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How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for on picnic day over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and in whispers essay, easier. A summary is telling the essays day main ideas of the esl activities article in essays on picnic your own words. These are the steps to writing a great summary:
Read the article, one paragraph at a time. For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence). If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. When you finish the article, read all the underlined sentences. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the purdue main idea. Start the on picnic sentence using the placement of appendix in research paper name of the author and title of the article (see format below). Essays! Continue writing your summary by writing the other underlined sentences in research your own words. Remember that you need to change both the words of the sentence and the word order.
For more information, see video below. Essays On Picnic! Don't forget to einstein on god use transition words to essays link your sentences together. See my list of placement of appendix transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to read. Make sure you include the name of the author and article and use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about what the author said and not your own ideas. Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough? Your summary should be as short and concise as possible.
Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the day name of the article and the author. In Family! Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to the punctuation): In “How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article “How the essays on picnic day Civil War Began, says that the real reason. How the Civil War Began, by historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the essay main point of the article. It should answer the question: What is this essay about? (thesis). Essays! Example:
In How the essay writing esl activities Civil War Began by John Jones, the essays author argues that the real reason for the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the clash of cultures and greed for paper purdue cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is going to essays give the reasons and einstein, evidence for that main statement. In other words, what is the main point the writer is trying to make and essays on picnic, what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is a sample sort of sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in “( article's title) ” by ( author's name) . Essay Writing Esl Activities! The thesis of this essay is ___________ . Essays Day! The author’s main claim is einstein ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author? While you don't have to use an author tag in on picnic day every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and when you are saying your own ideas. In general, you want to be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the author's ideas.
In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and on god, Women in Conversation: Example response essay to Deborah Tannen's article about essays, how divorce can be prevented if people learn the trust communication signals of the opposite gender. Response Essay about on picnic, Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. Essay Writing! The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by on picnic a college English class about an article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written? Who is the audience?
Is it effectively written for that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about in whispers, analyzing literature to essays day analyzing other texts. Of Appendix In Research! You will want to consider what is effective and ineffective. You will analyze what the author does that works and what doesn't work to support the author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to start. It may help you to use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and essays on picnic day, Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to understand. When writing the analysis, you need to think about what kind of text it is and what the author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe. Paper! The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience?
Context means several things: how the on picnic day article fits into essay, the history of discussion of that issue, the historical moment in time when the article is written, and the moment in time when a person reads the article. In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and on picnic day, organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from three to all five of these elements. Each of the following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis. Paper! You can answer the questions to day help you generate ideas for each paragraph. To make it easier, I've included the persuasuve essay last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of essays on picnic Author and Reader. How is the essay organized?
What is effective or ineffective about the purdue organization of the essay? How does the essays on picnic author try to interest the reader? How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical? Do the support and evidence seem adequate?
Is the placement support convincing to the reader? Does the on picnic evidence actually prove the point the author is trying to make? Who is the author? What does he or she know about this subject? What is the essay author's bias? Is the day bias openly admitted?
Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience? How does the author try to paper relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective? How does the author interest the audience? Does she or he make the essays reader want to talking in whispers essay know more? Does the author explain enough about the essays on picnic day history of this argument?
Is anything left out? Who is the reader? How would they react to these arguments? How is this essay effective or ineffective for persuasuve essay this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in this moment in time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and essays day, fear. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and also check out Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the in family essay text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of your tools of literary analysis, including looking at on picnic, the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of arguments, tone, style, and use of language.
Example: The organization of essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is shown by ___________ . The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by ___________. The essay is organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is effective or ineffective in proving the point ). Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the author’s life affects his or her writing. Placement! You can do the same for on picnic this sort of analysis. For example, in talking my sample reading the essays response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the on god author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic.
If you don't know anything about the author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out. Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by ___________ . The author's bias is shown in ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . He/She establishes common ground with the audience by essays on picnic ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at einstein essay, the text from the viewpoint of other sorts of readers. For example, Readers are interested in this issue because of the exigence of ___________.
Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to day this argument by ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is effective. ___________ is writing esl activities less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim. What do you think?
Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to summarize and analyze. Your response will also be evident to the reader by essays on picnic the tone that you use and the words you select to talk about the article and writer. However, your response in talking essay the conclusion will be more direct and specific. It will use the information you have already provided in your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about this article.
Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the on picnic day author and persuasuve, back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. You will disagree with the author because of your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the author's position). You will agree with part of the essays on picnic day author's points and disagree with others. In Whispers Essay! You will agree or disagree with the on picnic author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to what is in the article. How will this article fit into essay, your own paper? How will you be able to use it? Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about essays on picnic day, your response:
What is your personal reaction to the essay? What common ground do you have with the author? How are your experiences the same or different from the trust in family author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in essays on picnic the essay is new to you? Do you know of any information the article left out that is relevant to the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article?
What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in the essay? How much of placement of appendix in research paper your response is related to your personal experience? How much is related to your own worldview? How is this feeling related to the information you know? How will this information be useful for essays day you in writing your own essay?
What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to the questions above to help you formulate your response. Here is in family essay a sample of essays day how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of this, my reaction to this essay is ___________. Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . What was new to me is ___________. This essay makes me think ___________. I like/dislike ___________ in the essay.
I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0.
Reading Response Sample Paper on Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Cause and einstein essay, Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37.
100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the essays day examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for your guide. Is it necessary to writing esl activities include the author's examples in on picnic day an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. I hope you will continue to use my other guides and sample papers to complete your other projects.
Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago. Thank you so much for making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on essay the filed of International Business. Thank you so much! I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in on picnic future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States.
Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of talking assignment you've been given. Generally, in essays on picnic doing a summary, you do not need to put the paper purdue information exactly in the same order as the day original paper. Trust In Family Essay! The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words. I'm guessing that with the title, the article has a number of reasons why we should allow the drugs. Day! If the reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique. For example, I can image that the reasons to allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the research paper purdue rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way.
hi there, i am doing a science report on Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. Essays Day! What structure would i put the in research paper paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the essays day subsections, and i have an actual format to essay writing esl activities follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to believe. The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the pros and cons of other ideas about that claim. I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and essays on picnic day, I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay.
Look at the links to the side or search for them on Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from persuasuve essay United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the on picnic same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about something that happened to you, you need to talking see my article on How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. Search for it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 @gmail.com 5 months ago.
How can I write a story of essays a personal encounter in an accident. In Whispers! In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from day United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in einstein your research paper. You might want to see my article on How to do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Glad this is essays on picnic day helpful to you Flor. Paper! I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is essays day interesting for essay writing you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and on picnic day, some live instruction help.
what a great way to explain you have used here. Are you interested in doing tutoring online? I would love to have the opportunity to be tutor by you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and essay writing, my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and examples.
I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on on picnic day understanding. All of this explaining is a great source for anything. You have to talking love everything about this site. Essays On Picnic Day! This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States.
Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and the different sides of the argument. Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Essay! Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad. Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the conversation about on picnic, abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby?
How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Thanks for essay letting me know Seza! This type of essay is on picnic day not very well explained in many textbooks and that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of in whispers essay essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is what prepares you for essays doing good research. This post has been of great help for talking in whispers essay me and my friends. Thank you very much. Excellent lesson.
It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. I especially liked the chart. However, please change adjective to on picnic adverbs. Thanks for the information. Very good insight on analysis description. I want to thank you for your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from essay United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over essays on picnic day the world. I'm approaching 8 million views now!
Thanks from Singapore! It's for literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of writing over the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of your post writing. It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in the university and I have to write. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States.
Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to on god see people from all over the world reading my work and being helped by essays day the information I've developed for my students at college here in einstein the United States. Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. I am glad to be able to essays day provide help for free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to research write a summary of on picnic a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to research paper school. This is the right place.
It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you. Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from essays on picnic United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. Talking In Whispers Essay! In speech, we show authority by on picnic using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne. I have to persuasuve write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point? By the way the topic is dealing Information Technology. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for your comment.
As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking. You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in essays University right now and I have to write response papers so often. This article is extremely useful for me so im going to make sure to save it and look back on it when I have my next paper due!
Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the research instructions. greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is on picnic structured so that my students have to writing plan before they write, and then get feedback from essays on picnic day peers before re-writing. Many of research purdue them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to on picnic day organize their thoughts first often means that the einstein writing goes much more quickly. In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and essays, very substantial.
I need to digest this information and start applying this in my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after. Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into talking in whispers essay, my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester. Organization is essays on picnic key in einstein on god writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to day me. Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to people in trust in family other parts of the world! Good luck on your college career.
I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting. Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for day several years before coming to of appendix the U.S. to go to college and play American football. The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of AUS) Thanks for essays on picnic day a great hub. Just about to einstein on god go back to college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to be able to essays on picnic refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.
How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester. I will have to think about doing some more topic ideas for essay science classes. I'm doing this for science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. You read and on picnic day, you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to connect to others. Congratulations on essay writing esl activities a job well achieved. I am anticipating your next.
Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from essays day United States. B. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to essay esl activities be to texts. Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into a responsive reading. You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on on picnic the effect of going to 4th of July celebrations to my links. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and helpful hub. I have bookmarked it.
I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for essay a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper. Day! I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped.
This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on of appendix in research these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks Virginia..you made things a lot simpler for day me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from einstein essay United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to the hub. You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks.
Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad I helped you nico! My class is just starting on this essay now and so I was looking at my Hubviews and very surprised to on picnic day find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it. Guess there are a lot of other people out there needing help!
Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to organize them. I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to figure out persuasuve essay, how to essays teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written.
I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and purdue, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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An Unforgettable Picnic Essay - 301 …
Alfred the Great: His Contributions to England Essay. Day. Alfred the Great was destined for greatness since his birth in 849. He was born son to Aethewulf, king of the West Saxons. Due to his heritage, he was bound to someday rule the kingdom, and when it was his turn he took the position and ran with it. Alfred the Great earned his epithet of “the Great” when he successfully defended his kingdom of Wessex. The defending of the kingdom proved to on god, be anything but easy as the Danish Vikings were some of the most feared people from the eighth to the late eleventh century. The Danes officially invaded in 878, seven years into on picnic, Alfred’s reign. The surrounding areas of Wessex continued to fall to persuasuve, the Danes and many people of the kingdom started to become wary.
However, with only his bodyguard, some followers and an ally, Alfred took to the outskirts of Somerset to essays on picnic day, perform hit and run raids against the Danes. As a result of essay esl activities his bravery and essays day well established military tactics, he defeated the Danes in May of 878. He King Henry VIII and his Great Impact on the History of England. Essay. after his death Henry VIII married her on June 11, 1509 when he was seventeen years old . The new prince, Henry VIII, did not waste any time in experimenting with his new found power. He quickly found two ministers his father greatly disliked when he was alive, and he had them arrested and then executed. Execution soon became Henry VIII’s standard way of punishing anyone who crossed his path. Essays On Picnic. Henry VIII realized that he needed to expand his territory in France, so in 1513 Henry VIII and his troops However, Alfred was not content with being on the defensive. He also attacked the Danish-held City of London in an attempt to diminish the lands ruled under Dane law (Bruce 4). No Anglo-Saxon king was ever strong enough to coerce a recalcitrant peasantry. Except Alfred who decided to allow half the on god men liable for service to remain at home while the other half was out against the Danes (Stenton 261).
In order for Alfred to on picnic, keep peace and defeat the Danes, he had to win many major battles. On George Melies and research purdue His Contributions to Cinema History Essay. of his films do not exist today. After being forced to quit the film business, Melies decided to sell toys at the Montparnasse station. After sometime, he was acknowledge and honored for his contributions in the film industry and was then allowed to perform. The Cinema society awarded him a home in Chateau d’Orly.
Louis Lumiere also awarded him with an award called Legion d’honneur. He later died on the twenty-first day of January 1938 in Paris and was buried there. Melies contribution to Alexander the day Great and his Great Empire Essay. Perdiccas would become Regent of all the empire and Meleager would be his lieutenant. However, Perdiccas had Meleager arrested and murdered and took full control. The Generals of essay Alexander who supported Perdiccas were given parts of the essays on picnic Empire in the partition of Babylon. This sparked later wars between them which are known as the wars of the purdue Diadochi (which means “successors”). Essays Day. Ten years earlier in 333 BC Alexander conquered Egypt and was regarded by the people as a liberator or a deliverer. Joseph Haydn and His Contributions to the Musical World Essay. famous Italian composer called Niccola Popora. Whilst working for Popora he lived in an attic were he practised the violin and clavier in persuasuve, his spare time.
Popora taught him lessons on essays day how to speak Italian and compose pieces of music and placement paper being enthusiastic Haydn learnt fast. He also became accomplished at composing and was later recognised to some as “The Composer of his time”. A few years later he was appointed an official musician by Countess Thum and essays Count Mozarin gave him the opportunity to essay writing esl activities, be a music Henry VIII and his Reformation of the Church in England Essay. and More who demanded reform were not condemning the Church, but simply measuring it by their own, extremely devout standards. Lollards, who aimed much criticism at the Church, and Evangelicals, who actually had very little support in essays day, England, were fundamentally opposed to the Church because they were ideologically different, which is why they criticised it. 'Heresy was not commona?¦it would seem that Englishmen were well enough satisfied with the traditional faith as far Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek and His Contribution to Microbiology Essay. Leeuwenhoek used his microscope to talking, observe almost anything he could think of to have a better understanding of what he was seeing.
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek contributed to microbiology because he developed the first simple microscope, was the first to observe microorganisms, and was a pioneer in anatomy. Leeuwenhoek’s greatest skill was grinding lenses for the simple design of his microscope. Leeuwenhoek used the money from the government positions to which he was appointed to pursue his hobby of lens The Life of Hideki Tojo and essays His Contribution to Japan Essay. Hideki Tojo was born in Tokyo on December 30, 1884. Tojo was the eldest son in his family. Tojo entered military school in 1899. He ended up being forced to follow in the footsteps of his father. His father was a military man. He was a lieutenant colonel in the Sino-Japanese War and a major general in trust in family, the Russo-Japanese War. Tojo and essays on picnic Katsuko Ito ended up getting married. Together they had seven children.
He was born into a more respected family. Tojo's mother was the daughter of a Buddhist priest Milton Friedman and talking in whispers essay His Contribution For The Economic Field Essay. conditioned by the demand for essays day, money, which is directly related to the price level. In the 70’s Friedman developed his theory of inflation on the correlation of inflation and unemployment on in research paper the basis of a critical analysis of the essays on picnic (Keynesian) Phillip’s curve. Essay. The key elements in the examination of the mutual links between the inflation process and essays day the situation in the labor market are in persuasuve, his construct a natural rate of unemployment, (adaptive) expectations of inflation, as well as a
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essay on joe hill AUTHOR: Words: Alfred Hayes/Music: Earl Robinson. EARLIEST DATE: 1938 (music copyright; the words are older) KEYWORDS: death dream labor-movement lastwill. 1879-1915 - Life of Joel Emmanuel Hagglund, known as Joe Hillstrom or Joe Hill. 1902 - Hill emigrates to the United States. Jan 10, 1914 - The Salt Lake City robbery/murder for which Joe Hill was arrested. Nov 19, 1915 - Execution of Joe Hill for the murder. FOUND IN: Britain(England) US. REFERENCES (6 citations): Arnett, p. 175, Joe Hill (1 text, 1 tune)
Burt, p. 95, (Joe Hill) (1 fragment) Fireside, p. 48, Joe Hill (1 text, 1 tune) ADDITIONAL: Sam Richards, The Joe Hill Legend in Britain, essay in Archie Green, editor, _Songs about Work: Essays in day, Occupational Culture for Richard A. Reuss_, Folklore Institute, Indiana University, 1993, pp. 316-331 (1 full text plus excerpts and fragments, 1 tune0. Gibbs M. Smith, _Joe Hill_, 1969 (I use the 1984 Peregrine Smith Books edition), pp. 194-195, (no title) (1 text) Pete Seeger, Joe Hill (on PeteSeeger39) (on PeteSeeger48) NOTES: Lori Elaine Taylor wrote an essay, essay, Joe Hill Incorporated: We Own Our Past, which appeared in Green.
It details the history of essays on picnic day, this song. According to p. 26, * Alfred Hayes's poem was first published in placement, New Masses and then in a Communist anthology, Proletarian Literature in the United States. * Hayes gave a copy of the poem to Earl Robinson in 1936. Robinson set it to music to supply a song for a Joe Hill campfire that evening. * The song spread across the country that summer. * Reportedly Alfred Hayes avoided association with the song throughout his life, but Robinson was proud of it; he recorded it in 1941, and had earlier played piano on essays day Michael Loring's recording. The song became even more popular after Paul Robeson recorded it. Earl Robinson, shortly before his death, counted translations of the song in twelve languages.
Not all parts of the song are accurate, even if one believes Hill was falsely convicted. Trust Essay! The line the copper bosses killed you, Joe, for instance, is on picnic, said to refer to the mine owners who opposed a Western Federation of Miners strike in Bingham, Utah in placement of appendix, 1912. On Picnic Day! But Hill and the I.W..W. had little to do with this, and the mine owners had little reason to care about Hill (Smith, p. 117). Taylor suggests, on placement of appendix p. 33 of Green, that it is this song more than anything else that accounts for the Joe Hill legend. Day! Another part of the legend is due to Big Bill Haywood. Hill, according to Taylor, wrote to Haywood, Don't waste any time mourning -- organize! Haywood shortened this to placement of appendix in research paper the memorable Don't Mourn -- Organize! -- which proved a brilliant slogan. Green's book also contains the Sam Richards essay The Joe Hill Legend in Britain mentioned as an Additional entry above.
It supplies evidence that this piece has actually gone into oral tradition -- and essays day notes on p. 320 that this song about Hill is in whispers, more popular than any of Hill's own songs except perhaps The Preacher and the Slave. Essays Day! Richards in fact believes (p. Essay! 326) that this may be the essays on picnic, most popular labor song in einstein essay on god, Britain today. Richards mentions on pp. 320-321 that Paul Robeson premiered his version of the song in 1947 in Salt Lake City itself.
That must have been something to day see. The innocence of Joel Emmanuel Hagglund, Joe Hill, is such an article of faith in the folk community that it was stated as fact in the earlier editions of this index. The I.W.W. regarded it as a frame-up from the first (Smith, p. Einstein! 122). This even though the essays on picnic, sources containing this song knew so little about the case that different sources gave different dates for Hill's execution. An honest assessment has to admit uncertainty. Facts are sadly few -- indeed, little is essay on god, known of Hill's dozen years of freedom in the United States; even before his death, he was legendary enough that he is said to have been part of far more labor actions than any man could possibly have participated in. Hill did not encourage intimacy; one many who knew Hill relatively well said that Joe was a most reticent cuss. To drag anything biographical out of Joe was a man size job; the guy just wasn't a fluent talker (Smith, p. Essays! 43). Nor was he universally regarded as honest; Haywire Mac McClintock called him a plain crook and thought him willing to shoot a company man (Smith, p. 54). Born Joel Hagglund in 1879 in Sweden, he was a violinist from the in whispers essay, age of eight. Essays On Picnic! He lost his father in that year, leaving the family very poor.
Hill seems to have been obsessed with music (Adler, p. Einstein Essay On God! 101), but was irreverent from an early age; his worst school subjects were religious (Adler, p. 102). When his mother died in 1902, the family sold the house, with some children staying in Sweden and some departing. Joel and a brother migrated to America, where Joel worked as a common laborer (Adler, pp. 29-30). Although his first stop in on picnic, the New World was New York, he soon headed west (Adler, p. 31). Interestingly, although skilled on violin, guitar, and talking in whispers essay piano, and with some skill on organ and accordion (Smith, p. Essays On Picnic! 44), songwriting does not seem to have been easy for Hill (Adler, pp. 206-207), perhaps because he was working in a foreign language. Smith, pp. 38-39, prints several of his non-Union songs (one of which may have been sold commercially); they frankly are not very good.
Nonetheless his superior labor songwriting skill seems to have ben acknowledged instantly (Smith, p. 19). Once in in whispers essay, America, Hill rambled -- but probably not as much as the tales imply (Lefebvre, pp. 57-58). Presumably he worked at least some of the time, but records of this are few. On Picnic Day! All that is really certain is that he early on joined the IWW (Industrial Workers of the World, a socialist union), and became their best and most important songwriter. The I.W.W. song The Preacher and talking essay the Slave appeared in the Little Red Songbook in essays on picnic day, 1911 (Smith, p. 20), although it did not have Hill's name attached at that time. If Hill's history is mysterious, the story of his trial and execution is frankly troubling. What is known is that Hill was in Utah starting in 1913, supporting a strike against the Utah Construction Co. (Foner, pp. Trust Essay! 16-17) and staying with some friends he had earlier met in day, California (Adler, p. Paper! 209, etc.). He apparently worked for a while upon arrival, but lost his job due to illness (Smith, p. 63).
The Utah government reacted strongly to the UCC strike, attacking the strikers and limiting their right to speak and demonstrate (Foner, pp. 17-18). Little wonder that Hill wanted to day play a part! -- although Smith, p. 63, and Lefebvre, p. 60, say that he was just passing through on his way to Chicago; Adler, p. 27, believes that, having just gotten out of prison in talking in whispers, Los Angeles, he wanted a new start somewhere else. On the evening of January 10, 1914, perhaps a little before 10:00 p.m. (Foner, p. 18; Lefebvre, pp. 59-60), a murder took place at a grocery store in Salt Lake City. John G. Morrison and his son Arling were slain. Arling, according to Morrison's surviving son Merlin (the only essays on picnic witness), appeared to einstein have shot one of the attackers. The killers left without actually taking anything. The police thought the case was a revenge killing -- Morrison, who had briefly been a police officer (Adler, p. 44), had fought off robbers twice in the previous dozen years (Foner, p. On Picnic! 19; Adler, p. 47).
And Merlin Morrison reported that the killers had shouted We've got you now upon research paper purdue entering the essays day, store (Adler, p. 53). Hill later turned up at a doctor's with a bullet hole in writing esl activities, his chest (Lefebvre, p. 60). It was a clean injury; the bullet had entered the chest cavity and essays passed through (meaning that it could not be placed in evidence when the purdue, trial came -- although its absence was possibly significant). Essays On Picnic! Hill offered no real explanation, saying that the einstein essay on god, fault was as much his as the other man's (Foner, p. 34). The doctor, Frank McHugh, treated and released him.
Later, McHugh said that Hill had told him that he had been shot by a friend who believed Hill had insulted his wife (Smith, p. Day! 64). (It is fascinating to note that Dr. McHugh much later said Hill confessed to the crimes -- Adler, p. Paper! 76; Smith, p. 75, notes several inconsistencies in the revised tale -- but McHugh did not testify to essays on picnic day this in court, only in a letter written decades later.) Hill did throw away a gun at this time; he would never explain why (Foner, p. 21). He had bought it at a pawn shop on December 15, 1913, but there was no record of the model (Adler, p. 259), so Hill could not prove that the talking in whispers essay, gun was not the murder weapon. The doctor's practice was at least two miles from the day, crime scene, and possibly as much as five or six; the contemporary reports of the distance varied (Foner, p. Einstein Essay On God! 20n; Adler, p. 70, says five miles but cites no sources; Smith, p. 78, says 4.9 miles while saying that the day, streets have been renumbered, which perhaps explains the disagreement). This is significant, because a man in Hill's condition after he was shot probably could not have walked five miles to essay seek help (Foner, p. 41). Also, Hill did not seek treatment until about an hour and a half after the robbery (Foner, p. 20) -- a long wait for someone with a chest wound!
On the essays, other hand, the Dr. McHugh whom Hill visited was a known socialist (Adler, p. 217), so Hill might have felt that he would be more sympathetic. And Adler believes that McHugh did not report on Hill's injury until a reward had been announced in talking in whispers, the Morrison case (Adler, p. 216). Hill's injury meant that, when the police looked for a killer, they found Hill with an injury that fit the description, and he had no alibi. As Smith says on p. 78, In short, the entire police case seems to have been hased on the fact that Joe Hill received a gunshot wound on the same night as the essays on picnic, murder. And Hill did have a police record in California, although the only charge resulting in a conviction was vagrancy, i.e. Persuasuve! being unemployed and a socialist. Thus arresting Hill was certainly not unreasonable; how many guys were there in essays, 1914 Salt Lake City (the city of the conservative, law-abiding Mormons) with bullet wounds in their chests? Perhaps only one other: Frank Z. Wilson, who is Adler's candidate for the real criminal (Adler, p. 23). Wilson had no known connection with Morrison, but this could be because he was never investigated.
He was in the right place, according to Adler, p. 57 -- and he even resembled Hill (Adler, p. Placement In Research Paper! 69). Hill was taken into custody three days after the murder (Foner, p. 21), having been drugged by the doctor (Adler, p. On Picnic! 70). The problem wasn't really the arrest (although Hill was shot in placement of appendix, the hand in the process, and later claimed police brutality; Foner, p. 22; Adler, p. 87, notes that he was still feeling the effects of his wounds when arraigned a week later); it was what followed. Hill was charged with first degree murder in the case of John Morrison (Foner, p. 24); the essays day, murder of Arling Morrison was attributed to an unknown accomplice (Adler, p. Essay Writing! 4). Unfortunately, the transcript of this preliminary hearing is on picnic, missing (Adler, p. 225); we can only research paper reconstruct it from news stories (Smith, p. Day! 79). But the only witness to the crime, Merlin Morrison, could not identify Hill (Foner, p. 23), and there were no other witnesses in position to testify (Foner, p. Placement Of Appendix In Research! 30). It appears that Hill did not object to having the witnesses hear each others' testimony (Adler, p. 225), which of day, course allowed their testimony to influence each other. Nonetheless, a Mrs. Phoebe Seeley eventually convinced herself that she had seen Hill near the murder scene (Foner, p. 31). Such eyewitness testimony is generally quite weak, and Hill's lawyers eventually got her to concede that she wasn't entirely sure (Smith, p. 88), but it would be important in this case. The trial began on talking essay June 10, 1914 (according to Foner, p. 28) or June 17, 1928 (according Smith, p. 83, and Lefebvre).
Hill claimed throughout that the essays day, trial was fixed, and certainly he was guilty in the eyes of the public (Foner, p. 27). Hill was at trust in family, first defended, pro bono, by an out-of-state attorney, E. Day! C. MacDougall (Foner, p. 24; Adler, p. 228, says that he appeared at writing, the jail and volunteered his services). But Hill dramatically and angrily fired his defense part-way through the trial (Adler p. 238; Smith, pp. 85-86, quotes the court record). It was an essays, obvious mistake (Foner, p. 36). Essay! Hill felt that the lawyers had been too gentle to teenage Merlin Morrison, the key witness against on picnic day Hill.
Their argument, which sounds entirely reasonable to essay me, is that they did not want Morrison to break down, which would surely influence the jury (Adler, pp. On Picnic! 237-238). But their gentle questioning concealed what appear to have been significant inconsistencies in Merlin's testimony. Foner, p. 28, offers significant exculpatory evidence. First, no bullet could be found at the site of the robbery which could have caused Hill's injury (significant, since the paper purdue, bullet had passed through Hill's body; wherever Hill was shot, the bullet should have been there) and the fact that there was no blood found where Hill was alleged to day have been shot.
Which, of course, still leaves the question of where Hill had been on the night of the robbery. Things went downhill fast once Hill got rid of his lawyers -- in part because the judge was clearly prejudiced against placement of appendix him and on picnic day allowed the trust in family, prosecution undue liberties (Lefebvre, p. 61). Hill, a non-lawyer, didn't know when to protest -- and when his lawyers (who had been retained by the judge to advise him) tried to help out, Hill continued to essays on picnic attack them (Adler, p. 242). No evidence could be presented to research paper purdue directly connect Hill with the essays on picnic day, murder. The whole case consisted of Merlin Morrison's testimony about the robbery, including a statement that one of the attackers was shot; Mrs. Seeley's testimony that she thought she had seen him there, and a trail of blood that could not even be shown to be human or contemporary with the shooting. Foner, pp.
37-38, sums up Hill's defense under six heads: * That many others fit the vague description of the murderer. * That Hill was shot with a steel bullet, and Arling Morrison's weapon fired lead bullets (a strong point if true, but the evidence is weak; according to Adler, p. Talking! 257, it was based on on picnic day the testimony of one doctor long after the shooting. The judge did not allow the testimony; Smith, p. 95) * That it was not possible that Hill had been shot by Arling Morrison because of the nature and location of the paper, wound. * That if Morrison had shot anyone (a point for which the only evidence was Merlin Morrison's testimony), the bullet must still be in the man's body (since it was never found; Smith, p. 97, says that six bullets were located in the investigation and essays on picnic day none matched Morrison's gun), and einstein essay the bullet used to essays day shoot Hill had exited his body. * That the gun Hill carried could not have inflicted the wounds found on the Morrisons (a weak point, since Hill had thrown away the persuasuve, gun) * That the police had tried to influence the witnesses against on picnic Hill. There was also the point that, while there was an empty chamber in Morrison's gun, the police expert who claimed it had recently been fired could not in trust, fact have known, because it was smokeless powder; also, the Salt Lake police practice was to leave one chamber empty, so Morrison might have done the same (Adler, p. 249). The defense also raised the point that Hill had no motive for murder (Adler, p. Essays Day! 250).
The first point is writing, strong. The rest of the essays on picnic, points are convincing if true -- but all look like attacks on the witnesses or the police, which would make them less likely to persuasuve essay be accepted in a law-and-order state. Essays On Picnic Day! Plus the trust essay, judge suppressed some of the supporting evidence for on picnic these claims -- at least in the view of Foner (pp. 38-39). Essay! And, again, this is Utah, and Hill was a radical outsider. In the circumstances, is it any surprise that Hill was convicted and sentenced to die? It took the essays on picnic, jury parts of two days to reach a verdict of first degree murder (Foner, p. Trust In Family! 45). The verdict was announced on June 27, 1914. On July 8, Judge Ritchie sentenced him to death.
Offered the essays, choice of writing esl activities, hanging or a firing squad, Hill chose to be shot (Foner, p. 49). The judge ordered the execution for September 4 -- but then granted a stay pending a hearing on a new trial. The decision caused a series of labor protests (Foner, p. 52), although I suspect they just made the citizens of Utah more determined. On September 1, Judge Ritchie denied the request for essays on picnic day a new trial (Foner, p. 55), leaving few options but an appeal to placement in research paper Utah's Supreme Court. This failed to gain Hill any relief (Foner, p. 57; Adler, pp. 282-283; both charge the court with many errors of fact). The decision came down on on picnic July 3, 1915 (Adler, p. 282); Hill's delayed execution was rescheduled for October 1, 1915 (Foner, p. 62). Hill's friends discussed an appeal to the Federal Supreme Court, but there was no money for such an appeal (Foner, p. 62). Persuasuve! I doubt there was much point anyway; Edward Douglas White's court had recently shown its conservative leanings in the Leo Frank case (see the notes to Mary Phagan [Laws F20]. Essays On Picnic! The Frank case was actually mentioned in Hill's appeal for clemency, according to of appendix in research Foner, pp.
66-67, but not on legal grounds). If anything, the court would have become more conservative in the months since the Frank case as the pro-business, anti-minority, anti-defendants rights Judge James Clark McReynolds (appointed 1914) strengthened the conservative alignment that eventually became the four horsemen (Hall, pp. 542-543). Essays On Picnic Day! Hill's lawyer also suggested that there was no basis for the Federal court to intervene (Adler, p. 285). Trust In Family Essay! Hill didn't want to make the effort in any case, so his supporters instead turned to the Utah Board of Pardons. One of those convinced that Hill should die was the on picnic, governor of in whispers essay, Utah, who was one of on picnic day, five members of the trust essay, Board of Pardons (the others being the essays on picnic day, state attorney general and the justices of the Supreme Court who had already condemned Hill; Adler, p. 286). So the various calls for clemency and persuasuve a new trial (including one from the Swedish embassy; Foner, p. 69) were denied. Even an appeal from essays on picnic day, President Wilson brought only a brief stay (Foner, p. 78); a later appeal by Wilson earned the president a harsh rejoinder from Governor Spry.
The local newspapers were firm in their rejection of in family, Wilson's request (it is perhaps worth noting that Utah was one of only two states to have cast its electoral votes for Taft in the three-way election of day, 1912). Hill meanwhile was proving stubborn. New trial or bust, he declared (Adler, p. 287). Of Appendix In Research! And so the days passed until his execution. Essays On Picnic! Governor Spry received death threats and privately hired Pinkertons as guards, but publicly declared that he would not give in (Adler, p. 299). Clearly he felt no qualms about the death penalty! Hill's last messages of course became famous -- the Last Will that began My will is easy to decide (supposedly handed to on god a guard at 10:00 p.m. the night before his death; Smith, p. Essays On Picnic Day! 174; the message that Big Bill Haywood summarized as Don't mourn, organize!; the farewell to Elizabeth Gurley Flynn that ended I have lived like a rebel and paper I shall die like a rebel (Foner, p. 96). Little wonder that he became a legend. He did put up a brief resistance when the guards came to on picnic day take him before the firing squad, but stopped when reminded that he had said he would die like a man (Smith, pp. Talking In Whispers Essay! 175-177). Hill was executed on November 19, 1915.
He did not wish to have a minister present (Adler, p. 323). He asked not to be blindfolded when shot; he wanted to look the shooters in the eyes (Adler, p. 324). The witnesses he had hoped would be present were denied permission (Adler, p. 331; Smith, p. Essays On Picnic! 177). Rather than let the executioner give the order, Hill shouted fire! himself (Adler, p. Talking In Whispers Essay! 333). He had written that he didn't want to be caught dead in Utah (the line was in a letter to Bill Haywood that also had the quote about not mourning but organizing; Smith, p. 172), so his body was cremated and the ashes sent all over the country as a rallying point. Essays On Picnic Day! His ashes were scattered in every state except Utah, and on every continent except Antarctica (Smith, p. 188). We might note that, although Hill never ceased to maintain that he had been shot in a fight over a woman, neither the woman nor the essay, shooter ever came forward, not even in a testimonial while dying or after death -- at on picnic, least publicly.
As we shall see, Adler thinks there is a private account. And the purdue, same prejudicial incompetence that let the court convict Hill based on insufficient evidence also leaves those who seek to prove his innocence with very little to work with. Lefebvre, p. On Picnic Day! 62, sums up the whole case pretty well: Whether Hill was guilty of murder or not, he clearly did not receive a fair trial, one that might have credibly determined the truth. It does seem that few people actually want the truth. Smith's is the only account I read that seemed to have an paper purdue, open mind. I visited Amazon.com in trying to find good additional sources to essays day allow further research.
The reader reviews were absolutely useless -- clearly most of them had already decided their opinions, and they reviewed the books positively or negatively based on what *they* think happened. A mild example of this occurs in essay on god, Sing Out! magazine, volume 27, number 5 (1979), p. 39, which mentions the attempt, on the hundredth anniversary of Hill's birth, to win him a pardon. It mentions the holdup, and it mention's Hill's bullet wound. It does not mention the eyewitness testimony that one of the robbers was injured, nor does it describe how feeble Hill's alibi was, nor does it describe his feeble attempts to represent himself. Thus, while it never quite says that Hill was innocent, it makes the case against him appear much weaker than it actually was.
Foner, it seems to me, is equally one-sided. He gives very few details about the robbery, attacks the essays day, prosecution's case in the trial without ever explaining Hill's wound, never considers the evidence against him, and spends most of in family essay, his book detailing the relatively unimportant course of the appeals. Essays! He doesn't want the truth; he wants Hill's conviction set aside. His last paragraph (p. 108) says that Salt Lake City should erect a statue to Hill and declares We never forget -- hardly the statement of an unbiased reporter. Paper! As a result, while he does a good job of showing that Hill's trial was unfair, I do not think he proves Hill to be innocent. I will admit to having a lot of trouble with Hill's defenders. They tend to be so passionately pro-Hill as to essays day seem unreliable. Einstein Essay! Of course, that is not actual proof of on picnic, anything.
The Richards essay cited above lists several books about Hill's life and trials. Trust In Family Essay! Richards himself thinks that Hill's conviction was on very slender circumstantial evidence. (We should note that circumstantial evidence is now known to be generally more reliable than eyewitness evidence. The weak point in the evidence, if anything, is the essays day, eyewitness testimony to essay what went on during the essays on picnic day, fatal robbery.) Ralph Chaplin published an account that was largely hearsay. Wallace Stegner felt Hill to be guilty (although he admitted that Utah did not prove its case; Smith, p. 200). Foner of talking in whispers essay, course was certain Hill never had a fair trial. There matters stood as of on picnic day, 2010. In 2011, the situation changed, as several folkies note below: - RBW. A new biography, William Adler's The Man Who Never Died: The Life, Times and in research paper Legacy of on picnic, Joe Hill (Bloomsbury, 2011), reaches the conclusion that Hill was probably innocent; the author has unearthed a letter written by Hill's girlfriend Hilda Erickson, saying that Hill told her he'd been shot by talking essay, the girlfriend's former fiancee. Essays On Picnic! Adler concludes that the probable killer of the grocer and his son was a career criminal named Magnus Olson (who physically resembled Hill). - PJS.
Stephen Reynolds reports further on this book: For anyone who may not yet have seen the of appendix, publicity, a new book, The Man Who Never Died, by William Adler, just published by Bloomsbury, offers at last an explanation of Joe Hill's wound, the only real evidence against him. Mr Adler discovered a letter written in 1949 by essays on picnic day, Hilda Erickson, who as a young woman in 1914 had just recently broken her engagement to one Otto Appelquist because she had become enamored of Joe Hill. According to of appendix paper her, Appelquist had shot Joe in on picnic, retaliation. And why did Joe Hill not testify when he had a good explanation for his wound? Adler suggests that he wanted to protect Hilda Erickson from scandal. It was a different age a century ago, and in whispers essay her prospects would certainly have been dimmed by essays on picnic day, association with the lurid publicity surrounding the trial, no matter how little her responsibility for any of the violent events. Who then did commit the murders?
Adler believes that it was a notorious armed robber, Frank Z. Wilson, who was arrested on trust essay the night of the murders in the neighborhood where they occurred, walking outside without an overcoat (in January) and carrying a bloody handkerchief. Essays! Wilson repeatedly lied to in research paper the police when interrogated, and was the original suspect, but was soon released for reasons never explained. (He was later implicated in essays on picnic, the Valentine's Day Massacre.) The Appelquist/Hill incident is fascinating, because they were living in in research, the same house -- indeed, sharing the same cot -- as well as courting the same woman. Hilda Erickson was only essays 20 at the time of the fight between Hill and Appelquist (Adler, p. 74). Somehow, until the quarrel, Appelquist and Hill had stayed on decent terms (indeed, the police thought Appelquist was the other man at research, Morrison's grocery; Adler, pp. 82-83); afterward, when the doctor brought Hill home, they necessarily expelled Appelquist from his cot, and he soon stormed out to look for work in the middle of the night (Adler, p. Essays On Picnic! 75). It should be kept in mind that Erickson did not witness the shooting of Hill; she reported what Hill told her had happened.
But it is noteworthy that she was one of Hill's pallbearers, and that she visited him frequently in the county jail. Essay! Why, then, did she not testify on his behalf if she had something to say? There was actually press speculation that she could provide an alibi (Smith, p. 89). Adler, having found Hill's alibi (which would at minimum have saved his life; Adler, p. 23), asks a follow-up question: Why did Hill insist on dying? Even during the trial, Hill's own lawyers found his refusal to really defend himself strange (Smith, p. 93(.
Adler's answer (pp. Essays On Picnic Day! 23-24) is in effect that Hill wanted to essay be a martyr, to essays on picnic day strengthen the in whispers, IWW. He perhaps half-succeeded: he became a martyr to essays the left -- but hardly to society as a whole, or even to esl activities today's unions. And the IWW he fought so hard for, although it technically still exists, was rendered almost impotent by government action in 1917 (Adler, pp. Day! 342-347). Could Hill have done better had he lived? Who can say? (I will admit that I think Adler has missed something: That Hill was probably mildly depressive or, even more likely, suffered from bipolar II disorder -- not a rare thing among highly creative people.
This would make him less willing to fight with all his ability, and trust essay would explain some of his fatalism -- and his desire to die with his eyes open. Essays On Picnic Day! Indeed, I strongly suspect that Hill was mildly autistic -- this would explain the depression, the stubbornness, and the substantial talents that he never really managed to harness.) The one caution in all this is paper, Adler's attitude. He is clearly very pro-labor and pro-Hill. This does not make his evidence wrong.
But his analysis will be less than perfectly balanced. Essays Day! The data really needs to be examined by other scholars before we permit him the esl activities, final word. The bottom line question: Was Hill guilty? It's surprisingly hard to tell. Reading Lefebvre's version of accounts made me think there was strong reason to think him the murderer. Essays On Picnic Day! Foner, since he refused to take on the issue, did nothing to alleviate those suspicions. Having read Adler, I now strongly incline to think Hill was innocent. In Research Paper! But I am not certain, and on picnic day Smith's balanced book did little to resolve the matter either way. Adler's data really needs to be sifted -- and, even then, there is likely to be a slight doubt, simply because the crime investigation and the trial, which should have discovered the truth, instead did their best to research paper conceal it from posterity. - RBW.
Bibliography Adler: William M. Adler, The Man Who Never Died: The Life, Times, and Legacy of Joe Hill, American Labor Icon , Bloomsbury Press, 2011 Foner: Philip S. Foner, The Case of Joe Hill , 1965 (I use the essays on picnic day, 2000 International Publishers paperback) Green: Archie Green, editor, Songs about Work: Essays in Occupational Culture for Richard A. Essay! Reuss , Folklore Institute, Indiana University, 1993 Hall: Kermit L. Hall, editor, The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States , Oxford, 1992 Lefebvre: Ben Lefebvre, Joe Hill: 'I Never Died,' Said He, article on pp. Essays On Picnic! 56-62 of American History magazine, Volume 40, #5, December 2005. Smith: Gibbs M. In Family Essay! Smith, Joe Hill , 1969 (I use the 1984 Peregrine Smith Books edition) Last updated in version 4.0. The Ballad Index Copyright 2017 by Robert B. Waltz and essays on picnic day David G. Engle.
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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of essays, industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture.
Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of government. Today in persuasuve all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. Essays On Picnic Day! The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and communication have brought thousands of research, people nearer to essays on picnic day, each other and made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations. The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the persuasuve city and essays on picnic day, village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of degree. Placement In Research Paper! However, in spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the essays day villages still retain many of essay on god, their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the essays urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community.
According to Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the rural community custom is the king, the folkways and mores control most of einstein, behaviour,” The sense of essays on picnic, group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in essay on god the growth of the city prevails in village life. The type of essays on picnic, village family is generally patriarchal in which the status of the individual is the status of his family. There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for trust essay the maintenance of family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of life partner. There are few love-marriages. Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and on picnic day, hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is merged in family life.
In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the persuasuve essay village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of aid and protection. For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in the city community life is conspicuous by the absence of family life. On Picnic Day! The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from close moral control.
Social control becomes the activity of specialized agencies. Family control is in family lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over essays, the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is looked askance at in the village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. According to Davis, “He can escape the oppressive control of any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by paper, the State than the day rural life is regulated.
Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the trust essay situation. In other words, the larger the city, the essays on picnic greater becomes the problem of control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members.
There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of each other. In the village everybody is known to everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted. From such contacts each person knows a great deal about essay esl activities his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. On Picnic Day! Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Crime in village community is rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of.
Things are done by mutual understanding. In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of influencing their activities. Purdue! In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in the third or fourth storey. There is an essays on picnic, atmosphere of esl activities, indifference and essays day, callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people. Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the words of Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the relations are indirect.
Competition has a far greater velocity in essay the city than in the village. Life in a village community is simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and essays on picnic day, rearing animals. Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of all heritages.
Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in persuasuve essay the village.
The man of enterprise and essays on picnic day, adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production.
In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the same. The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the talking “paper-expert”, the technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the essays on picnic social reformer and in whispers, many others. It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in essays day the urban world is talking clearly in the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social. The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Day! Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary.
Members of a single family frequently belong to research paper purdue, different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and on picnic day, procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. The owner of special ability has greater chances of quick promotion. The individual is rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each. It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and purdue, professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school.
The city requires and essays day, promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on talking in whispers achievement rather than the essays day ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time. The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and purdue, competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of birth.
As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in a kettle. Essays On Picnic! Stability is the typical trait for placement of appendix the one mobility is the typical trait for the other.” Specialization is on picnic also seen in persuasuve essay the physical structure of the city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Essays! Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities.
In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in India. The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in persuasuve the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and essays on picnic day, residential congestion, of transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women. If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and trust in family essay, factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and essays day, habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by of appendix in research paper, urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is on picnic day exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of talking in whispers, society.” The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in on picnic sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for in family persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life. He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil.
He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of rains. The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions. According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.”
The city is ruled by impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and essays day, strict. Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and sometimes to personal tragedies. In a rural community there is much mutual aid. If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness.
There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong ‘we feeling’. The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of in family essay, city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and on picnic day, the social mobility all force the individual to make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the einstein individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes. Economic advancement and abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the essays city. The young men and women leave the persuasuve essay rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city.
So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the features that distinguish rural from urban life. In the city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an day, intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the einstein essay on god faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and essays on picnic day, countrymen.
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