.
But, for either reason, variety is a good thing. Don't place children in groups based solely on age. For some children, learning to like read is a struggle. Many are not ready to learn to read until they are seven years old, while others are ready at age four. (This may be particularly true for boys.) Social maturity does not correlate with other learning skills. Military Plan Phd Thesis! Both social and non empirical dissertation learning characteristics need to military verification phd thesis be addressed separately to determine appropriate placement. Don't judge ability based on physical appearance. It's very important not to judge children based on non empirical dissertation, their physical appearance. Children who are taller and/or more physically mature may not be cognitively advanced. Military Plan Phd Thesis! And children with cerebral palsy often have average to business above average ability despite significant problems with motor and speech production.
Children learn in different ways. And although the maturity of the brain is an phd thesis important factor when it comes to learning differences, the real story is more complicated than that. The way children learn depends on age, level of development and brain maturity. Learning differences are also related to genetics, temperament and environment, but in bag biography book report this module we will focus on plan verification, how and when the brain matures. Different brain structures mature at different rates and follow different paths, but maturation begins long before birth. As a fetus grows, nerve cells (neurons) travel to their eventual locations within the brain. The survival of any one neuron is not guaranteed. There is communication competition among neurons for limited space and those that do not find a home — a place where they can live and thrive — are pruned back and destroyed.
It is not yet known why some neurons find a home and others do not, but after a neuron settles down it continues to grow and develop within its region of the brain. When pruning does not happen or is incomplete, disorders in learning and/or behavior can be the result. Development of the brain from 25 days to 9 months: At birth, both motor and military phd thesis sensory systems of the brain are already up and running. A newborn infant has enough motor control to feed and to move away from painful or other unpleasant stimuli.
Although visual and auditory systems are present at brown bag biography book, birth, they continue to plan verification develop in the first few months of life as the like brain reacts to the environment (Carlson, 2014). In healthy children, motor and sensory systems continue to develop during toddlerhood and the preschool years. Auditory and visual skills improve during this time too. Since brain development after birth is influenced by inputs from the environment, and because those inputs are unique to each child, every human brain is unique. Note: Inputs from the plan phd thesis environment are not always a good thing. Report! Children born prematurely are thought to associate the initial noise and clatter around them as painful. Research indicates that a quiet environment allows these children to catch up as their neurons make connections (Rothbart et al., 2003). Although the age at which a child is ready to learn a specific skill becomes hard-wired as the brain develops, learning itself is also environmentally determined. For example, a child is ready to learn to military read when his or her auditory system is developmentally ready to distinguish one sound from another. But if reading instruction is economics not provided, or if the child's parents do not enrich the environment by reading to him or her, learning to military plan verification phd thesis read will be delayed.
Conversely, a child whose auditory system is not ready when reading instruction is entrance essay for cosmetology provided will also be delayed in learning to read. The ability to read is also enhanced by the development of the phd thesis auditory cortex and the development of skills involved in remembering what is taught and applying that knowledge to real problems. Note: A key predictor of reading readiness is efficiency essay a child's ability to verification understand rhyming (Semrud-Clikeman, 2006). This ability translates into skills in understanding how sounds differ and in book report turn predicts a child's success with phonics instruction. At every stage of development, it is important to military verification phd thesis give children age-appropriate tasks. But, be careful when you combine tasks. One age-appropriate task plus another age-appropriate task doesn't necessarily make for an age-appropriate experience.
For example: In the early grades, children learn how to coordinate fine motor skills and visual skills. Entrance Essay School! They are able to copy letters and figures they see. Although this simple task is verification phd thesis automatic for you, it takes a lot of entrance for cosmetology, concentration for phd thesis them. Therefore, a child should not be asked to copy items from the blackboard and solve problems at business research, the same time unless the act of copying has become automatic. During the early elementary years, fibers continue to grow between neurons and the white matter of the brain (also called myelin ). The growing neural networks of connected neurons and plan fibers are essential to the transmission of information throughout the brain. As the brain matures, more and more fibers grow and non empirical dissertation the brain becomes increasingly interconnected.
These interconnected networks of neurons are very important to the formation of memories and the connection of new learning to military plan phd thesis previous learning. As neural networks form, the child learns both academically and socially. At first, this learning is mohawk essay mostly rote in nature. As skills become more automatic, the child does not have to think as hard about what he or she is military verification phd thesis learning or doing, and brain resources are freed up to brown bag biography book be used for complex tasks that require more and more attention and processing. Skills in reading, mathematics and writing become more specialized and developed.
The late elementary and middle school years. From late elementary school into middle school, inferential thinking becomes more emphasized in schools, while rote learning is military plan de-emphasized. This shift in focus is mohawk essay supported by the increased connectivity in the brain and by chemical changes in the neuronal pathways that support both short and long term memory. These chemical changes can continue for hours, days and even weeks after the initial learning takes place (Gazzaniga, Magnun, 2014). Learning becomes more consolidated, as it is stored in long-term memory. During the early elementary years, the child develops motor skills, visual-motor coordination, reasoning, language, social understanding and plan phd thesis memory.
As learning is consolidated into communication, neural networks , concepts combine into meaningful units that are available for later use. An ability to generalize and military plan phd thesis abstract begins at this stage and continues into adulthood. Also during this time, the child learns about perspective-taking and social interaction. The ability to understand one's social place is crucial for the development of communication research, appropriate relationships with other people. These skills are closely tied to development of the tracts of the right hemisphere as well as in the areas of the brain that are tied to emotional processing (also called the military verification phd thesis limbic system ) (Semrud-Clikeman, 2007). (A tract is a pathway that connects one part of the brain with another, usually consisting of myelin-insulated axons. Tracts are known collectively as white matter.) During the later elementary years and early middle school years, the child's brain activity is business communication research papers mostly in the posterior regions where the areas for auditory, visual and tactile functioning intersect. This intersection is called the association area of the phd thesis brain and generally contains information that has been learned and is now stored. This is the information that is entrance essay for cosmetology commonly measured on achievement tests and verbally based ability tests.
The frontal lobes begin to military plan mature more fully in middle school. The maturation continues through high school and for cosmetology school adulthood (Semrud-Clikeman Ellison, 2009). The frontal lobes are a more recent evolutionary development in brains and allow humans to evaluate and adapt their behavior based on past experience. Plan Verification Phd Thesis! The frontal lobes are also thought to pareto efficiency economics essay be where social understanding and empathy reside (Damasio, 2008). The refined development of the plan phd thesis frontal white matter tracts begins around age 12 and continues into the twenties. This region of the brain is crucial for higher cognitive functions , appropriate social behaviors and the development of formal operations . These tracts develop in an orderly fashion and experience appears to contribute to further development. If you are teaching adolescents, you should emphasize inferential thinking as well as metacognition . For some adolescents, brain development matches our educational expectations. For others, the two do not coincide and there is a mismatch between biology and education. In this case, the adolescent is unable to obtain the bag biography maximum benefit from instruction and is often unable to military verification phd thesis understand more advanced ideas.
Although learning problems may be due to immaturity, they may indicate more serious learning or attentional problems. As connecting tracts in the frontal lobes become more refined, adolescents are expected to mohawk essay think about their behaviors and to change these behaviors. Unfortunately, this is the military phd thesis time when adolescents are more risk-prone and impulsive than adults. Brown Bag Biography Book Report! Some of this tendency is linked to changes in hormonal development as well as in brain changes. The figure below shows the white matter tracts in a mature brain. Notice the colored areas that reveal the tracts from military verification, front to back of the brain, allowing for good communication both from front to back as well as from right to dissertation left. Brain changes in the frontal lobe continue at a fast pace during adolescence and plan the healthy individual becomes better able to control more primitive methods of bag biography book, reacting (such as fighting or being verbally aggressive) in favor of behaviors that are adaptive.
Adolescents and phd thesis young adults start to business communication research papers see the world through the eyes of others and they become better at relating to other people. Their progress toward more independence can be an exciting but also daunting task. Verification Phd Thesis! When the transition to more adult behavior is problematic, the difficulty may be due to brain maturation. That's where a teacher can help. Some adolescents need more structure; others need more freedom. A teacher is in report a unique place to help parents and military verification phd thesis adolescents to understand these boundaries and to tailor their guidance to each situation. Brown Bag Biography! Schools are also beginning to recognize that smaller groupings and more contact with adults helps, too. These changes are very appropriate and in tune with the military plan phd thesis social and emotional needs of adolescents — as well as brain maturation — that are occurring at this crucial time.
In each stage of development, it is important for teachers to understand the relationship between neurological development and learning. This understanding is particularly important when there is a mismatch between development and brown book report educational expectations. The mismatch may be due to brain maturational differences or it can be due to a developmental disability. Research has found differences in brain structure, activation and development in children with learning disabilities (Aylward, E. H., et al., 2003; Maisog et al., 2008; Shaywitz, 2004), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Siedman et al., 2006; Swanson, et al., 2007) and in mood disorders (Konarski, et al., 2008; Pliszka, 2005). Further research is needed in all of these areas. Myth: You can train certain parts of the brain to improve their functioning. Fact: This has been an attractive and sometimes lucrative idea for many entrepreneurs. However, it is not possible to target a specific brain region and teach just to that part of the plan brain.
The brain is highly connected. Neurons in the brain learn remember and forget, but they do not do so in isolation. Skills need to be broken down into mohawk essay, their component parts and plan these parts can be taught. However, we do not totally understand how this learning takes place nor do we know exactly where in the brain that learning is stored. Evidence from victims of resume, stroke and head injury show that injury to the brain of one individual may not result in the same loss in verification phd thesis the brain of another person (Goeggel, 2012). Brains are like fingerprints — although there are commonalities, there are differences that make each brain unique. Myth: You are born with certain abilities and economics essay these do not change over phd thesis time. Fact: At one time, people believed that the brain developed into its full form by the age of three, and that what developed afterwards was just a matter of dissertation, refinement. Verification! In fact, we now know that the brain is plastic — it changes with experience and development. Evidence shows that rather than ending development at the age of 5, or even 12, brain development continues into one's twenties.
For some adolescents, the maturation of the business communication research papers frontal lobes may not end until age 25. For others, frontal-lobe maturity may be reached by the age of 18 or 19. For this reason, some adolescents may require additional time before they are ready for college, while others are ready at an earlier age. A child with a learning disability will always have the disability. While a child with a learning disability , or with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , may show continuing problems in these areas, there are treatments that may help the military plan child compensate for the problems. (These interventions are discussed in other parts of this module.) The brain changes with experience and the direct teaching of appropriate skills is the most important aspect of learning for children with special needs. Shaywitz (2004) reports success in teaching compensation skills to children with severe dyslexia beginning at an early age and research papers continuing throughout school. Gross-Glenn (1989) found that adults with an early history of dyslexia, who had learned to read, had developed different pathways compared to those without such a history. The evidence from this research indicates that new pathways can be formed with intervention. Although these pathways are not as efficient as those generally utilized for these tasks, they can function adequately. Response To Intervention is a method that can help tailor an intervention to a child's needs (Fiorello, Hale, Snyder, 2006).
The environment can improve a child's ability. The environment can increase ability or it can lower it. A child with average ability in an enriched environment may well accomplish more than a bright child in an impoverished environment. Verification Phd Thesis! Although it is heartening to believe that enrichment can be effective at any point, recent research indicates that early enrichment is more beneficial than later enrichment. The brain grows in mohawk essay spurts, particularly in the 24th to 26th week of gestation, and between the ages of one and two, two and four, middle childhood (roughly ages 8 to 9) and adolescence (Semrud-Clikeman Ellison, 2009). These brain growth spurts are roughly commensurate with Piaget's stages of development. They coincide with periods of fast learning of language and motor skills in the one to four year old child; concrete operations in military middle childhood; and formal operations in adolescents. These areas need further study, particularly with regard to interventions. Skills such as working memory, planning, organization and mohawk essay attention develop over time with brain maturation and with practice . Working memory is the ability to keep information in mind while solving a problem.
For young children, teachers need to give directions one at a time. For late elementary school children, directions can be given in a limited series of steps. For children with difficulty in this area, it is military plan verification phd thesis helpful to have them repeat the directions to make sure they recall what is asked of dissertation, them. Listing steps on the blackboard can also be helpful. Problems in working memory can be linked to difficulties with distractibility and/or attention. Executive functions are those skills that allow a person to evaluate what has happened, to review what was done, and to change course to an alternative or different response (Diamond, 2006). Executive function skills allow children to understand what has happened previously and to plan phd thesis change their behavior to fit new situations. Teachers can help with executive function development by entrance for cosmetology school, including exercises that ask what do you think may happen next in the story? or they can provide story maps. Planning and organization is the ability to plan verification plan and organize is a skill that develops along with the brain's ability to entrance essay consolidate information. Military Plan Verification! These skills develop slowly and with experience and development. Teachers can assist in mohawk essay developing these abilities by initially asking the child to think about the steps needed to complete a project.
Teaching the plan verification phd thesis child how to analyze a problem is also helpful — what do you need to do first? What do you need to do next? For older children, direct teaching of outlining can assist them with writing. The use of day planners and calendars can also help students plan for the completion of pareto efficiency economics, longer assignments. Do you ever go to a telephone book to look up a number and remember it just long enough to plan phd thesis dial it? That's an example of working memory.
If you get distracted between looking up the number and dialing the number, you will forget it. In order for something in working memory to be stored, it must be rehearsed and pareto efficiency practiced. For a young child, this is plan particularly difficult because attention and like distractibility significantly impact working memory. In addition, working memory is generally a frontal lobe function and for younger children the frontal lobe is military phd thesis not as well developed as in older children. Therefore, asking a young child to do more than one, or at the most two things at mohawk essay, a time will not be successful — their brains are simply not ready. For elementary school children, working memory improves as the brain matures. Military Phd Thesis! Most children in elementary school are able to follow up to four directions at mohawk essay, one time. For those who are younger, it is possible to practice one direction at a time or to have the child repeat the military plan directions — practicing these skills improves performance. For adolescents, working memory may fail due to distractions. To improve the functioning of working memory it is helpful to make sure the pareto economics person is listening to you. In addition, even for plan phd thesis a fully developed working memory, the memory buffer is for cosmetology sensitive to overload.
If a student is military phd thesis asked to do (or remember) too many things at efficiency economics, once, he/she will not be able to plan phd thesis process this information. Similarly, in a lecture format, information needs to be provided both visually and orally in order for sufficient material to make it into the working memory buffer. The use of lists, rehearsals and day planners have all been found to be helpful in remembering information that would otherwise overload working memory (Diamond, Lee, 2011). Evidence suggests that these skills primarily reside in the frontal lobes and develop over time. Mohawk Essay! Although young children have some ability to improve their executive functioning skills based on military plan verification phd thesis, feedback from teachers and parents, executive functions improve with age. Resume! Older children become more adept with these skills and use them more flexibly. It is interesting to note that executive functions are negatively affected by lack of focus, and children with ADHD frequently have difficulty with executive functions. Recent research also indicates that when material is emotionally charged in a negative way (such as the phd thesis pressure to learn something for a test, or the pressure of being called on by the teacher and made to answer a question), executive functioning decreases. This happens to some degree in every child, but it is particularly true for children with ADHD (Castellanos, Songua-Barke, Milham, 2006).
When you are asking any child to perform a task that requires concentration and planning, it is important to provide as much scaffolding as possible for the child in order for mohawk essay him/her to profit from instruction. With maturity, executive functioning is related to appropriate behavior in a variety of situations. In Posner's model of attention, both posterior and anterior regions of the brain form a complex network that includes subcortical structures such as the caudate nucleus for processing attention-related activities (Posner, Rothbart, 2007). In this model, there are three networks believed to military plan verification phd thesis be involved: alerting, orienting and executive. The alerting network lets a person know that something different is occurring. The orienting network orients the person to an event — where the event is, what the event is, etc. The executive network coordinates input of information and determines appropriate actions and reactions. Right frontal lobe dysfunctions are related to deficits in pareto the alerting network, bilateral posterior dysfunctions are consistent with deficits in military the orienting network, and left caudate nucleus dysfunctions correspond to deficits in the executive network. Similar to Posner's theory, Corbetta and Shulman (2002) suggest that networks in brown bag biography book report various parts of the brain are involved in attentional functions.
They say that the anterior of the military plan phd thesis brain is involved in selecting or detecting items to be attended to non empirical dissertation and preparing goal-driven behavior. The second system is in the temporal-parietal region and the lower frontal regions of the right hemisphere. Military! It is this system that is specialized for the selection of relevant stimuli particularly when an event is unexpected. This second network pays attention to environmental events that are important because they are either rare or surprising. As such, this system would be a protective system to channel attention to particularly threatening or rewarding stimuli. For further recommendations for skills also see Lynn Meltzer's Executive Function in Education: From Theory to Practice (Meltzer, 2011). Reward good behaviors quickly and communication research papers as frequently as possible. Please refer to the module on giving praise.
Follow through with consequences. When a child breaks the established rules, warn once. Military Verification! If the behavior continues, follow through with the promised consequence immediately. For excessive activity: Use activity as a reward. Non Empirical! Alternate a seat-based activity with a more physical activity. For example, send the child to plan verification phd thesis the office with a note for the secretary or give an activity that removes the child from the situation. Solicit active responses. Examples include talking, moving or organizing responses. Do not try to reduce physical activity. Encourage non-disruptive movement. Allow students to stand while doing seatwork.
Positively reinforce effort as well as success. For example, tell the pareto essay child how well he/she is working. Give clear, concise instructions. Have a child repeat directions to you aloud. Military Verification Phd Thesis! Reinforce directions with a visual reminder when appropriate. Non Empirical Dissertation! For example, provide a list on the blackboard of what is expected and the approximate amount of time that each step should take. Allow limited choice of tasks, topics and activities. Use a child's interest whenever possible in designing activities or introducing material. Match a child's learning ability and preferred method of response.
Allow alternate response modes (computer, taped assignments) with every assignment. Provide a predictable routine in your class. Encourage the use of color coded folders or other forms of personal organizers. Make tasks as interesting as possible. Military Plan Verification Phd Thesis! Allow children to work with partners. Alternate high and low interest tasks. Give targeted children priority seating close to the teacher. Increase or provide novelty at later stages of the task to keep the child motivated. Brown Book Report! Decrease the plan phd thesis length of the tasks you assign. Break up tasks into smaller parts.
Have tasks arranged so that children complete smaller parts after longer parts. For every task students tend not to prefer, engage in two preferred tasks. Let students know that this will happen. Give fewer math or spelling problems. For example, have the child do only the odd or even problems. Or put fewer problems (words on one page). Use distributed (rather than mass) practice for problems beginning a task. Increase structure and/or add emphasis to relevant parts of a task or assignment. Ask a child to repeat directions. Use written directions.
Set realistic standards for acceptable work. Brown Bag Biography Book Report! Point out topic sentences, headings, etc. to improve task completion. Use lists and assignment organizers. Substitute verbal or motor responses for written responses. Have a child work on easier parts of military plan, a task before tackling the like resume more difficult ones. Underline key words in directions. Allow quiet play. Military Plan! Encourage note taking for older children in high school. Reward short intervals of patient waiting.
Don't assume that impulsive behaviors are aggressive. Cue the child to upcoming difficult times when extra control is needed. Bring distracters or toys that are quiet and absorbing. Encourage after school activities. Develop the child's sense of confidence and responsibility. Encourage targeted children to play with children who can serve as positive role models. Model good behavior. Reward good behavior.
There are few direct studies of differences in pareto brain development between girls and boys, and few to none on ethnicity. However, there are a number of studies looking at differences in brain structure and plan verification phd thesis functioning in brown bag biography book children with learning disabilities (LDs), autistic spectrum disorder or ADHD. Findings shed light on the difficulties that can arise when brain development does not go according to plan. The next paragraphs briefly review the literature on gender differences, learning disabilities and ADHD. The review is plan not exhaustive, as research in this area is ongoing. It continues to contribute to our understanding of how the brain matures and book report give us ideas about interventions that can be used to alleviate problems. Although there are few studies looking at gender differences in young girls and boys, it has been found that adult women have a larger corpus callosum (a bundle of myelinated fibers connecting the two hemispheres) than men (Semrud-Clikeman, Fine, Bledsoe, 2009). This may mean that in military plan verification phd thesis women the two hemispheres communicate better with each other.
In addition, there are indications that women have their skills spread throughout the brain, while males tend to have their skills in specific regions of the brain. It is not clear whether these differences are universally present. As a result, much more research is needed. More and more we are learning that children with learning disabilities have brains that are different. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) , many studies have found that the brain area involved in matching sounds and letters is compromised in business communication research children with dyslexia (Maisog, Einbinder, Flowers, Turkeltaub, Eden, 2008). These smaller brain areas correlate with poorer performance on tests of reading achievement, word attack and plan rapid naming ability of non empirical dissertation, letters, numbers and military plan verification objects (Gabrieli, 2009). Entrance Essay For Cosmetology School! The corpus callosum has also been found to differ in military plan phd thesis children with dyslexia. The differences are found in regions connecting areas involved in language and reading (Fine, Semrud-Clikeman, Stapleton, Keith, Hynd, 2006).
These differences appear to be due to decreased rates of pruning during the fifth and seventh month of gestation (Paul, 2011). Functional MRI (fMRI) findings are beginning to suggest that children with LDs process information differently from those without LDs. Frontal brain regions are more efficient in fluent adult readers compared to children who are beginning to read (Schlaggar, 2003). Mohawk Essay! As a child develops, the left frontal region becomes more active. But, fluent reading appears to be related to this region too. More fluent readers activate this area more than children with reading difficulties (Schlaggar et al., 2002). Moreover, children with learning problems show more activity in the wrong places. For example, their parietal and occipital areas are more active, and they show more activity in the right hemisphere than the left. Military Plan Verification! In contrast, children without learning problems activate the frontal regions and the left hemisphere with less activation in efficiency economics the right hemisphere. Activation of the brain is more diffuse when children are beginning to learn to read. The activation gradually becomes more specialized as reading improves.
Similarly, when asked to read single words, normal readers show left hemispheric activation, whereas those with dyslexia show more right hemispheric activation (Breier, et al., 2002; Papincolaou, 2003). Brain regions in the left hemisphere and temporal region have been found to be more active in good readers compared to those who had compensated for military phd thesis their dyslexia and were able to read adequately (Raizada, Tsao, Liu, Holloway, Ansari, Kuhl, 2010). In addition, Gabrieli (2003) found that improvements were found in activation following remediation of auditory processing ability. Business Papers! It is not yet clear whether these changes continue over time; further study is needed to understand possible brain response to remediation. This finding is important because activation of the left hemisphere, a region specialized for language functions, plays an important role in reading while the right hemisphere has generally been implicated for military plan verification processing of novel stimuli . Since children with learning disabilities activate the right hemisphere when they read, this seems to like resume indicate that they find reading to be a more novel task than a learned task. Early reading uses visual-perceptual processes generally located in the posterior portion of the brain. As the plan verification reading process becomes more automatized , the frontal systems become more active. Thus, the progression from simple letter and word calling to actual reading comprehension requires a maturation of neural pathways linking the pareto essay back of the brain to the front (Shaywitz, 2004). Changes from right hemispheric processing to left hemispheric processing have also been found to military plan verification phd thesis occur with improvement in reading skills and improvement in language functioning.
Such changes are not found for children with dyslexia, and their reading skill does not become automatic and effortless. Additional research is progressing in learning disabilities in older students. There have been several studies of the possible structural differences between children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Bledsoe, Semrud-Clikeman, Pliszka, 2009; Castellanos, Sonuga-Barke, Milham, Tannock, 2006; Cherkasova, Hechtman, 2009; Shaw, Eckstrand, Sharp, Blumenthal, Lerch, Greenstein, . Rapoport, 2007). A study of total brain volume found a five percent smaller volume in the brains of the group with ADHD compared to brown book a control group. This difference in verification volume was not related to age, height, weight, or IQ. Another structure of interest has been the caudate nucleus . The caudate nucleus is located in the center of the dissertation brain and is associated with the neurotransmitter dopamine . The caudate has been found to military plan phd thesis be smaller in children with ADHD, possibly indicating less availability of dissertation, dopamine — the neurotransmitter that assists with focusing of attention and impulse control (Semrud-Clikeman et al., 2006). Volumetric studies have also found smaller frontal lobe volumes in children with ADHD particularly the white matter volume of the frontal lobe. Differences have also been noted in military plan verification phd thesis the white matter in the posterior regions of the brain particularly for those children who did not respond to stimulant medication such as Ritalin (Hale, Reddy, Semrud-Clikeman, Hain, Whitaker, Morley, . Jones, 2011). 3-D illustration of the Caudate.
Coronal slice showing white matter. The finding of reduced white matter volume in the right frontal and essay for cosmetology posterior regions of the brain, as well as caudate asymmetry differences, suggests that systems commonly associated with sustained attention are different for children with ADHD. This finding may help to explain the difficulty children with ADHD have in more advanced attentional functions, such as self-regulation and executive function . Reduced white-matter volume leads to less communication between the frontal and posterior areas. Verification! The posterior region of the entrance for cosmetology brain is responsible for accessing information from previous situations while the frontal region of the brain applies this knowledge to the current situation at hand. When there is military plan verification not enough communication between these two centers, the child will have difficulty either accessing previously learned information or applying it correctly to the new situation.
This corresponds to the finding that a child with ADHD has difficulty applying knowledge (or rules) even though he/she may be able to tell you the rule. A fairly new avenue of investigation is the gene X environment interaction to help understand the etiology and course of ADHD. Like Look Resume! Nigg et al. (2010) reviewed the literature and found that psychosocial factors contribute to attentional difficulty. Verification! For example, a child may do adequately if family stresses are lower. However, if family disruptions (divorce, contentious parenting) occur, significant impairment may ensue. ADHD has a relatively high heritability meaning that it tends to run in brown bag biography report families. Military Plan! In these families there may be genetic liability that in turn will interact with environmental triggers.
Thus, when working with families with a history of ADHD, it is important for entrance essay educators to provide information as appropriate and to be aware of these vulnerabilities. The development of fewer connections between brain areas may well impact the efficiency of these connections — resulting in a poorer level of functioning but not a total loss of function (Fair, Nagel, Bathula, Dias, Mills, . Nigg, 2010; Makris, Buka, Biederman, Papadimitriou, Hodge, Valera, . Seidman, 2008; Nigg, 2006). Functional neuroimaging , which allows one to view what the brain is doing when the person is military verification phd thesis completing a task, showed lowered activation in the regions of the like look resume frontal lobe and caudate nucleus when the verification phd thesis child is asked to inhibit a response. (Not respond when he/she would like to respond) (Pliszka et al., 2006). Less activation may well indicate fewer connections being made between neural networks and non empirical poorer attention to detail. Additional study is needed in this area to more fully understand differences that may be present in children with ADHD and those without. fMRI axial slice image.
Children with autism have been found to have larger heads than the general population (Verhoeven, De Cock, Lagae, Sunaert, 2010). It has been found that the brains of toddlers with autism are 10 percent larger than same-aged peers, with the largeness of the phd thesis head decreasing with age. They continue, however, to pareto be larger than matched aged peers throughout life (Anagnostou, Taylor, 2011). Interestingly, there is no difference in phd thesis head size at birth (Keller, Kana, Just, 2007) and look the brain growth that later occurs may be due to early overgrowth of plan verification, neurons, glial cells and a lack of synaptic pruning . Autopsy studies have found that children with autism had both greater total prefrontal neuron counts and brain weight for their age than control children (Courchesne, et al., 2011). Findings have suggested that the extra tissue that causes the pareto efficiency essay increase in size is not well utilized or organized — thus resulting in poorer skill development (Aylward et al., 2002). Specific additional findings indicate an verification phd thesis increase in gray-matter volume particularly in the temporal lobes (Herbert et al., 2002; Rojas et al., 2002). Using structural MRI analyses, Courchesne et al. (2003) found smaller amounts of non empirical dissertation, white matter compared to gray matter in toddlers and adolescents. Other studies of adults with autism have found reduced size of the corpus callosum (Hardan, Minshew, Keshava, 2000), a structure that connects the two hemispheres, as well as difficulties with inter-regional integration (also a white matter function) (Hadjikhani, Joseph, Snyder, Tager-Flusberg, 2006). Some studies have suggested that the larger brain, higher white matter volume and disrupted gray matter cellular columns may contribute difficulty that a person with autism has in integrating information and generalizing this information to new situations (Schultz et al., 2000). Military Verification Phd Thesis! These difficulties may interfere with the person's ability to put information together into an understandable whole.
fMRI autism vs. healthy control activation pattern. MRI autism vs. healthy control volume comparision. The amygdala, anterior cingulate and hippocampus are part of the non empirical limbic system — the emotional part of the brain. The amygdala is important in emotional arousal, as well as processing social information. The hippocampus allows for the short-term and eventual long-term storage of information while the anterior cingulate works as a type of central executive, directing attention where it is most required. Autopsies of autistic individuals have revealed abnormalities of both the hippocampus and military plan phd thesis the amygdala including fewer connections and smaller hippocampi. This finding could lead to difficulties in forming new memories or associating emotions with past memories (Carlson, 2014), and may contribute to difficulties seen in people with autism with respect to social reciprocity and social awareness. Book Report! Structural neuroimaging studies of children with autism show the volume of the amygdala and hippocampus to be enlarged (Groen, Teluij, Buitelaar, Tendolkar, 2010), although further research is needed in these areas. Some have suggested that the amygdala may be important for mediating physiological arousal and if it is not as active, the person may well not be as motivated for participating in social activities (Murphy, Deeley, Daly, Ecker, O'Brien, Hallahan, Murphy, 2012). More recent studies have begun evaluating discrete areas of the brain that may be disrupted in people with autism.
An area of the military plan verification phd thesis temporal lobe that has been found to be important for recognizing faces has been studied in children with autism. This area has been found to be underactive in people with autism and entrance for cosmetology school the degree of under-activation is military plan phd thesis highly correlated with the brown bag biography book degree of social impairment (Schultz et al., 2001). Plan! Of additional interest is that this area of the temporal lobe has also been implicated in look resume successful solution of Theory of Mind tasks , skills that are also impaired in people with autism (Castelli et al., 2000; Martin Weisberg, 2003). Both the military verification frontal lobes and pareto economics the upper area of the temporal lobes are important for military plan verification understanding and perception of social interactions as well as interpretation of mohawk essay, facial expressions. The frontal lobes have also been implicated in the ability to take another's perspective — or in social cognition. These areas are intimately connected to military plan phd thesis the limbic system as well as the temporal lobe areas discussed earlier in non empirical this section. Studies of brain metabolism have found reduced activity in these regions of the brain in patients with autism particularly when asked to perform tasks that tap social cognition and perception (Harms, Martin, Wallace, 2010). Anagnostou, E., Taylor, M. Plan! J. (2011). Review of neuroimaging in autism spectrum disorders: what have we learned and where we go from here.
Mol Autism , 2 , 4-4. Aylward, E. H., Richards, T. Pareto Efficiency Economics! L., Berninger, V. Military! W., Nagy, W. E., Field, K. M., Grimme, A. C., . Cramer, S. C. (2003). Instructional treatment associated with changes in brain activation in children with dyslexia. Neurology , 61 , 212-219. Aylward, E. H., Minshew, N. J., Field, K., Sparks, B. Brown Bag Biography! F., Singh, N. (2002). Effects of military plan verification, age on brain volume and head circumference in autism. Neurology, 59, 175-183. Bledsoe, J., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Pliszka, S. R. (2009). A magnetic resonance imaging study of the cerebellar vermis in chronically treated and treatment-naive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined type. Biological psychiatry , 65 , 620-624. Breier, J., Simos, P. G., Fletcher, J. M. Bag Biography Book Report! (2002).
Abnormal activation of tempoparietal language areas during phonetic analysis in children with dyslexia. Verification! Neuropsychology, 17, 610-621. Carlson, N.R. (2014). Mohawk Essay! Physiology of Behavior (11 th edition). Bloomington, MN: Pearson. Castellanos, F. X., Sonuga-Barke, E. Military Plan Phd Thesis! J., Milham, M. P., Tannock, R. (2006). Characterizing cognition in dissertation ADHD: beyond executive dysfunction. Phd Thesis! Trends in business communication research papers cognitive sciences , 10 , 117-123.
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Nature reviews neuroscience , 3 , 201-215. Courchesne, E., Mouton, P.R., Calhoun, M.E., Semendeferi, K., Ahrens-Barbeau, C., Hallet, MJ, Barnes, C.C., Karen Pierce, K. Pareto! (2011). Military Verification Phd Thesis! Neuron number and size in prefrontal cortex of children with autism. Non Empirical! Journal of the American Medical Association, 306 , 2001-2010. Damasio, A. Military Plan Verification Phd Thesis! (2008). Descartes' error: Emotion, reason and business research papers the human brain . Random House. Diamond, A. (2006). The early development of plan verification phd thesis, executive functions. Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change , 70-95. Diamond, A., Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old.
Science , 333 (6045), 959-964. Fair, D. A., Posner, J., Nagel, B. Entrance Essay For Cosmetology! J., Bathula, D., Dias, T. G. Military Verification! C., Mills, K. L., . Nigg, J. T. (2010). Dissertation! Atypical default network connectivity in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological psychiatry , 68 , 1084-1091. Fine, J. Plan! G., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Keith, T. Z., Stapleton, L. Business Communication Research! M., Hynd, G. W. (2007). Reading and the corpus callosum: An MRI family study of volume and area.
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Gazzaniga, M. S., Mangun, G. R. Military! (2014). Cognitive neuroscience (4 th ed). Boston: MIT Press. Goeggel, S. B., Berger, S., Hagmann, B. B., Steinlin, M. (2012). [Traumatic brain injury in children]. Praxis , 101 , 317-324. Groen, W., Teluij, M., Buitelaar, J., Tendolkar, I. Mohawk Essay! (2010). Amygdala and hippocampus enlargement during adolescence in autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry , 49 , 552-560. Gross-Glenn, K., Duara, R., Barker, W. W., Loewenstein, D. Military! (1991).
Positron emission tomographic studies during serial word-reading by normal and dyslexic adults. Journal of dissertation, Clinical and military plan verification Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 531-544. Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R. Business Research! M., Snyder, J., Tager-Flusberg, H. (2006). Military Plan Phd Thesis! Anatomical differences in the mirror neuron system and social cognition network in autism. Cerebral cortex , 16 , 1276-1282. Hale, J. Communication Research! B., Reddy, L. A., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Hain, L. A., Whitaker, J., Morley, J., . Jones, N. (2011). Executive impairment determines ADHD medication response: implications for academic achievement. Journal of learning disabilities , 44 , 196-212. Hardan, A. Y., Mishew, N. J., Keshavan, M. S. Military Verification Phd Thesis! (2000).
Corpus callosum size in autism. Neurology, 55, 1033-1036. Harms, M. B., Martin, A., Wallace, G. L. (2010). Facial emotion recognition in autism spectrum disorders: a review of behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Like Look Resume! Neuropsychology review , 20 , 290-322. Herbert, M. R., Ziegler, D. A., Deutsch, C. K., O'Brien, L. M., Lange, N., Bakardjiev, A., et al. (2003).
Dissociations of cerebral cortex, subcortical and cerebral white matter volumes in autistic boys. Verification! Brain, 126, 1182-1192. Konarski, J.Z., McIntyre, R.S., Kennedy, S.H., Rafi-Tari, S. Soczynska, J.K., Ketter, T.A. (2008). Volumetric neuroimaging investigations in mood disorders: Bipolar disorder versus major depression disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 10 , 1-37.
Maisog, J. M., Einbinder, E. Communication Research! R., Flowers, D. L., Turkeltaub, P. E., Eden, G. F. Military Plan Verification! (2008). A Meta ? analysis of Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Dyslexia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , 1145 , 237-259. Makris, N., Buka, S. Book Report! L., Biederman, J., Papadimitriou, G. M., Hodge, S. M., Valera, E. M., . Seidman, L. J. (2008). Attention and executive systems abnormalities in adults with childhood ADHD: A DT-MRI study of connections.
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Biological Psychiatry, 57 , 1385-1390. Plizska, S., Glahn, D., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Franklin, C., Perez III, R., Liotti, M., (2006). Neuroimaging of entrance, inhibitory control in treatment naive and chronically treated children with ADHD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1052-1060. Posner, M. I., Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Research on attention networks as a model for the integration of psychological science. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 58, 1-23. Raizada, R. D., Tsao, F. M., Liu, H. M., Holloway, I. D., Ansari, D., Kuhl, P. K. (2010). Linking brain-wide multivoxel activation patterns to verification behaviour: Examples from non empirical dissertation, language and math.
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In A. Klin, F.R. Volkmar, S.S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger's syndrome (pp. 19-209). Like Look Resume! New York: Plenum Press. Semrud-Clikeman, M. (2007). Social competence in children and adolescents. New York: Springer. Semrud-Clikeman, M. (2006). Plan! Neuropsychological aspects for evaluating LD. Journal of business communication papers, Learning Disabilities, 38, 563-568.
Semrud-Clikeman, M. Ellsion, P.A.T. (2009). Child Neuropsychology. New York: Springer. Semrud-Clikeman, M., Fine, J.G., Bledsoe, J. (2009). Neuroimaging in women . In E. Plan! Fletcher-Janzen (Ed.), Neuropsychology of Women (pp. 1-37). Boston, Springer. Semrud-Clikeman, M., Plizska, S., Liotti, M., Higgins, K., Lancaster, J. Entrance Essay For Cosmetology School! L. Military Plan Verification! (2006). Neuroimaging in children with ADHD, treated and treatment naive.
Neurology, 67, 1023-1027. Shaw, P., Eckstrand, K., Sharp, W., Blumenthal, J., Lerch, J. Like Look Resume! P., Greenstein, D., . Military Plan Verification! Rapoport, J. L. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proceedings of the dissertation National Academy of military, Sciences , 104 , 19649-19654. Shaywitz, S. (2004). Overcoming dyslexia. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Seidman, L. J., Valera, E. M., Makris, N. Brown Book! (2005). Structural brain imaging of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological psychiatry , 57 (11), 1263-1272.
Swanson, J. M., Kinsbourne, M., Nigg, J., Lanphear, B., Stefanatos, G. A., Volkow, N., . Wadhwa, P. Military! D. (2007). Mohawk Essay! Etiologic subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: brain imaging, molecular genetic and environmental factors and the dopamine hypothesis. Neuropsychology review , 17 , 39-59. van Zomeren, A. H., Brouwer, W. H. Phd Thesis! (1994). Clinical neuropsychology of mohawk essay, attention. New York: Oxford University Press. Verhoeven, J. S., De Cock, P., Lagae, L., Sunaert, S. (2010). Neuroimaging of verification phd thesis, autism. Neuroradiology , 52 , 3-14. Abstract: Higher-level reasoning or understanding. Amygdala: An almond-shaped cluster of neurons in the limbic system thought to be involved in processing emotions and memory.
Anterior cingulate: Anterior section of the cingulate cortex. Asymmetry: favoring one side or the other. Also called laterality. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Mental disorder that consists of behaviors such as impulsivity, hyperactivity and difficulties with inhibition and self-regulation. Automatized: To make a skill so automatic that one does not need to think about it while performing it. Caudate nucleus: Part of the Basal-Ganglia, the efficiency economics Caudate nucleus is thought to verification phd thesis be involved in regulation of movement, learning and non empirical dissertation memory. Corpus Callosum: A white matter structure that connects the right and left hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. Military! Thought to contain approximately 250 million axons that allow right and mohawk essay left hemisphere communication.
Dopamine (DA): Part of the catecholamine family of neurotransmitters (epinephrine and norepinephrine), Dopamine is naturally produced in the brain and is thought to be involved in reward-based cognitive functions. Dyslexia: A learning disability that causes difficulties in reading and plan verification writing. Empathy: The ability to recognize and vicariously experience another person's emotional state. Executive function: Higher-order cognitive processes that allow one to control organization of thought, and apply context specific rules in order to execute a task successfully. Formal operations: The skill to think systematically about all of the pareto parts of military plan phd thesis, a problem and to arrive at brown bag biography report, a reasonable solution. Frontal lobes: Area of the verification brain made up by the front portions of right and left hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. Mohawk Essay! These areas are involved in memory, planning, organization, language and impulse control. These areas also have been linked to personality. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): A technique in military plan phd thesis which neural activity is measured by changes in blood flow.
Brighter areas on brown bag biography report, an fMRI images indicate higher amounts of blood flow and greater activity. Generalize: To apply a conclusion beyond a specific example. Glial cells: Cells of the nervous system that provide physical support and nutrition for neurons. Plan! Higher cognitive functions: See executive functions. Hippocampus: Part of the limbic system involved in for cosmetology storing new knowledge.
Impulsive: Behaviors that are not thought out. Inferential thinking: Reading between the lines, often involves meaning that is implied rather than explicit. Inhibition: The ability to regulate behavior or impulses. Inter-regional integration: Neural connections that are similar in location. Language: A system/group of symbols used in verbal and visual communication.
Learning disability: Difficulties in the development of plan verification phd thesis, language, reading, mathematical reasoning or other academic undertakings compared to expectations of one's ability. Believed to be neurological in nature. Left hemisphere: The left side of the cerebral cortex, thought to mediate language and verbal communication. Limbic system: A multistructural system involved in pareto essay emotions, memory and physical regulation. Structures such as the amygdala, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, hypothalamus, ammillary body, nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex, and thalamus are all structures of the limbic system.
Memory: Ability to store and recall conceptual, social, emotional and physical information. Metacognition : Thinking about one's own learning, thinking or perception. Myelinate: The white matter in the brain. Plan Verification! It is made up of lipids (fat) that help impulses move more quickly along the nerve. Myelination: Process during development by which Myelin is research papers formed over the neurons. Neuronal pathways: These are pathways through which nerve messages travel as they move among the various parts of the brain. Neurons: Cells that make up the nervous system, they process and transmit signals electrically. Neurotransmitter: Nervous system chemicals that relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals from plan verification, one neuron to another neuron. Perspective-taking: The ability to report understand another person's point of view or beliefs.
Processing of novel stimuli: Analyzing new information that the brain has not seen before. Pruning: Process by which brain cells die off in order to make room for more efficient connections between neurons. Reasoning: Mental process that deals with one's ability to perceive and respond to feelings, thoughts and emotions. Right hemisphere: The right side of the military cerebral cortex, thought to mediate spatial, social and pareto economics emotional understanding. Risk-prone: Susceptible to taking chances and phd thesis making mistakes.
Rote: Learning by memorization. Self-regulation: Ability to control one's behavior and cognitive processes. Social understanding: Ability to manage and function in efficiency essay social settings such as peer relationships. Sustained attention: The ability to maintain one's focus on an activity or stimulus of choice. Synaptic pruning: When weaker neural connections are thinned and replaced by stronger connections. Temporal region: The side region of the cerebrum thought to be involved in auditory processing. Theory of Mind tasks: Tasks that evaluate whether one has the ability to consider another's personal beliefs, needs, desires and intentions.
Transmission fibers: Axonal connections involved in neural communication. Visual-motor: Coordination of visual and motor processes, like tracing letters. Visual-perceptual processes: Ability to correctly interpret visual stimuli, like reading words. White matter fibers: Myelinated axons. White matter volume: Quantified amount of myelinated axons. 750 First St. NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242 | Contact Support. 750 First St.
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I have the mathematical proof, but there isn't room to write it in the margin. I have a solar powered calculator and it was cloudy that day. I left it at Mom's house when she took me back to brown Dad's house. I loaned it to a friend, but he moved away. My printer broke and my disk is military plan phd thesis, corrupted. Unfortunately my computer crashed this morning as well. Dissertation? I left it in my shirt and my mother put the shirt in military plan phd thesis, the wash. Business Research Papers? My internet access was down (for emailed assignments). A sudden wind blew it out of my hand and verification phd thesis I never saw it again. I was kidnapped by terrorists and they only report, just let me go, so I didn't have time to military plan verification do it.
Another student fell in a lake, and I jumped in to rescue him but unfortunately my homework drowned. It was in my back pocket and a pickpocket stole it. Brown Book Report? I left it in a hymn book in military verification, the choir loft, having used it to mark my solo. I left it in brown bag biography book, the back of the truck when we went deer hunting. My flash drive exploded.. I dropped it in the toilet accidentally and it got flushed. I gave it to a homeless man to line his hat with.
I fell asleep trying to do it and I just woke up 10 minutes ago and was nearly late for school My notebook got stolen in plan verification phd thesis, the school cafeteria and it had all my work in it. I can't always spell correctly, because I have a neurological deficit. hahaha. How to Catch Up when You're Behind on resume Homework. by arizonataylor 4. How To End Homework Hassles For Kids. by Suzie Armstrong 0. Get Organized for verification, School with a Homework Station for Kids. by Sarah Johnson 15. FREE German Essay on my best friend: Mein bester Freund. by bongawonga 23.
Writing a Research Report for business research, Kids Is Child's Play With These Tools. by Heidi Reina 26. FREE German Essay on military my town: meine Stadt. by bongawonga 8. The boy had been a newcomer for mohawk essay, a month. The teacher noticed he hated doing homework that gave to the class, but his English was rather good because he had learnt English not through textbooks, but from detective stories. Plan Verification Phd Thesis? The pupil thought that to do homework was dull. Give your good advice to the teacher. What kind of work would you give to this kind of pupil? i gave it to my dad so he could help me but he flew to England that night.
i fell and it was the entrance clostest thing to a bandage. hi I THINK THAT THAY WEAR WONDFUL. Patty Inglish 4 years ago from plan, North America. my science project burned it. awesome its for my speech. It as in my locker but i lost the key! sme1 stole me coment. teacher: wheres ure homework.
student: well u see miss wud u go mad at me if i didn't do anything. teacher: curse not. student : gud cus i dnt do me homework. the teacher slept on it. i left it in for cosmetology school, the car and my dad took it to the airport. my home is soooooo bad. i put it on phd thesis my tv but it exploded. i ran out of pitta breads. the great one needed a napkin -_-
Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. That's one I have not heard! I lost my homework and there was no more spare copies. my dog ate my homework. Yooyoyoyoyooyoyiyo 5 years ago. Amazing were do u come up with this. bethy843636lol 5 years ago. lol theese r hill but my kids always do their homework.
I hate my homework im back from holiday and i had to do all the math that i mist. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Probably the like look resume ones in which a paper bursts into flames. The funniest are my favorites, but I really don't believe any of them. If a student gives excuses, say, two or three times in a row, then I take the person aside and verification find out what's going on. YouMakeMeLol 5 years ago. What's your favourite excuse you've been given?
and which one (as a teacher) are you most likely to believe? Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Funny! There are so many excuses. I hope teachers record them and remember. MickeySr 5 years ago from Hershey, Pa. My oldest daughter (a teacher) told me not too long ago she heard My brother ate it - she asked Don't you mean your dog ate it? and mohawk essay was answered I don't have a dog, so . Military Phd Thesis? . . . Patty Inglish 5 years ago from business communication, North America. I actually fell asleep doing mine. i got homeworkitos and verification got tooken to AE and they had to opperate on me and i have just recoved from a dangeros acc. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America.
UK teachers are too smart and on top of things! HAHAHAHA! Some real funny stuff! But some of these don't work on the british teachers as much :c. djbdsdhshabfhgffds 5 years ago. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. We can sign up for notices by following the Hub, but while I;'m online, I stop writing to rest my eyes, then check for entrance essay for cosmetology school, comments. My first few months on HubPages, I had my email notifications set up in military, some manner that I never knew I had a comment.
It's all better now. Hi, Patty Inglish! I noticed that you respond to all the comments rather quickly. Do you get a notice every time someone posts a comment? Just wondering. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Haha, I don't think that will happen! adam jenkins 5 years ago. awsome no homework for life. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Second chances are good - did you do it then?
that actually worked I didn't even get told off :) really good+ i did some to my teacher every day:) Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. I'll surely read it! Cameron Corniuk 5 years ago from dissertation, Painesville, OH. These are great!
Some I've actually experienced myself--Internet being down, stuff being left between divorced parents' houses, not that it has EVER mattered. I think you've inspired me to military plan verification phd thesis do a hub on the best excuses I've had people call into communication research papers work late or off with. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. one day I hadn't done my homework so I asked my very bst friend if she could put my name on it and say we did it together because I lost my sheet. FUNNY AND TRUE!! Invisable Ghost 5 years ago. How about military plan, this one ? miss: where is ur h.w ? student: i didnt do it. Student: because i did't understand what to non empirical do in it. Miss: why did't u come to me and phd thesis asked then ? Student: because i had to mohawk essay hurry to the buss cuz it was leaving. Miss: ok *walks away*
Student: phew i am safe xD. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. I hope the verification phd thesis teachers laugh when they hear some of them. Pareto Economics Essay? I did. Usually the students laughed too and finished homework in class. ha ha really funny stuff. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. It is military verification phd thesis, his difficult some days to be wither a student or a teacher, PersyuonimumBush 5 years ago.
Lol in business communication papers, english homewrk was due so everyone had done their projects except for on person. Plan? His excuse was ''Whats a project?'' Everyone laughed except for the teacher. Efficiency Economics Essay? The teachers face was red like a tomatoe lmao. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. katelynn johnson 5 years ago. if u just do ur hw u wont have to make up excuses. i highly doubt your teachers give you THAT hard of hw to do anyways. Military Phd Thesis? plus your only hurting yourself by mohawk essay, bringing your grdes down and u have a better chnce of goin to college if u just get good grades which involves turnin in military plan, ur hw. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from mohawk essay, North America. why not say that your religion worship night is military verification, that night and if she says what religion say dominikan its made up. i love these excuses I used the one about dividing by zero [my pesonal favourite] and my teacher just laughed and book report said next time divide by 2! lol xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from plan verification phd thesis, North America. Very entertaining.
My students were never so clever! I think I got 1: Kid:Miss, I did my homework so I can't get in mohawk essay, trouble. Teacher: You can if you don't give me it. Kid: No miss I can't get in trouble, but my sister can. Kid: coz I did it and my sister tore it and threw it on our fire in the living room.
Teacher: What r u on about? Kid: Fine. i will tell u were my homework is verification phd thesis, but the director wont be happy. Teacher: R u feeling okay? Do u need 2 go home? Kid: No miss. I'm fine. I work for MI5 and they took my homework for analysis. For Cosmetology? I am wanted in 15 countries coz I made 15 mistakes out in plan verification, the field.
Teacher: u r telling me u r a spy and ur fellow agents took it for analysis to report make sure u r safe? Teacher: Just go sit down, I don't want to have agents bursting in here asking if I'm harrassing u. I used this once and the teacher let me off coz she said she hadn't laughed that hard in ages. u could use the sister tore it up one by itself or the military plan secret agent one. lollums :)) Patty Inglish 5 years ago from pareto, North America. That's believable - my mother used to plan phd thesis tear things up, not realizing it was homework. another excuse could be we were to poor tp buy bedding fer my guine pig so my ma used papers that i don't need an mohawk essay, she accidently ripped up the papers with all my homework in plan phd thesis, it.
I left my bag at my cousin's house and only got it back this morning. im a 11 year old girl and i don't know how to do my homework well i do but my friend i lint some thing to non empirical dissertation her and it was a piece of my homework. Rachel Davis 5 years ago. I searched it on google because i did not do my home work and verification phd thesis i don't want to dissertation get m.a.s.h mentle after school help. I enjoy the earth so why waste paper?
My mom was drunk again so she burned it for breakfast. I thought i broke my arm so I went to verification the hospital but there was a wait so I was stuck all night finally to learn I didn't break it so. Research Papers? I didn't have any time. fresh-kidd neeyae 5 years ago. LOL,very funny excuses,unfortunately i cant use dem,ma teachers never fall for dem:( . add me up on military plan verification phd thesis fb if u want. ma fb name is fresh-kidd neeyae. i was sleeping and the aliens abducted ]my home work!! (i know its not good its the best i could come up with!) Jeff_McRitchie 5 years ago. Ha ha! SOme of these are funny.
Voted up. lol soooo funnnyy!! i tried the brown bag biography report one tat said that my homework ate my dog. millie.mcotttee 5 years ago. hi everyone my exuse is that i tell my teacher that i got desracted easaly. omg i love this. I got kidnapped by terrest and they ate my homework because I told them I will hit you if you go in my junk cupboard. a girl hit me and i used it as a bandage.
Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Exactly the point, gianna. u guys are stupid why don't ya jus do the military verification phd thesis darn work. I thought it was a tissue and business communication research papers i blew my nose with it. I think i left it at military verification, my mums would be quite effective.Also you could say your water bottle leaked your homewrk got wet and did not bring it because it was drying.
Patty Inglish 5 years ago from brown, North America. Tell the truth - that there is a big problem with having to share the netbooks. Ask for a time extension and help downloading the files. we have netbooks at school and you have to plan verification phd thesis share them with the person next to look you and military verification we had to download certain files from the entrance essay for cosmetology school computer to our flash drives and my partner took to military verification long so i only got half the files and not the most imporatant wital ones that made me cry for 4 hours it is due on report tuesday and not monday and today is sunday should i use one of you incrediblly awesome exscuse or not if i don't finish in plan verification, time because we had a three day weekend to communication work on this because of veterens day. slimmer than shady 5 years ago.
Good 1//ahead Why didn't u do your homework. Military Plan? i like to communication keep some info to myself. Military Plan Verification Phd Thesis? [:D [not very good] Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. That's pretty inventive. I got one, its untested so could someone test it for me? thx.. Kid: Miss i haven't done my homework. Kid: I joined an pareto essay, anti homework protest over the weekend and they burnt my homework to plan verification phd thesis show i was part of business communication it. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Thanks for military verification, the funny comments - you all make others laugh when trying to complete difficult assignments. ok lol there alll funny. one day i was telling my friend how to do our homework and non empirical dissertation he went 'oh stuff it' and ate my homework and swollowed it lool. but he go detention so !DON'T TRY EATING UR HOMEWORK!
i found a cat on a tree and fead it my homework' Yes,it is very funny excuses ! well firssst i waz at home an looking for a pencil when my mom said w3re moving to phd thesis china an mohawk essay, IT WAS 12 HOURS LONG an we rented a house in chyna an my dog sat on muh hw an i tryed to get it when it ripped an so we had to go to the store but couldn't gfind any so we asked the military verification owner he didn't speak english so we went back home an he said forget it an put it in the get rid of box an set it outside just when a hobo got it an sold it to a guy for a dollar and non empirical dissertation the guy told the taxi driver to go to canada -__- lol. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. I hope you didn't hurt yourself :) Thanks for reading! Nice excuses 5 years ago. My son said one of these to me and I literally blew up(farted after laughing). He later showed me this and here I am. i lost my homework when i was fighting this kid that would not agree that u were the best teacher in the world. id say something like a drink spilled on it. it probbaly wud work i might try it.
I knew a kid and plan phd thesis his dog literally ate his hmwk. There was a bite mark and paw prints too. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from non empirical dissertation, North America. Some of military verification phd thesis these excuses are pretty good! Homework excuser 5 years ago. I was busy washing my hands for tea after doing my homework. Communication Research Papers? A cat suddenly ran into the house and verification our dog chased it and the cat jumped up on the table and knocked a cup of coffee straight onto resume, my homework!
me:it started to rain yesterday where i live and i was runing through the rain without an phd thesis, umbrella or rain coat and i had my homework with me and it got soaked. so when i tried to dry it this morning the answers were all gone. teacher: okay go sit down. ps this really happened to me and book report it worked. girl who comments 5 years ago. tried to do dah ¨left it in dah briefcase one¨, and the next day was a teacher/parent meeting and mah teacher found out my dad dosent work LOL!! hahahaha. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Teaching is so much fun that way!
im sooo using sme ofthem but my teachers are just gonna laugh. Lol the recycling one was real for me. just tell the truth it will save you trouble trust me. you may get in trouble but it wont be as bad as telling a lie.and don't make it a constant thing. I lost my science WorkBook, i was trying to military plan verification phd thesis find one online and i a came across this. LOL! But how am i gonna get an research papers, excuse.
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cbt psychosis essays Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of verification Schizophrenia: A Case Study. University of Minnesota. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Journal, 12, (1) 13-25, 1998. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) has rarely been applied as the brown report primary treatment for the multiple, severe and persistent problems that characterize schizophrenia. This case study describes the process of CBT in the long-term outpatient care of a young woman with schizophrenia. The study highlights the military verification adaptation of cognitive-behavioural strategies to the unique needs of schizophrenia and presents data regarding clinical outcomes in this case. Measures of psychosocial functioning, severity of non empirical symptoms, attainment of treatment goals and hospitalisation data were used to assess change over the 3- year treatment period and at 1-year follow-up. Plan Verification. Results indicate considerable improvement in all outcome variables and maintenance of treatment gains. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the treatment of schizophrenia. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) has been widely used and its effectiveness established with numerous patient populations and problems (Beck, 1993).
However, there has been limited application of CBT techniques in the treatment of persons with schizophrenia and little research regarding its efficacy with this population. This neglect may be due to the dominance of pharmacological treatment and the decline of psychotherapy, the severity of the disorder, or the inadequacies of previous attempts to essay, understand and manage schizophrenia from a cognitive behavioural framework (Birchwood Preston, 1991; Goggin, 1993) There is plan verification phd thesis, a growing commitment to the design of psychotherapeutic treatments that are grounded in knowledge of the psychopathology of specific diagnostic groups and tailored to the unique needs of the population (Hogarty et al., 1995; Liberman, 1993). This paper will highlight current clinical findings and critical issues regarding schizophrenia that must be considered in order to efficiency, develop an effective disorder relevant cognitive-behavioural treatment of military plan verification schizophrenia. A model of CBT of schizophrenia responsive to these issues will be described and illustrated by a detailed case study. Schizophrenia: Current Research and Critical Issues. Schizophrenia is defined by positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions), disorganised speech and behavior, negative symptoms (affective flattening, abolition, etc.) and significant impairment of psychosocial functioning. While it has been considered a uniformly chronic and progressively debilitating disorder, recent long-term outcome studies suggest the course and outcome of schizophrenia is quite varied and that outcomes can be significantly influenced by medications and psychosocial interventions (Carpenter Strauss, 1991; McGlashan, 1988).
Schizophrenia is also characterised by cognitive, psychophysiological, interpersonal and coping skills deficits that result in marked vulnerability to stress (Rolzman, 1987; Seidman, 1984; Zubin, 1986). Stress, coping and the individual's response to his or her disorder significantly influence the severity of disability in schizophrenia. Relapse is mohawk essay, frequent and plan phd thesis there are identifiable prodromal symptoms and stages of decompensation that involve problems in affective regulation and management of stress (Herz, 1985, 1989). Relapse has been specifically associated with stressful life events (Luckoff, Snyder, Ventura, Nucchterlein, 1984) stressful interactions with family members (Leff Vaughn, 1985), and overstimulating residential and treatment environments (Cournous, 1987; Drake Sederer, 1986). Previous research has suggested identification of prodromal symptoms and early intervention can be effective in reducing relapse (Herz, Glazer, Mirza, Mostert, Hafez, 1989). There are also discrete phases in the process of recovery that need to be understood in treatment of schizophrenia in order to not precipitate decompensation due to overly aggressive rehabilitation efforts (Breier Strauss, 1983; Carr, 1983; Neuchterlein; 1992; Strauss, 1989). Numerous authors have reported that intensive rehabilitation attempts precipitated relapse in brown report first 6 months of treatment (Drake Sederer, 1986; Hogarty et al., 1991; Lin, Kett, Caffey, 1980). While it is commonly accepted that the experience of self is impaired in schizophrenia, there has been limited focus on the subjective experience of persons with schizophrenia (Bradshaw Brekke, in review; Strauss Estroff, 1989). Strauss (1989) has highlighted the need to focus on the interaction between the person and his disorder: how the person's goals, feelings regarding illness and military plan phd thesis self and ways of managing affect the course of the disorder and vice versa. Similarly, Estroff (1989) has emphasized that focusing on the impact on business communication research papers the self of the person with schizophrenia is military verification, critical for treatment of schizophrenia.
Assessment and treatment focused primarily on symptoms and psychosocial functioning while important is incomplete. Instead, as Strauss (1989) has stated, attention to life trajectories, personal goals, characteristic approaches to regulating one's life. is essential. These findings regarding illness-specific deficits in schizophrenia suggest a conceptual and empirical foundation for the development of CBT with schizophrenia. They highlight the need for (I) specific coping skills that help the client modify environmental stresses, change perceptions and interpretations of events, reduce physiological arousal and manage affect, and (2) focus on the interaction of the illness and the person. Enhancement of the client's ability to cope with stress and manage affect is essential to prevent relapse and improve functional agility. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment and non empirical Schizophrenia. Previous CBT with schizophrenic clients has focused primarily on modification of hallucinations and military plan verification phd thesis delusions. Several studies describe positive results with the use of graded, nonconfrontational examination of evidence and the development of alternative explanations to brown bag biography book, modify the military verification phd thesis strength of hallucinations and delusions and to efficiency economics, increase control of these symptoms (Beck, 1952; Chadwick Lowe, 1994; Fowler Marley, 1989; Hartman Cashman, 1983; Holel, Rush, Beck, 1979; Lowe Chadwick, 1990; Milton, Patwa, Hafuer, 1978; Rudden, Gilmore, Frances, 1982; Tarrier et al., 1993; Watts, Powele, Austin, 1973).
Others have described the plan verification use of CBT as an adjunctive therapy in residential and inpatient treatment settings. Pareto Efficiency Essay. Kingdom and plan Turkington (1991, 1994) describe the use of a destigmatising, normalising rationale to explain symptom emergence and management to clients. Their results suggest that these methods resulted in reduced levels of symptomatology, hospitalisations and improved social adjustment. Pareto Essay. Perris (1988, 1992) reports successful use of cognitive milieu treatment with patients living in group homes in Sweden. In a single subject design study of the military verification CBT of four persons with schizophrenia who participated in outpatient treatment, Bradshaw (1997) found that clients experienced considerable reduction in symptomatology, rehospitalisations and improvement in psychosocial functioning and attainment of non empirical dissertation treatment goals that were maintained at military 1-year follow-up. Taken as a whole this literature suggests the potential usefulness of CBT with schizophrenic clients. However, these initial clinical findings are limited due to significant methodological problems: some have described relatively brief periods of experimental treatment with brief follow-up; others lack designs that control for the multiple treatments clients received in inpatient settings; most lack standardised measures of like outcome and provide limited posttreatment data. In addition, there has been little comprehensive application of CBT to the multiple problems of schizophrenic clients over the long-term course of the plan disorder. Studies of the treatment process and outcome of CBT with schizophrenic clients are few and need further replication. This case study describes a model of CBT that is responsive to the unique issues of persons with schizophrenia, delineates the use of CBT strategies in the three year outpatient treatment of a schizophrenic client and provides outcome and follow up data at one year post treatment.
CASE DESCRIPTION AND CONCEPTUALIZATION. Carol is a 26-year-old single White female. She is a high school graduate and completed 1 year of college. She was raised in an upper-middle-class family where academic and career success were extremely important as was their conservative Christian faith. She was the business papers third of five children.
Carol was a good student, hard working and somewhat self-critical. She was shy but had several friends and dated occasionally. After graduation from high school Carol went out of plan state to college. She received passing grades her first year but began to papers, experience auditory hallucinations and delusions. She began to act in plan verification bizarre ways and withdrew from people. She was hospitalised at efficiency economics essay age 18 for 1 month and dropped out of college. In the past 7 years she has been hospitalised 12 tunes. She has been unable to military phd thesis, work and was supported by SSI. There was no history of psychiatric illness in the family. Her family was supportive of her financially. Carol was discharged from a psychiatric hospital after 2 months of mohawk essay inpatient treatment.
Her diagnosis was schizophrenia, undifferentiated type, chronic. Her Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) at military plan phd thesis discharge was 30. Bag Biography Book Report. She lived with her parents and was on military plan verification phd thesis SSI. She took 500 mg of thorazine daily and was medication compliant. Carol was referred by non empirical dissertation her psychiatrist for verification, ongoing psychotherapy as part of business communication research her discharge plan to help her adapt to the demands of plan phd thesis community living and manage her illness. Cognitively she experienced auditory persecutory hallucinations and delusions as well as frequent cognitions like, I'm no good, I can't do anything, I'll always be this way. Affectively she had flat affect and anxiety related to interpersonal situations and tasks and the content of the mohawk essay hallucinations and delusions. Interpersonally she was withdrawn and socially isolated. Verification. Behaviourally she was inactive, unable to work or live independently. Her basic self-care was severely limited. Carol's psychosocial functioning was significantly impaired by the interaction of her illness and her methods of coping.
The hallucinations, delusions and cognitions interfered with her functioning. Her coping methods of non empirical avoidant behavior toward tasks and interpersonal situations and the increase in negative symptoms (apathy, avolition, anhedonia) to plan, deal with stress in turn increased anxiety, negative cognitions and psychotic symptoms. Four outcome variables were used in this study: symptomatology, psychosocial functioning, attainment of treatment goals and hospitalisations. Symptomatology was measured by the Global Pathology Index (GPI) of the Hopkins Psychiatric Rating Scale (Derogatis, 1974). The GPI is an 8-point behaviourally anchored scale that describes severity of symptoms.
Psychosocial functioning was measured by mohawk essay the Role Functioning Scale (RFS) (McPheeters, 1988). RFS is made up of military plan verification phd thesis four subscales: work, social, family and independent living subscales. Each scale is mohawk essay, a 7-point behaviourally anchored scale. The RFS and GPI are rater-based scales. Hospitalisation was measured by the number of military verification phd thesis times hospitalised and total days in hospital. Attainment of brown book treatment goals was measured by Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) (Kiresuk Sherman, 1968). Plan Phd Thesis. In GAS behavioural descriptions of functioning for various levels of goal achievement are developed and scored with the mohawk essay client. A score ranging from plan, -2 (regression in goal attainment) through 0 (attainment of goal) to +2 (exceeds standards) is given for each goal based on the client's attainment. The GPI, RFS and hospitalisation data were independently obtained by the case manager on a quarterly basis throughout the non empirical dissertation 3-year treatment period and at 6 months and 1-year follow-up. GAS was used as a pretest-post-test assessment of overall accomplishment of treatment goals. THERAPIST CLIENT JOINING.
The development of a therapeutic relationship is critically important in work with persons with schizophrenia (Frank Guncerson, 1990; Lamb, 1982). Rapport took some time to develop (approximately 3 months) and military phd thesis was established by consistent use of the core conditions of genuineness, respect and accurate empathy. The worker was directive, active, friendly and mohawk essay used feedback, containment of feelings, reality testing and self-disclosure to develop the real relationship and military verification phd thesis lessen transferential problems. For example, Carol had enjoyed playing softball and had been an avid baseball fan. When the therapist shared that he had similar interests it became a regular point of conversation and bag biography report strengthened their connection. Self-disclosure was also used to normalise situations and military promote discussion of real life difficulties.
Length of sessions were determined by the client's capacity at entrance the moment and would range from 15 minutes to plan, an hour or more. The therapist and client frequently went for walks during the sessions when Carol was agitated or lethargic. The goals of this phase were to develop the therapeutic alliance regarding the rationale of treatment, to facilitate the client's understanding of the process of cognitive-behavioural treatment and to establish agreement about treatment goals. This phase of treatment (approximately 2 months) involved the therapist taking an active role educating the client about schizophrenia and the process of business communication research treatment. The normalising destigmatising procedure described by Kingdom Turkington (1991, 1994) was used to explain the verification phd thesis experience of schizophrenia. This rationale emphasizes the biological vulnerability to stress of individuals with schizophrenia and like look the importance of identifying stresses and improving methods of phd thesis coping with stress in order to minimise disabilities associated with schizophrenia.
The ABC model (Ellis, 1970) was used to teach the cognitive view and process of treatment. Issues from the client's daily life were used to brown book, highlight the cognitive components of military feeling and behavior. The therapist and client would label the A (activating event) and like resume C (the emotional consequence) of an verification phd thesis, emotional episode and the therapist would help the school client figure out possible self- statements (B) that could have led to the emotional consequence or that would lead to other emotional responses. It was initially difficult for Carol to military plan verification phd thesis, do this in non empirical times of stress or when applying the ABC model to significantly loaded situations. The ABC model was reinforced by use of empathic reflective comments that highlighted the cognitive underpinnings of the situation.
Frequent repetition and personal examples from the therapist were helpful in her gaining a reasonable understanding of the cognitive model over plan phd thesis, a period of 3 months. EARLY PHASE OF TREATMENT. The focus of the early phase of treatment (approximately 12 months) was on her inactivity and her difficulty managing stress and anxiety. Carol would spend much of her time in bed, watching TV and smoking. When she would consider doing some activity or was requested by her parents to do something, she would become anxious and dissertation hallucinations and delusions would increase. She would think that the task was too much for her and would withdraw to her room.
She coped with the plan stress of her symptoms by apathy and entrance for cosmetology school withdrawal. The weekly activity schedule (Beck, 1984) was useful in helping her cope with the loss of structure she experienced after leaving the hospital and the symptoms she experienced. Using a blank calendar Carol recorded her activities in three time blocks: morning, afternoon and evening. She and the therapist reviewed the activities to identify what things improved or exacerbated her condition and to help Carol understand her reactions to verification phd thesis, different events. Behavioral assignments using a graded hierarchy of small tasks were used to increase her activity level. Initial focus was on daily living skills (self-care, cooking, cleaning, time management). Exploration of previous interests and the use of an interest inventory were helpful in book stimulating her interests and expanding the range of her activities. She had previous experience in arts and military plan verification phd thesis crafts and began to do paint by number paintings. This was followed by learning macram and adding other activities such as bowling that could be done with other people.
Mastery and pleasure ratings were later assigned to non empirical, activities to evaluate the benefits of the activities and to identify cognitive distortions that minimised her sense of accomplishment and pleasure. Stress management skills were developed in three ways. First, a variety of relaxation methods were discussed and military verification Carol expressed an for cosmetology, interest in phd thesis meditation. The therapist taught her meditation (Bensen, Carol, 1974) and they practised meditation for short periods in each session. She gradually established a regular meditation practice twice daily for 15 minutes. Second, she was assisted to identify her personal signs of stress and symptoms of relapse. These were organised as low, medium and high signs on her stress thermometer.
She posted the thermometer on mohawk essay her door and recorded her stress temperature each day. As she recognised signs of stress she would meditate briefly as a coping response to stress. Third, habitual stress situations were defined and meditation was used to cope with anticipated stressful events. The major cognitive theme that emerged in this phase was Carol's faulty attributions related to military, self-efficacy. She significantly underestimated or overestimated her ability to control others, events in business communication papers the world and her own behavior. The process of faulty attributions resulted in verification phd thesis her ongoing negative beliefs regarding her own efficacy. Thoughts like I can't do it; nothing I do can change it; I have no control over things predominated in the early stages of entrance essay for cosmetology school treatment and were a major target of military verification phd thesis behavioural treatment using graded task assignment. During this period Carol's symptoms lessened and her functioning, especially independent living skills, improved and she moved into research papers an apartment by herself.
She bad also developed skills in identifying and coping with stress and had experienced some increased sense of self-efficacy. This phase (approximately 16 months) emphasized identification of plan verification phd thesis habitual stressful situations and cognitions and utilization of cognitive strategies to business, cope with them. Three major areas of military verification cognitive work emerged: dealing with social situations, the impact of schizophrenia on Carol's sense of self and fears of relapse. Social situations were a major source of stress. Social interaction is research, a well-documented source of military stress for schizophrenic clients (Wing, 1983). Many problems in social relations were due to errors in social perceptions of mohawk essay self and others. Carol frequently had problems reading social cues and would interpret them by overgeneralising, personalising, and selective abstraction. She was trained to check it out by military plan phd thesis identifying automatic thoughts, evaluating evidence, exploring alternative explanations and generating new coping self-statements to replace the automatic thoughts (Beck Weishaar, 1989; Burns, 1980). In cognitive work it was more effective to focus on Carol's distortions of events and papers interactions rather than on underlying schemes and irrational beliefs.
This was done because of initial deficiencies in introspection and logical reasoning and her frequent use of plan denial and projection. Similarly, hallucinations and delusions were not directly challenged, but were interpreted as reactions to stress, personal or interpersonal concerns. Efficiency Economics. The focus was on the context triggering these symptoms rather than on their content. She was assisted to develop skills in checking it out and identifying the plan verification phd thesis difference between confirmable and perceived reality in order to develop more realistic ways of interpreting events (Waler, DiGiuessepe, Wessler, 1980). Social skills deficits specific to stressful social situations were assessed by role-play with the therapist and social skills training was provided to improve coping in interpersonal situations. Two social skills deficits were addressed.
These included expressing feelings and assertiveness. Specific and reoccurring stressful situations were identified and plans made for positive coping responses. Pareto Economics Essay. Cognitive coping skills were developed by collaborative empiricism, guided discovery, cognitive modelling, rehearsal, role-play and plan phd thesis homework assignments. Carol took a class at the community college, began to go out weekly with a friend and worked 10 hours a week as a volunteer at a food shelf. With increased interaction with people she experienced heightened anxiety and paranoia. This was worked on behaviourally by planning activities in a way that ensured she had a sufficient balance of time alone and time with others and by like the use of planned regression in which Carol would take a day off in which she stayed in her apartment and verification had no contact with others. Fears of Relapse. As Carol made major progress in brown bag biography report various areas of her life, she frequently experienced anxiety, fears and hopelessness regarding relapse. She would experience anxiety, fatigue or depression that was of a low level and within normal limits and interpret them as I'm going crazy.
Her experience of vulnerability and issues of low frustration tolerance, overgeneralising and catastrophising contributed to this problem. Fears of relapse were dealt with in several ways. First, education about her illness and interpretation of her experiences as normal responses to stress helped her understand and normalise her experience. Second, preventive actions were taken that focused on reviewing her stress thermometer, schedule of activities, sleep patterns, exercise, diet and level of stimulation in order to protect against relapse. Third, fears were examined using Socratic questioning, examining evidence and alternative explanations. (Padesky, 1993).
Impact on the Self. As Carol became more confident of her stability and military phd thesis experienced success in her life, she began to talk about the impact of schizophrenia on her sense of self. Living with schizophrenia impacted her in look two major ways: limited self- concept and military phd thesis low self-esteem. Given the early onset, severe disability and long-term nature of her illness, Carol had a limited self-concept, primarily, I'm just a mental patient. This limited and negative view of herself was worked with by non empirical examining evidence that supported other roles she currently was performing, e.g., student, friend, employee and by exploring other areas of life interests including travel, skiing and her desire to get married. Carol's self-esteem was also impaired by frequent self-criticism and negative comparison to other non-ill individuals. Selective perception and attributions of negatives to oneself and positives to military plan verification phd thesis, others were common. Because individuals with schizophrenia have exceptionally negative and distorted appraisals of bag biography report themselves and events (Robey, Cohen Gara, 1989; Warner, Taylor, Powers, Hyman, 1989; Wilson, Diamond, Factor, 1990), a cognitive technique, PSOB, pat self on back, was developed by the author to verification phd thesis, train clients to more positively appraise situations and themselves (Bradshaw, 1997, 1996). Carol was trained to identify three positive events in her life each day, no matter how minor the event may be. She then generated a list of positive words and qualities which described the event and brown bag biography book identified positive qualities in themselves that were associated with the event.
PSOB was very useful as a daily exercise to promote positive self- appraisal and enhance self-esteem. Two major tasks were addressed in this phase (approximately 3 months): dealing with thoughts and military plan verification feelings regarding ending treatment and developing plans to maintain treatment gains. Several techniques were used to facilitate maintenance of change. First, a review was done of look stresses, signs of stress and effective coping strategies. Second, these were written down on cue cards and reviewed each day by the client. Third, a 3-month termination plan was developed. The plan included agreed upon procedures to handle emergencies, gradual reduction of sessions, planned phone contact and plan phd thesis booster sessions. Data indicated that Carol experienced improvement in psychosocial functioning, achievement of goals, reduction of symptomatology and number of hospitalisations that were maintained at 6 months and I-year follow-up (cf.
Table I) Regarding psychosocial functioning she showed major improvements in work, independent living, social and family relations. The summed subscale scores of the RFS provided an overall psychosocial functioning score. RFS score of 6 at baseline indicated severely impaired functioning in all areas. Essay School. Her score of 27 at the conclusion of the study indicated major improvements in psychosocial functioning: relationships with family and friends, ability to independently manage personal and household tasks and performance of school, employment or household tasks. Symptomatology as measured by GPI was reduced.
Carol's baseline score of 7 indicated severe levels of symptomatology including inappropriate mood, hallucinations and delusions, impaired judgement, disorganised conceptual processes, disabilities in volitional and motor areas and inability to care for self and risk to self. Variables Pretest 1 2 3 6 mos 1 yr. Psychosocial 6 11 19 27 27 27. Symptomatology (GPI) 7 6 4 1 1 1. Hospital Days* 60 0 0 0 0 0. Goal Attainment (GAS)19.85 80.15 80.15. *In the 3-month period prior to beginning CBT. At the conclusion of the study her GPI score of military plan phd thesis 1 indicated only slight impairment. There were few symptoms present and little distress was reported by her.
Interpersonal functioning was relatively unimpaired and affect and cognition were within normal limits. The Goal Attainment score was calculated by summing the scale score values and like look using the GAS conversion key for equally weighted scales to determine the GAS score. A score of plan phd thesis 50.00 represents the expected level of goal attainment in this measure. Pareto Efficiency Economics. Carol's pre-treatment score was 19.85. Her posttreatment GAS score of 80.15 indicated significant attainment of treatment goals beyond that expected. Examples of treatment goals accomplished include clinical and socially important tasks such as improved daily living skills, living independently, developing social support systems, returning to school and obtaining employment.
Carol had no psychiatric rehospitalisation in the 4-year study period. This compares favourably to her extensive history of military plan hospitalisations prior to treatment and to the national average rehospitalisation rate of 35%-50% (Anthony, Cohen, Vitalo, 1978). This case study of the 3-year supportive CBT of a woman with schizophrenia found major improvements in psychosocial functioning, attainment of treatment goals, reduction of symptomatology and entrance school hospitalisations that were maintained at one year follow-up. This suggests the phd thesis potential effectiveness of CBT interventions in treatment of the multidimensional nature of problems facing individuals with schizophrenia. Essay School. Replication of this study by plan phd thesis other clinician researchers and additional testing of this model in community support settings are needed to establish the essay utility of CBT of military phd thesis schizophrenia. The model presented expands the use of CBT with persons with schizophrenia from the focus on brief treatment of delusions and research papers hallucinations to military verification phd thesis, the multiple problems experienced by clients over the course of recovery from the disorder.
The model, which is grounded in recent research regarding schizophrenia, is a beginning attempt to identify treatment issues and apply specific interventions to non empirical, stages of treatment and the process of plan verification recovery in schizophrenia. While models of like look resume cognitive bias, themes and schemes have been identified with other disorders, little work has been done in this area with persons with schizophrenia. Several significant cognitive themes were identified in this client that became important areas of treatment. These themes are similar to Young's impaired autonomy and performance schemas (Young, 1994). Future research regarding schemas in military plan phd thesis schizophrenia could be useful in identifying cognitive processes that impact functioning in schizophrenia. This study also highlights the importance of understanding the impact of schizophrenia on the self and the unique process of economics essay change in schizophrenia (Strauss, 1989). Verification. Strauss has highlighted the importance of studying the interaction between the brown bag biography book person and the disorder in order to understand and treat schizophrenia. Specifically the interaction around life trajectories and personal goals is military, critical in exacerbating and maintaining pathology as well as driving improvement. Work in the later stages of treatment focused on the deleterious effects of non empirical dissertation illness on Carol's sense of phd thesis self; her heightened sense of vulnerability, limited self-concept and poor self-esteem. Use of examining evidence, alternative explanations and graded tasks in these areas was critical to her ability to successfully envision and accomplish significant life goals.
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Treatment specific changes in coping and business communication research papers problem-solving skills. Social Psychiatry and verification Psychiatric Epidemiology, 28, 5-10. Walen, S., DiGiuessepe, R., Wessler, R. (1980). A Practitioners Guide to Rational-Emotive Therapy. New York: Oxford University Press. Warner, R., Taylor, D., Powers, M., Hyman, J. (1989). Acceptance of the mental illness label by psychotic patients: Effects on functioning. American Journal of dissertation Orthopsychiatry, 59, 398-409. Wilson, W., Diamond, R., Factor, R. (1990). Group treatment for individuals with schizophrenia. Military Plan. Community Mental Health Journal, 26, 361-372.
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Exam Questions: Types, Characteristics, and Suggestions. Examinations are a very common assessment and military plan verification evaluation tool in universities and there are many types of examination questions. This tips sheet contains a brief description of seven types of examination questions, as well as tips for using each of them: 1) multiple choice, 2) true/false, 3) matching, 4) short answer, 5) essay, 6) oral, and 7) computational. Remember that some exams can be conducted effectively in a secure online environment in a proctored computer lab or assigned as paper based or online “take home” exams. Multiple choice questions are composed of like, one question (stem) with multiple possible answers (choices), including the correct answer and several incorrect answers (distractors). Typically, students select the correct answer by phd thesis, circling the associated number or letter, or filling in brown bag biography report, the associated circle on the machine-readable response sheet. A) Elements of the phd thesis, exam layout that distract attention from the questions. B) Incorrect but plausible choices used in multiple choice questions.
C) Unnecessary clauses included in the stem of resume, multiple choice questions. Students can generally respond to these type of questions quite quickly. As a result, they are often used to test student’s knowledge of a broad range of content. Verification Phd Thesis. Creating these questions can be time consuming because it is often difficult to generate several plausible distractors. However, they can be marked very quickly. Tips for writing good multiple choice items: Long / complex sentences Trivial statements Negatives and business research papers double-negatives Ambiguity or indefinite terms, absolute statements, and broad generalization Extraneous material Item characteristics that provide a clue to the answer misconceptions.
Statements too close to the correct answer Completely implausible responses ‘All of the above,’ ‘none of the above’ Overlapping responses (e.g., if ‘A’ is military plan verification phd thesis true) Your own words – not statements straight out of the textbook Single, clearly formulated problems. Plausible and homogeneous distractors Statements based on common student misconceptions True statements that do not answer the questions Short options – and all same length Correct options evenly distributed over A, B, C, etc. Alternatives that are in non empirical, logical or numerical then ‘C’ is also true) order At least 3 alternatives. Suggestion : After each lecture during the military, term, jot down two or three multiple choice questions based on entrance school the material for plan verification that lecture. Regularly taking a few minutes to compose questions, while the material is fresh in mohawk essay, your mind, will allow you to develop a question bank that you can use to construct tests and exams quickly and easily. True/false questions are only composed of a statement.
Students respond to the questions by indicating whether the statement is true or false. For example: True/false questions have only military phd thesis two possible answers (Answer: True). Like multiple choice questions, true/false questions: Are most often used to assess familiarity with course content and to check for popular misconceptions Allow students to respond quickly so exams can use a large number of mohawk essay, them to test knowledge of a broad range of content Are easy and quick to grade but time consuming to create. True/false questions provide students with a 50% chance of military plan verification, guessing the right answer. For this reason, multiple choice questions are often used instead of true/false questions. Tips for writing good true/false items: Negatives and double-negatives Long / complex sentences Trivial material Broad generalizations Ambiguous or indefinite terms. Your own words The same number of true and false statements (50 / 50) or slightly more false statements than true (60/40) – students are more likely to like resume, answer true One central idea in verification, each item.
Suggestion : You can increase the usefulness of true/false questions by asking students to correct false statements. Students respond to matching questions by pairing each of a set of dissertation, stems (e.g., definitions) with one of the choices provided on phd thesis the exam. These questions are often used to assess recognition and recall and so are most often used in courses where acquisition of detailed knowledge is an pareto important goal. They are generally quick and easy to create and mark, but students require more time to respond to these questions than a similar number of multiple choice or true/false items. Example: Match each question type with one attribute: Multiple Choice a) Only two possible answers True/False b) Equal number of military verification phd thesis, stems and choices Matching c) Only one correct answer but at least three choices. Tips for writing good matching items:
Long stems and look options Heterogeneous content (e.g., dates mixed with people) Implausible responses. Short responses 10-15 items on military verification only one page Clear directions Logically ordered choices (chronological, alphabetical, etc.) Suggestion: You can use some choices more than once in the same matching exercise. Efficiency. It reduces the military plan, effects of guessing. Short answer questions are typically composed of a brief prompt that demands a written answer that varies in length from one or two words to a few sentences. They are most often used to test basic knowledge of key facts and non empirical terms. An example this kind of short answer question follows: “What do you call an exam format in which students must uniquely associate a set of prompts with a set of options?” Answer: Matching questions.
Alternatively, this could be written as a fill-in-the-blank short answer question: “An exam question in military verification, which students must uniquely associate prompts and options is called a. ___________ question.” Answer: Matching. Short answer questions can also be used to test higher thinking skills, including analysis or. evaluation. For example: “Will you include short answer questions on brown bag biography report your next exam? Please justify your decision with. two to three sentences explaining the factors that have influenced your decision.” Short answer questions have many advantages. Many instructors report that they are relatively easy to construct and military plan verification phd thesis can be constructed faster than multiple choice questions.
Unlike matching, true/false, and multiple choice questions, short answer questions make it difficult for students to. guess the answer. Short answer questions provide students with more flexibility to explain their understanding and demonstrate creativity than they would have with multiple choice questions; this also means that scoring is relatively laborious and can be quite subjective. Short answer. questions provide more structure than essay questions and thus are often easy and faster to mark and often test a broader range of the course content than full essay questions. Tips for writing good short answer items: Your own words Specific problems Direct questions.
Taking out so many words that the sentence is meaningless. Prompts that omit only brown one or two key words at the end of the sentence. Suggestion : When using short answer questions to test student knowledge of plan verification phd thesis, definitions consider having a mix of non empirical dissertation, questions, some that supply the term and require the students to provide the military plan, definition, and other questions that supply the definition and require that students provide the term. The latter sort of questions can be structured as fill-in-the-blank questions. This mix of formats will better test student knowledge because it doesn’t rely solely on recognition or recall of the term. Essay questions provide a complex prompt that requires written responses, which can vary in length from a couple of paragraphs to many pages. Like short answer questions, they provide students with an opportunity to explain their understanding and demonstrate creativity, but make it hard for business communication papers students to arrive at an acceptable answer by bluffing.
They can be constructed reasonably quickly and phd thesis easily but marking these questions can be time-consuming and grader agreement can be difficult. Essay questions differ from short answer questions in that the essay questions are less structured. Bag Biography Book. This openness allows students to military plan, demonstrate that they can integrate the course material in creative ways. As a result, essays are a favoured approach to test higher levels of cognition including analysis, synthesis and efficiency evaluation. Military Plan Phd Thesis. However, the like, requirement that the students provide most of the structure increases the amount of work required to respond effectively. Students often take longer to compose a five paragraph essay than they would take to compose five one paragraph answers to short answer questions. This increased workload limits the number of essay questions that can be posed on a single exam and thus can restrict the overall scope of an exam to a few topics or areas. To ensure that this doesn’t cause students to panic or blank out, consider giving the option of military plan verification phd thesis, answering one of two or more questions. Tips for writing good essay items: Complex, ambiguous wording Questions that are too broad to allow time for pareto economics essay an in-depth response.
Your own words Words like ‘compare’ or ‘contrast’ at the beginning of the question Clear and unambiguous wording A breakdown of marks to make expectations clear Time limits for thinking and military writing. Suggestions : Distribute possible essay questions before the exam and make your marking criteria slightly stricter. This gives all students an communication research equal chance to prepare and should improve the verification, quality of the answers – and the quality of learning – without making the exam any easier. Oral examinations allow students to respond directly to the instructor’s questions and/or to present prepared statements. These exams are especially popular in language courses that demand ‘speaking’ but they can be used to assess understanding in entrance essay for cosmetology school, almost any course by following the guidelines for verification phd thesis the composition of short answer questions. Some of the principle advantages to oral exams are that they provide nearly immediate feedback and so allow the student to learn as they are tested. There are two main drawbacks to non empirical, oral exams: the amount of military phd thesis, time required and the problem of record-keeping. Oral exams typically take at least ten to fifteen minutes per student, even for pareto economics a midterm exam. As a result, they are rarely used for large classes. Furthermore, unlike written exams, oral exams don’t automatically generate a written record. To ensure that students have access to military verification phd thesis, written feedback, it is recommended that instructors take notes during oral exams using a rubric and/or checklist and provide a photocopy of the notes to the students.
In many departments, oral exams are rare. Students may have difficulty adapting to this new style of assessment. In this situation, consider making the oral exam optional. Non Empirical Dissertation. While it can take more time to plan, prepare two tests, having both options allows students to choose the one which suits them and their learning style best. Computational questions require that students perform calculations in order to solve for an answer. Computational questions can be used to mohawk essay, assess student’s memory of solution techniques and their ability to apply those techniques to verification, solve both questions they have attempted before and questions that stretch their abilities by book report, requiring that they combine and use solution techniques in novel ways. Effective computational questions should: Be solvable using knowledge of the key concepts and techniques from the course. Before the exam solve them yourself or get a teaching assistant to attempt the verification phd thesis, questions. Business Research. Indicate the mark breakdown to reinforce the expectations developed in plan verification phd thesis, in-class examples for the amount of detail, etc. required for the solution.
To prepare students to efficiency, do computational questions on exams, make sure to describe and model in verification, class the correct format for the calculations and answer including: How students should report their assumptions and justify their choices The units and bag biography book report degree of precision expected in the answer. Suggestion : Have students divide their answer sheets into military plan verification, two columns: calculations in one, and non empirical a list of assumptions, description of process and justification of choices in the other. This ensures that the marker can distinguish between a simple mathematical mistake and a profound conceptual error and give feedback accordingly. Cunningham, G.K. (1998). Assessment in the Classroom. Bristol, PA: Falmer Press. Ward, A.W., Murray-Ward, M. Military Verification. (1999).
Assessment in the Classroom. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co. This Creative Commons license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon our work non-commercially, as long as they credit us and indicate if changes were made. Use this citation format: Exam questions: types, characteristics and suggestions . Centre for Teaching Excellence, University of Waterloo . The University of Waterloo is committed to achieving barrier-free accessibility for persons with disabilities who are visiting, studying, or working at Waterloo. If you have questions concerning access, such as parking, building layouts, or obtaining information in mohawk essay, alternative formats, or wish to request accommodations for a CTE workshop or event, please contact CTE via email ([email protected]) or phone (ext. 33857) and include the session’s title and date. Our workshops typically involve a mix of presentation and verification phd thesis discussion-based activities, and look resume we encourage a scent-free environment. Plan Verification. We also welcome accompanying assistants, interpreters, or note-takers; notify us if accommodations are needed in this regard. Please note that some accommodations may require time to arrange.
We acknowledge that the University of Waterloo is located on the traditional territory of the Neutral, Anishnaabeg, and Haudenosaunee people. Mohawk Essay. The University of Waterloo is plan verification situated on non empirical the Haldimand Tract, the plan verification phd thesis, land promised to brown bag biography, the Six Nations that includes ten kilometers on each side of the verification phd thesis, Grand River.