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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. With the 2016 AP English Language and Composition exam approaching on Wednesday, May 11, it’s time to etd dissertations make sure that you’re familiar with all aspects of the exam. In this article, I’ll give a brief overview of the test, do a deeper dive on pacthesis codes each of the sections, discuss how the exam is scored, offer some strategies for studying, and finally wrap up with some essential exam day tips. The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. Etd Dissertations. Essentially, how do authors construct effective arguments in their writing? What tools do they use? How can you use those tools to craft effective writing yourself? That is the of the essence of rhetorical analysis. The exam has two parts: the first section is an etd dissertations hour-long, 52-55 question multiple-choice section that asks you questions on the rhetorical construction and techniques of a series of nonfiction passages. The second section is free response.
It starts with a 15-minute reading period, and then you’ll have 120 minutes to write three analytical essays: one synthesizing several provided texts to of the create an argument, one analyzing a nonfiction passage for its rhetorical construction, and one creating an original argument in response to a prompt. You will have about etd dissertations 40 minutes to write each essay, but no one will prompt you to move from chesley sullenberger hero essay, essay to essay—you can structure the 120 minutes as you wish. In the next sections I’ll go over each section of the etd dissertations exam more closely—first multiple choice, and then free response. Different An Expository Essay. The AP English Language and Composition Multiple-Choice. The multiple-choice section is primarily focused on etd dissertations how well you can read and understand nonfiction passages for their use of rhetorical devices and tools. You will be presented with 4-5 passages, about which you will receive a small amount of orienting information, e.g. “This passage is on effective strategies excerpted from a collection of etd dissertations, essays on boating” or “This passage is strategies excerpted from an essay written in 19th-century Haiti.” You will be asked somewhere from 10-15 questions per passage. Etd Dissertations. There are, in general, eight question types you can expect to encounter on the multiple-choice section of the exam.
I’ve taken my examples from the sample questions in the “Course and Exam Description.” Magic eight-ball says there are eight types of multiple-choice questions! These questions are focused on verifying that you understood what a certain part of the passage was saying on a concrete, literal level. You can identify these questions from phrases like “according to” “refers,” etc. Teaching Strategies. The best way to succeed on these questions is to go back and re-read the etd dissertations part of the passage referred to very carefully. These questions take reading comprehension one step further—they are primarily focused on what the author is implying without directly coming out and saying it. These questions will have a correct answer, though, based on of the evidence from the passage. Which interpretation offered in the answers does the etd dissertations passage most support?
You can identify questions like these from words like “best supported,” ‘“implies,” “suggests,” “inferred,” and so on. Type 3: Overall Passage and Author Questions. Codes. These questions ask about overall elements of the passage or the author, such as the author’s attitude on the issue discussed, the purpose of the passage, the etd dissertations passage’s overarching style, the audience for ways to start an expository, the passage, and so on. You can identify these because they won’t refer back to a specific moment in the text. Etd Dissertations. For these questions, you’ll need to on effective teaching strategies think of the passage from a “bird’s-eye view” and consider what all of the small details together are combining to etd dissertations say. Type 4: Relationships Between Parts of the Text. Some questions will ask you to describe the relationship between two parts of the text, whether they are paragraphs or specific lines. You can identify these because they will usually explicitly ask about the relationship between two identified parts of the text, although sometimes they will instead ask about a relationship implicitly, by saying something like “compared to the rest of the passage.” Type 5: Interpretation of Imagery/Figurative Language. These questions will ask you about the deeper meaning or implication of figurative language or imagery that is used in the text. Essentially, why did the author choose to use this simile or this metaphor?
What is s/he trying to accomplish? You can generally identify questions like this because the question will specifically reference a moment of figurative language in the text. However, it might not be immediately apparent that the phrase being referenced is figurative, so you may need to go back and look at it in the passage to essay be sure of what kind of question you are facing. Type 6: Purpose of Part of the Text. Still other questions will ask you to identify what purpose a particular part of the text serves in the author’s larger argument. Etd Dissertations. What is the author trying to accomplish with the particular moment in the text identified in the question? You can identify these questions because they will generally explicitly ask what purpose a certain part of the text serves. You may also see words or phrases like “serves to” or “function.” These questions will ask you to identify a rhetorical strategy used by the author.
They will often specifically use the phrase “rhetorical strategy,” although sometimes you will be able to identify them instead through the answer choices, which offer different rhetorical strategies as possibilities. Some questions will ask you about pacthesis codes stylistic moments in the text and the effect created by the those stylistic choices. What is the author evoking through their stylistic choices? You can identify these questions because they will generally mention “effect.” Some very important stylish effects going on here. The AP English Language and Composition Free Response.
The free response section has a 15-minute reading period. Etd Dissertations. After that time, you will have 120 minutes to write three essays that address three distinct tasks. Because the first essay involves reading sources, it is suggested that you use the entire 15-minute reading period to read the sources and critical, plan the first essay. However, you may want to etd dissertations glance at sullenberger essay the other questions during the reading period so that ideas can percolate in the back of etd dissertations, your mind as you work on the first essay. Essay One: Synthesis.
For this essay, you will be briefly oriented on ways to start essay an issue and then given anywhere from six-eight sources that provide various perspectives and information on the issue. You will then need to write an argumentative essay with support from the documents. If this sounds a lot like a DBQ, as on the history AP exams, that’s because it is! However, this essay is much more argumentative in nature—your goal is to persuade, not merely interpret the documents. In the second essay, you’ll be presented with an excerpt from a nonfiction piece that advances an argument and asked to write an essay analyzing the rhetorical strategies used to etd dissertations construct the passage’s argument. You will also be given some orienting information—where the passage was excerpted from, who wrote it, its approximate date, where it was published (if at all), and to whom it was directed.
In the third essay, you will be presented with an issue and asked to write a persuasive essay taking a position on the issue. You will need to support your position with evidence from your “reading, experience, and observations.” This doesn't look like a very well-constructed argument. How The AP Language and Composition Exam Is Scored. Essays Strategies. The multiple-choice section of the exam is worth 45% of your score, and the free-response section is worth the etd dissertations other 55%. So each of the three free-response essays is worth about 18% of your score. As on other APs, your raw score will be converted to a scaled score of 1-5. Literature Research Paper. This exam has a relatively low 5 rate. Only 9.9% of test takers received a 5 last year, although 55% of students received a score of etd dissertations, 3 or higher.
In terms of how the raw score is obtained, the multiple-choice section is similar to other AP multiple-choice sections: you receive a point for every question you answer correctly, and there is on effective teaching strategies no penalty for guessing. For each free-response question, you will be given a score from 0-9, based on a rubric. The rubrics all assess, in etd dissertations general, 3 major things: How well you responded to the prompt: Did you completely and fully address all of the tasks presented in the prompt, without misunderstanding any of them? How convincing and well-supported your argument was: Do you take a clear position that is not overly basic, simplistic, or obvious? Can you comprehensively support your position with evidence? Is your evidence well-chosen and well-explained? Do you tie everything back to topics british your main argument? Have you thought through the implications of your stated position? How strong your writing was: Does your writing clearly communicate your ideas? Are your sentences not just grammatically correct, but sophisticated? Do you have a consistent style and a strong vocabulary?
Is your paper well-organized and etd dissertations, logically arranged? Each rubric broadly assesses these three factors. However, each task is also different in nature, so the rubrics do have some differences. I’ll go over each rubric—and what it really means—for you here. Thesis Study. Essays earning a score of 9 meet the etd dissertations criteria for the score of 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in development, or impressive in their control of language.
You did everything an 8 essay did, but either your argument is essays strategies particularly compelling or well-supported, or your writing is particularly effective/sophisticated. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by etd dissertations, effectively synthesizing at thesis significance study least three of the sources. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and convincing. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to etd dissertations control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. You thoroughly responded to the prompt, successfully using (and citing) at least three of the sources to support your argument. You supported your argument in a persuasive way.
Your writing is competent, although there may be some minor errors. Essays earning a score of 7 meet the criteria for the score of 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. Your essay did everything a 6 essay does but is either better explained, better argued, or better-written; however, it’s not quite up to an 8 level. Essays earning a score of 6 adequately address the essays on effective teaching task in the prompt. They develop their argument by adequately synthesizing at etd dissertations least three of the sources. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and sufficient. The language may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is clear. You responded to the prompt in chesley a reasonable way. You used and etd dissertations, cited at least 3 of the sources in creating your argument. Topics For A. You supported your argument in a reasonably persuasive way, although not as compellingly as an 8 essay.
Your writing is generally understandable. Essays earning a score of 5 address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by synthesizing at least three sources, but how they use and explain sources is somewhat uneven, inconsistent, or limited. The writer’s argument is generally clear, and the sources generally develop the writer’s position, but the links between the etd dissertations sources and pacthesis cheat codes, the argument may be strained. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. You did respond to the prompt. You used and cited at least 3 of the sources in creating your argument, but you did not use all of them particularly effectively. Etd Dissertations. The connection between the documents and your argument is underdeveloped. Your writing is mostly understandable but may have errors. Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately address the critical on oleanna task in the prompt. Etd Dissertations. They develop their argument by synthesizing at least two sources, but the evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing.
The sources may dominate the essay’s attempts at development, the different link between the argument and the sources may be weak, or the student may misunderstand, misrepresent, or oversimplify the sources. The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the elements of etd dissertations, effective writing. You did not adequately respond to topics for a research the prompt. You used and cited at least two sources, but you did not effectively link them to your argument. Your essay may summarize sources instead of etd dissertations, truly taking a position, or you may have misread the sources. Your writing is not consistently clear. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of sullenberger, 4 but demonstrate less success in addressing the task. They are less perceptive in their understanding of the etd dissertations sources, or their explanation or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. Pacthesis. The essays may show less maturity in their control of etd dissertations, writing. Your essay did not adequately respond to the prompt.
Your interpretation of the different to start sources is incorrect or your argument is etd dissertations overly simplistic. Hero. Your writing is overly basic or unclear. Essays earning a score of demonstrate little success in addressing the task in etd dissertations the prompt. Chesley Essay. They may merely allude to knowledge gained from reading the sources rather than cite the sources themselves. These essays may misread the sources, fail to develop a position, or substitute a simpler task by merely summarizing or categorizing the etd dissertations sources or by merely responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. Essays that score 2 often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in different to start writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of control. You barely addressed the prompt. You may not cite any sources directly, misunderstand the sources, never take a position, or write things that are not relevant to the prompt.
Writing is very weak, including grammatical issues. Essays earning a score of etd dissertations, 1 meet the pacthesis codes criteria for the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation, weak in their control of writing, or do not allude to or cite even one source. Your writing barely addressed the prompt. Explanations are extremely simple, writing is incredibly weak, or sources are not used or cited at all. Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English. Etd Dissertations. You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an pacthesis entirely blank response.
You didn’t write anything! Time to synthesize this dough into some cookies. Essays earning a score of etd dissertations, 9 meet the criteria for the score of ways to start essay, 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in etd dissertations their development, or impressive in their control of for a british research paper, language. You achieved everything an 8 essay did, but the quality of either your argument or your writing is exceptional. Etd Dissertations. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively analyze the rhetorical strategies used by study, the author to develop his/her argument. Etd Dissertations. They develop their analysis with evidence and explanations that are appropriate and convincing, referring to the passage explicitly or implicitly. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. You successfully and persuasively analyzed the rhetoric of the critical excerpt in a way that is strongly supported by etd dissertations, specific examples in the text. Your writing is versatile and strong. Essays earning a score of 7 meet the esay criteria for the score of 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. You achieved everything a 6 essay did, but your argument was either better explained or supported or your writing was of a higher caliber.
Essays earning a score of 6 adequately analyze the rhetorical strategies used by etd dissertations, the author to develop his/her argument. Of The. They develop their analysis with evidence and explanations that are appropriate and sufficient, referring to the passage explicitly or implicitly. The essay may contain lapses in etd dissertations diction or syntax, but generally the prose is clear. You successfully analyzed the rhetoric of the topics paper excerpt, using appropriate references to the text. Etd Dissertations. Your writing was generally understandable. Thesis Of The Study. Essays earning a score of 5 analyze the rhetorical strategies used to develop the author’s argument. Etd Dissertations. The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas.
You analyzed the rhetoric of the excerpt, although evidence from the passage may have been poorly used or deployed. Critical On Oleanna. Your writing is mostly understandable but may have errors. Essays earning a score of etd dissertations, 4 inadequately analyze the rhetorical strategies used by different ways essay, the author to develop his/her argument. These essays may misunderstand the passage, misrepresent the etd dissertations strategies the author uses, or may analyze these strategies insufficiently. Significance Of The. The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the elements of etd dissertations, effective writing. You did not analyze the rhetoric in the passage in a reasonable way. You may have misread the passage or misidentified the critical author’s rhetorical strategies, or you may simply not have supported your argument enough. Textual evidence may not be appropriate to etd dissertations the task at hand.
Your writing is not consistently clear. Chesley Hero Essay. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of 4 but demonstrate less success in analyzing the rhetorical strategies the author uses to develop his/her argument. They are less perceptive in etd dissertations their understanding of the passage or the topics literature research author’s strategies, or the explanations or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. The essays may show less maturity in control of writing. A 3 essay has similar weaknesses to a 4 essay, but displays less understanding of the etd dissertations passage or the author’s intent. The writing may also be even more inconsistent or basic. Critical Esay On Oleanna. Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in analyzing the rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument. Etd Dissertations. These essays may misunderstand the prompt, misread the passage, fail to analyze the strategies used, or substitute a simpler task by responding to literature paper the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. The essays often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of control.
You barely analyzed the passage. You may have misunderstood the assigned task, seriously misread the etd dissertations passage or the author’s intent, or responded to something other than the to start an expository prompt. Writing is consistently weak. Etd Dissertations. Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for the score of chesley sullenberger essay, 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation, or weak in their control of language. A 1 essay is has similar weaknesses to a 2 essay, but is even more poorly supported or poorly written. Indicates an etd dissertations off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English. You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything! Examine your texts closely! Argumentative Essay Rubric.
Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for the score of 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in critical esay their development, or particularly impressive in their control of etd dissertations, language. You meet the criteria for an 8, plus you have either a particularly strong argument, strong support, or strong writing. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively develop a position on the issue presented. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and convincing, and the argument is especially coherent and well developed. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. You persuasively address the prompt, using strong evidence to support your argument. Your writing is strong but not necessarily perfect. Essays earning a score of 7 meet the criteria for the score of 6 but provide a more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. A 7 essay meets the criteria for topics british literature paper, a 6 essay but is either better-argued, better-supported, or more well-written. Essays earning a score of etd dissertations, 6 adequately develop a position on sullenberger hero essay the issue presented.
The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and sufficient, and the argument is coherent and adequately developed. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is clear. You reasonably address the prompt, using reasonable evidence to support your argument. Your writing is generally good but may have some mistakes. Essays earning a score of 5 develop a position on etd dissertations the issue presented.
The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited. The writing may contain lapses in critical on oleanna diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. Etd Dissertations. You do address the prompt, although the critical on oleanna support for your argument may be sparse or not wholly convincing. Your writing is usually clear, but not always. Etd Dissertations. Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately develop a position on the issue presented. Thesis. The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The argument may have lapses in coherence or be inadequately developed.
The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the etd dissertations elements of effective writing. You do not adequately address the prompt or form a strong argument. Your evidence may be sparse or unconvincing, or your argument may be too weak. Your writing is not consistently clear. Critical Esay. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of 4 but demonstrate less success in developing a position on etd dissertations the issue. The essays may show less maturity in control of writing. 3 essays meet the criteria for a 4 but have either weaker arguments or less clear writing. Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in developing a position on codes the issue. These essays may misunderstand the prompt, or substitute a simpler task by responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. The prose often demonstrates consistent weaknesses in writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of etd dissertations, development or organization, or a lack of coherence and essays teaching, control. You barely addressed the assigned task.
Your essay may misunderstand the prompt. Etd Dissertations. Your evidence may be irrelevant or inaccurate. Your writing is weak on multiple levels. For A. Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation and argument, weak in their control of etd dissertations, language, or especially lacking in coherence. A 1 essay meets the criteria for a 2 but the argument is even less developed or coherent. Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English. You made no attempt to respond to the prompt.
Indicates an entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything! As you can see, the an expository synthesis rubric is focused on how you used sources, the analysis rubric is etd dissertations focused on how well you analyzed the text, and the argument rubric is focused on the strength of your argumentative writing without outside sources. Achieving a high score on an AP Lang and Comp essay is no easy feat. The average scores on essays last year were all under 5, with the Synthesis essay at about a 4.7 and the other two at just over esay on oleanna 4. So even getting a 7 out of 9 is very impressive! You may feel that these rubrics are a little bit vague and frustratingly subjective. And, indeed, what separates a 6 from a 7, a 7 from an 8, an 8 from a 9 may not be entirely clear in every case, no matter the etd dissertations pains taken by the College Board to standardize AP essay grading. That said, the general principles behind the rubrics— respond to the prompt, build a strong argument, and different to start essay, write well —hold up. Etd Dissertations. If you can write strong essays in the time allotted, you’ll be well on your way to a score of 5 even if your essays got 7s instead of 8s.
So what can you do to essays prepare yourself for the frenzy of AP English Lit activity? The best kind of frenzy is a puppy frenzy! Unlike its cousin, the AP English Literature and Composition exam, the AP Language and Composition exam (and course) have very little to do with fiction or poetry. So some students used to more traditional English classes may be somewhat at a loss as to etd dissertations what to do to prepare. Cheat. Luckily for you, I have a whole slate of preparation tips for you! A major thing you can do to etd dissertations prepare for teaching, the AP Lang and etd dissertations, Comp exam is to read nonfiction— particularly nonfiction that argues a position , whether explicitly (like an op-ed) or implicitly (like many memoirs and personal essays). Read a variety of non-fiction genres and topics for a literature paper, topics, and pay attention to the following: What is the author’s argument? What evidence do they use to support their position? What rhetorical techniques and strategies do they use to build their argument? Are they persuasive?
What counterarguments can you identify? Do they address them? Thinking about these questions with all the etd dissertations reading you do will help you hone your rhetorical analysis skills. Learn Rhetorical Terms and Strategies. Of course, if you’re going to be analyzing the essays teaching nonfiction works you read for etd dissertations, their rhetorical techniques and chesley sullenberger hero essay, strategies, you need to know what those are! You should learn a robust stable of rhetorical terms from your teacher, but here’s my guide to the most important AP Language and Composition terms (coming soon). If you want to review, there are many resources you could consult: Wikibooks offers a list of “Basic Rhetorical Strategies,” which explains some of the most fundamental rhetoric-related terms. MiraCosta college has another good list of some of the most important rhetorical strategies and devices. A heroic individual from Riverside schools in Ohio uploaded this aggressively comprehensive list of rhetorical terms with examples. It’s 27 pages long, and you definitely shouldn’t expect to know all of these for the exam, but it’s a useful resource for learning some new terms. Another great resource for learning about rhetorical analysis and how rhetorical devices are actually used is the etd dissertations YouTube Channel Teach Argument, which has videos rhetorically analyzing everything from Taylor Swift music videos to Super Bowl commercials.
It’s a fun way to think about rhetorical devices and get familiar with argumentative structures. Finally, a great book—which you might already use in your class—is “They Say, I Say.” This book provides an overview of rhetoric specifically for academic purposes, which will serve you well for AP preparation and beyond. You also need to practice argumentative and hero essay, persuasive writing. Etd Dissertations. In particular, you should practice the writing styles that will be tested on the exam: synthesizing your own argument based on multiple outside sources, rhetorically analyzing another piece of writing in-depth, and creating a completely original argument based on your own evidence and different ways to start an expository essay, experience. You should be doing lots of writing assignments in your AP class to etd dissertations prepare, but thoughtful, additional writing will help. You don’t necessarily need to turn all of the practice writing you do into chesley sullenberger essay, polished pieces, either—just writing for yourself, while trying to address some of etd dissertations, these tasks, will give you a low-pressure way to essay try out different rhetorical structures and argumentative moves, as well as practicing things like organization and developing your own writing style. Not the most auspicious start to an argumentative essay. Etd Dissertations. Finally, you’ll need to practice specifically for the exam format. There are sample multiple-choice questions in the “AP Course and Exam Description,” and thesis of the, old free-response questions on etd dissertations the College Board website.
Unfortunately, the College Board hasn’t officially released any complete exams from previous years for the AP English Language and pacthesis codes, Composition exam, but you might be able to find some that teachers have uploaded to school websites and so on etd dissertations by Googling “AP Language complete released exams.” I also have a guide to chesley sullenberger essay AP Language and Composition practice tests (coming soon). Once you’re prepped and etd dissertations, ready to go, how can you do your best on hero essay the test? AP Language and etd dissertations, Composition Test Day Tips. Here are four key tips for test-day success. You are one hundred percent success! When you are reading passages, both on the multiple-choice section and for on oleanna, the first two free-response questions, interact with the text! Mark it up for things that seem important, devices you notice, the etd dissertations author’s argument, and on effective teaching, anything else that seems important to the rhetorical construction of the text. Etd Dissertations. This will help you engage with the pacthesis text and make it easier to answer questions or write an essay about the passage. Think About Every Text’s Overarching Purpose and Argument.
Similarly, with every passage you read, consider the author’s overarching purpose and etd dissertations, argument. If you can confidently figure out what the author’s primary assertion is, it will be easier to sullenberger hero trace how all of the other aspects of the text play into the author’s main point. Etd Dissertations. The single most important thing you can do for yourself on literature research paper the free-response section of the etd dissertations AP English Language exam is to spend a few minutes planning and outlining your essays before you start to different an expository essay write them. Unlike on some other exams, where the etd dissertations content is the most important aspect of the essay, on critical esay on oleanna the AP Language Exam, organization, a well-developed argument, and strong evidence are all critical to strong essay scores. An outline will help you with all of these things.
You’ll be able to make sure each part of your argument is logical, has sufficient evidence, and that your paragraphs are arranged in a way that is clear and flows well. Anticipate and etd dissertations, Address Counterarguments. Another thing you can do to give your free responses an extra boost is to identify counterarguments to your position and address them within your essay. This not only helps shore up your own position, but it's also a fairly sophisticated move in a timed essay that will win you kudos with AP graders. Address counterarguments properly or they might get returned to sender! The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. The exam has two sections. The first section is an thesis study hour-long, 52-55 question multiple-choice test based on the rhetorical techniques and etd dissertations, strategies deployed in hero essay nonfiction passages. The second section is a two-hour free-response section (with a 15-minute initial reading period) with three essay questions: one where you must synthesize given sources to make an original argument, one where you must rhetorically analyze a given passage, and one where you must create a wholly original argument about an issue with no outside sources given.
You’ll receive one point for etd dissertations, every correct answer on the multiple-choice section of the for a literature research exam, which is worth 45% of your score. The free-response section is worth 55% of your score. For each free-response question, you’ll get a score based on a rubric from 1-9. Your total raw score will be converted to a scaled score from 1-5. Here are some test prep strategies for etd dissertations, AP Lang: Read nonfiction with an esay eye for rhetoric Learn rhetorical strategies and techniques Practice writing to deploy rhetorical skills Practice for the exam! Here are some test-day success tips: Interact with each passage you encounter!
Consider every text’s overarching purpose and argument. Keep track of etd dissertations, time Plan your essays Identify and cheat, address counterarguments in your essays. With all of this knowledge, you’re ready to slay the AP English Language and Composition beast! Noble knight, prepare to etd dissertations slay the to start an expository essay AP dragon! Want to improve your SAT score by etd dissertations, 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and chesley hero, is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of etd dissertations, life.
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Electronic Theses & Dissertations (ETDs) - Digital Initiatives
Part 8 - Examples of Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by example. The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in etd dissertations the bunch. In most cases, the sullenberger hero essay, names and etd dissertations, dates from the essays have been changed to not compromise the subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the on effective strategies, apparent research information here in etd dissertations your papers). I have tried to categorize the significance of the, errors as best as I could. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of life through these monads. The essay then goes on to discuss these monads in a Christian context.
Had the etd dissertations, student omitted the above sentences, however, the discussion of different ways an expository religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is relevant to etd dissertations, mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic. For example, it is for a literature, irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the discovery. An example of etd dissertations this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in proportionally higher numbers. Chesley Sullenberger Essay. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all.
An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Etd Dissertations. Although certainly not of sullenberger humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of etd dissertations mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology. Smith was brilliant in each of these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and critical esay on oleanna, logistics. This paper will not only shed light on some of etd dissertations Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in his life that made him the man that he was. This is the introduction to on oleanna, a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. As such, the choice to begin with his date of birth is a good one.
The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied. Etd Dissertations. The paper sets up an expectation for the reader of both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and cheat codes, anecdotes describing his personality. The sentence structure is grammatically sound and flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to London , she then pulled him out of etd dissertations school with the intent to pacthesis, make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. The decade is the 1650s.
The sentence is a run-on. It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to etd dissertations, and. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for different an expository essay them. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to etd dissertations, encourage him to be a farmer. Smith invented the widgetiscope and different, paved the etd dissertations, way for future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of a team working for the greater good.
The bolded part is not a complete sentence. The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation. The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to the development of the two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and essay, fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated.
The comma is confusing and should be removed, and the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the etd dissertations, method of differentiation. The university re-opened after the different ways an expository essay, plague in 1667. Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the etd dissertations, realization that Calculus was important, and was being recognized, a document to record all of the critical esay on oleanna, theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the document that contained the elements of the theory of etd dissertations differentiation, was created in 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to publishing his theories and making his work known. He felt a need for fame and fortune, yet on critical esay, the other hand he had an etd dissertations, abundant fear of rejection. To the dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of criticism.
Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. There are far too many ideas in it, all of which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. I'll try to chesley sullenberger essay, dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the university re-opening after the etd dissertations, plague Smith's ascension through the university ranks the need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the essays teaching strategies, corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an aside to complement the topic, the return to the topic should be swift and easy to understand. Etd Dissertations. Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done.
Another problem: there doesn't seem to be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the university re-open in cheat codes 1667, or was the plague in 1667? Is the student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to have all happened in one year, though it is possible. The document was created in 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and etd dissertations, seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667?
It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith! The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the topics research, entire thing hard to understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the etd dissertations, confusing date information. For A British Research Paper. Here is how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to produce a document detailing all of his theories on the subject. Thus, when the university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to etd dissertations, attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. This dichotomy resulted in his failure to on oleanna, publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in [insert year].
Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor. Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705 to be given the title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to etd dissertations, be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the title of topics research Sir. Who else could be honoured for Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . Etd Dissertations. which made him the first man to be honored for scientific work. There probably should be a page number listed in chesley hero essay the citation. Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry. What does this mean?
Does the student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and etd dissertations, is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope, are questions on which at this distance of time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to essays on effective teaching strategies, copy abstracts. This is a very awkward way of saying that the etd dissertations, events in question happened so long ago that there is no longer sufficient evidence to critical esay, answer certain questions. It would be better written:
Questions as to etd dissertations, whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is still a bit awkward. It's best when broken up into smaller sentences: There are still questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope. Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to ways an expository, persuade the Germans to attack the French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the etd dissertations, means of his visiting Hamburg. Due to him not agreeing with is a very awkward way of ways to start an expository saying: because he disagreed with. Etd Dissertations. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the thesis of the, means of his visiting is a very awkward way of saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to understand, and etd dissertations, simplified problems too complex to approach.
Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself. If the problems were too complex to essay, approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to the manor. A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the etd dissertations, manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from illness due to the shock of her husband's passing during the fall . The phrase after no sign of different ways an expository essay recovery is not properly attached to etd dissertations, Smith's father. On Effective Teaching Strategies. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something. A will does not include land, a house, etc.
It states to whom such things are bequeathed. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock and grain to [whomever]. I don't even understand how and etd dissertations, Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence. His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. Topics British Literature. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son.
That would necessitate incest, and etd dissertations, is clearly not what the student meant to say. Sullenberger Hero. They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the student had used first names during this part of the essay. There is inconsistency in capitalization. It is Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time.
The he in he was premature again refers to etd dissertations, the wrong antecedent. Smith Senior was not premature. Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Thesis Significance Of The Study. Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness. The student suddenly introduces the phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall.
Lastly, the etd dissertations, inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained. The relationship is singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. Thus, the verb were should be singular as well, and changed to was. It was this century where many of the worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus. A century is not a place, it is a section of time. Say it is a place where. or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Adding an 's' without an apostrophe in this case is pluralization, not indicative of possession. The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is plural, but obstacle and system are singular. It should be was.
Tragically at the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at critical esay on oleanna, the age of etd dissertations six. The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of his discoveries. After the essays strategies, publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the angles of the projected colour, a new law of etd dissertations refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics.
During the seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. Are we to hero essay, understand that ALL of the etd dissertations, people in England failed to topics literature, realize the importance of scientific advancement for an entire century? It would have been better if the student had said most people in etd dissertations England. At the current time, the essays strategies, dominant belief was that light traveled in etd dissertations wave . The current time is the moment the reader is reading the sentence. The student meant to say that the belief was such during the esay, historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted. The phrase in etd dissertations wave has an error. It should either be in waves or in a wave.
Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is thesis significance of the, incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out loud. Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an etd dissertations, example of a student not knowing the proper meaning of a word. Impedance means opposition to codes, the flow of electric current. It does not mean the same as to impede, which is to be an obstacle. This could be an instance where a student used the thesaurus in etd dissertations a word processor to come up with a word without bothering to check if the word fit the context. It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of MS Word 97 shows synonyms to topics literature, impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze.
So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. Etd Dissertations. Be diligent and look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either. This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. The sentence should read: In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in the essay. Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to study, include it without attribution.
Smith managed one friendship through this time and the value of that is etd dissertations, always questioned. Who is questioning the value? There is no attribution to explain who questions it or to prove that it is questioned by anyone other than the student. What precisely is being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the one friendship to Smith in particular?
. which means that the cut in the # of points is equal to the degree of the curve. Using the pacthesis, # symbol instead of the word number is a bad short cut, and etd dissertations, certainly inappropriate for a formal essay. Smith also helped to improve the scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community? It might improve the on effective, understanding of the subject in etd dissertations the community, but does that improve the ways to start an expository essay, community itself?
This is a badly worded assertion. Etd Dissertations. If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the case. Chesley Sullenberger Hero. No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for etd dissertations the better. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach. Critical Esay On Oleanna. At the end of the day John challenged the boy to a fight. Etd Dissertations. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the for a british research, boy. Winning the etd dissertations, fight was still not enough. John applied himself in class, and soon became the top student in the school. This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for the purpose of explaining what drove John to become a better student.
Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to mention the relationship between the anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. The relationship is implied and the reader can guess that John wished to beat the esay, boy in more than just a physical fight, and etd dissertations, thus worked hard to outrank the boy in the classroom, but that is study, not stated. Etd Dissertations. The paragraph is very choppy and the sentences do not flow well. Read it out loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. He constructed the clock out different ways an expository essay, of an old box. This is etd dissertations, choppy. Chesley Essay. It could be easily combined into one sentence. Jones became began to study motion.
This error was probably due to a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed. If the etd dissertations, student had read the of the, essay out etd dissertations, loud or given it to a friend to read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of a simple error of omission that could have been caught if the student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to read. The word of should be between calculation and the. That one small error makes the entire sentence awkward and confusing.
If the instructor has to on effective strategies, reread the sentence to try to understand its meaning, the flow of the essay is interrupted. Etd Dissertations. If this happens often enough in the essay, it gives an overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of research. More examples of errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay: One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the esay on oleanna, infinite widget, which in etd dissertations fact cam as a great service to Smith in that it served as an important too in helping explain his branch of cheat widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of them from the etd dissertations, beginning. Admiration for Smith grew in the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out esay on oleanna, universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about light until the next century.
Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about etd dissertations quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the chesley hero essay, research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to fully explain who did the etd dissertations, proving when, and possibly even how they came to their conclusion. These sentences contradict each other. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about some things and not others? The use of Thus implies causality. Chesley. How does the proof that Jones is incorrect and the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of his theory being correct? Regardless of what the student meant by etd dissertations, the flip from strategies incorrect to correct, there is nothing given to etd dissertations, establish causality. It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in an essay.
This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on pacthesis, a computer with a modern word processor. It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about their final product, and while the error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. That's inexcusable at etd dissertations, the university level.
It was also during this time that he traveled to his uncle's place in Brunswick. Place is colloquial. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him. Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is topics for a paper, about someone from the 19th century. Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense. Etd Dissertations. Since the different an expository essay, student doesn't cite this, there is an etd dissertations, implication that perhaps the british literature paper, secretary is etd dissertations, not dead and the student went so far as to interview the teaching, secretary personally.
That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation] Using bullets in a formal essay is etd dissertations, rarely appropriate. It is preferable to write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. Essays Teaching. This student seems to have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of direct quotations into a formal essay structure. Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of etd dissertations calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith? There has only been one?
The student means another, not other. Sloppy. The first page of the essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph. Clearly, the pacthesis cheat, student stapled the pages out of order.
What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in proper order before binding the essay. Etd Dissertations. If the instructor has to begin by figuring out what the heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of you. Jones was quite a busy man in of the that along with his position in the Court of Mainz, he also managed to serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is a bit colloquial. A busy man would do. Etd Dissertations. The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the Baron. This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in 1683.
Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for essays teaching Jones. If this is the case, it is a quotation from a source and should be cited. If not, it is colloquial and etd dissertations, should just say His friend Bill Jones. Who should be whom in this case. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to critical esay, use who and whom. This isn't even a complete sentence. Smith was born prematurely and was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live.
Repeating that he was born is redundant. Etd Dissertations. Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents? Relatives? Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an antecedent.
In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the on effective teaching strategies, natural philosophical world around him. Has is the wrong word here because the etd dissertations, essay is about a person who is now dead. Thesis Significance. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in etd dissertations the present, so the esay, word should at least be had. But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in etd dissertations a publication. It is pacthesis cheat, written. This word should be omitted. Between denotes at least two participants, but Jones is the only one having the etd dissertations, supposed discourse.
This too should be omitted. Natural philosophical world is confusing. Critical Esay On Oleanna. Does the etd dissertations, student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and critical, not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as:
In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the etd dissertations, natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on the answer to british paper, the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the naturally philosophical world around him. He was home for approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the most predominant time period of etd dissertations his life. This is a run-on sentence. It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to make it a proper sentence. 18 months is repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was.
Predominant means superior especially in chesley hero essay power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Most should be omitted. Predominant is not the best word in this case anyway. If the student means it was the most powerful time of Jones' life, they should be clear about that. Etd Dissertations. If they mean it was the most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to different to start, reproduce Smith's experiment.
Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and confusing. Jones was not that easy to what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent.
This is a run-on sentence. Etd Dissertations. It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Pacthesis. Which two men? Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones? The information on physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of etd dissertations mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of whom. Should be who.
A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and pacthesis cheat, whom. There should not be a comma between arguably and his. There is no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics. This might be because it would be difficult to prove in the face of the importance of Newtonian physics. Advancements is probably the wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better. Newton's advancements are more likely to be funds paid in etd dissertations advance of publication. The addition of most importantly is awkward. Particularly would have been a better word. The use of greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for significance study a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up.
The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and etd dissertations, possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to live on forever in the ever-changing world of science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an impossible assertion to make. Work, theories and studies don't live. To Start An Expository Essay. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. If the world is ever-changing, how again can the etd dissertations, student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense?
Or lost entirely? World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of science and one of mathematics. Pacthesis. This conclusion reeks of hyperbole. (So does the phrase reeks of hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that. Ration is the wrong word. The student meant ratio. This is one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed. One man was proclaiming to be the etd dissertations, inventor of the widgetiscope and different to start essay, another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth? The main problem here is the etd dissertations, change in tense.
You can't go from was to is if the subject remains fixed in time. Furthermore, it is incorrect to refer to someone who is essays on effective teaching, dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in the past. Etd Dissertations. Try to avoid using the pacthesis cheat codes, passive form was proclaiming and instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the subject matter. The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to etd dissertations, independently invent the widgetiscope, but the issue is who deserved the essay, title for inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so. Etd Dissertations. You must be careful not to libel people. Essays On Effective. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. A better way of etd dissertations writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the inventor of essays teaching strategies calculus, but only one could be given the credit. The argument was so drawn out etd dissertations, that a decision was not easy to come by which worked against pacthesis Smith's favor.
Jones had been considered the sole inventor of the widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to say that the duration of the argument caused Smith to etd dissertations, lose. To Start An Expository Essay. But because the student failed to etd dissertations, put the necessary comma between the hero essay, bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to etd dissertations, come to significance of the study, a decision against Smith, meaning he won. This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the argument took so long, Smith lost. But then, at the beginning of the next paragraph, the etd dissertations, student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to topics for a british paper, a definitive decision. This negates what the student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the duration of the argument. This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is redundant.
It was from the Greeks, where the underlying of widgetry emerged and set the basis of what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. Etd Dissertations. The comma in this sentence should not be there. It sets up an essays on effective strategies, expectation that the etd dissertations, portion after the comma is a separate clause, as in: It was from the Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. Note that because the who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom. The underlying what ? You can't just say the underlying of widgetry. It has to be the underlying something of widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc. Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over on effective strategies this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. I checked the bibliography to confirm the name, and discovered that nothing by Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all.
Had this gone noticed when the paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to etd dissertations, the validity of the chesley hero, student's sources and bibliography. Etd Dissertations. Be sure to list all sources in your bibliography, and thesis significance, be sure to etd dissertations, spell them correctly when citing! One motive of Sumerian algebra was to impose on themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of critical on oleanna irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves.
It should be written: One motive of the Sumerians concerning their algebra was to impose on themselves. although that is still an etd dissertations, awkward phrase. Concepts should not be plural. This is sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to read over his essay. The sentence should end after compute. Different An Expository. A new sentence should begin, For this reason.
The word they should be put between reason and rejected to etd dissertations, say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is just icky. I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to bring that idea out on topics for a british research paper, its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in these elements and refused to use real numbers and limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is etd dissertations, nonsensical. Be careful to ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them. Don't use till when you mean until. That's colloquial at best, and not really a proper use of the pacthesis codes, word at etd dissertations, all at worst. The proper phrase is on effective, have never been formed. To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form? Even though there is a citation for etd dissertations this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole.
I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the essays on effective strategies, advent of calculus. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to claim a source said something that they did not. If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and etd dissertations, counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of essays on effective strategies Smith's word against a number of suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of etd dissertations a copy of critical esay on oleanna part of etd dissertations one of Jones' manuscripts, on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78)
Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and basically too often. It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to hero essay, avoid it unless something is truly essential. A number of suspicious details pointing against him is an awkward way of saying: suspicions of his guilt. But what the student means is etd dissertations, not suspicions, but points of evidence. When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the way to punctuate it is as follows (note the placement of the colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to chesley hero, the main part of the etd dissertations, sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say: It is a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and cheat, his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to etd dissertations, 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition:
The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in codes the mathematical world , in that they only described fingleish widgetry, and etd dissertations, failed to include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to question a source, and at higher levels of education it might even be required. But if you're going to do it, be careful to do it well and with evidence. Topics For A British Literature Research Paper. This just sounds presumptuous. The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of sufficient definition.
Saying the dictionary is famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. Etd Dissertations. A cardinal sin is thesis significance, a sin of fundamental importance. In the Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Etd Dissertations. Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole. On Oleanna. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in the dictionary, not in the mathematical world. Etd Dissertations. The student meant against the mathematical world. It is ways, surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon centuries . It is etd dissertations, surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is.
Sentences like this are insulting and off-putting, and don't belong in different to start a formal essay. Such great minds requires an example. The word such should be omitted. Centuries upon centuries is redundant. Just say centuries and leave it at that. Jones' first object in Paris was to make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an etd dissertations, opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and essays strategies, Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of etd dissertations topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is a thing. The student means Jones' first objective. This is sullenberger hero, a bad run-on. It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in Paris was to make contact with the French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers such as Davis and etd dissertations, Myers.
He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one. Math is the codes, colloquial version of mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only help our society? What about other societies? More technological in building things is a really awkward way of etd dissertations saying improved our technological aptitude.
Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Thesis Of The. Even if it is true, the etd dissertations, paper didn't demonstrate it because the paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the geniuses that have ever lived. If you start from something, you go to or follow through to another something. The phrase starting from his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going. Furthermore, the to start an expository essay, paper does not start from Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. The student means, starting with his childhood and following through to his death. That is still awkward, and the sentence would be best written:
Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and etd dissertations, this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is colloquial and should be omitted. This really should be cited. Topics For A British Literature. John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the household imply research, and the student should give credit to the source. Etd Dissertations. Really is colloquial, and should be omitted. While at cheat, Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to math . Who is etd dissertations, Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. On Oleanna. It facilitates productivity, but it is etd dissertations, not productive itself.
A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication. Math is colloquial. Study. It should be mathematics. This information helps us to understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and do have an invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and etd dissertations, it pushes back against us . This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and significance of the study, their movement. It has also allowed scientist to etd dissertations, delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the student is trying to make the science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of doing it. It is on effective teaching strategies, also something that seems to indicate an essay geared to children. While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers.
The description of the invisible force is very awkward. A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against etd dissertations us. Gravity does not, in fact, weigh people down. The student's own definition of it earlier in the essay mentions this, and here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull. Chesley. To add in the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory. The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is monumental to etd dissertations, scientists. Both instances of thesis significance scientist should be pluralized. One delves further into something, not in it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in each week they met to show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and awkward. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week.
The second part of this is etd dissertations, a separate sentence and should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions. Show off is colloquial. Demonstrate would be better. Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an critical on oleanna, impact in all of our lives . Etd Dissertations. He is an expository, recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to further math along. This intellectual man has created something which has and will be used for etd dissertations years to come.
This is an important part of history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. A great man is one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society. Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is critical esay on oleanna, hyperbole to declare it in the conclusion. It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to one person may not for another. Centuries is the etd dissertations, plural of century, not the possessive. The student means century's. But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean. Esay On Oleanna. Impacts are made on, not in. If by all of us the student means everyone on the planet, this is incorrect.
Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the life of someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society. Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the etd dissertations, person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the british research, student cannot effectively predict the etd dissertations, future in this way. Some of these comments may seem nitpicky, but the fact of the matter is critical esay, errors such as these reflect poorly on you and your essay. No one is perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. But an essay that is full of the errors listed above prevents the etd dissertations, reader from understanding the content. If the instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in essay February 2005. Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman.
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Electronic Theses & Dissertations (ETDs) - Digital Initiatives
non scannable resume CRYSTAL RESUMES PRESENTS THIS PAGE. IN THE INTERESTS OF MORBID HISTORICAL CURIOSITY. This is an etd dissertations, abridged version of codes, a page I wrote in 2007*. Etd Dissertations? Back then the term “scannable resumés”, though obsolete, was still being used. I kept this page in the site as an example of the confusion that could be caused by technology hype in the resume business. It’s still relevant for that reason: the buzzword “scannable resumés” was replaced by “keyword resumés” and for a, keyword-related hype, and now that LinkedIn is making people’s profiles available to search engines, hype about etd dissertations, “SEO resumés” is being piled on top of the keyword hype. Topics British Research? For a discussion of today’s confusions about keywords and SEO, see SEO, Keywords, Search-Engine Optimization: Hype Misconceptions, on etd dissertations, the Resume Myths page.
*Grammatical tenses have been updated, except in essays on effective strategies, the sections meant for time travelers. “CONFUSION WILL BE MY EPITAPH” (THE VARIOUS MEANINGS OF “SCANNABLE RESUMÉ”) OCR-scannable resumés (commonly called “scannable resumés”) fell out of use in the first few years after the etd dissertations, turn of the pacthesis cheat, century. Such resumes were not meant to be printed out and read by humans. If an employer was sorting through a stack of Word resumés (on paper or on-screen), and came upon your resumé formatted like an OCR-scannable resumé, your resumé would have been thrown out. Period. It happened. Even in the late 90s, you were very unlikely to need an OCR-scannable resumé, unless you were unable to apply for jobs by e-mail or on-line. To see how an OCR-scannable resumé looked, click here. This sample is for historical purposes only.
Unfortunately, it took a while for etd dissertations, some resume experts to pacthesis codes, realize that the scannable resume was no more. And then, for a while, the etd dissertations, term “scannable resumé” was also used to hero, refer to a couple of other things that were (and are) still very much in use, and are also known by etd dissertations, other, more specific names. This caused much confusion. “Scannable resumé” was sometimes used to study, refer to any resumé that was written to etd dissertations, include keywords that would be searched for by the employer’s resumé-processing software. Back when only esay on oleanna, OCR-scannable resumés could be searched for keywords, some resume experts thought that only OCR-scannable resumés had to be written with keywords. But now, almost all job inquiries will include a resumé in an electronic format that can be searched for keywords, and in etd dissertations, any case, all resumés should always be written with keywords.
So using “scannable resumé” to refer to a keyword resumé was unclearan unnecessary confusion between a writing feature (keywords) that should be included in all resumé formats and a particular resumé format with a very limited application. “Scannable resumé” was also sometimes used to refer to a plain old plain-text resumé. This is probably because the place of the chesley essay, old OCR-scannable resumé was taken by etd dissertations, the plain-text resumés that were submitted via e-mail or Web forms, and were searched and ranked by the same resumé processing software that had been used on the digital files produced from scanned paper resumés. THE FOLLOWING TEXT IS FOR TIME TRAVELERS ONLY: WHY DO I NOT NEED ONE? (I once had to tell people this)
The OCR-scannable resumé format is obsolete. Chesley Essay? However, if you are shopping for resumés, you may want to etd dissertations, read about it even if you don’t need one, because the term “scannable” is sometimes used to refer to thesis of the, plain-text resumés, or to etd dissertations, any resumé that is written to pacthesis, include keywords. So there is etd dissertations a lot of confusion about what “scannable resumé” means. Explaining the various confusions requires going into essays on effective teaching some technical and etd dissertations, historical detail. Once upon a time, before e-mail and the Web came to dominate the hero essay, hiring procedure, many companies used optical scanning to etd dissertations, convert the pacthesis cheat, paper resumés they received into etd dissertations digital text that could be added to a computerized resumé database. (Cover letters were sometimes scanned, too.) This technology is called “OCR” (Optical Character Recognition). The OCR scanner would “read” the paper with light and lenses, rather as the human eye does. A picture of each written character was recorded. A computer matched each shape with a character (usually the right one) from its (rather limited) list of possibilities, and pacthesis cheat, recorded that character digitally, as a character in a computer document.
In other words, OCR is an automated version of what happens when a human reads a paper document and etd dissertations, types it into a computer document. In fact, the end product is the samea plain-text file. This digital document was used for the rest of the company’s computerized resumé processing. Special computer programs were used to search the resumés in an employer’s resumé database for keywords that were taken to be indicators of an applicant’s suitability for the job. The documents were scored on the basis of the chesley sullenberger hero essay, keyword count, and etd dissertations, ranked by their scores. At some point, humans intervened and responded to essays on effective teaching strategies, the applicants on the basis of the computer rankings. These databases and computerized keyword searches are still widely used by employers today, but OCR is no longer used as an input method. OCR scanning systems do not read as easily or as accurately as humans. Their only etd dissertations, advantage is that they are much faster and cheaper than having a human re-type the resumé into hero essay a computer file. OCR scanning systems are, in fact, very sloppy and etd dissertations, easily confused. Therefore, for hero essay, best results, a document that is to be optically scanned must be presented in a way that is most easily read by the machine.
A distinct type of resumé format, the “scannable resumé,” was developed to meet the needs of optical scanning. (We prefer to call it “OCR-scannable,” to avoid confusion with other uses of the term “scannable resumé.”) The scannable resumé format implements a longish list of etd dissertations, formatting guidelines that produce optimally machine-readable resumés. Documents in chesley hero, this format are difficult for humans to etd dissertations, read, and when an HR person is essays on effective handed one to read, they react very negatively. (We’ve tried it, as an experiment.) An OCR-scannable resume is good for absolutely nothing but OCR scanning . In recent years e-mail and the Web have come to dominate communications between job-seekers and employers. Etd Dissertations? Job-seekers now typically e-mail their resumés or submit them via forms on company Web sites. Paper may not be printed out until the thesis of the, final stage, when the applicants have been narrowed down to those who are likely to be interviewed. (When you go for etd dissertations, an interview, a printout of critical, your resumé is etd dissertations still likely to be on the interviewer’s desk.) Resumés that have been e-mailed or submitted via Web sites are already in the form of digital text.
So there is no need for a scanning process to convert paper resumés to digital text. The e-mailed or uploaded resumés are fed directly into the database, where computer software can search them for keywords. Sullenberger Hero Essay? Paper resumés are once again used only for etd dissertations, reading by ways an expository essay, humans. Some employers, especially very large organizations, may still list OCR scanning as an option for resumé submission, but they strongly prefer e-mail or on-line applications. OCR scanning means extra work for them, and delays the processing of the resumé for as much as several weeks (or aborts it entirely). By this time, if they still have their old OCR resumé-processing system around, they are probably keeping it purely out of bureaucratic inertia.
Or they may have document management systems that use OCR input for other purposes, and can theoretically use it for etd dissertations, resumés as well. But these systems are not likely to pacthesis cheat codes, be well integrated with their resumé-processing systems and hiring functionsbecause they are rarely or never used for that purpose. You may still see OCR-scannable resumés in the product lists of some resumé services. If you’re traveling back in time to apply for a job, a printout of our plain-text version of your resumé will work fine for OCR scanning. WHEN YOU SHOULD USE AN OCR-SCANNABLE RESUMÉAND WHEN YOU SHOULDN’T. If, by some really bizarre chance, you actually need an OCR-scannable resumé, you can just print out the plain-text version of your resumé, which we supply with all resumés we do. It meets all the etd dissertations, requirements for an OCR-scannable resumé. OCR-scannable resumés are meant specifically for optical scanning by machines. OCR scanning machines do not understand what they’re “reading.” All they do is pick out each successive isolated shape and essays on effective teaching, match it with a letter or punctuation mark. Etd Dissertations? So they don’t need to see the visual formatting that helps make the information structure clear to strategies, a human reader. And in fact, that visual formatting is likely to etd dissertations, cause the machines to make mistakes, so formatting for human readability goes out the hero essay, window.
For this reason, resumés formatted for maximum readability by OCR scanners are good for absolutely nothing else . Etd Dissertations? They’re difficult for a human to interpret, and chesley sullenberger hero, humans who review resumés react very negatively when they are given a resumé in etd dissertations, this format. So don’t take a chance on sending an OCR-scannable resumé when your prospective employer may want something else. At this point in time, you will probably not have to consider sending an OCR-scannable resumé unless you cannot apply for the job by e-mail or on-line. Sullenberger Hero? Even then, you should not assume that an OCR-scannable resumé will be desirable or acceptable. Many employers have no need of them, because they don’t put resumés in a database.
That’s done mainly by large organizations and etd dissertations, employment agencies, and it’s probably only the largest that have OCR scanning machinery available. Critical? In most cases, if you can’t apply by e-mail or on-line, your best bet is to send them your regular (attractive, human-readable) paper resumé unless the employer specifies that a “scannable resumé” (that’s the term they’ll probably use) is their preferred alternative to applying via e-mail or on-line. In these cases, it is etd dissertations likely to be the esay on oleanna, only acceptable alternative, and they will usually be very clear about what they mean by etd dissertations, “scannable resumé”: they will often give instructions for how the topics for a literature research paper, resumé should be prepared. So you’re unlikely to need one, and if you do need one, there will probably be no doubt about it. Etd Dissertations? Unless you’re still in doubt, you can skip the rest of this section, and go to the special instructions for mailing your OCR-scannable resumé, at the bottom of this page. If they accept both OCR-scannable and human-readable resumés, or if you’re not sure which they want but are sure they want something on paper, it will probably be simplest and best to sullenberger hero, send both. If you do this, mention in your cover letter that you’re sending your resumé in two formats: a regular resumé and etd dissertations, a resumé specially formatted for machine scanning in case that’s needed. If you need to find out which they want, try asking whether they want a fully-formatted resumé or one for machine scanning that has no formatting and pacthesis cheat, a plain, uniform look. The following possibilities are even less likely.
But since we’ve worked them out to etd dissertations, the bitter end, we’ll include them in case it saves someone else the different to start essay, trouble. It may happen that someone will ask you for etd dissertations, a “scannable” resumé, and it won’t be clear whether that person wants a specially formatted resumé for optical scanning, or a plain-text resumé, or a resumé in some other format that contains keywords. In that case, you need to to start an expository, find out which is etd dissertations wantedor to decide what to do if you can’t find out. For A British Literature? Ask questions, but do it carefully: they may not be clear in their own minds about what they want, and etd dissertations, if you’re talking to someone who’s screening you for a job, it can be dangerous to catch them out on topics for a paper, a technical point. All versions of your resumé should have keywords. As for the other possibilities, it should at least be clear (or safe to ask) whether they want you to send your resumé as paper mail, in etd dissertations, an e-mail, or in a Web form on the company’s site.
If they want paper mail, or if you can’t send them e-mail or use a Web form, you’re back to the alternatives described above. If they want your “scannable resumé” submitted via a Web form, use your plain-text resumé. Strategies? (See “Plain Text” in our Resumé Glossary for information on etd dissertations, plain-text resumés.) If they want you to e-mail your “scannable resumé,” and essays on effective, you can do so, you can bet that they want you to e-mail them your regular resumé, not one that is formatted for OCR scanning. So you just need to find out what format they want. This will usually be plain-text or Word, or possibly RTF. If you can’t find out which, the safest choice is to send your plain-text resumé in the body of the e-mail. In theory, at least, there is one other possibility: e-mailing an OCR-scannable resumé in Word, RTF, or PDF format, which will be printed out by etd dissertations, the employer and the printouts then fed into different an expository an OCR scanner. But this is unlikely in the extreme.
If there is an organization anywhere in the world that can receive an electronic version of etd dissertations, your resumé by e-mail, but needs OCR scanning to get your resumé into their database, they probably get their paper mail delivered on esay on oleanna, the back of a camel or donkey. Or perhaps the only bridge connecting them to the rest of the world has been washed out. If your prospective employer actually says that the reason they don’t want you to etd dissertations, mail a paper resumé is different to start an expository essay that the camels (or donkeys) are too slow, or that the bridge has been washed out, but insist that they want a resumé formatted for OCR scanning, you have to consider the possibility that they want a Word, RTF, or PDF version of a resumé specially formatted for OCR scanning. In this case, the safest thing is to etd dissertations, send both your regular resumé and an OCR-scannable resumé in the desired format, and mention in your cover letter that you are sending both. But remember: it’s very unlikely that anyone will want an OCR-scannable resumé unless you can’t apply for essays strategies, a job by e-mail or on-line. MAILING YOUR OCR-SCANNABLE RESUMÉ If you do mail someone a OCR-scannable paper resumé, print it on plain white paper onlythat’s the best for optical scanning. Use 24-pound paper if it’s conveniently availableit’s a little heavier than the 20-pound letter paper you usually see, feeds through the scanner better, and is less likely to wrinkle. (But don’t go heavier than 24-pound.) Don’t fold or staple it. Send it flat, in a stiff cardboard mailer.
If you can’t get a suitable mailer, send it flat in an envelope (9 x 12 or thereabouts), sandwiched between letter-size (or slightly larger) sheets of cardboard. Office hours: MondayFriday, noon6 Central Time. Evening and weekend telephone availability by appointment or chance. Outside office hours, leave message: I’ll respond ASAP. Toll-free number available on request, for customers in U.S. Etd Dissertations? states outside Minnesota. Fax number available to customers on request. All contents copyright 2017, Dezhnev Co., Inc. All Rights Reserved. The man who sees two or three generations is like someone who sits in to start, a conjurer’s booth at a fair. and sees the tricks two or three times.
They are meant to be seen only once.
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acid rain essay spm Acid Rain Term Paper. If you are not careless to nature, it is impossible to stay indifferent to such problems as acid rain or air pollution. If you have received a task to write a term paper, why not to use such interesting and hot topics as acid rain term paper and air pollution term paper. As the problem is really at the top now, it will not be difficult for you to find the material, which helps you to cope with either acid rain term paper, or air pollution term paper. To write informative acid rain term paper and air pollution term paper you have to make great research at the subject you are dealing with in your term paper writing. To meet deadlines with your either acid rain term paper or air pollution term paper we recommend you to start writing it as soon as it is only possible. Etd Dissertations? Acid rain is a destructive force as a result of nature and man colliding.
It is formed through harmful industrial emissions combining with contents of. the earth?s atmosphere; a dangerous combination. This prompted governments. throughout North America to take action. Many laws and regulations have been. implemented, yet the thesis question still remains, Should tougher legislation be. implemented to force industries to reduce acid rain emissions? Exploring the etd dissertations Aspects of Acid Rain. What is Acid Rain ? Acid rain is the term used to describe the deposition of pacthesis cheat acid ic air pollution. Although some air pollutants fall directly back to Earth, a lot of them return in rain , snow, sleet, hail, mist or fog, hence the term ? acid rain ?. Etd Dissertations? Unpolluted Rain All rain is slightly acid ic as it contains carbon dioxide, a gas found in air. Unpolluted rain usually has a pH of between 5 and 6. Ways Essay? Acid rain has been found to have a pH as low as 3 and in some cases even lower. [image] [image]1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Acid Neutral Alkali Acid rain What Causes Acid Rain ? When power stations, factories, houses and etd dissertations, cars emit pollution into the air, it contains chemicals like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. These chemicals may either fall directly back to topics for a the Earth due to gravity, these are called dry deposition, or they may mix with water (moisture) in etd dissertations the air to form acid s, this is wet deposition. Once acid s have formed, they can be transported long distances by esay on oleanna, the wind before being deposited in rain , snow or hail. what causes acid rain When power stations, factories, houses and cars release pollution into etd dissertations the air it has chemicals in it called sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. sulphur dioxide: Man-made sulphur dioxide comes mainly from burning fossils fuels in critical on oleanna power stations. It then mixes with water in the atmosphere to etd dissertations make sulphuric acid , which will later fall as acid rain . nitrogen oxides: Nitrogen oxides are also man-made and mainly come from to start car exhausts.
These gases also go into the atmosphere and mix with water to etd dissertations form nitric acid , which once again falls as acid rain . what effects does acid rain have ON the environment ? soils, trees and plants. Trees and hero, plants need healthy soil to grow in. Acid rain can damage these important soils by destroying many vital substances and washing away the nutrients. Etd Dissertations? Understanding Acidic Precipitation or Acid Rain. Topics Research? Our atmosphere functions as living ecosystem of etd dissertations chemical reactions. Through the help of the water cycle, chemicals pass through the atmosphere and strategies, are eventually taken up by the soil, surface water, or organic materials. Human beings have added enormously to etd dissertations the atmospheric burden of many toxic substances. The most prominent evidence of esay this is the presence of acid rain : precipitation and etd dissertations, particles that have been made acid ic by chesley sullenberger hero essay, air pollution. Acid rain is etd dissertations a direct consequence of the atmosphere?s self-cleansing process. Critical Esay On Oleanna? The tiny droplets of water that make up clouds continuously capture suspended particles and soluble trace gases. Not all trace gases can be removed by precipitation, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and etd dissertations, nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere are chemically converted into forms that are readily added into cloud droplets: sulfuric and nitric acid s, the main acid s involved in acid rain . The reaction cycle takes place in the troposphere.
It begins when sunlight hits an ozone molecule (O3) the result is a molecule of oxygen (O2) and a single oxygen atom, which combines with a water molecule (H2O) to on effective strategies form two hydroxyl radicals (HO). This sparse but active molecule forms nitrogen dioxide (NO2) into nitric acid (HNO3) which initiates the reactions that transforms sulfur dioxide into sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Etd Dissertations? What this boils down to is, as a result only the different essay amount of pollutant in the air determines how much acid is ultimately produced. Acid Rain and Its Effects on the Biosphere. Acid Rain : whenever I conjure up images of acid rain I always allude to huge, boiling-red rain drops falling from mean purple clouds on etd dissertations, a path destined for destruction.
I can see them spiraling down uncontrollably in fireballs of rage to the earth; it becomes very apparent. Perhaps my imagination has gotten the better of thesis significance study me here, but acid rain is definitely no sweetheart. Actually, acid rain looks like any other rain . Etd Dissertations? Believe it or not, it does not have flaming tales on the end of it, but it can produce some serious risks to significance of the the world as we know it. Energy and the Environment: Fossil Fuels. Fossil Fuels are one of the etd dissertations most important things on this planet to of the study the human race. Without fossil fuels we wouldn?t have today?s current means of transportation, we would have less heating for the general population, energy uses would be more expensive, and overall the economy and the world would not be able to sustain themselves. Even still, the fact that fossil fuels are on etd dissertations, this planet will never change, but how we use them and thesis, what impacts their use has will always be an issue. The Effect of Car Exhausts on Environment and Humans.
When car is filled up with petrol (vapourisation).Present in petrol. Released in etd dissertations exhaust fumesCarcinogens. Combine to produce photochemical smog. Affects asthmaticsmost.Use catalytic converters. Better engine design. Improve petrol tankand pump design.
Adjust the fuel-oxygen ratio.Carbon MonoxideIncomplete combustion. Critical? ? Acid Rain ,? or more precisely acid ic precipitation, is the etd dissertations term used to an expository describe. rain fall that has a pH level of less than 5.6?a pH of etd dissertations 7 being neutral. This form of air. pollution is currently a subject of thesis of the study great controversy because of the damage it does to the environment and property worldwide. For the last ten years, this occurrence has brought destruction to thousands of lakes and streams in the United States, Canada, and parts of Europe. It also leads to the deterioration of buildings and statues by reacting with several minerals. Acid rain is formed when oxides of nitrogen and sulfite combine with moisture in the atmosphere to etd dissertations make nitric and sulfuric acid s. These acid s can be carried away far from its origin.
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Essay: Evaluating compliance to Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) resuscitation bundles in hospitals across the etd dissertations UK and implications for nursing practice: An Extended Literature Review. This literature review aims to evaluate hospitals’, and more particularly nurses’ capacity to comply with Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) sepsis resuscitation bundles across the UK, as SSC guidelines have proven to increase sepsis survival rates when implemented properly. Using LibrarySearch, a methodical review of the existing literature was performed. A variety of health related databases and essay journals were searched and Boolean logic was applied to etd dissertations specific search terms (Lobiondo-Wood and Haber, 2014). Eight relevant articles were then appraised for quality and the findings discussed. A lack of resources such as equipment and supplies, lack of sullenberger, appropriate referrals due to poor SSC education of medical and etd dissertations nursing staff, and the inconsistent use of SSC guidelines are all associated to with generally poor compliance with SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles in the UK.
Overall, the extent of hospitals’ compliance to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles depends on the availability of the resources and equipment, education of medical and nursing staff, and consistent use of the significance of the SSC guidelines. Importantly, eight articles evidence that SSC awareness by medical and nursing staff plays a vital role in overall compliance. Chapter 1: Introduction. Hart (1998, p. 26) defines a literature review as a summary and ‘critical analysis of relevant available’ studies related to the chosen topic being reviewed. A literature review can aid in improving nursing practice in particular, by identifying themes and causation around a given issue in the field of nursing (Moule and Goodman, 2014). Hence, it is critical to gather evidence-based information through a literature review of the latest available research to help improve one’s practice and make decisions that is based on the best available evidence (Aveyard, 2014). Florence Nightingale (1860) emphasised that nurses are knowledgeable when it comes to etd dissertations patients’ care.
Therefore, in critical esay, the nursing profession there is etd dissertations, no way to stop learning, but instead there are ways to update what has been learned from the for a literature research past according to present conditions, and to gain new insights in order to provide the best available evidence-based practice to patients’ care (NMC, 2010; CRD, 2007). Moreover, it is the responsibility of a nurse to learn new information concerning his or her patients and the environment he or she directly works in, in etd dissertations, order to be prepared for essays new challenges and changes in etd dissertations, delivering evidence-based nursing care to essays on effective strategies patients (Spencer, 2011). The next chapter will briefly discuss the etd dissertations background and rationale of the focus question of sullenberger hero, this literature review, which is: ‘To what extent can hospitals in the UK comply with SSC resuscitation bundles, and what are the implications for nursing practice’? The following chapter will outline the methodology of research, including how relevant literature was searched, tabulated, and analysed, and how the three themes emerged from the etd dissertations chosen articles (Parahoo, 2006). This is followed by for a british research, the discussion and analysis of themes that arose from the chosen articles, and etd dissertations the implications and essays recommendations for nursing practice.
Lastly, conclusions drawn from the chosen articles reviewed will be made. Chapter 2: Background and Rationale. 2.1 What is Sepsis? Sepsis is the reaction of the body to an infection, meaning that the ‘body attacks its own organs and tissues’ as defined by UK Sepsis Trust Organisation (2014). Sepsis was previously known as septicaemia or blood poisoning (Bone, 1991). It starts from an uncomplicated infection that develops into severe sepsis, wherein the infection becomes associated with organ dysfunction and leads to etd dissertations an increased risk of death (Mackenzie and Lever, 2007). According to the UK Sepsis Trust Organization (2014), sepsis can quickly lead to shock, multi-organ dysfunction and eventually results in pacthesis, death if the sepsis is not detected immediately and not treated promptly.
Sepsis is one of the etd dissertations primary reasons of death worldwide. This is why Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines have been introduced worldwide. 2.2 Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) sepsis resuscitation bundles. In 2004, Dellinger et al. launched Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) international guidelines in the United States for the management of on effective, severe sepsis as an effort to etd dissertations reduce the mortality rate associated with sepsis (Dellinger et al., 2004a). It encompasses the creation of evidence-based guidelines sponsored and endorsed by 11 international organisations. It was revised in 2008 and the latest revision was in significance of the, 2013. Subsequently, numerous research studies worldwide had proven its success in reducing mortality rates. The SSC guidelines are composed of 3-hour, 6-hour, and 24-hour resuscitation bundles for managing severe sepsis and etd dissertations septic shock (Dellinger et al., 2013c), which need to be delivered within a certain timeframe immediately following the identification of sepsis symptoms.
These bundles are a group of significance of the study, three or more elements of care specifically related to the disease, that when implemented together will improve patient outcomes (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014b; Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 2014; Dellinger et al., 2013c; Daniels et al., 2011). 2.3 SSC guidelines and United Kingdom. In 2005, the United Kingdom launched the SSC guidelines in an attempt to reduce the etd dissertations sepsis mortality rate in the UK (Bray and Murphy, 2006). The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2007) recommended to carry out a set of topics literature research paper, observations or vital signs systematically using the Early Warning Score (EWS) and the SSC resuscitation bundles (Dellinger et al., 2013c) for etd dissertations management of severe sepsis and septic shock. These are currently recommended on a national scale to address the issue. However, despite of the introduction of the campaign a decade ago, the sullenberger mortality rate in UK remains unacceptably high, ‘There are 102,000 cases of sepsis arise annually, 36,800 deaths every year as a result of severe sepsis’ (Daniels et al., 2011, p. 508). ‘Putting this into perspective, lung cancer (the biggest killer after cardiovascular disease) claims just fewer than 35,000 lives per year, bowel cancer 15,000 and breast cancer 9,000? (Richards, 2013, p. 3).
Hence, it is important to etd dissertations identify the limitations to compliance and chesley sullenberger determine how medical and nursing staff can best help patients survive sepsis (NPSA, 2007). Etd Dissertations? In any hospital setting, there are different patients with many different kinds of illnesses, and nurses play a vital role in sullenberger, ensuring that patients receive the best and most appropriate possible care, thus preventing patients’ deterioration (Aitken et al., 2011). Moreover, rapid diagnosis and etd dissertations treatment saves lives when done as quickly as possible (Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman, 2013). Thus, the aim of this literature review is to topics literature paper evaluate hospitals’ compliance to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the etd dissertations UK as well as to identify the role of the nurse in helping to improve overall SSC compliance (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014a). The following focus question was formulated to address the on oleanna abovementioned concerns and to guide the literature search of this review: ‘To what extent can hospitals in the UK comply with SSC resuscitation bundles, and what are the etd dissertations implications for nursing practice’? The next chapter will discuss in further detail the methodology used for conducting research in order to address the most appropriately respond to this question.
Chapter 3: Methodology. This chapter will discuss the selection criteria, search strategy, and the search outcome of the literature search. How and why the articles were chosen to be included in this literature review will be explained. 3.1 Selection Criteria. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined using the Population, Intervention, Comparison or Comparator and Outcome (PICO) tool. The PICO acronym is for a literature research, used to articulate the research question and structure the search strategy (CRD, 2007; Higgins and Green, 2008; Whitlock et al., 2010). Studies evaluating compliance to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) sepsis resuscitation bundles across hospitals in the United Kingdom (UK) were considered. Hospital settings allow for a wider sample in evaluating nursing and medical staff’s adherence to the guidelines of the SSC rather than in specialist clinics or GPs settings. Articles focusing on adult hospital settings across the United Kingdom, and written in the English language were included. Studies evaluating the use of sepsis resuscitation bundles in paediatric and maternity settings were excluded, as these are less relevant to the adult field of nursing, and paediatrics and etd dissertations maternity wards require different interventions for the treatment of sepsis recommended by the SSC. Many studies started within different timeframes in chesley sullenberger, different places when the etd dissertations SSC guidelines had been introduced worldwide; hence, studies outside United Kingdom were excluded.
The literature review focuses solely on the UK, since it is easier to critical recognise the limitations of the sepsis care bundles when evaluating sample populations in one country rather than across many countries. Studies assessing the compliance to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines (Dellinger et al., 2013c) comprising severe sepsis, septic shock resuscitation care bundles and early goal directed therapy (EGDT) were included, as these are elements of the established bundles and interventions used to etd dissertations manage patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in the UK (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014b). Studies assessing severe sepsis and septic shock cases without using the recommendation of SSC guidelines were excluded, as this paper aims to identify issues and critical determine possible reasons as to why and etd dissertations how non-compliance is occurring despite the proven effectiveness of sepsis resuscitation bundles under the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (Daniels et al., 2011). As the United Kingdom launched its Surviving Sepsis Campaign in 2005 (Bray and Murphy, 2006), only studies assessing compliance to the SSC guidelines to address severe sepsis and septic shock in the UK from 2005 onward were included in this literature review. Studies evaluating the relationships between awareness, resources, and on effective compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, as well as correlative evidence of decreasing mortality rates associated with compliance in sepsis were included. 3.1.4 Study Design. Due to the nature of the focus question, which is to evaluate the compliance to etd dissertations the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, quantitative studies were included that include prospective observational studies, retrospective cohort studies, questionnaires, and surveys. The focus of this paper is across the United Kingdom in order to establish general determining factors regarding the on oleanna limitations, barriers, and solutions for successful implementation of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014a). Case reports and case series were excluded because they tend to etd dissertations focus on one case study, which is more likely to be very specific and less widely applicable than evidence across a more random sample population (Jolley, 2013).
The SSC guidelines were published in 2004, hence, publication dates from the esay years 2004 to December 2014 were included, and dates before 2004 and beyond 2014 were excluded from etd dissertations, this literature search. In terms of hospital studies in the UK, only articles published between 2005 and esay 2014 were included, since the etd dissertations SSC guidelines were launched in the UK in 2005. 3.2 Search Strategy. After establishing the chesley hero focus question this paper aims to answer, the first step was to identify the necessary databases for accessing a wide range of etd dissertations, data sources in the Internet (Younger, 2004). University librarians’ assistance was sought to sullenberger hero access different e-journals. Upon learning the ways to access databases, the researcher used a range of databases from the LibrarySearch engine. LibrarySearch is the etd dissertations University’s search and retrieval tool designed to search for databases and e-journals. This search was performed to reduce bias of the review, and to retrieve articles containing the search terms used. Minimising bias was endeavored by using many appropriate databases to broaden the selection criteria (Newell and Burnard, 2006).
A worldwide search was not included, as only the population of the United Kingdom was relevant to the research question and only articles written or translated in English were considered for review in the study. However, this risk bias, resources for translating articles are not accessible (Khan et al., 2003). Jolley (2013) explains how accessing a wide-range databases aids in acquiring the best and most current research articles. The chosen databases used in this literature search are the British Nursing Index, Internurse, Medline (Ovid), Pubmed, SAGE journals, and Wiley Online Library. Sullenberger Hero? The British Nursing Index was chosen because this database covers all aspects of nursing from etd dissertations, 1994 to present, which meets the cheat inclusion criteria for articles from 2004 to 2014. Internurse database was chosen, as it is the UK’s largest collection of nursing journals. Furthermore, as the UK is home of the British Journal of Nursing, the journal was used for etd dissertations its main focus on topics for a british research research conducted in UK.
The Medline and Pubmed databases were included, as these two cover academic journals from etd dissertations, medical, nursing and study health care publications. Wiley online library was used since it provides over etd dissertations 4 million articles from across different countries that include the United Kingdom. Lastly, the SAGE online journal database was included, as it is the world’s independent academic and professional publisher of over 560 journals (SAGE Publications, 2014). After selecting databases, the next step was to decide which search terms were to be used in accessing literature that would provide the most appropriate evidence for the research question. The following are the search terms that were used: UK, surviving sepsis campaign, compliance, severe sepsis, nurses, impact, and implementation. To increase the search sensitivity, Boolean logic was applied using the pacthesis cheat codes words ‘AND,’ ‘OR’ and ‘NOT’ (Khan et al., 2003). 3.3 Search Outcome. This section will describe which databases successfully produced relevant results based on the search terms and selection criteria. It will further illustrate the number of articles retrieved, and of the articles retrieved, which were identified as the most relevant to the focus question.
This literature search took place between October and December 2014. Using the Search Scope in LibrarySearch engine, six databases were selected to etd dissertations gather articles by pacthesis cheat, applying various search terms relevant to the focus question of this paper. University journal archives and online access privileges, such as subscribing for a free 14-day trial were also used to obtain relevant literature. Initially, the first group search terms used were ‘Surviving Sepsis Campaign,’ ‘compliance’ ‘AND’, ‘impact,’ and ‘UK’. From these search terms, 694 items resulted, with different material types, any year, and any language type (Figure 1). This was then narrowed down from 694 to 3 items by applying the selection criteria wherein the publication date range of the retrievable articles was limited to filter inclusion of only literature relevant for the review, given that Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines were first published in 2004. Therefore, only articles published between 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2014 were considered in etd dissertations, order to filter the most current available evidence. Moreover, English language type, and articles as the literature material type were chosen (Figure 2). The next group of search terms used were ‘Surviving Sepsis Campaign,’ ‘AND’, ‘nurses’ and ‘UK.’ From these search terms, 4 articles were chosen as the most relevant to the focus question. Furthermore, from these 4 articles retrieved using the etd dissertations selection criteria as shown in Figure 3, these were narrowed down from 4 to 1 article, as the other 3 were not research articles. ‘Severe sepsis,’ ‘guidelines,’ ‘AND’, ‘nurses’ and ‘UK’ were the critical third group of search terms used in the LibrarySearch engine that resulted in 69 articles (Table 4).
To filter results to match the most relevant criteria of the focus question of etd dissertations, this review, the subject was refined to ‘Great Britain,’ hence the thesis of the study search was narrowed down from 69 to 2 articles (Table 5). Finally, the following search terms: ‘Surviving Sepsis Campaign,’ ‘AND’, and ‘UK’ were used to find further literature, which resulted in 1,295 items (Figure 6). A collection of journals ‘ namely: Intensive Critical Care Journal, Journal of Clinical Nursing, and etd dissertations Nursing Critical Care Journal ‘ were chosen to narrow down the search from 1,295 to 6 articles (Figure 7). In total, 12 articles were retrieved utilizing the search terms relevant to the focus question. These were then evaluated for relevant titles and abstracts. Two of the articles retrieved had no full text access and the other two articles were duplicated using different search terms (Khan et al., 2003). The eight articles were tabulated that met the selection criteria. The reviewer found that seven articles have used additional and often overlapping sepsis research studies as references.
For example, 6 articles referenced Gao et al. Critical? (2005), 1 referenced Simmond et al. Etd Dissertations? (2007), and 1 referenced Robson et al. (2007) which were also helpful in cheat codes, determining the academic legitimacy and relevance of the etd dissertations articles (Polit and Beck, 2006; Whittaker and Williamson, 2011). In order to minimise bias, Glasziou et al. (2001) suggest having a second reviewer, however this was not feasible in sullenberger hero essay, this literature review. Finally, quantitative research was included as it relates to the focus question of the review, which is to evaluate the compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles as recommended by Dellinger et al. (2013c). Etd Dissertations? Evaluation is primarily conducted with the use of quantitative targets and measurements (Coughlan, Cronin and Ryan, 2007). Ultimately, eight articles were included in this literature review. These eight articles are primary articles, published in United Kingdom between 2005 and 2011.
All of topics paper, these studies concern hospitals’ implementation and compliance to etd dissertations the ‘sepsis resuscitation bundles adapted from the Surviving Sepsis Campaign’ (Dellinger et al., 2013c; Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014a; Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014b), particularly for adult patients identified as having sepsis in the UK. 3.4 Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) and Hierarchy of Evidence. Reviewing research is a ‘mechanism used to provide feedback for of the study improvement’ as noted by Polit and Beck (2006). After articles were selected, a CASP framework was chosen to critically appraise each article according to etd dissertations its validity, credibility, and implication to practice by following the Case-control and chesley sullenberger essay Cohort Studies Appraisal Checklists (CASP, 2013). This helped the reviewer to scrutinise the individual work and to underline the strengths and weaknesses of each article in order to identify the best examples of evidence-based practice (Coughlan, Cronin and Ryan, 2007). The Canadian Task Force on Periodic Health Examination in late 1979 was the first to disseminate the Hierarchy of etd dissertations, Evidence, until which point different, hierarchies had been established and used (The Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination, 1979; Evans, 2003). Hierarchy of Evidence is a tool used in determining the effectiveness, appropriateness, and feasibility of evidence (Evans, 2003). It additionally identifies evidence in order to rank the articles according to the research method most relevant to the focus question. Of the eight articles, five articles employ cohort studies and the other three articles use case-controlled studies.
All of the articles chosen were published in the United Kingdom and are peer-reviewed. Pacthesis Cheat Codes? The Systematic Review is the highest level of hierarchy, followed by the Random Controlled Trial (RCT) as the second level of etd dissertations, evidence. All of the articles collected within this study are ranked level three according to the Hierarchy of Evidence because the methods used are Cohort Studies and Case-controlled Studies. 3.5 Themes for analysis. The next step after determining the appropriate literature for this review was an analysis of the literature. Upon undertaking the analysis, three themes have been identified: equipment and supply limitations, a lack of appropriate referrals due to poor education of medical staff and nurses on SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, and the inconsistent use of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles from hospital to hospital. The following chapter critically discusses the thesis of the three themes that emerged from the literature analysis of the eight selected articles, as well as the implications for etd dissertations the field of nursing as related to the SSC. Chapter 4: Literature Analysis. This literature analysis will critically consider the eight articles in order to judge the strengths, weaknesses, and the significance of each study (Burns and Grove, 2009) in topics for a british literature, addressing the research question: ‘To what extent can hospitals in the UK comply with SSC resuscitation bundles, and what are the implications for nursing practice’? The first theme that emerged from the etd dissertations literature analysis will be examined below.
4.1 Resource limitations. Compliance with the different an expository SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles requires that serum lactate be obtained and that this is measured using an etd dissertations, Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) machine (Dellinger et al., 2013c). Other requirements include the use of an ultrasound scan for Central Venous Pressure (CVP) insertion; blood cultures to be sent to Pathology before starting antibiotics; crystalloid or colloid intravenous fluid challenge, and resuscitative medicines such as steroids, vasopressors and inotropic therapy (Dellinger et al., 2013c). However, five of the articles reviewed evidence that this necessary equipment is lacking in a number of of the study, hospitals in the UK. 4.1.1 Equipment and medication. Three of the research articles specify that in some cases there has been lack of necessary resources that are used to etd dissertations meet compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. This not only limits the ability of medical and nursing staff to manage sepsis, but it also limits the reviewer’s ability to evaluate compliance with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. Gao et al.’s (2005) study aligns with previous studies that demonstrate how compliance with evidence-based SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles significantly reduces mortality. The study comprises ‘101 consecutive adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock on medical or surgical wards, or in accident and thesis study emergency areas at two acute National Health Service (NHS) Trust Teaching hospitals in England’ (Gao et al., 2005, p. R764). The findings evidence poor ward care in etd dissertations, critically ill patients, evidencing that eight percent of patients had no oxygen administrated, fourteen percent had no IV access, and fourteen percent of patients ‘had no observation monitoring of pacthesis cheat, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, oxygen saturation, urine output, or conscious level’ (Gao et al., 2005, p. R766). Since the aim of Gao et al.’s (2005) study is to assess the relationship between compliance with SSC guidelines and a decreased sepsis mortality rate, reasons for non-compliance are beyond the scope of etd dissertations, this study.
However, the critical authors importantly note that the hospital’s resource limitation led to a deviation from the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundle ‘in the short term’ (Gao et al., 2005, p. Etd Dissertations? R764). This includes limited ‘ultrasound-guided access, training and staffing that prevented the safe and early placement of central venous catheters outside the critical care environment’ (Gao et al., 2005, p. R766). The ultrasound-guided access is essential to insert the critical esay on oleanna CVP, therefore even if the staff has the knowledge to comply with SSC guidelines, with limited resources available, compliance is not possible. In hospitals such as these two NHS Trust Teaching hospitals, resource limitations forced the staff to deviate from ‘the benchmark for persistent hypotension despite fluid resuscitation, adapting a target haemoglobin of etd dissertations, 7 to 9 g/dl and/or vasopressors but exluding the requirement to achieve a target of sullenberger hero essay, 8mmHg and etd dissertations ScVO2 of’ 70% central venous pressure’ (Gao et al., 2005, p. R768). Similarly, McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins’ (2008) study highlights the issue of resource limitations. McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, (2008) investigates the implementation of the 6-hour resuscitation care bundle as advocated by Dellinger et al. (2004) in 265 Acute Medicine Units (AMUs) in the United Kingdom. The research methodology is chesley sullenberger, a questionnaire with 10 questions about the delivery of the 6-hour SSC sepsis resuscitation bundle, sent to each of the participating AMUs.
The data was collected and tabulated per etd dissertations percentage by region. Thirty-five percent of the 162 respondents claimed to have implemented the 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle in their own hospital, although seventy-one percent had access to outreach teams, and only forty percent had enhanced care beds. Essays Strategies? Moreover, ‘the minimum facilities to comply with the 6-hour resuscitation bundle were the availability of etd dissertations, enhanced care beds, ability to measure arterial blood gas lactate, measure CVP and to administer inotropes’ (McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, 2008, p. 164). These minimum facilities varied in different regions in UK. The findings of pacthesis, McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins’, (2008) study identified that only six hospitals had successfully implemented the complete sepsis resuscitation bundle and that thirty-five percent AMUs claimed to etd dissertations have implemented the SSC guidelines despite eighty-eight percent of AMUs lacking the minimum facilities to comply. Although resource availability is esay on oleanna, not the main focus of either of the abovementioned studies, this emphasis on limitations indicates that the extent to which a hospital can comply with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles depends largely on the resources available. McNeill, Dixon and etd dissertations Jenkins, (2008) results indicate that in different ways an expository essay, contrast to the evidence of resources limitations presented by Gao et al.’s (2005) study, it is etd dissertations, apparently possible to comply even when there is a lack of resources. However, the respondents’ claims based on the questionnaire alone are unverifiable, as the results were based on ways essay participant’s subjective responses. McNeill, Dixon and etd dissertations Jenkins (2008) have no way of proving that the participants responses are honest, although they do suggest that clinical audits to be conducted for chesley hero future studies. Nevertheless, McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins’ (2008) study identifies the importance of the facilities needed to etd dissertations effectively deliver the 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle across AMUs in UK, and finds that resources are lacking overall.
This includes sixty percent with no access to enhanced care beds, and only twelve percent of AMUs having the thesis significance study minimum facilities available to fully comply with SSC guidelines. Baldwin et al.’s (2007) audit in Kent determines compliance with the 6-hour sepsis resuscitation bundle according to etd dissertations appropriate referrals between nurses and relevant medical staff. It finds that even where communication was adequate between nurses and doctors, ‘there were instances when the appropriate antibiotics was out of stock in A#038;E’ (Baldwin et al., 2007, p. Chesley Sullenberger Hero? 255) particularly with a shortage of the antibiotic Tazocin. It is evident therefore, that compliance with the SSC guidelines not only requires that one follow all of the elements of the etd dissertations sepsis resuscitation bundle, but also that nursing staff monitor and essays on effective teaching strategies communicate the need for essential medicine supplies more frequently. 4.1.2 Financial resources. Another significant resource limitation relating to etd dissertations SSC compliance is the financial capacity of a given hospital. Gao et al. (2005, p. R765) state that ‘severe sepsis is expensive, such as in USA average cost per is $22,100’. Even ‘in an age of financial austerity,’ Page et al. (2011, p. 314) suggest on one hand, that a sticker and poster program could provide an affordable means of ensuring universal SSC compliance. Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) on the other hand, suggest that there should be funds for nurse education and training as solutions to esay on oleanna ensure compliance.
Regardless of which authors are more justified in their claims, both suggestions are made in reaction to resource constraints within hospitals in the UK. Page et al.’s (2011) study further implies that staffing levels particularly influence compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles (Dellinger et al., 2013c). The study notes that ‘compliance was better in etd dissertations, Accident #038; Emergency (A#038;E) than in the Clinical Decisions Unit (CDU) due to a sixty-three percent staffing level in A#038;E as compared to the low staffing level of thirty percent in CDU’ (Page et al., 2011). A#038;E doctors moreover had ‘continuous support of their nurse’ (Page et al., 2011, p. 314). This study therefore indicates that a major influencing factor for ensuring compliance is adequate staffing levels, which is particularly challenging given hospitals’ current funding limitations (Hurst and Williams, 2012). Furthermore, findings suggest that compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles depends on the nurse’s role in performing the initial triage for essays on effective patients. 4.1.3 Implications for etd dissertations nursing practice.
The level of effectiveness of ways an expository essay, compliance to etd dissertations SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles in topics for a literature, the UK is partially, but also significantly contingent on levels of resource availability. This integrates into nursing practice, as it is important for nurses to etd dissertations know how limited resources can impact compliance to the sepsis resuscitation care bundles for the management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Additionally, it is the nurse’s responsibility to ensure that ‘medication ordering systems are in place to minimize dose omissions and delay; utilize staff resource efficiently’ (NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Prescribing Organisation, 2008). Assuring that there is proper inventory of study, medical supplies and medication, and that the etd dissertations proper equipment is in working order and within easy access for use by medical staff are all within the scope of responsibilities and topics british research paper duties of a nurse. In essence, nursing is an act of etd dissertations, utilising the environment to assist patient’s recovery (Nightingale, 1860), and sullenberger hero essay compliance with SSC guidelines to etd dissertations decrease patient mortality rates is no exception to this duty. McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins’ (2008) study highlights the essays on effective issue of resource limitations in addressing sepsis. However, further investigation is recommended to determine the reasons for the lack of resources and solutions as to etd dissertations how resource availability could be improved to ensure that compliance is sullenberger hero, feasible not only with the 6-hour resuscitation bundle, but also to etd dissertations identify sepsis in the first place. Additionally, an audit of the 265 AMUs surveyed is an expository essay, recommended in order to increase accuracy of results. This would also help to explain the reasons why despite having limited resources, some hospitals have found it possible to comply with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. The next section will discuss the second theme identified in addressing the research question, which is etd dissertations, a lack of appropriate referrals due to poor education of medical and codes nursing staff on the implementation of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. 4.2 Lack of appropriate referrals due to poor SSC education of medical and nursing staff.
One of the evident reasons for general poor compliance with SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the UK is a lack of referrals for etd dissertations patients displaying symptoms of sepsis. Seven of the eight articles reviewed evaluated compliance of the medical and nursing staff’s implementation of the sepsis resuscitation bundles as related to SSC education. Only one article evaluated the compliance of the medical staff alone. The articles under review evidence that better compliance outcomes of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles relies largely on medical and nursing staff having a proper awareness of the SSC guidelines for british the management of severe sepsis and septic shock, particularly in etd dissertations, terms of identifying sepsis, and subsequently in providing appropriate referrals. 4.2.1 Identifying sepsis. Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) audited seventy-three registered nurses in different ways to start an expository essay, ‘medical, surgical and orthopaedic wards’ in Chesterfield Royal Hospital. The audit took place in 2005 over the three-month period and etd dissertations identifies the extent to which nurses understand ‘definitions of pacthesis, sepsis, and etd dissertations the recommendations for its initial management’ (Robson, Beavis and Spittle, 2007, p. 86). It was reported as an audit because the nurses were tested against the ‘standard definitions and evidence-based management guidelines’ of the SSC (Robson, Beavis and Spittle, 2007, p. 87). Similarly, McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins’ study evaluates the ‘key critical care skills and knowledge required to’ (McNally, MacKinnon and esay Hawkins, 2009, p. Etd Dissertations? 22) implement the early goal directed therapy (EGDT) as recommended by essays, the Surviving Sepsis Organization (2014b) in etd dissertations, Specialist Registrars (SpRs) in anaesthetics, ‘general surgery and general medicine throughout Scotland’ (McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins, 2009, p. 22). However, this is the only article that does not include nursing staff in their study, amongst the ways eight articles in etd dissertations, this review. Seventy-three nurses from junior to esay on oleanna senior grades completed the questionnaire created by Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) in etd dissertations, the form of test.
The questions included diagnosing patients with sepsis or severe sepsis based on the signs and essays strategies symptoms, five case studies to explain management plans, and ten ‘true or false’ statements (Robson, Beavis and Spittle, 2007, p. 86). In the first phase of the questionnaire, six systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria could indicate that a patient has sepsis. Of the respondents, ninety-seven percent correctly indicated an increased temperature above 38??C and only nineteen percent correctly answered that higher than 4 white blood cell count is an indicator of sepsis. Moreover, ninety-one percent wrongly identified a suspected infection as an etd dissertations, indicator (Robson, Beavis and strategies Spittle, 2007). This study shows that ward nurses appears to etd dissertations have ‘general lack of awareness that low temperature, low white blood cells are signs of sepsis’ (Robson, Beavis and Spittle, 2007, p. Critical Esay On Oleanna? 87).
McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins’ (2007, p. Etd Dissertations? 23) questionnaire ‘was open for completion within a 3-month period and a single email reminder was sent’. Esay? This study aimed to ‘survey at least fifty percent of etd dissertations, general surgical trainees and an equivalent number from different ways an expository, other specialities, and a statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 13 using the Chi-squared test’ (McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins, 2009, p. 23). The respondents were asked about the years of training, previous critical care experience, their attitudes towards the awareness of EGDT and the SSC guidelines. ‘A power calculation ‘indicated that 30 replies per specialty would’ (McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins, 2007, p. 23) be required to detect a thirty percent difference between specialties. Overall, although McNally, MacKinnon and etd dissertations Hawkins (2007) did not focus on nurse’s SSC protocol knowledge, they similarly found that medical staff in Specialist Registrars lacked knowledge of EGDT elements. A number of nurses surveyed by Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) had reportedly taken some life-support courses such as the Acute Life-threatening Events Recognition and Treatment (ALERT) course by Smith, Osgood and Crane (2012) where any patient with low BP should receive 500-1000ml of fluid, and may be repeated as necessary. However, there is pacthesis cheat, no specification on to the length of courses or the extent, which sepsis was studied. In the etd dissertations ALERT book, sepsis is thesis of the study, discussed in a separate chapter, which means that nurses may not have been educated on etd dissertations sepsis. According to McClelland and thesis significance of the Moxon (2014), the etd dissertations nurse’s role is vital in early detection and topics literature research paper recognition of sepsis, hence nurses ought to possess a full awareness of etd dissertations, identifying sepsis and managing it beyond identification.
Since grade doctors provide immediate care and resuscitation to patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins (2007) focused only on Specialist Registrars (SpRs) in pacthesis cheat codes, anaesthetics, general surgery and general medicine. Although McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins (2007) suggest the development of etd dissertations, working relationships amongst anaesthetic staff, trainee physicians and surgeons in order to cheat ensure proper referrals and compliance with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundes, nursing staff are absent from the study. This inaccurately assumes that only grade doctors can give provision of immediate care and resuscitation to patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, despite the researchers’ admittance that nurses are the first to identify a deteriorating patient and inform the doctors to come and etd dissertations see the patient. Page et al.’s (2011) study took place in Blackpool Victoria Hospital, wherein it showed that within 48 hours of admission, there was a high patient mortality rate; hence SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles were implemented, which included a heavy focus on educating staff in their hospital. During the study, they introduced an essay, education campaign to motivate the staff in implementing the sepsis resuscitation bundles. Activities within the etd dissertations education campaign included lectures for all the junior doctors, pocket cards detailing the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles and of the small group tutorials to all nurses. In addition, posters were placed in every department. Page et al. Etd Dissertations? (2011) proved the sullenberger effectiveness of this ‘sticker campaign’ in etd dissertations, improving the identification and different to start essay treatment of sepsis by etd dissertations, comparing the hospital’s sepsis compliance with nearby Preston Royal Hospital that did not implement the on effective teaching same campaign, and etd dissertations where compliance with all the elements ‘was not achieved in any patient’ (Page et al., 2011). The authors thus fail to provide a strong comparison based on controlled variables (examples are the number of patients, staff members, and sepsis protocols). Nevertheless, they propose that the sticker programme should be transferrable to almost any acute hospital and different ways to start an expository essay that the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles could be achieved in etd dissertations, a district general hospital. Page et al. (2011) started staff member SSC education during their study whilst Baldwin et al. (2007) indicated that there was education across their Trust, particularly for the critical care outreach nurses and ICU consultants where educational sessions outlining the on effective strategies surviving sepsis campaign and its components were conducted.
Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007); Simmonds et al. Etd Dissertations? (2008); McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins (2009); McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins (2008) do not state if there were education campaigns occurring in the UK hospitals studied, despite the fact that they all suggest better staff education about sepsis and its management. Lack of staff education on sepsis is evident across all articles reviewed; however, the reason for this lack is not clearly explained, and pacthesis cheat requires further research. 4.2.2 Critical care referral. None of the eight articles evidence a hospital that achieved 100% compliance with the SSC guidelines, and all reviewed articles mention the importance of education and awareness of the sepsis care bundle across all disciplines in etd dissertations, terms of appropriate and timely patient management and pacthesis referral. Simmonds et al.’s (2008) study took place in Queen’s Medical Centre (QMC) in Nottingham, under informed consent by the Trust Audit Committee. The study comprises 229 adult patients with significant positive blood cultures. Simmond et al. (2008, p. 124) used an expanded version called the QMC Sepsis Measurement Tool, which includes: the ‘timing of sepsis resuscitation bundles interventions, seniority of doctors and the level at which care was given.’ The findings were that patients experiencing severe sepsis were only seen by any doctor after a median of 1.1 hours. Similarly, Cronshaw et al.’s (2011) study shows that patients’ waiting times exceeded an hour to see a doctor in the Emergency Department (ED).
Of the 255 severe sepsis patients (SS), seventy-one percent of SS had no documentation discussion regarding the ITU referral (Cronshaw et al., 2011), hence noted that communication between ED and intensive care colleagues need to develop. ‘[D]espite severely abnormal physiology’ (Simmonds et al., 2008, p. 125), only sixty-one percent were referred for critical care opinions and only sixty percent of those patients were reviewed by a specialist in critical care within 12 hours of meeting severe sepsis criteria according to etd dissertations the SSC. Different Ways To Start An Expository Essay? Of the 46 patients, 19 received level 3 care (Intensive Care Unit) within a six-day median stay, and 19 received level 2 care (High Dependency Unit) within a five-day median stay. Thirty-three percent of the etd dissertations sepsis patients died within 90 days and topics british literature research paper thirty-five percent within a year (Simmonds et al., 2008, p. Etd Dissertations? 126). This analysis of different levels of care indicate that mortality is higher outside of critical care and significance this correlates to the authors’ findings that there is a lack of sepsis resuscitation bundle compliance outside of critical care areas. Cronshaw et al.’s research study evidences that only twenty-nine percent of the patients were referred to ITU staff, and were considered not suitable or were labeled ‘do-not attempt resuscitate’ and seventy-one percent of severe sepsis patients had no documented discussions for etd dissertations referrals to the ITU (2011, p. 671).
Simmonds et al.’s (2008) and Cronshaw et al.’s (2011) findings therefore, demonstrate that a lack of referrals is thesis significance study, one of the factors that contribute to poor SSC sepsis resuscitation bundle compliance. Simmond et al. (2008) suggest that SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles are to be investigated beyond the intensive care in order to improve the capacity of the entire hospital system to address sepsis. McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, (2008) study supports Simmond et al.’s (2008, p. Etd Dissertations? 165) suggestion, because the findings of of the, McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, indicate that only ‘few AMUs across the UK hospitals can comply with the sepsis care bundle that have systems in place to resuscitate a patient with sepsis’. AMU is categorised as first level of care; therefore, it is essential to survey the compliance of the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles at etd dissertations, this level. Although SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles ought to theoretically be implemented in any level of different ways to start, care in the hospital setting, implementation at different levels of etd dissertations, care does not guarantee overall compliance with SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, as proven by Cronshaw et al. (2011); Simmonds et al. (2008); McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins (2008); Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007); Page et al. (2011). Nevertheless, one essential factor for ensuring compliance with the pacthesis cheat SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles is the awareness of staff members on how and when to etd dissertations refer the patient as quickly as possible from the point at which the patient is diagnosed as having sepsis. 4.2.3 Communication between levels of topics british literature paper, care. Baldwin et al. (2007) argue that the reason fifty percent compliance to the administration of the antibiotics is due to poor communication between the prescribing doctor and etd dissertations the nurse who is meant to chesley hero administer the antibiotics.
The study claims that some elements of the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles were not implemented due to etd dissertations issues around the doctors wherein junior medical staff were primarily attending to the patients’ treatment (Baldwin et al., 2007, p. Different Ways To Start? 255). 4.2.4 Implications for nursing practice. Robson, Beavis and Spittle’s (2007) questionnaire particularly affirms that ward nurses generally fail to recognise patients as having severe sepsis or septic shock and are not confident to etd dissertations give intravenous fluid to those patients with lowered systolic BP or urine output as they may have fears of causing fluid overload for the patient. Pacthesis Cheat Codes? Simmonds et al. (2008, p. 127) recommend that this lack of etd dissertations, awareness could be addressed through the recent advent of course initiatives such as the ‘Ill Medical Patients Acute Care and Acute Care Undergraduate Teaching needs to be routinely part of postgraduate medical and sullenberger nursing education.’ Equally, McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, (2008) suggest that education of nursing staff is needed, and similarly, Robson, Beavis and etd dissertations Spittle’s (2007, p. 89) study identifies that a ‘deficit in knowledge of nurses could lead’ to poor compliance to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. A nurse’s capacity to render the best possible care for a patient with severe sepsis is achievable through education. This is a key to implementing the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, and patients’ survival relies on the healthcare professionals who will accurately execute the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. Esay On Oleanna? Moreover, it is essential that a nurse has good communication skills (Webb, 2011) coupled with improved collaboration with multidisciplinary teams (Goodman and Clemow, 2010). Etd Dissertations? Good communication skills and sullenberger hero collaboration are the result of staff education and awareness on compliance to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, and are essential in ensuring the patient’s continuity of etd dissertations, care. Robson, Beavis and pacthesis codes Spittle’s (2007) evidence implies that nurses’ awareness of sepsis management demonstrated limited awareness, with less than half of respondents knowing each of the sepsis symptoms, however there is a lack of etd dissertations, confidence on implementing the interventions specified in the SSC guidelines. Therefore, it is worth recommending that nurses require more exposure and opportunity to essay practice their skills on managing sepsis, through utilisation of the etd dissertations SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles.
Page et al. (2011) state that their sticker programme and posters may be an efficient alternative to costly education and training programmes as these are affordable and consistent means of study, educating staff. However, the authors would have more effectively proven that their methodology was successful in preventing high sepsis mortality rates had the comparison between this campaign’s compliance results been made with past SSC interventions in the same hospital rather than with a nearby hospital that did not undertake the same campaign. Whichever hospitals endeavour to etd dissertations implement the sticker programme should evaluate SSC compliance by critical esay on oleanna, comparing the etd dissertations present sepsis related mortality rate with the sepsis related mortality rate achieved through said programme in critical esay on oleanna, order to achieve more accurate measurements of compliance. Etd Dissertations? Also there should be tangible training on how to use the sticker programme. McNally, MacKinnon and critical esay on oleanna Hawkins (2009) suggest that a minimum education on etd dissertations how to initiate EGDT is on effective teaching, important, however what exactly covers a ‘minimum education’ ought to be clarified. Hence this cannot be recommended. Etd Dissertations? Awareness and education without good communication and collaboration will affect the effectivity of thesis significance of the, compliance to etd dissertations the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, therefore, further study to evaluate the multidisciplinary team collaboration in hero essay, relation to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles is recommended. The next section will address the third and final theme, which is the inconsistency of the use of SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. 4.3 Inconsistent use of Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. The SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles compliance is evident when there is etd dissertations, consistency on significance the use and implementation of the etd dissertations standard guidelines. On Effective? Below are findings that indicate inconsistency in the use of SSC guidelines as influencing factors on the extent to etd dissertations which compliance with SSC resuscitation bundles can be evaluated in significance of the, the UK.
4.3.1 Management in addition to SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. Three of the articles reviewed that took place in hospitals across the UK have added different forms of etd dissertations, management to the existing SSC guidelines, which creates difficulty challenge in evaluating overall compliance. Simmond et al. (2008, p. 125) used a ‘QMC Sepsis Measurement Tool’ regarding the timing and seniority of cheat codes, doctors and etd dissertations the level of care given. The tool, which is not part of the SSC recommended guidelines, was used to determine the entry levels of care for patients suspected to have sepsis. Gao et al. (2005) added to the SSC’s ‘6-hour basic ward care’ using the median Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) (Heart of England, 2010). However, these authors’ modifications are helpful as far as the MEWS helped to identify that less than 15% of the patients received basic ward care. Cronshaw et al. (2011) followed the College of pacthesis cheat, Emergency Medicine (CEM) guidelines to manage sepsis. The CEM require 1, 2, and 4-hour targets depending on the standard of care, and when a patient is within the 6-hour bundle, the practitioner then follows the SSC standard guidelines. The CEM standards for the management of severe sepsis (SS) and septic shock (SS) are ‘eight recommendations to the Emergency Department (ED) within 4-hours’ (Cronshaw et al., 2011, p. Etd Dissertations? 670). Pacthesis Cheat? Additionally, 1-hour ‘sepsis six’ protocol comprises six standards: oxygen administration, serum lactate measurement, IV fluid administration, blood culture, IV antibiotics, and urine output measurement (Cronshaw et al., 2011, p. 671).
Even if the CEM guidelines and sepsis six protocol add incongruity to to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, there is etd dissertations, still consistency on critical esay implementation of the six-hour sepsis care bundle under the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC). Nevertheless, none of the aforementioned studies are easily transferable across a range of hospitals in the UK, as they have all altered the etd dissertations SSC guidelines in critical, some way. 4.3.2 Modified elements under the SSC guidelines. Two articles were found to have changed particular elements within the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles. Gao et al. (2005, p. R765) used ‘haemoglobin target instead of haematocrit and used remaining hypotension after fluid resuscitation for threshold of inotropes instead of central venous oxygen saturation’, which is the etd dissertations standard for topics british literature the sepsis care bundle. Likewise, Page et al. (2011) mention that there were some doctors who opted not to apply certain elements of the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles, such as giving the full 20 ml/kg bolus to the patient, and documented the reason for not giving it as professional discretion. Gao et al. (2005) could have provided clarification as to the altered SSC guidelines by providing rationale, such as the discretionary reasons distinctly explained by Page et al. (2011). In nursing practice, any decision about the care for individual patient must be evidence-based (Sacket et al., 1996) and any clinical judgment made by the doctor if agreed upon by the team and clearly documented is the right decision to take.
This is evidently emphasized by the SSC, which states: ‘these guidelines cannot replace the clinician’s decision-making capability’ (Dellinger et al., 2008b, p. 19) hence, clinician can use own discretion. However, the extent to which a clinician alters the SSC care bundles either in writing or in practice will still have a significant impact on researchers’ capacity to evaluate SSC compliance across hospitals in etd dissertations, the UK, as is the discrepancy in this particular literature review. While three studies have used different formats of the esay SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles and two studies modified the elements, five of the articles reviewed found overall consistency in the use of the etd dissertations SSC guidelines and have positive implications for compliance. Cronshaw et al. (2011); Baldwin et al. (2007); Page et al. (2011) adhere to the SSC’s 6-hour sepsis bundle guidelines, and critical esay McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins’ (2009) study follows each element of Early-goal Directed Therapy (EGDT) (Rivers et al., 2001) through the SSC. Finally, Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007) test the ‘ward nurses’ knowledge of standard sepsis definitions according to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign management guidelines. 4.3.3 Implications for etd dissertations nursing practice. In nursing practice, a systematic approach that comprises evidence-based management for topics for a british literature research paper patients suffering from severe sepsis or septic shock, or critically ill patients, that is universal and can be transferrable from one hospital to another is etd dissertations, desirable (Gerrish, 2010).
But given the apparent inconsistency of SSC care bundles due to different formats used and different ways to start an expository essay implemented beyond the etd dissertations SSC guidelines, nurses and medical staff will encounter difficulty in complying with SSC recommended sepsis resuscitation bundles from hospital to hospital. Moreover, the continuity of different ways to start essay, care for the patient will not be consistent, especially in cases where a patient must be transferred from one hospital to another. An updating of skills and fostering nursing knowledge about SSC guidelines, sepsis recognition, assessment, interventions and management, is essential because most of the etd dissertations time nurses are the bedside clinicians of the patients. It is therefore fundamental for study nurses to be given initiatives to update and enhance their knowledge and skills regarding the SSC guidelines. One hospital might have different sepsis management from another hospital as demonstrated by etd dissertations, the studies of Gao et al. (2005); Cronshaw et al. Topics Literature Paper? (2011); Simmonds et al. (2008). Hence the health outcomes will vary from etd dissertations, one hospital’s version of the SSC guidelines to another’s. If the different SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles were implemented universally then it would be much easier to identify evidence and determine trends pertaining to etd dissertations compliance. Seven articles in this literature review have rated their study compliance with the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles by the use of percentage, whereas Gao et al. (2005) rated compliance by sullenberger, the use of ‘all’ or ‘none’ as pass-fail for the elements of the sepsis care bundle. Had Gao et al. (2005) rated compliance by the use of percentage, it would be easier to discern which criterion of the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles needs to be implemented or may not work for patients with sepsis.
This would provide specific evidence of compliance and effectiveness according to the 6-hour and 24-hour sepsis resuscitation bundles (Surviving Sepsis Organization, 2014b). Despite adding inconsistency to the SSC guidelines, Gao et al.’s (2005, p. R765) ‘6-hour basic ward care’ using the median MEWS is etd dissertations, particularly helpful. Because basic ward care is a crucial obligation that every nurse must undertake, and these include the ability to pacthesis cheat codes recognise and etd dissertations prevent delay in on effective teaching strategies, intervention or transfer of critically ill patient to an appropriate place for patient’s safety (NPSA, 2007). Moreover, the one-hour sepsis six protocol in Cronshaw et al. (2011) study, which was originally formed by Daniels et al. (2011) is worth recommending to include in the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles internationally as this protocol has already been implemented in some hospitals across the UK. The sepsis six management for patients is also being taught in etd dissertations, the ALERT course (Smith, Osgood and chesley hero essay Crane, 2012) as part of the nursing degree final year curriculum in some universities across the UK, hence a newly qualified nurse is expected to be knowledgeable on the sepsis management, particularly of sepsis six. Therefore, it is worth suggesting to conduct further enquiry into student nurses’ knowledge towards SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the etd dissertations UK.
Chapter 5: Strengths and limitations of this extended literature review. The reviewer included articles measuring compliance of topics for a literature, SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the etd dissertations UK. The publications are recent articles and ways to start essay hence provide good evidence and insights of etd dissertations, clinical practice regarding SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles in hospitals across the UK (Aveyard, 2014). All articles included in the review are primary articles and represent a variety of hospitals across the UK with larger sample sizes (Burns and Grove, 2009). This includes adult patients with sepsis in Birmingham, Blackpool, Derbyshire, Edinburgh, Kent, and Nottingham, thus helping to determine overall compliance trends across the UK. All eight articles reviewed suggested the importance of education and awareness of the sepsis resuscitation bundles across all disciplines.
The overall strength of the findings from this review is chesley sullenberger essay, that the evidence from the articles helped to determine that nurses play a critical role in etd dissertations, improving the paper ‘golden hour’ in the delivery of etd dissertations, sepsis care bundles, in terms of topics literature research paper, identifying, prioritising, and rapidly referring the patient diagnosed with sepsis (Lovick, 2009). Four articles have added some interventions aside from the etd dissertations SSC guidelines. Furthermore, studies by Robson, Beavis and Spittle (2007); Simmonds et al. (2008); McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins (2008) stress that education is needed, but do not elaborate upon any specific training that the nursing and medical staff have undergone before the study, or what kind of education the authors are recommending. Page et al. (2011) claim that a sticker education program is equal to greater compliance; however, the authors’ fails to compare with past SSC compliance ratings within the different essay same hospital, which weakens their argument and how responses to questionnaires regarding compliance cannot be verified, whereas an audit provides a more thorough indication of etd dissertations, compliance in a given hospital. Chapter 6: Conclusions. The aim of of the study, this literature review was to evaluate hospitals’ compliance to the SSC sepsis resuscitation bundles across the UK as well as to identify implications for etd dissertations the role of the nurse in thesis significance of the, complying with the SSC guidelines. Three main factors that influence overall compliance with the SSC guidelines were found through a critical analysis of the studies included in this literature review. Firstly, the availability of resources and equipment such as enhanced care beds and medicinal supplies within the hospital appears to be limited in Baldwin et al., (2007); McNeill, Dixon and Jenkins, (2008).
Secondly, at the very least, the lack of SSC awareness by hospital nursing staff is a significant concern, because nurses are the etd dissertations first point of contact for patients, and different ways an expository essay are therefore largely responsible for identifying sepsis. Trainee doctors and medical staff also need proper SSC education, as McNally, MacKinnon and Hawkins’ (2009) evidence that only etd dissertations, anaesthetic staff are sufficiently knowledgeable about sepsis resuscitation bundles. Lastly, inconsistency in ways to start essay, the use and etd dissertations subsequently in the implementation of the SSC guidelines ‘ such as a change or elimination of certain SSC elements, whether due to an expository essay lack of resources or practitioner discretion ‘ significantly limit researchers’ capacity to etd dissertations evaluate SSC compliance across the UK. If hospitals seek to demonstrate evidence of overall compliance with the SSC guidelines as compared with other hospitals in the UK, then the entirety of the SSC guidelines must be followed, even if Dellinger et al. (2008b) have only thesis study, highly recommended it. Etd Dissertations? A uniform reference to the entirety of the criteria will help researchers to evaluate medical practitioners’ and nurses’ compliance with the SSC guidelines. Moreover, adherence with the SSC guidelines will help hospitals to determine the relevance of each element for sepsis management, and therefore provide a rationale as to whether an element may be appropriate or not, rather than modifying the guidelines from the outset.
Nevertheless, since the SSC guidelines were published in 2004 and has been revised every two years, there is still time and opportunity to gather all current evidence-based data regarding the implementation of the SSC guidelines. Even in esay, a time of economic austerity recommendations for sepsis management could be replicated in hospitals across the UK through the appropriate and more consistent use of SSC guidelines by nursing and medical staff in etd dissertations, order to both benefit patients’ health conditions and decrease mortality rates. Search our thousands of topics for a paper, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on etd dissertations hand, waiting to help you.
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Essay UK, Essay: Evaluating compliance to Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) resuscitation bundles in hospitals across the UK and thesis significance of the study implications for nursing practice: An Extended Literature Review . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/health/essay-evaluating-compliance-to-surviving-sepsis-campaign-ssc-resuscitation-bundles-in-hospitals-across-the-uk-and-implications-for-nursing-practice-an-extended-literature-review/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of etd dissertations, this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 11-08-17 - Smoking habits of ways essay, university students - CARDIOVASCULAR GENE TRANSFER EFFICIENCY 01-08-17 - Effects of stress and anxiety-related disorders on the brain - Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) 09-07-17 - Enzyme instructed self-assembly (EISA) 28-05-17 - Glaucoma, Diabetes mellitus and etd dissertations Intra ocular pressure 23-05-17 - Seven functions of self-injury 18-05-17 - Neurodegenerative diseases 14-05-17 - Warafin genotyping in patients 04-05-17 - Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of significance, Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 .
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ETD - Electronic Theses & Dissertations
chapter 6 homework Authors Note: This is the last part. Thank you to every one who read and etd dissertations, reviewed. And a huge thanks to Ebony10 who betaed for me. I hope you all enjoy. Disclaimer: I don't have an original thought in my head, if I did, I'd be making big bucks as a writer, but I'm not, I just write this for fun.
The case they were working on took them to a small town in the mountains. Pacthesis Cheat! They were called in because the body was found in the nearby state park. Etd Dissertations! It was a young man who, it turned out, was killed by his girlfriend's mother. Apparently she had wanted to protect her daughter from him—she thought he was a bad influence. The mother confessed easily. Chesley! Jane hadn't even needed to do any of his customary tricks.
It had taken them a few days to finish the case and by the time they had wrapped up, it was Friday. They were getting ready to leave when Lisbon noticed a sign for a local antique fair that started on Saturday, tomorrow. She enjoyed looking at antique fairs and, although she rarely bought anything, it was always interesting to see what people thought was valuable and etd dissertations, how much they were asking for it. She checked at the hotel they had been staying at pacthesis cheat codes, and found that although Monday was a holiday and the antique fair was a big deal for the small town, the room she was in was available for the weekend. The next thing Lisbon did was let Cho, Rigsby and Van Pelt know that she was going to be staying. Etd Dissertations! She wanted to know if they were fine with taking one car back and leaving her with the other one. The only sullenberger, person she didn't tell was Jane.
No reason to tell him. Etd Dissertations! He'll figure it out on his own. Maybe he'll decide to stay or maybe he'll leave. I'll let him decide what to do. I really wish he would stay; spending time with him away from different essay work always makes me happy. The only thing I can't stand his smug arrogance, but I suppose that's part of his charm.
Lisbon decided to go for etd dissertations, a short walk around the town before heading back to her hotel room. They were never able to really explore these towns during cases. They always stuck to the same process: focus on going in, solving the case, and getting back home. They never stopped to just relax. Of course most of the towns were the same, but still, sometimes it would be nice to just relax and take in the scenery. In her tour of the town she noticed a small diner that looked like just the place for for a research, dinner.
She planned on returning there in etd dissertations, a few hours to eat. First, though, she was going to go back to her room and get some rest. There was some sort of local band concert tonight to for a literature, kick off the antique fair and etd dissertations, she wanted to go. I'm not sure what type of sullenberger band would be playing at the opening of an antique fair, but it should be interesting. I might as well go the whole nine yards now that I'm staying; enjoy the whole experience. When she got back to her hotel room, she opened the door and took off her jacket, throwing it on etd dissertations, the bed. She walked a little further into the room, deciding to take a shower instead of a nap, and codes, started to etd dissertations, take off her shirt as she headed to the bathroom. You should really be more observant of critical esay on oleanna your surroundings, Lisbon, said a familiar voice from the sofa. Lisbon screamed and spun around quickly. JANE!
What the hell do you think you're doing in etd dissertations, my room? Why didn't you leave when the others did? You act mad, but you're really glad that I'm here. He was ignoring her question, but he didn't care. He just looked at her and smiled. That is beyond the point. What did you do, pick the lock? She was trying to essay, look mad, but he just kept smiling at etd dissertations, her and she was losing the battle. Come on, you're not really mad. Essays Strategies! Besides, we had a date scheduled. It's not a date she denied.
She could feel her cheeks starting to get hot. How is he always able to do that? It's not fair. I'm always caught off guard and etd dissertations, he's always two steps ahead of me, making me feel like I'm incompetent or something. Why are you in my room? Why aren't you in your room? You didn't tell me you were staying. Sullenberger! I had to etd dissertations, find out from Cho after we had already checked out. There weren't any more rooms left when I came back. It looks like you got the last room in town.
He smiled slightly at her, as if he hadn't really planned to essays on effective teaching strategies, have her walk in to the room and start undressing in front of him. Well you can't stay here- Why not? He cut her off, standing up. You have a sofa.
I spend most of my time at work sleeping on a sofa anyway, so I'm used to etd dissertations, it. He moved closer. He knew if he could make her uncomfortable enough, she would eventually just give in. She glared at him. Cheat! Why can't I ever say no to etd dissertations, him? This is really getting to be too much. Teaching! I suppose you could sleep on etd dissertations, the sofa, but none of your mind games. I'm here to different to start an expository essay, try to etd dissertations, relax. He moved a few steps closer, into her personal space.
Oh, of course not. I wouldn't dream of interrupting your personal time. He gave her that smile, not the 100 watt one, but the one he gives to women when he is trying to get them to spill information. Now don't mind me, just pretend I'm not here. Go ahead—I believe you were in the process of changing? I can't believe him. Um, I think I'll just do that in the bathroom thanks.
She stated, picking up her change of clothes. He lay back on chesley sullenberger hero essay, the sofa and closed his eyes. Whatever you want, he said with a smirk. She glared at him one more time and then, on impulse, grabbed her jacket off the etd dissertations bed and for a literature research paper, threw it at etd dissertations, him, smirking as he floundered around. She walked into the bathroom, intending to ignore Jane and relax. Jane lay on the sofa thinking. He had heard the water running in the bathroom, but the shower never came on. Pacthesis Cheat Codes! She must have decided to take a bath instead , he thought. It had been about 10 minutes and he figured that she was probably going to be in the bathroom for a while. She really didn't get the chance to relax very often.
He almost hated to intrude on her solitude. Why is etd dissertations it that I can't leave her alone? She had to have known that I wouldn't just leave with the rest of the team. Why hadn't she bothered to tell me herself that she had decided to stay? She had to know that I was going to significance of the, stay. Etd Dissertations! She's just so much fun to be around. She always makes me forget to be me; I can just relax around her. I like to make her blush. I'm the only person I've seen be able to do that. An Expository Essay! I've got to stop this thing I have for etd dissertations, her. It's not good for essays on effective strategies, her.
She really deserves happiness. That's what I'm doing here, really, trying to help her out. He was still trying to etd dissertations, rationalize his behavior to himself when the bathroom door opened. She came out with a towel around her head in a cloud of steam, smelling of flowers. He loved that smell. Did you have a nice bath? he asked from the sofa, his eyes still closed.
Yeah, it was very relaxing. She walked over to the bed and sat down for a minute. He looked over at her. She was sitting on the edge of the bed, looking distracted. He was about to say something when she suddenly said Do you want to go out to dinner with me? He was taken back—he hadn't expected that. She took his hesitation to mean no so she continued, trying to explain. I don't mean with me, just come to of the, dinner at the same time as me.
When I was out exploring the town earlier I saw a little diner that looked promising and etd dissertations, there's a concert tonight that I was planning to go to. I just thought, if you're going to be here, you might as well have a little fun too, right? He chuckled at her rambling. Of course I'll go to ways essay, dinner with you. Ok, um, we should probably head out in etd dissertations, the next few minutes. The concert starts in a few hours, and chesley, I don't know how long the etd dissertations wait will be at essays on effective strategies, the dinner. Etd Dissertations! There's a lot more people here tonight than there were earlier this week. That would be fine. You get ready.
I'm just going to change my shirt. She started back towards the bathroom to finish getting ready. Out of the corner of her eye, she saw him stand up and pull his shirt off. It took all of her will power to on effective strategies, not turn around and stare at him. God, he's gorgeous, she thought. Stop it, Teresa. Etd Dissertations! He obviously doesn't feel anything for you. Sullenberger Hero Essay! And he's way too observant to not be able to pick up on it. Etd Dissertations! He's just trying to help out essays, so that he doesn't feel guilty for not being able to etd dissertations, return the affection that I feel for pacthesis, him. She looked at etd dissertations, her reflection in different to start essay, the mirror. He likes my hair curled.
Does that mean he actually likes me? Ok, now that's just reaching. I can think that Rigsby looks good in a suit without liking him that way. Still, knowing that he likes my hair curled makes me want to wear it that way more often. In the end, she settled on just pulling her hair back into a pony tail.
It would be easier than wearing her hair down, especially if the concert, which was being held inside of a small theater, were to get hot. She would appreciate having her hair pulled up off her neck. You don't wear your hair up very often. Was the first thing Jane said to her as she came out of the bathroom a few minutes later Why is that? If you must know, a pony tail is even more of a lazy hair-do than the curls. She brushed by him into etd dissertations, the main part of the room, noticing that he had neatly folded the jacket she had thrown at essays strategies, him earlier and placed it on the dresser. You spent fifteen minutes in the bathroom to decide that you were going to be lazy and just put your hair up?
What type of logic is that? It's female logic, that's what it is, she snapped at etd dissertations, him. Are you ready to go? I've been ready. I was just waiting for you. He gestured towards the door, indicating that she should leave the room first. Pacthesis Codes! Are we going to walk, or should we take the car? It's supposed to be a nice night. The diner and etd dissertations, the theater are both close.
Why don't we walk? She said as she headed out the door. Whatever you say was his reply as he looked up at the sky. They had a fun time together that night. The diner had been busy, but not so packed that they weren't able to critical on oleanna, sit down right away.
The food was surprisingly good. Etd Dissertations! They had both ordered cheese burgers and thesis study, fries. Lisbon had ordered a shake and Jane a soda, although they ended up switching about half way through the meal. After words they walked slowly toward the etd dissertations theater, both seeming to enjoy each other's company. I can't believe I'm having such a good time with him, thought Lisbon. It's as if he's dropped whatever act he usually does and it's just him. It's kind of nice, really. She really was enjoying just talking with him and thesis, not about work. They talked about everything and anything. Everything that is except work, Red John and Jane's past.
When they got to etd dissertations, the theater, they purchased tickets and went inside. The local band was surprisingly good. They played mostly covers, but Lisbon really enjoyed the esay few original songs that they performed. The concert didn't last as long as she had hoped it would. It wasn't even 11:00 when it was over.
How'd you like to etd dissertations, get some desert? asked Jane as they were leaving. You read my mind. I'd love some. Pacthesis! They were walking close together down the sidewalk. I noticed a little coffee shop near the hotel. How about we go there? That sounds great. They walked in silence for a few minutes until they got to the coffee shop.
It didn't close until midnight, so they went in a stood at the counter, looking at all of the sweets that were available. Etd Dissertations! Lisbon settled on a piece of on oleanna fresh strawberry pie and etd dissertations, Jane decided on a brownie that was almost as big as his hand. They sat down at one of the pacthesis codes small tables to eat. That brownie is huge. I hope you can eat it all. Lisbon commented. Speak for yourself. I think she put half of the etd dissertations pie on your plate. Jane laughed. Topics Research! He had been having a good time and wanted it to just keep going. Lisbon just glanced at etd dissertations, him and smiled before picking up her fork and taking a bite of her pie.
She moaned sensually as the taste filtered through her senses. This pie is delicious was her thought. She didn't notice Jane's reaction. He was sitting across from her, trying not to thesis, choke on the large piece of brownie that he had just put into his mouth. I can't stand it…I just don't know how she does that to etd dissertations, me.
I just want to…I don't know—I should be the one to make her do that. Esay On Oleanna! No, I can't do that. It wouldn't be right. Why not? She's a beautiful woman. That thought alone almost made him choke again. Since when have I though Lisbon was beautiful? He knew that he was going to have even more problems than usual falling asleep tonight now that he had this added thought to worry about. They finished their dessert in silence. As Lisbon took her last bite, rain started to fall on the pavement outside. I thought you said it was supposed to etd dissertations, be nice out tonight.
Jane said with a note of amusement. Yeah, I thought it was supposed to be. Essays On Effective Teaching Strategies! They were standing in the door way to etd dissertations, the cafe looking outside. Ways Essay! Want to make a run for it? The hotel's not that far away and, besides, who knows how long this is going to last?
Jane looked at her to make sure she was serious and not just joking around. OK, let's go for it. They ran through the etd dissertations rain towards the hotel, both enjoying the childishness of the act. They could have called a cab, but this was much more fun. By the time they got back to thesis of the study, the hotel, they were soaked to the skin. They burst into etd dissertations, the room and collapsed into a heap on the floor, laughing hysterically.
Jane was the pacthesis cheat first to sober. Etd Dissertations! He stood slowly, holding his hand out to help Lisbon up. He was looking at british, her in a way she had never seen before. What is he looking at? I can't look any worse than he does.
We're both soaked. Etd Dissertations! Why is he looking at me that way? She could feel herself starting to blush, as she often did under his gaze. What?' she said eventually, not able to topics for a british paper, stand him just staring at etd dissertations, her any more. I mean it. You're beautiful. Did you know that? No, don't say anything. Just listen. Cheat! You know I've been trying for the past week to figure out etd dissertations, who it is that you have a crush on at work. I've been watching you more closely than I usually do.
Trying to figure out if there was a guy that you paid more attention to, or less attention to, someone you called more frequently with an update than was necessary, but I can't figure it out. Right now though, I don't care. All I know is that whoever it is, is an idiot for not sweeping you off your feet the instant that they saw you. You are the british most amazing woman that I have met in etd dissertations, a really long time, since my wife was killed, and critical, I'm sick and tired of denying it. I…I think I like you. Lisbon was in etd dissertations, shock. She had never even dreamed that he could ever even like her in that way. She was staring at him. She had never seen him so exposed, like all he was laying it all out, not hiding anything. She just stood there looking at him.
She noticed his face starting to fall and realized that she hadn't said anything. Jane…Patrick. He looked up at her, looked her in the eye. Do you really have no idea who it is at work that I like? For all of your observational skills, you really can be stupid sometimes. She was smiling at him now, waiting for the realization to thesis of the, dawn on etd dissertations, him. When it did, his face lit up and critical esay on oleanna, he graced her with the most powerful smile she had ever seen. Why didn't you just tell me? He looked at her, questions in his eyes. Why let me go through all of etd dissertations this, the flirting, the date?
I love to be what you think about, no matter how annoying or embarrassing that may be. Just knowing that you care for me enough to be in your thoughts was almost enough. That would explain why you were always uncomfortable around me and different ways, why you did such a good job at the bar when we did the flirting exercise. Etd Dissertations! He was smiling at this and she smirked. You've always been able to essays on effective strategies, make me blush and I'm normally not one to blush that easily. What about the guy from the bar, Paul? I wouldn't worry about etd dissertations, him. Thesis Study! She said with a slight smile. He looked at her for etd dissertations, a few more minutes before suddenly pulling her to him and pressing his lips against hers. The kiss was simultaneously sweet, tender and powerful. It was, by far, one of the best kisses that she had ever had.
Wow was all she said when they broke the literature kiss. Yeah was his reply. They looked at each other for a few more minutes. It's late. If we're going to get up early tomorrow and look at other people's really old stuff, you should probably get some sleep. Yeah, she replied.
She was still in a little bit of a daze. Etd Dissertations! She looked back up at him, and then reached up and pulled his head down to kiss him again. They had spent a wonderful weekend together, looking at the antiques, admiring all of the old and ways an expository essay, beautiful furniture and decorations that there were. Etd Dissertations! Lisbon even bought a few pieces, though nothing too big or expensive. They had shared the hotel room the on oleanna entire weekend, with Jane sleeping on the sofa. Etd Dissertations! He said that he didn't sleep with someone one the first date, or the different ways second or third for that matter. He said they should respect each other enough not to rush anything. She had respected what he had wanted. In reality, she just enjoyed spending time with him. The kisses that they had shared at etd dissertations, spontaneous times throughout the weekend had just been icing on the cake for topics research, her. It was Tuesday morning now and, for etd dissertations, once, Jane was early to the office.
There had been something that had been bothering him all weekend. Lisbon had told him not to worry about the guy from the bar and pacthesis cheat codes, he wasn't worried, per se. Etd Dissertations! He was just curious as to why she was so willing to just forget about significance study, him without so much as a phone call telling him why. That was why he was here. Etd Dissertations! He had come in chesley sullenberger, before anyone so that he could break into Lisbon's office and etd dissertations, see if Paul had put his phone number on for a british research paper, the card in the flowers. He knew that she hadn't done anything with either bouquet of etd dissertations flowers (his wildflowers and Paul's roses) before they left for their last case, so he would be able to find the different ways essay note right there, in the flowers on her desk. He quietly went into her office. There might not have been anyone there yet, but that was no reason to draw the security guards' attention to what he was doing. Etd Dissertations! Sitting on her desk were two vases of badly wilted flowers and tucked into the roses was the note. Cheat! He pulled it out and read it: Mr.
Doesn't Play Well With Others obviously has a thing for you. Maybe these flowers will spur him into etd dissertations, action. Good luck with it. Thesis Significance Of The Study! If it doesn't work out, you know where to find me. I guess there are just some things that anyone can tell but yourself.
He looked at etd dissertations, the flowers one more time, slipped the note into chesley sullenberger essay, his pocket, and walked out of etd dissertations her office smiling to himself. Authors note: Don't you hate it when people put notes at chesley hero, the top and bottom? If you liked it please let me know :)