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msha resume Jack Spadaro Resume. Hamlin, WV 25523. Office:  824-3589. 1] Mine Health Safety and Environmental Consultant 10/2004 to Present Hamlin, WV. Duties and Accomplishments. I provide consulting services and expert witness services to attorneys, labor unions, companies, and english essay, organizations involving the health and safety of miners in surface and underground coal and metal/non-metal mines on spondylothesis grade 2 symptoms a national basis. I also provide consulting services regarding surface and underground mine environmental problems related to water quality, ground water systems, surface drainage control facilities, and stability of coal refuse dams and valley fills. I provide expertise in the application of the Mine Safety and Health Act to clients needing advice and knowledge of the essay anleitung, federal regulations and industry standards related to mine worker health and safety.
I also provide services regarding the Federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA). I provide expert witness services related to mining accidents and the mining environment. Cover. I have served as an expert witness in essay litigation related to the Mine Safety and Health Act and SMCRA from 2004 to the present time. The expertise is related to surface and underground haulage accidents, roof control, exposure of workers to hazardous chemicals, mine dust exposure, stability of dumping sites, safety of customized road gradients, explosions, surface and underground transportation, and english anleitung, the overall mine environment. I have served as an research cell phone driving expert witness in complex litigation involving multiple plaintiffs and english essay, have served as an expert witness in federal and research paper phone use while, state courts. The testimony required extensive knowledge of mining and essay, the mine environment and a thorough knowledge of both federal and state mine health and safety regulations and environmental regulations.
I have also been involved in litigation involving the stability of coal waste impoundments and surface mine waste fills. These cases involved regulations that I had a role in research use while writing during my earlier career with the Office of Surface Mining and the Mine Safety and Health Administration. I conducted investigations of mining accidents in coal mines and metal/non-metal mines. I wrote reports detailing the root causes of the accidents and english, made recommendations for structure a biography essay, improvement of the mine operations regarding health, safety, and the environment. I have been recognized as an expert in mining safety and health and the mining environment at academic conferences examining the mining industry. 2] MSHA Academy Superintendent, GS-1712-15 9/30/98 to 9/30/04. U.S. Department of Labor. Mine Safety and Health Administration.
National Mine Health Safety Academy. 1301 Airport Road. Beaver, WV 25813. Assistant Secretary of Labor for english essay anleitung, Mine Safety and Health. Duties and Accomplishments. The National Mine Health and Safety Academy is the principal training facility for essay topics, all federal Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) inspectors and for other mining interests. English. As superintendent of the Academy, I provided leadership and exercised overall planning and management control, direction and coordination of resources, activities, programs, and facilities of the customized, Academy, including the development, establishment and english anleitung, implementation of policies and procedures; the planning, development and implementation of essays national and international education and training programs in mine health and safety; and operation of the Academy's physical facilities. I determined program goals and exercised decision-making authority within the parameters of MSHA policy and program objectives. During my tenure, I developed and implemented a Strategic Plan for improving the quality of training and the production of training materials for mine inspectors and anleitung, industry.
Through subordinate managers, I directed a staff of professional, technical, and clerical personnel in the conduct of a variety of comprehensive programs designed to accomplish the Academy's goals. During my tenure, the Academy had a staff of 65 full-time federal employees and 67 contract employees. I planned, developed, and implemented the how to essay, educational and training programs of the Academy. Essay Anleitung. I developed program goals, objectives and spondylothesis, proposals. Anleitung. I was responsible for the development and administration of individualized study materials and education programs for nonresident students from federal, state, and customized, local government agencies, from english industry and letter hello, labor organizations, and from educational institutions. I planned and developed seminars and conferences on mine safety and health and essay anleitung, related programs to be conducted at the Academy and at other locations. I was responsible for overseeing the management of the Technical Information Center and Library, and for acquiring and making available appropriate and up-to-date reference materials to meet customer needs. I was responsible for development of studies designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Academy's educational programs, and to determine needs for revisions in curricula based on changes in materials, industries and in educational processes. Essay. I also directed significant changes in the curricula for Entry Level and Journeyman MSHA inspector training. I was responsible for development and implementation of support programs for english essay, services at the Academy for staff, faculty, and students. Support programs include administrative services, ancillary staff services support, student housing, recreation, internal safety, health services, and research phone, physical plant services.
I managed the english anleitung, implementation of a capital improvement program to essays, modernize classrooms, residence halls and computer capabilities. I maintained liaison with key officials in MSHA, academia, industry and english anleitung, other organizations concerned with improved education techniques and spondylothesis, methodologies related to safety and health issues. I developed and maintained relationships with universities, colleges, vocational schools, and secondary school to anleitung, promote training and educational courses in the mineral industries, and to further the cell phone use while, recognized stature of the Academy as a leading educational institution in mine health and safety. I participated in cooperative agreements with several colleges and universities and the Appalachian Consortium. I delegated authority to subordinate managers for essay anleitung, the personnel and program management of their respective areas.
I evaluated the performance and schopenhauer, review evaluations of subordinate supervisors. I conducted staff meetings, and english essay anleitung, provided advice and counsel on both program and administrative matters, and guidance in the solution of special problems. During my tenure, I helped improve the effectiveness of each program area by communicating regularly and exchanging information among departments. I served as a team leader in the investigation of the Martin County Coal Slurry Discharge, which occurred on Oct. 11, 2000 in Martin County, Kentucky. I managed the geotechnical engineering investigation of the slurry discharge, which was the largest and most serious pollution event in the eastern United States. I oversaw the drilling operations, laboratory analysis and the writing of the engineering evaluation regarding the causes of the incident. During my tenure, I upgraded all training programs at grade 2 symptoms the Academy. As a result, course days of training the Academy increased from 497 to 2,200. Enrollment increased from 17,000 students per year to 30,000 students per year.
3] Deputy Superintendent, GS-301-14 1/05/97 to anleitung, 8/30/1998. U.S. Department of schopenhauer essay Labor. Mine Safety and Health Administration. National Mine Health and Safety Academy. 1301 Airport Road. Beaver, WV 24813. Assistant Secretary of Labor for Mine Safety and Health. Duties and Accomplishments.
As deputy superintendent, I was the day-to-day operations manager at the National Mine Health and Safety Academy. Anleitung. I assisted the Superintendent to plan, develop and implement the education and training programs of the Academy. I worked with department managers to direct a staff of essay professional, technical, and support personnel in the conduct of comprehensive programs designed to accomplish the Academy's goals. I oversaw the human resources program for Academy employees, including work assignments, performance [standards, appraisals, rewards, disciplinary actions], safety and health programs, counseling, complaint systems, and english anleitung, leave systems. I worked directly with federal and state agency administrators to conduct research and technology transfer projects to further the Academy's goals.
I supervised the implementation of a long-term Strategic Plan that outlined the mission of the Academy. The plan included faculty and staff development and a program development plan to provide training programs and instructional materials that meet the customized essays, highest educational and essay, technical standards of quality. I directed attention to essential technical areas to provide improved training in surface and underground haulage safety, roof control safety, underground machinery and electrical safety, and industrial hygiene related to cover letter hello, the mine environment. I guided a pilot training program in Surface Mine Haulage safety that is being used as a model for future programs. I devised a restructuring plan for the Academy and supervised its implementation.
The plan created new divisions in mining technology, safety management, inspection automation, and course development. I supervised a staff of 62 full-time federal employees and 58 contract employees. Essay. I supervised the departments of Instructional Services and Instructional Materials, the different, Technical Information Center and Library, and the Facilities Support Services. The reorganization of the Academy resulted in a more even distribution of work by Academy employees and more effective education and training to MSHA inspectors, miners, mine supervisors, and training specialists. I set up committees to develop new programs and improve existing programs. Altogether, 16 working committees, made up of staff members from various disciplines, took on projects to improve the Academy's curricula and other Academy functions. These committees completed comprehensive plans in the areas of essay Program Development, New Technology in Training, Academic/International Relations, Facilities Utilization, Community Relations, Individual Development, Internet Usage, Library Usage, Marketing of the Academy's courses and products, and research use while driving, use of the essay anleitung, Mine Simulation Laboratory. The New Technology Committee completed an outline of the best methods for delivering mine safety and health-related training to the mining community. I initiated the development of roof control seminars to letter hello, provide training to all coal mine inspectors that will ensure that the most current information in this subject area will be made available to the inspectors. Essay. I also initiated conferences and grade, seminars in the areas of noise and dust control in the mining environment, ventilation, blasting, construction, underground haulage safety, maintenance and repair safety, surface haulage safety, electrical hazards and inspection methods, and accident investigation. I supervised the revision of essay entry-level training modules for metal, nonmetal and coal mine inspectors.
The revision emphasized critical areas of the inspection process so that the early training is meaningful and comprehensive. Under my supervision, the Academy negotiated cooperative agreements with six colleges and universities and joined the Appalachian Consortium to broaden the institution's expertise in how to a biography essay various subject areas related to mine health and safety. The agreements include faculty exchanges, summer intern programs, and distance learning programs. I included labor representatives in all phases of planning and implementation of revised and new programs. I created an individual development program that ensures that all employees have equal opportunity for advancement and additional professional development.
This program allows Academy staff and students to receive credit toward associate, bachelor and master's degrees for courses taken at the Academy. In 1998, I traveled to Russia and Ukraine to begin the development of an english International Mine Health and Safety training program. Between 1998 and 2003, delegations from Russia, Ukraine, South Africa, China, Mexico, Poland, Peru, Georgia, Canada, Mexico, Thailand, and use while, Indonesia have trained in mine health and safety at the Academy. 4] Engineer, GS-880-13 4/96 to 1/97. U.S. Department of english anleitung Labor.
Program Evaluation and Information Resources. 4015 Wilson Boulevard. Arlington, VA 22203-1984. Duties and Accomplishments. I conducted a study of 1,300 haulage accidents and research cell phone use while, wrote a report regarding the causes of the accidents. I made recommendations for haulage safety program that has been adopted by MSHA. I also served as special assistant to the Superintendent of the National Mine Health and Safety Academy to essay, work on curriculum expansion in the areas of mine ventilation, underground haulage accident prevention, roof control, underground mine electricity and machinery, and health. I presented a technical paper at a seminar at Virginia Polytechnical Institute and State University in August 1996.
The technical paper has been used as a basis for developing the new training program in surface and underground haulage and customized, equipment safety. I evaluated the overall training needs for the Academy and recommended a program that included a research-driven curriculum that was aimed at eliminating fatalities and injuries in mines. The program included intensive used of staff experienced in mine safety enforcement that would meet the needs of the inspection force and the mining industry. I planned a training program for new surface haulage instructors that began in November 1996. The program was key to a nationwide inspection and enforcement effort that concentrated on the critical safety and health needs of industry regarding steep haul roads, unsafe dump and fill sites, and vehicle maintenance programs. 5] Mining Engineer, GS-880-13 3/82 to 4/96.
Office of Surface Mining. U.S. English Essay. Department of Interior. 10 Parkway Center. Pittsburgh, PA 15520. Duties and Accomplishments. I was responsible for design and construction of health and safety hazard abatement, acid mine drainage abatement, landslide stabilization, subsidence control, and mine fire projects in Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Georgia, and Illinois. I served as project engineer on approximately 300 mining-related landslides, drainage control projects, coal refuse fires, underground mine subsidences, and mine fire emergency projects. I also provided technical assistance to schopenhauer, Office of Surface Mining field offices regarding valley fill construction, coal waste disposal, subsidence control, mine drainage control, and landslide stabilization. I served as an english anleitung expert witness regarding surface and underground mine operations, valley fill construction, landslide stabilization, subsidence, and coal mine reclamation in federal court hearing. I taught mining and use while, civil engineering classes about methods used to abate mining hazards.
I also taught geotechnical engineering methods to mine inspectors and english essay anleitung, project managers regarding mine hazard abatement. I managed a training program for inspectors and engineers. 6] Reclamation Supervisor, GS-13 4/78 to phone, 3/82. Office of Surface Mining. U.S. Department of Interior. Washington, D.C.
20240. Duties and Accomplishments. I supervised inspection and enforcement programs and regulation of surface and underground mining operations on a regional and national level. I wrote regulations for the permanent program for the construction of coal waste embankments, control of surface and underground mine drainage, valley fills, contour mining, mountaintop removal mining, and backfilling and grading on surface mines. I served as an english anleitung expert witness in administrative and federal court hearings in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky. I served as an expert witness regarding roof control and mine subsidence, groundwater movement, coal waste treatment, coal waste dam construction, valley fill design and construction, geotechnical engineering, landslides related to mining, surface and underground mine drainage control, and reclamation. I authored papers on construction of schopenhauer essay earth-and rock fill coal waste embankments. I served as assistant to the director of Inspection and essay anleitung, Enforcement in Washington, D.C. I wrote policy directives and supervised the national interim surface and underground mining inspection program. I managed tracking systems for violators and how to structure essay, provided guidance to field managers regarding enforcement. I served as district manager in Pennsylvania and West Virginia.
I managed a nationwide training program for new inspectors and managers regarding inspection techniques at surface and underground mining facilities. I taught mining reclamation procedures for coal waste embankments, excess mine spoil fills, and haulage road construction. 7] Division Chief 3/73 to 4/78. Coal Refuse and Dam Control Division. WV Department of Natural Resources. Charleston, WV 25321. Duties and Responsibilities. I was responsible for development of safety criteria for coal waste embankment construction, dam construction, landslide stabilization, excess mine spoil fills, and surface and english essay anleitung, underground mine drainage systems for the state of West Virginia. More than 1,500 coal waste embankments and dams were evaluated for safety. I issued enforcement documents to mine owners and supervised an inspection and compliance program for surface and underground mines. I managed a statewide inspection and enforcement program with a staff of different essay topics civil and mining engineers, geologists and reclamation specialists.
I was also responsible for the review, approval, and inspection of drainage facilities for surface mines, coal preparation facilities, and underground mines. I taught seminars to essay, train mine inspectors and engineers. I taught on customized essays the subjects of slope stabilization procedures for coal waste piles and dams, excess mine spoil fills, and mine sediment control structures. I taught all staff about the basics of geotechnical engineering as related to the mining environment. I managed a statewide training program for all dam and waste pile inspectors. I cross-trained all personnel in english essay basic engineering and letter, hydrology pertaining to earth and coal-related structures. 8] Staff Engineer 3/72 to 10/72. Governor's Commission of Inquiry Into the Buffalo Creek Flood Of February 1972. Charleston, WV 25321. Duties and Accomplishments. I wrote the final report regarding the failure of a coal waste dam in February 1972 that killed 125 people in Logan County, West Virginia.
I assembled and english, evaluated geotechnical engineering data regarding the construction and sudden failure of the dam. I interviewed witnesses and briefed commission members before hearings. I prepared recommendations for coal refuse and dam control regulations that were enacted into law in West Virginia. 9] Mining Research Engineer 1/71 to 3/72. Coal Research Bureau. West Virginia University School of Mines.
Morgantown, WV 26505. Duties and Accomplishments. I taught underground coal mine design, haulage, roof control, ventilation, and surveying. I conducted research projects in abatement of surface and phone driving, underground acid mine drainage. This research included analysis of mine water and evaluation of treatment facilities and mine plans to abate acid drainage. I wrote reports about my research regarding the development of anleitung mine plans to reduce the possibility of acid drainage formation. 10] Mining Engineer 5/70 to 1/71. Semet Solvey Division. Allied Chemical Corporation.
Montgomery, WV 25136. Duties and Accomplishments. I worked as a mining engineer in the design of grade 2 symptoms surface and underground mining operations. I developed roof control and essay, ventilation plans and grade 2 symptoms, designed valley fills, dams, and sediment control plans. English Essay Anleitung. I worked in underground continuous miner sections. 11] Mining Engineer 6/66 to 5/70. U.S. Bureau of Mines (now MSHA) Mount Hope and Morgantown, WV. Duties and Accomplishments. I assisted in training in the areas of roof control, mine ventilation, and how to structure, coal mine health and english essay, safety.
I was part of a team that inspected underground mining operations and cover, surface-related facilities to determine compliance with federal health and safety laws. Anleitung. I conducted investigations of cover letter fatal roof falls and other accidents in underground coal mines. I conducted ventilation and dust surveys. Bachelor of Science-Mining Engineering. West Virginia University, 1970. Mount Hope High School, 1966.
1991 - Instructor Training, Office of Surface Mining, U.S. Department of Interior. 1991 - Meritorious Service Award, Secretary of the Interior. 1991 - Impoundment Inspector Certificate, MSHA, U.S. Department of the Interior. 1993 - Engineer of the Year Award, National Society of Professional Engineers. 2004 - Jenco Foundation Award for Service to Humanity in Appalachia. 2004 - Chuck Chambers Public Service Award, West Virginia Environmental Council. 2005 - Helen Lewis Community Service Award, Appalachian Studies Association. 2006 - First Amendment Award. 2010 - Lifetime Achievement Award, Union of Concerned Scientists.
2012 - Conservation Achievement Award, National Wildlife Federation. Jack Spadaro, PO Box 442, Hamlin WV 25523. home phone: 304-824-3589 cell phone: 304-590-6447.
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3 Easy-to-Use Tools to Count Your Words. So you need to english, get a word count for the latest chapter of your novel or an essay assignment for school? Don#8217;t worry, here are three easy-to-use tools to count your words. Research Paper Cell! Need to get a word count on your latest writing project? Here are three tools that can help. If you#8217;re an essay, experienced writer, this might already be obvious to you. Schopenhauer! However, if you#8217;re new to writing, you need to know that keeping track of your word count is a central habit of a writer. You count words for two main reasons. In school, writing assignments are usually measured by essay anleitung, page length (e.g. please turn in spondylothesis grade a three-page essay on Jane Austen#8217;s use of anleitung satire in Emma by Friday ). However, measuring by page-length is schopenhauer, inaccurate and, in many cases, unhelpful.
Font, spacing, and formatting changes can alter the number of pages, and if you#8217;re writing a newspaper, magazine, or book, the pages will be in a variety of different sizes anyway. Measuring by word count, on the other hand, is consistent. Furthermore, publishers often pay on a per-word basis, and so it makes sense for professional writers to keep track of how many words they write. But what if you#8217;re not a professional writer? Why should you count words then? 2. Counting Words Can Motivate You. English Essay Anleitung! Many famous writers have kept daily word count goals. Ernest Hemingway is cover hello, reported to have written 500 words per day. Stephen King writes 2,000 words per day, even on holidays.
Victorian novelist Anthony Trollope wrote 3,000 words per day. English Anleitung! Setting a daily word count goal can inspire you. One of the best known word count goals is NaNoWriMo (or National Novel Writing Month). Every November, thousands of writers challenge themselves to write 50,000 words in a month (that#8217;s 1,667 words per day, by the way). Another resource for writers is my friend Jeff Goins#8217; 500 Words a Day Challenge, which is a 31-day writing challenge that over a thousand writers have participated in. How do you keep an hello, accurate word count? 1. Count Words With Microsoft Word.
The most-widely used word processor makes it easy to count your words. On Windows , there are two ways to see the word count. On the Review tab, just next to Spelling and Grammar Check, and on the home ribbon beside the page number. On Mac , you can find the word count under Tools - Word Count. 2. Take Word Counts to the Next Level With Scrivener. English! While Microsoft Word is a decent word processor for writing essays and articles, if you#8217;re writing a novel or book, you need a more powerful tool.
Scrivener is a perfect tool for customized, finding your word count because it not only anleitung keeps your word count visible, it allows you to track your daily word count and the word count for your entire project. You can learn more about Scrivener on cover letter, our review here. To track your daily word count on Scrivener, go to Project Show Project Targets (?+ +T, on english, Mac). This will open a popup that updates automatically as you type. Isn#8217;t that cool?
In Scrivener, you can set the project targets to your daily word count and track your progress. Different Essay! Also, notice the word count visible at the bottom of the application. If you don#8217;t have access to either of these tools, you can find, free online word counters. One of the best, in my opinion, is WordCounter.net. Word Counter is a free, online word count tool. Challenge Yourself to essay anleitung, Write 1,000 Words Today. These tools can change your life. How would your life be different if you challenged yourself to write 1,000 words a day? (Share that challenge on Twitter) Even if you took the weekends off, in just a month, you would have 22,000 words.
In six months, you would have written 132,000 words, easily enough for a long novel. After the essays first year, you could have written two books. Anleitung! It starts by taking just a few seconds to track your words. Do you have a daily word count goal? What is it? Write 1,000 words today. Schopenhauer Essay! Keep track using one of the tools above. When you#8217;re finished, share your best 250 words in the comments section below. And if you share, please be sure to give feedback on a few practices by other writers. Essay Anleitung! I participated In NaNoWriMo myself.
My novel concluded before I reached the word count but it was still a great experience. I#8217;ll have to essay, post my practice later when I have time. (WOOT FIRST COMMENT) Nice, Miriam. That#8217;s a huge accomplishment. Also, way to essay anleitung, get in first! #128578; The following is EXACTLY 250 words: I never lied before I worked here.
It started with little comments, like telling a caller the boss, Robert, wasn’t in, when he was on a personal call. Next I found myself assuring a caller that our Director of Marketing had sent out the requested materials the cover letter hello previous Friday, when in essay fact Hannah had returned from paper phone use while, lunch drunk, passed out in the lobby, and we called her husband and told him to take her home. English Essay! People tell you, “The watched pot never boils”, meaning some things happen so imperceptibly, that if you dedicate yourself to schopenhauer essay, watching for the smallest advance, you’ll never see it. The lesson, I suppose, is that it won’t do any good to watch a process. too closely, as there is nothing to see. I wonder if maybe people are getting this lesson backwards.
If something can happen. English! slowly and nearly undetectably to the naked eye, then shouldn’t we watch it very, very vigilantly, to research cell use while, catch it before it boils over? That’s how the lying exploded. Over time Robert and Hannah escalated their expectations of us, that we say any damn. thing they wanted us to anleitung, say, to get them out of their chronic bungling. That is how, today, I found myself insisting to that nice man, Tom Contreras, that. Structure! Robert could not meet with him. I gave him my best “trust me, would I lie to anleitung, you” smile, and essay topics convinced him he had made a grievous error, and his appointment had been for english essay anleitung, the prior day. This is so true. After a while and after being asked to do it over and over, we are able to block even the slightest twinge of guilt. I like your line: #8230;trust me, would I lie to you.
Nice piece. Wow this is so good, Avril. I loved the way you combine story with psychological observation so deftly. And I really like the way you bring us into the lives of these characters so completely in different essay just a few paragraphs. Great job! Thank you for anleitung, the compliment and encouragement Joe. Wow this is different topics, really good Avril.
I love the way it sounds when I read it. English Essay Anleitung! Great job! Thank you Miriam. The feedback from you and different essay topics Joe today is english anleitung, especially helpful as I hone in on my #8220;voice.#8221; It is only 811 words. Hope that#8217;s enough. Thanks for cover, yet another great prompt. Essay! Pacific Avenue in customized downtown Santa Cruz, California, is a tri-era promenade: pre-earthquake, early post-quake, and now. Something to note as you look up and essay down the customized essays stretches of the Pacific Garden Mall. Parts of each era remain and shoulder up, intermingled and interwoven, in a. strange dichotomy of style and sensibilities, palpable to six senses senses. that must include “feel.” Before the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, old family.
businesses struggled against a fluctuating economy and essay anleitung decay – Leask’s, Ford’s, the stately Cooper House, the Hihn Building – only to disappear into paper use while driving, quake. rubble and oblivion. From the earthquake ruins, the silent overgrown lots have. slowly and painfully risen, Phoenix-like, to house modern replicas and. buildings, saved from demolition, clothed in new paint, giving concrete. testament to the power of english Mother Nature’s onslaught. It looks somewhat new, somewhat tidy, with new business owners, full of dreams, bringing new energy, unaware of the strange angles. It’s all here, the very Gen. X storefronts of The Gap, Border’s, Starbuck’s, Cinema 9 and the upper-storied. upper-classed condos to old fringe establishments – Logo’s, The Avenue Bar, Book Shop Santa Cruz – and the eminent Santa Cruz elder statesmen Del. Williams, The Del Mar Theater, The Palomar Hotel, Annieglass. The sun has. Spondylothesis 2 Symptoms! slipped below the rooflines of the Cooper House across the street, giving the. street a bluish cast, and the wind swirls, scuttling the dry leaves of late. summer and wafting in the briny smell of the sea. From my vantage perched high on a coffee shop stool, I pull on my sweater and watch. and essay reflect.
While much has changed in the last twenty-four years, much remains. the cover same in this funny, strangely odd little place on Planet Earth. The city. fathers have looked to upscale the look of this funky street, yet the fringe. Essay! folks looking for research paper cell use while, attention or a handout – homeless street people, mentally ill. who have slipped through the cracks, angry young people, savvy panhandlers remain entrenched, some living in alleyways, doorways, and the lush underbrush. of this tourist mecca by night and by day claiming a butt-sized patch of. Anleitung! sidewalk. With hats and cover letter hello instrument cases open wide, ragged street musicians, some phenomenally talented troupes of drummers from some other cultures and guitar players belting protest songs, stake out street corners and make this city inhale and exhale. I remember the tiny ancient fiddler who played off-key, who died last year, and I wonder about the english essay strange man in the pink tutu and tights, with matching umbrella, who, in scuffed ballet shoes, shuffled up and down the cover hello sidewalk in slow motion, his. gaze unwavering, daring you to look away first. English Essay! Fast forward to today. September 2014. Border’s is no longer.
Forever 21, in. eight-foot letters, is now emblazoned on the storefront. Del Williams Jewelry. is but a memory. They were always able to locate the elusive replacement for. broken treasures. Other business, too, are no longer a presence on the Garden. Mall promenade. The economy has taken its toll here and everywhere. Structure A Biography Essay! Starbuck’s. and Peet’s, along with some local coffee beaneries, have customers bulging from. their sticky doors, while the protesters of conditions and wages sport signs. outside. The pan-handlers still hassle the diners who shovel in ethnic foods. served in sidewalk cafes. The street musicians remain, despite the white-washed. facade put on the buildings rimming the street, and essay they produce some of the best. music you’ll hear.
Life vibrates through the tree-named streets that surround. the Garden Mall – Cedar, Walnut, Laurel – despite the few empty lots of weeds as tall as a man dotted here and there. Cover Letter! Life vibrates and essay anleitung hums. The young people gather and spondylothesis grade spill into surf shops that tout the best wetsuits, the most chic attire. Cinema 9 has eleven screens, and on opening nights lines run around the essay corner and past the ATM machines for Bay Federal Credit Union. Yes, life’s heart still beats here. A few feet from my perch sits a young woman, maybe 19 or so, a street person, asking passersby for spare change. Her voice is harsh, and how to a biography she barks a “fuck you” to a man who spat some words at her.
Hunched against the late afternoon chill and the taunt. tossed from his retreating lips, she leans against english anleitung, the building and spondylothesis 2 symptoms sucks in a sigh, herself complicit in his response. She knows it. When she arrived here, she was undoubtedly full of dreams, as all those absent. business owners must have been, too. Once optimism must have burned in her. eager heart, as she made plans for a future here. Perhaps it still does, but it. has burrowed itself deep inside, for time on the streets changes people, even the young ones. She’s alone, and, as night begins to fall in a strange. town, I wonder if she feels the bony edges of fear. English Essay Anleitung! I stuff my notebook in schopenhauer my bag, curl my hands around the steaming paper, and wander into the crowd.
Gosh Diane, this piece so effectively evokes that funky seaside town (I know, I#8217;ve been there). This is nicely nuanced, you#8217;ve drawn the personality of the neighborhood, how it looks and how it feels at street level. Anleitung! I#8217;m familiar with the denizens already. I mean this ad a compliment, that it reminds me of cover one of my faves, Cannery Row by Steinbeck. Oh and the guy in essay the tutu, he#8217;s from Fairfax.
Thank you, Avril, for reading my too many words and your kind words. Sorry. I didn#8217;t read the instructions thoroughly. I am so happy that you know this little burg and research paper cell driving recognize some of the landmarks. Fairfax? Really? We would always look for him when we fofund ourselves at the Garden Mall. Too funny. Again, thank you for english anleitung, reading.
Thank you, Avril, for structure, taking the time to read my way-too-many-word piece and for your kind words. Next time I will read the instructions more carefully. Essay! I#8217;m happy you recognized some of the landmarks of this little burg. Structure! It#8217;s an english essay, interesting place, a place that engages all the senses. Fairfax?
Really? My husband and I used to look for him every time we found ourselves on the Garden Mall. Again, thank you. Cover Letter Hello! This place is essay, not so much about the rules Diane, but about the encouragement to write. Writing more is always a good thing if you are on a roll!
We#8217;re glad you shared. Very well done! Your description of the town, the people, the essay changes, everything create a living, moving video in my mind. I feel as if i#8217;ve just been there myself. Thank you, Adelaide. I#8217;m happy you were able to english anleitung, visit here for a little while. It#8217;s a special place. You#8217;re a very good writer, Diane.
The description here is perfect. I bet you had a lot of fun writing this! I did have fun writing it, Joe, but it brought back a lot of unfun memories. Thank you for your encouraging words and for this wonderful site. Wow amazing Diane. I could feel and spondylothesis grade see everything you described. Based off of this I feel that you#8217;re going to be a great writer. Keep up the great work! Thank you so much for your kind words, Miriam, and for taking the time to read the piece.
You made me feel as if I#8217;d like to go there and experience it for myself. Vivid descriptions and emotions draw you in. PI glazed my fingers over anleitung, the peeling yellow with time flower wallpaper. My footsteps echoed though the enpty halls as the dust lifted from the 2 symptoms ground. Silence filled the air one I would find at an funeral,quiet from neglect as if it was hiding a burning hatred for what I had did. Essay! Rain slid down the clouded window pane and the pit pat in the roof sent a eiree chill down your spine. Memories followed my though the house as I breathed in the rich earthy smell of different topics mothballs.
Those memories wandered next to me hoping for me to look at them just to catch a fleeting look, toopen up the vault which I had buried them in. This once was my childhood home where I spent long days and cold nights curled up asleep on my bed with dreams leading me into a false sense of security. I took one last look around and shut the english essay chipping word door. I sprinkled the last of the gasonle and struck a match, soon the house set fire, the flames licking the different essay night sky as the stars twinkled in the inky blackness as the english essay anleitung fire crackled from the heat. I sat back a blank expression on my face. #8220;That#8217;s finally done.#8221; I said. I started walking with the embers glowing brightly behind me casting shadows. Now I know that is part of a good story. Nice twist to spondylothesis grade, start off visiting the childhood home, then burn it down.
This needs some cleaning up for spelling and essay anleitung grammar (for a practice this is fine though), but I loved the grade 2 symptoms way you evoked sensual details as the english character paces through the house. There#8217;s a lot going on here, and like Avril said, this seems like a small piece of a promising story. Essays! Well done! Nice job Chloee. I#8217;m intrigued as to where this will go next.
Keep up the good work! It holds my interest as to why she sets fire to her childhood home? What bad memories are hidden there? Like Joe pointed out. it needs careful editing for mistakes. Alright. So a few practices ago I posted about Angela.(the post #8220;You Need to Ask this Question Every Time You Sit Down To Write#8221; specifically) This is a continuation of that post. Here is my 250 words. Groggy, disoriented, confused, I slowly awoke to my surroundings. English Anleitung! The first thing that I became aware of was the pounding pain pushing through my. Research Cell Use While Driving! skull. Questions like: Where am I? What happened?
Why can’t I move? Rose in anleitung my. I opened my eyes to closer examine my surroundings. Letter Hello! The ceiling was bare cement. and seemed to animate cold to the very marrow of essay anleitung my bones. I tried to cover letter hello, move my. head to look at the walls but found it fixed in place. English Anleitung! Panic slowly began to. rise within me like a poison. Slowly I began to remember what happened until it. came back in a rush. My apartment, escape, Andrew, the emerald.
Where is the. emerald! Came my panicked thought. Frantically I looked around the phone room with my eyes but came upon essay, nothing. Calm down Angela think this through. No need to lose control. Schopenhauer Essay! I thought about that night. English Essay! Where. had the emerald been then? In my desk… until I put it on. My eyes drifted to my. Spondylothesis Grade! chest in essay anleitung hopes of seeing it there. It was gone.
My alarm began to rise again as did my scolding thoughts. Angela you idiot! You should’ve left the 2 symptoms emerald in its holding spot but no you had to be noble and anleitung put it on. Just then the essays door opened. “Ah you’re awake.” Came Andrew’s voice. He walked to a chair somewhere behind me and, by the sound of it, took out a pen and paper. Essay Anleitung! “Now to business. Where is the emerald?” I didn#8217;t know what I was going to write about cell driving, when I began, but I was in english anleitung our local diner so I began about a waitress. I don#8217;t know if I did a 1,000 words because I write on a yellow pad and haven#8217;t transcribed it all yet. Hello! This is as much as I#8217;ve typed so far, about english essay, 350 words.
Edna knew her customers. She had been waitressing at the Loganville diner for 20 years, and she had served many of the customers for customized essays, the same 20 years. They had grown old together. Some had died during those years; some had been born. English Essay! When Bob died Edna had taken stock of her situation: two children married, one grandchild and another expected, living miles away, an different topics, old house paid for, a small pension from Bob#8217;s union, a moderate savings account, the interest of which she.
and Bob never touched. #8220;Let it grow,#8221; Bob had said. When I#8217;m gone you will need the english anleitung interest to supplement my pension.#8221; Edna could have used the interest now, but Bob#8217;s voice came back to her in those few weeks right after he died. #8220;Let it grow.#8221; So, she did and got a job at the diner. #8220;I never waitressed before,#8221; she had told Fonda, the owner, #8220;but I#8217;m strong and structure a biography a hard worker. Edna almost heard the wheels spinning in his head as Fonda Metatakis thought it over. #8220;Can you operate a cash register? They#8217;re all computerized now.#8221; #8220;I can use a computer, and I#8217;m a quick learner.#8221; #8220;Well… O.K. Part time to start, one to five in english the afternoons at first, then maybe later full time.#8221; Edna suspected he gave her the job because Bob had died. Different! Everyone in town knew it. Bob was always talking to people whether he knew them or not. and, if he didn#8217;t, he soon did.
Fonda probably thought she needed the money. She did, but it wasn#8217;t until. after she had asked for the job did she really know why. She would use this money for. living expenses, as little as possible, and add the rest to her savings as a legacy for essay anleitung, her grandchildren. It was something she used to fantasize about when she was a child–a legacy left by different essay, some unknown relative or stranger because she had done a good deed. For a time she had gone out of her way to help strangers even if they really didn#8217;t need it. #8220;Thank you Dear, but I can carry this package. It was kind of you to offer.#8221; It hadn#8217;t been easy, but now and then her help had been accepted. she made sure to tell them her name and to essay anleitung, get theirs. For years she had checked the obituaries regularly.
I#8217;m starting to think of all the other little stories she has been a part of over the years and letter what happens next. I enjoyed reading it Adelaide. When I get in the zone, I write 1,000 words in essay two hours. Schopenhauer Essay! Most of the time, i#8217;m procrastinating, so it#8217;s usually 250 a day.
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essay on the economy However, the english anleitung, problem is that economists may often disagree on the best solution to these challenges. For example, at the start of the great depression in 1930, leading economists in the UK Treasury suggested that the UK needed to balance the budget; i.e. higher taxes, lower unemployment benefits. But, this made the recession deeper and customized essays led to a fall in english essay anleitung, demand. The over production of negative externalities (e.g. pollution/congestion) The underproduction of goods with positive externalities (e.g. education, health care, public transport). Non-provision of Public Goods - (national defence, law and order) In recent years, behavioural economics has looked at the diverse range of factors that influence people's decisions. Letter! For example, behavioural economists have noted that individuals can exhibit present-bias focus. This means placing excess importance on the current time period and essay anleitung making decisions our future self may regret. This includes over-consumption of demerit goods like alcohol and tobacco and failure to save for a pension.
What may cause a run on the Pound? A run on the pound is how to a biography more likely in a semi fixed exchange rate. e.g. when the Government is committed to trying to keep the Pound at a certain level. If markets feel this level is unsustainable they may keep selling Pounds until the government is forced to devalue. For example, in 1992, the UK tried to maintain value of Sterling in ERM, but, ultimately markets forced the UK out and we had to english essay, devalue. The graph above shows the schopenhauer essay, near 20% devaluation in 1992. We also had a run on english essay anleitung, the pound in the late 60s, causing the Wilson government to essays, devalue pound. (In 1967, Wilson devalued pound by 15% after selling many foreign currency reserves trying to maintain value of Pound) In 1976, there was another on the Pound as markets feared the UK's fiscal position. Financial crisis depreciation.
The credit crunch of 2008 hit the essay, UK economy hard because it was more reliant on the financial sector than most other economies. Other potential causes of essays a run on the Pound. High inflation - high inflation reduces the value of Pound Sterling. Foreign investors will be nervous of holding UK assets if the UK has high inflation. Threat of sovereign debt default . If markets feel government borrowing is too high and unsustainable then there is a risk of english anleitung foreigners losing their government bonds. Therefore, the market will sell bonds causing an outflow of foreign currency and fall in value of sterling. This can build up a momentum effect. As the fall in how to a biography essay, the currency can alarm other investors.
Large current account deficit. A large current account deficit implies we rely on capital flows to anleitung, finance the current account deficit. Therefore, the UK would be more vulnerable to capital flight. In this circumstance a run on the Pound would be stronger. However, the UK has run a persistent current account deficit since the 1980s. (See: Current account deficit)
Is the UK at risk from a Run on essay, the Pound? Would membership of Euro protect against a run on the Pound? Link between inflation and interest rates. Interest rates can influence the rate of inflation and the rate of economic growth. The Bank of english essay anleitung England change the 'base' interest rate to try and target the government's inflation rate of 2% +/-1 Generally, an increase in inflation leads to higher interest rates.
A fall in the inflation rate and lower growth leads to essay, lower interest rates. Graph Showing Inflation and Interest Rates in the UK. Real Interest Rates. Typically, nominal interest rates are 1 - 2 % higher than inflation. When interest rates are higher than inflation, it means savers are protected against english, the effects of inflation.
However, in 2008 and 2011, we had a period of negative real interest rates. This meant the inflation rate was higher than the base rate. A negative real interest rate is bad news for savers, but good news for borrowers. Response to Rising Inflation. If inflation rises, generally, the Bank of England increases interest rates to reduce inflationary pressure.
Higher interest rates tend to reduce consumer spending. Different! This is english essay anleitung because homeowners see an increase in the cost of different essay their mortgage payments and have less disposable income. Therefore, they spend less. Also, higher interest rates increase the english anleitung, incentive to save and reduce the incentive to borrow. Therefore, an increase in interest rates tends to reduce the rate of economic growth and prevent inflationary pressures. See more on: Effects of Higher interest rates on economy Response to Fall in cover letter hello, Inflation Rate. Lower interest rates increase motivation to borrow Lower interest rates mean cheaper mortgage payments and increase disposable income. Why A Cut in Interest Rates May Not Work.
The recession was so sharp that investment and consumption have fallen dramatically and so the cuts in interest rates have only mitigated the extent of the downturn House Price falls provide a powerful negative impact on spending. English Essay! Lower interest rates should boost spending. Structure Essay! But, with house prices falling 20% since the peak, this has reduced consumer wealth and therefore reduced spending. Global downturn. Even sharp depreciation has been unable to boost export growth because of the english, extent of the economic downturn. Time Lags. Essay! A cut in interest rates can take a long time to have an effect. For example, people with a two-year fixed rate mortgage won't notice for quite a long time. (until they re-mortgage.
Also, commercial banks may be reluctant to pass the interest rate cut onto consumers. In some circumstances, the Central Bank may not increase interest rates, despite an increase in inflation. For example, in 2008 and 2011, we had a rise in inflation to 5%, but, the Central Bank kept interest rates low. Why? They kept interest rates low because: They felt inflation was just due to temporary cost-push factors like higher taxes and volatile food prices increasing They felt economy was at english, risk of spondylothesis 2 symptoms inflation. Therefore, it was more important to tolerate a temporarily higher inflation rate, than increase interest rates and english anleitung push the economy back into recession. Related. UK Exchange Rate Mechanism Crisis 1992. In October 1990, the UK made the decision to join the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM)
The ERM was a semi-fixed exchange rate mechanism. The value of the Pound was supposed to customized, be kept at a certain level against the DM. Keep inflation low Provide stability for exporters encouraging trade Enable countries to join the single currency - the Euro. In the late 1980s, the chancellor, Nigel Lawson was keen to join the ERM. But, Mrs Thatcher with her euro-sceptic views wanted to stay out. English Anleitung! The late 1980s saw an extraordinary economic boom - boosted by booming house prices, tax cuts and low interest rates.
Growth reached record levels of letter hello 5-6% a year. Enthusiastic government ministers talked of an economic miracle - hoping Government policies had enabled, at long last, to catch up with other countries like Germany. However, this miracle was an english essay, illusion. High growth was unsustainable and led to inflation.(see: Lawson Boom) With inflation of 10%, Nigel Lawson was able to convince Mrs Thatcher that the UK would benefit from joining the cover letter, ERM to help reduce inflation. Therefore, the UK joined in October 1990. at a rate of DM 2.95 to the Pound. Increasing interest rates - this attracts hot money flows - it is more attractive to save in UK with high interest rates. Essay Anleitung! Buying pounds with foreign exchange reserves. However, these policies of protecting the value of the essay, Pound was causing a serious economic downturn. High interest rates particularly hit the housing market.
With rising house prices, many had taken out english essay anleitung large mortgages to get on the property ladder. But, now interest rates were increasing, mortgage repayments became unaffordable and default rates increased. Combined with rising unemployment from the recession, the paper cell phone driving, housing market saw a dramatic fall in prices that was to last 4 years. It was increasingly clear to the financial markets that the Pound was overvalued. The government was exhausting its foreign currency reserves in buying pounds. English Essay Anleitung! But, more problematically, the high interest rates was causing a serious recession and misery for homeowners. For a long time, the British government fought a losing battle. But, the foreign currency reserves of the topics, British government were no match for the trillions of Pound Sterling traded on the foreign currency and the pound kept sliding. It is estimated that the Treasury used ?27 billion of foreign currency reserves trying to prop up the Pound. English Essay! The Treasury estimated the cover letter hello, final cost to the taxpayer was estimated at ?3.4 billion.
An overvalued currency can lead to lower economic growth, due to uncompetitive exports. Trying to english anleitung, keep currency at a level which is letter too high, may require high real interest rates - which can cause economic downturn. It is hard to buck the market. Even government intervention on foreign currency markets is not sufficient to prevent depreciation if this is english essay what reflects market fundamentals. A devaluation of the currency can be beneficial for the economy - under certain circumstances. This devaluation did not cause significant inflation, because the economy was depressed. UK Recession of 1991-92 UK devaluation of 1967 - many similarities UK Economic history Factors influencing exchange rate UK Crashes out of ERM in research paper cell phone, 1992 at english, BBC Unemployment is A Price well Worth Paying for lower inflation - Norman Lamont commenting on his own policies. European harmony - European Union countries are no longer at loggerheads like they were in the past.
With the exception of civil war in Yugoslavia (which wasn't in the EU at the time), Europe has managed to heal the divisions which were so painfully exposed in schopenhauer essay, the two World Wars in the Twentieth Century. The EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2012 for helping to promote peace and international co-operation. Many Eastern European countries are keen to join the EU because they feel it will help promote economic and english essay political stability. Legal and topics human rights. The EU has a strong commitment to human rights, preventing discrimination and the due process of english essay anleitung law. This makes the EU attractive to hello, countries, such as the Ukraine who wish to share in similar legal and human rights. Prospect of membership has helped modernise countries, such as Turkey. The Copenhagen Criteria for EU membership enshrine a commitment to human rights, the rule of law and a market economy.
The prospect of gaining membership of the EU, encourage countries to implement human rights legislation. Economic benefits. EU is one of anleitung strongest economic areas in the world. With 500 million people, it has 7.3% of the world's population but accounts for 23% of schopenhauer nominal global GDP. Anleitung! Free trade and removal of non-tariff barriers have helped reduce costs and prices for consumers. Increased trade with the EU creates jobs and higher income. Structure A Biography Essay! Over 52% of UK exports are to the EU.
Trade within the essay anleitung, EU has increased 30% since 1992. According to one study - over ten years (1993-2003), the Single Market has boosted the spondylothesis grade 2 symptoms, EU’s GDP by €877 billion [?588 billion]. This represents €5,700 [?3,819] of extra income per household. A paper, Campos, Coricelli, and Moretti (2014) used the synthetic counterfactuals method (SCM) pioneered by Abadie and Gardeazabal (2003). English Essay Anleitung! The red dotted line shows estimated GDP if the country had not been a member of the EU. This shows that even more prosperous EU countries, such as the UK have benefited from higher GDP as a result of being in the EU. Free movement of labour and customized essays capital have helped create a more flexible economy. For example, UK and Ireland have benefited from the immigration of Eastern European workers to fill labour market shortages in certain areas, such as plumbing, nursing and essay anleitung cleaning. Far from 'taking jobs', migration has helped increase productive capacity and how to makes a net contribution to tax revenues. (see impact of net migration) Free movement of labour also enables British people to live and work in Europe.
Roughly 1.6 million British citizens live in the EU outside the UK ( UNCTAD World Investment Report 2010 ) EU migrants are net contributors to UK Treasury. EU migrants tend to be young. Therefore they pay taxes, but use a relatively small share of the NHS and pensions. See: Fiscal effects of immigration. Net migration has helped deal with the UK's demographic timebomb. EU has enabled people to travel freely across national boundaries making trade and tourism easier and cheaper. According to the European Commission, more than 15 million EU citizens have moved to other EU countries to work or to english, enjoy their retirement. 1.5 million young people have completed part of their studies in another member state with the help of the Erasmus programme. The possibility to study abroad is considered positive by 84% of EU citizens. Research Paper! (benefits of EU) Easier to use qualifications in different member countries. Essay! This makes it easier to work abroad without having to retrain in different national qualifications.
Mutual recognition of safety standards and spondylothesis rules have helped reduce costs for firms. This has encouraged the english essay, development of small and medium business who rely on spondylothesis 2 symptoms, the low cost of exports. Social charter enshrines protection for workers such as a maximum working week, right to collective bargaining and fair pay for employment. European Arrest Warrant (EAW) scheme has made it easier to track criminals across the European continent. Environmental benefits of the EU. The EU has raised the quality of sea water and beeches, by implementing regulations on water standards 'Bathing Water Directive'. 92% of anleitung tourist locations now meet minimum water quality standards. (Clean water at Europa.eu) Tackling global warming. In 2006, the (EU) committed to research paper cell phone use while, reducing its global warming emissions by at least 20 percent of 1990 levels by 2020.
The EU has also committed to spending $375 billion a year to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at english essay anleitung, least 80 percent by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. (global warmingpdf) Tackling acid rain. Environmental treaties which have sought to deal with European wide environmental problems such as acid rain. The EU has set strict restrictions on emissions of pollutants, such as sulphur , and other causes of acid rain. (BBC Link) Consumer benefits of the hello, EU. EU competition policy has harmonised regulation of monopoly and cartel power within Europe. The EU competition policy seeks to avoid abuses of essay cartels / monopoly / dominant market power and protect the interest of the consumer. There has been successful deregulation of airlines, electricity and gas markets.
The EU has reduced the price of essay making mobile phone calls abroad. In 2007 EU legislation set maximum charges for making and receiving calls. The EU also agreed with 14 mobile phone manufacturers to create a standard design for chargers from 2011 in order to make life easier for consumers and essay reduce wastage. In 2014, it is structure a biography essay has voted to scrap roaming charges which will drastically reduce the cost of using a mobile phone abroad. (BBC link) Consumers are free to shop in any EU countries without paying any tariffs or excise duties when they return home. English Essay! So what have the EU ever done for us, apart from straightening all those pesky bananas?
Recent posts on Brexit and schopenhauer Europe. Unemployment - A price worth paying for lower inflation? To some extent N.Lamont will claim to be vindicated by events. Although unemployment rose to 3 million in the early 1990s, inflation was reduced and since then the anleitung, economy has experienced a long period of uninterrupted growth without inflation and unemployment has fallen. 2. Costs of inflation. 1. Customized Essays! Unemployment can last for english anleitung a long time. Yet, this period of undoubted prosperity and rising living standards helped to mask a decline in essays, the relative competitiveness of the UK economy. UK economic growth in the 1960s. There were brief dips in output, but these were not sustained. Lack of willingness / ability to innovate Poor industrial relations with a growing number of days lost to strike action. Essay Anleitung! There was often a break down between owners and managers and increasingly militant trade unions.
Some argue this was exacerbated by Britain's class system. Essays! Whilst Japanese workers sang company songs with zest and loyalty, British workers were more likely to be working to rule or considering strike action. Barbara Castle as Labour minister tried a moderate reforms of trades unions, through her white paper 'In Place of Strife '. However, the english essay anleitung, unions effectively lobbied Labour ministers and the reform bill was blocked. Complacency. Some argue that in the post-war period, the UK was affected by complacency of being a global power. Research Paper Cell! This complacency was in stark contrast to the defeated countries of Germany and Japan, who put greater energy into business. The UK was also hampered by coming to terms with letting go its Empire and trying to join Europe. Anleitung! In the 1960s, two applications to join the EEC were vetoed by customized, the French. Lack of public sector infrastructure.
Burdened by high post-war debt, the UK struggled to invest in new transport and english anleitung technologies. For example, the research phone use while driving, UK was still relying on steam trains until the mid 1960s - later than many other countries who made switch to cheaper and more efficient electricity and diesel. Balance of Payments. In the 1960s, the trade deficit was seen as a vitally important economic statistic, with important politically considerations. Unfortunately, for the Harold Wilson government of the 1960s, the english, UK trade deficit was embarrassingly large - a result of the decline in competitiveness and a wish to retain a strong pound. Campaigns like 'Buy British' were surprisingly prominent, but, ultimately failed to make any real dent in schopenhauer essay, the trade deficit. The problem was that if you wanted a car or electrical good that worked - you were much better off buying from overseas. If we made jokes about Skodas and Ladas in the 1980s, British Leyland was the butt of many jokes during 60s and 70s. Despite the economic weaknesses of the 1960s, it was still an era of full employment and rising real wages. Compared to the rest of the Twentieth Century, the essay, 1950s and 60s were a rare period of hello full employment.
In fact, there were serious labour shortages in industries, such as manufacturing and english essay transport, leading to the mass immigration from Commonwealth countries. Devaluation of 1967. It does not mean that the pound here in Britain, in your pocket or purse or in your bank, has been devalued. (BBC) But, it did cause the price of imports to rise and contribute to rising inflation. It was also hoped the devaluation would tackle. Our decision to devalue attacks our problem at the root and schopenhauer that is why the international monetary community have rallied round. However, although it proved a temporary boost in competitiveness. It could not tackle the fundamental issues, such as productivity and labour relations. After the Second World War, the UK was left with huge debts. National debt as a % of GDP exceeded 200% of essay GDP in the early 1950s.
Britain was reliant on loans from the United States. Cover Hello! Despite growth and a steady reduction in debt to GDP during the 1960s, the UK still required US help. The Lawson Boom of the late 1980s. The Lawson boom of the late 1980s was a classic example of a 'boom and bust' economic cycle. The late 1980s were a period of rapid economic expansion.
This was caused by rising house prices, tax cuts, lower interest rates and high confidence. However, the boom caused a rise in inflation and a larger current account deficit. Essay Anleitung! Policies to grade, tackle this inflation caused the recession of essay 1991-92. The Lawson boom followed from the recession of 1981. Spondylothesis Grade! This recession particularly affected the manufacturing sector and caused unemployment to rise to 3 million. By 1985, unemployment was still over 2.5 million people. English Essay Anleitung! However, from how to structure essay, 1986 the essay, government made various decisions which helped to inflate the economy causing an inflationary boom. Economic growth in the 1980s. In 1987 as a whole, output grew by getting on for 4? per cent., rather more than the rate of inflation which averaged 4.2 per schopenhauer cent.
At the same time, unemployment fell faster than in any other year since the war, in essay anleitung, every region of the country, and more than in any other major nation. The plain fact is that the British economy has been transformed. Prudent financial policies have given business and industry the confidence to expand, while supply side reforms have progressively removed the barriers to enterprise. (source) However, this was not the case and economic growth of cover letter 4%, led to a growing current account deficit and rising inflation rate. 4. The housing boom. The low-interest rates and the high consumer confidence sparked a housing boom. During the boom years, house prices rose by 300% (and more in places like London). Q4 1988 was the peak of the boom period with house prices rising over 30% at an annual rate. This boom in house prices caused a rise in household wealth and essay anleitung increased confidence. Equity withdrawal rose to record levels, which helped increase consumer spending.
By 1988 and 1989, the economy was growing at 5% a year (almost double the long run trend rate) Despite signs of overheating, the government were reluctant to react. Interest rates were increased, but not as quickly as they could have. Partly they believed there had been an economic miracle - enabling a higher long run trend rate of economic growth. But, also Nigel Lawson, didn't want higher interest rates to boost the value of the Pound above the 'unofficial exchange rate' he was following. This was a policy known as shadowing the essay, D-Mark.
However, the fast growth meant that inflation started to creep up, eventually reaching over 8% in 1990. A widening current account deficit in the late 1980s was evidence of the economic boom. High consumer spending led to a rise in import spending causing a deterioration in the current account. It was also in the 1980s, that we saw rapid financial deregulation, which at the time was considered beneficial. However, the financial deregulation of building societies was a factor behind the UK credit crunch of 2008. The Lawson Boom also saw a period of english anleitung widening inequality - helped by cuts to tax rates for high earners. One interesting outcome of the cover hello, Lawson Boom was that it encouraged later governments to english anleitung, give responsibility of Monetary Policy to the Bank of England. Different! The argument was that an independent Bank of England would avoid the essay, political pressure to keep interest rates too low to achieve high growth. Related. How does austerity affect the economy? However, austerity, during a time of economic weakness often leads to schopenhauer, further falls in aggregate demand, higher unemployment and lower economic growth.
In some cases, austerity to english anleitung, reduce a budget deficit can be self-defeating, with sharp falls in real GDP, causing debt to GDP ratios to continue to rise. Hello! However, in certain cases, 'fiscal austerity' can reduce budget deficits without causing negative economic growth. Lower inflation . Spending cuts will tend to lead to lower inflation. English Anleitung! Firstly, the fall in aggregate demand (AD) will lead to lower inflationary pressures in the economy. Customized Essays! Also, if the government limits public sector wages, this will put downward pressure on wages. Lower wage growth plays a key role in reducing underlying inflationary pressure.
Ireland has been one of more 'successful' countries which has embarked on austerity, but this shows GNP is still significantly below pre -crisis levels (when real GNP was growing at an average rate of close to 5% a year) The UK's budget deficit fell slower than expected. This was partly because growth forecasts proved overly-optimistic. The austerity measures led to english, a slowdown in growth. What determines the spondylothesis, impact of austerity? Exchange rate . Austerity is not as damaging if a country can devalue the exchange rate. This devaluation helps to restore competitiveness much quicker than relying on internal devaluation. Essay Anleitung! The depreciation helps boost export demand.
Countries in the Euro, can't devalue and so have to rely solely on internal devaluation to restore competitiveness. Should we worry about national debt? It is worth bearing in mind that in the 1940s, as well as paying for post war reconstruction, the UK set up the NHS and welfare state. There was no austerity panic in the 1940s! The high government debt levels of the 1940s and how to essay 1950s were not a barrier to the post war boom years of the 1950s and english essay anleitung 1960s which saw record levels of economic growth. An analogy. When I took out customized essays a mortgage loan of ?140,000, I was left with mortgage payments of ?800 a month.
In 2004, this was nearly 40% of essay my income. Essay Topics! However, if my income increases by 3% a year. Essay Anleitung! In 20 years time, it will be much easier to pay that mortgage payment of ?800, it will hopefully be 15% of my income. To buy a house, it makes sense to 2 symptoms, borrow a mortgage and pay back over 30-40 years. However, although national debt can be effectively managed, there are concerns when debt grows faster than National Income.
For example, in Greece debt to GDP has risen so quickly that it has proved very difficult to stop the english anleitung, ratio of debt to essays, GDP rising. English! (partly because spending cuts to reduce the deficit, caused lower GDP) As UK debt rose from 35% of different essay topics GDP to english, 80% of GDP. Bond yields fell from 5% to 2% In other-words as debt rose, borrowing costs fell. This is because in economic downturn, there is greater demand for government bonds. In some cases (such as Eurozone economies) higher levels of letter public debt pushed up bond yields. English Essay! Higher bond yields are damaging to how to structure, the economy. It increases the cost of debt interest payments and is a reflection investors are nervous about the essay, liquidity of government debt. It forced the economies into different essay topics austerity which caused a prolonged recession. The UK has seen a fall in bond yields during the recession of english essay anleitung 2008-12. This is because, in a recession, private sector saving rises.
Therefore, there is demand for safe investments, such as government bonds. Paper Cell Phone Use While Driving! In a recession, people don't want to take risks, therefore demand for shares and private investment tends to fall. In a recession, government borrowing doesn't tend to cause crowding out. English Essay! Government borrowing is merely mopping up private sector saving. Possible reasons to be concerned about government borrowing. However, an ageing population can be resolved without just increasing tax on young workers. The retirement age can be increase to keep the same% of population in workforce. 3. Inflationary Pressure. There is a concern that higher levels of national debt can cause inflation.
If debt becomes too high, there may be insufficient investors to buy the government securities (the usual way of financing the debt). Therefore, the government may be tempted (or forced) to fill the shortfall in revenue by printing money. Printing money and increasing the money supply, will lead to inflation. The problem with inflation, is that it devalues the value of bonds, people will sell bonds, leading to higher interest rates on different essay topics, bonds and higher debt interest payments. If investors see inflation is getting out of essay control, people will not want to hold bonds. Foreign investors will sell their securities and this will cause a devaluation in the currency. This is particularly a problem for essay the US, where foreign countries hold a high % of the national debt.The hyperinflation of Germany in 1922-23 was caused by the government printing money to finance reparation payments to the allies. However, it should be pointed out, this hyperinflation is anleitung quite rare and only occurs if the government prints money recklessly without regard to the fundamental economic situation. Quantitative easing in 2009-12 didn't cause inflation in different essay topics, the UK and US. English! The increase in the monetary base was very large, but the grade 2 symptoms, inflationary impact minimal. - Inflation and quantitative easing.
4. Crowding Out . It is english essay argued that if government borrowing increases, it will cause crowding out of the private sector. If the private sector buy bonds it means the private sector has less funds for customized private sector investment. Essay Anleitung! Also, if borrowing increases, interest rates may rise. Higher interest rates also reduce private sector spending and investment. However, in a recession, crowding out doesn't occur because the private sector want to buy government bonds 5. As National Debt increases as a % of GDP, it means that the interest payments as a % of GDP may increase.
Therefore, higher levels of customized taxes have to be spent on just financing the english essay anleitung, national debt. If the government increases debt during a period of economic growth - the higher borrowing is essays likely to crowd out the private sector and lead to essay, a decline in private sector investment. If there is a structural deficit caused by spending commitments which can't be met by tax revenues. If the government responds to higher debt by printing money; this can cause inflation. e.g. case of Zimbabwe, Germany 1920s. But, note QE of 2008-12, didn't cause inflation in structure, UK and english anleitung US because of essays liquidity trap. How to essay, deal with an ageing population.
How UK Pension spending as a % of GDP has increased in recent decades.