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How to Write a Personal Experience Essay With Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. 1. What you need to do to get a good grade. 2. How to explain the meaning of art education thesis, a memory. 3. How to choose a great topic.
4. Easy organizing strategies for fabulous essays. Telling a vivid a story from your past. Explaining the significance of that story. Want a good grade on your essay? Instructors and mla book report, testing agencies assign a lot of personal experience type essays and so it is worth your time to art education statement, know how to resume, write one easily and effectively so that you get a top score. The reason these types of assignments are given so often is art education thesis statement, that anyone can write about their own experience and research paper on cystic, it doesn't require any outside resources or research. However, even though anyone can tell a story about their life, that does not mean anyone can write a good essay about that experience. As a professor and thesis, teacher for 30 years, I've read thousands of essays and can tell you there is cadeil drama, a distinct difference from telling a story about art education thesis, yourself and writing an excellent personal experience essay. Help? The difference between good and statement, great:
Top essays paint a vivid picture of the experience so that the reader feels they are there. Great papers draw a unique meaning from the experience and paper, explain it clearly. The best papers are well-organized. This article tells you how to art education thesis statement, do all that! How to Find Significance of Memory. Writing an essay about a personal experience or relationship can be a powerful way of both discovering the meaning of your own past and sharing that past with others. When you write about something in your past, you have two perspectives: your perspective in the present and the perspective you had at the time the resume drama event occurred. The space between these perspectives is art education thesis statement, usually where you will find significance in that event or relationship. Your perspective in the present.
Your perspective you had at the time the event occurred. The space between these perspectives is usually where you will find significance in that event or relationship. If the event or relationship is recent, you will be closer to the you that experienced the event. If the event is more distant, you will often find yourself reflecting on the experience, your reactions and the meaning of the experience differently. As you write the essay, you will need to decide if you want to talk about the experience as you see it now, or as you saw it then. Often, you may do both of those things, or use your perspective now as the conclusion. At the end of 8th grade, my best friend wrote me a note saying she never wanted to be my friend again. I was devastated, and paper, terribly depressed all summer, terrified to start High School alone. Forty years later, I realize that that experience was probably what made me finally reach out to develop new friends. Those friends encouraged me to develop my life-long interest in speech, theater, and writing.
More importantly, that experience of rejection gave me a lifelong compassion for others. Any event from your past can be a good topic if it was important to you. You can use either a one-time event, a reoccurring event, a person, or a place. Brainstorm ideas by thinking about the art education thesis statement following: A relationship with an how to do literature in dissertation, important person like a grandparent or best friend. A single encounter with someone that changed you. An event which was small but significant. A major, life changing event.
Something that you did over and over that was meaningful to you. Your experience and memories of a place that embodies who you are, or has meaning for you. How to Decide if You Have a Good Topic. To make sure you have a good topic, you need to determine what the meaning of that event or person was for you. Thesis Statement? To help you get ideas about the meaning and to decide whether this topic is a good choice, jot down some notes answering the following 5 questions: What did I think the meaning of the resume cadeil experience was when it happened? How have my thoughts about it changed? What did I learn? How has my life direction been affected by this event? Is there something I would do differently if I could go back to that experience?
Any regrets? Why re-invent the wheel? Use the following professional writing techniques to organize your personal essays. These strategies aren't secret and art education thesis statement, they aren't hard. They are what you've seen over and over in books and movies. Now you need to comparative essay, use them yourself. This is the most obvious way to tell the story. You just tell it in the way it happened in the order it happened. Most of the art education other organizing techniques use this way to research paper, tell the art education thesis main part of the story.
See Anne Dillard's Handed My Own Life for comparative, a good example of chronological organization of a personal essay. Characteristics of this organization strategy: Tells story in art education thesis statement the order that it happened. Tells story suspensefully--least important events leading to more important ones and finally coming to climax. Explains meaning after climax or lets events show the mla book report meaning. For example, Dillard states her understanding in a series of phrases, such as I was handed my own life, and my days were my own to art education statement, plan and fill along with a lot of specific details of how she did that.
Of course, she also uses the title to explain her meaning. Expectations Unfulfilled Organization. Want an easy way to organize your essay? Try Expectations Unfulfilled. This organizing strategy works best when there is write an essay marriage, a contrast (either horrific, funny, or disappointing) between your expectations about the event and what actually happened. You can also do Expectations Fulfilled, but that is generally a weaker paper idea unless you have a situation where the reality clearly superseded all of your expectations.
Rick Bragg's 100 Miles an Hour, Upside Down and Sideways is a good example of this kind of essay organization. Characteristics of art education thesis, Expectations Unfulfilled: Introduction vividly describes expectations for a particular event . Bragg talks about how he was convinced that this V-8 convertible was going to fulfill all his desires. Comparative Help? Maybe foreshadow the art education thesis statement problem. Bragg's uncle warns him to be careful because That'un could kill you. Tell the story of what really happened (use chronological organization above). Bragg tells of race and number, accident which wrecked the car and ruined it for speed. Describe the contrast between reality and expectations . Art Education Thesis Statement? Bragg's memories of the crash are the radio still playing and being pulled out number paper, unscratched and of being famous not for art education thesis, having the best car, but for how to review, being the kid who survived a 100-mile crash. Reflection on experience. You can do this by telling your reaction or using an ironic twist, as Bragg does. Bragg tells how his car was put back together but never the same (just as his ideas of speed, freedom, and fast cars have been wrecked in the accident).
Conclude with irony. An ironic end can sometimes be a good conclusion for this sort of story. Braggs writes about art education, how after his car gets rear-ended at the Piggly Wiggly supermarket he sells it in disgust to a preacher's kid who drove the speed limit. Using a frame story for the introduction and conclusion should be familiar to you from lots of movies.One good example of a story frame is resume drama, UP. In this case, the movie opens with the frame of Carl looking at the scrapbook Ellie has made for him about art education thesis statement, their life and dreams, before flashing to the present story of how to do literature review in dissertation, Carl and Russell and their adventures. The movie returns to thesis, the frame at the end of the movie as Carl looks at the last page of the marriage photobook Ellie has made for him.
He learns that it was the journey of the thesis relationship which was the real adventure. Another kind of resume cadeil drama, frame can be a flashback. Art Education Thesis? In this technique, you start in write the middle of the action (or after it is over) and then flashback to an earlier memory. Art Education? The Notebook uses the story of a man spending time with his wife with Alzheimer's as the frame for his re-telling the story of their romance. The advantage of using a frame is that it makes it easier for you to talk about the meaning of the story, especially if you use the present day to flashback to the past. Be sure the frame is not just random. Mla Book Report? There should be an event, object, conversation, or situation which causes you to flash back in memory. Internal and External Conflicts Organization. With this technique, you organize your story around what is happening internally in thesis your mind, versus what is happening in review in dissertation the event.
Of course, like Expectations Unfulfilled this works best if there is statement, a conflict between what is happening in your thoughts and what is number research, happening in the situation. An example of this could be a wedding which seemed to be a joyous celebration but which was full of conflict for the bride who wondered whether she had made the right choice in art education marrying this man. Mla Book Report? Another example could be a birthday party where the birthday kid seemed to be having fun but was inwardly devastated when her divorced parents acted coldly toward one another. You can combine some of these strategies together to make your essay shine. A good example of this is the student essay by thesis statement, Jean Brandt, Calling Home. Along with using a frame. An Essay Marriage? Brandt also uses internal and art education thesis, external conflicts in her organization. Introduction: beginning frame story. Write An Essay On Muslim Marriage? Brandt's essay has her ride to the mall.
First conflict and resolution. Art Education Thesis Statement? Brandt has an internal conflict about whether she should steal and the resolution that she will. Second conflict and mla book report, resolution . Brandt's second conflict is external when she is caught by the store owner and he calls the police. Art Education Thesis? Third conflict and resolution . Paper? Brand's third conflict is thesis, both internal and external. She wonders how her parents will react. How To Do Literature In Dissertation? She is brought to the police station but not punished by her parents. She realizes that disappointing them and realizing she had made the wrong choice is worse than if they had punished her.
Conclusion: ending frame and expectations unfulfilled. Brandt ends in art education another car ride home, which parallels with the ride to the mall in the introduction. The twist is that not only cadeil drama, was the mall trip not what she expected, she has disappointed the expectations of her parents too. Small Events Can make Good Essays. Brandt's essay illustrates how to take a single, small incident and turn it into an essay which explains how she learned something about herself. It is art education statement, a coming of age essay.
When thinking about your own essay topic, try to think about mla book report, moments in your life which were significant turning points. The event can be something small and doesn't have to be dramatic. What is important is how it affected you. Tips for art education, Chronological Organization. Most students will use this method, so if you want to on muslim, make your essay stand out, you may want to try one of the other techniques. Art Education Thesis? When you do use this method remember: Where's the Conflict? As you've probably learned in English class, good stories start with a conflict that is either internal (inside yourself) or external (between you and write marriage, someone else). Good stories show the development of the art education statement conflict, the crisis (called a climax) and then the resolution of what happens afterward (either good or bad). Make sure your story follows this pattern. Don't add unnecessary details.
You need to clip the memory effectively. Imagine yourself as a film editor. What needs to be in how to in dissertation the story? What can you leave out? Make details specific and interesting. Make your descriptions of the thesis setting, characters and mla book report, action concrete and specific.
For example: Don't say, Maura was a beautiful but boring blonde bombshell. Say, Maura was a sleek, 5 foot 10, long-haired, blonde who never tired of thesis statement, talking about comparative essay help, her exotic vacations or newest boyfriend. Keep Boredom at Bay. Tell enough detail like setting and character development that the reader is drawn into the story, but don't spend so much time in details that your reader gets bored. Action and art education, Dialogue are Best. Research Paper On Cystic? If you can, make sure most of your paper is either about something happening or someone talking. Both action and thesis statement, dialogue move the story along faster than description. Anne Dillard's. Sometimes, there is a particular object or repeated event which is the focus of the memory.
You can use repetition around this object or event to effectively order your essay. On Being a Real Westerner by Tobias Wolff is a good example of using a metaphor to organize. Characteristics of this organization: Several memories relating to comparative help, one object, person or emotion. In Wolff's story these memories are related to his rifle: getting the art education thesis statement rifle, his mother's objections, playing with the mla book report rifle, acting like a sniper, loading rifle, Vietnam comparison-power, killing squirrel, his mother's reaction to the death of the squirrel, his own reaction, and his continued fascination with rifle. Memories often chronological but also should be climactic , with the most important memory last. In Wolff's story, the art education climax is fibrosis, when he shoots the squirrel and has to deal with the reality of what owning and using a rifle really means, or what it really means to be a westerner. Tie these memories together with the main theme which would be the thesis statement main point of your essay.
Wolff ties his memories together with the theme of power, the help power of the rifle, how the art education thesis statement hunger for power shaped him, and do literature, his powerlessness to change the past, a man can't help the boy. Write About When You Got Out of Your Comfort Zone. Generally, it helps to keep the essay focused on one to art education statement, three important memories about that person. These memories can be specific events (best), or anecdotes about events which happened repeatedly. Characteristics of mla book report, this sort of essay: 1. Vivid Portrait of Person. Dialogue (the reader can hear how this person talks). Describe a place which reflects the person (the reader can know about the interests of the thesis statement person and picture them where you do). Person (describe what the person looks like). Pick memories which show the person's character or reveal your relationship.
Tell one time incidents: every essay should have 1-3 of these. Describe event in great detail, describing the scene, what happened, what people said, what you were feeling. Explain recurring activities: you can have these also if you describe them vividly and research paper, make sure that they are not too general and prove a point. Don't say, My mother always scolded me. Instead say: My mother always scolded me about my messy habits followed by an incident which describes how this affected your relationship. 3. Indication of the Person's Significance. Choose 1 or 2 main points to art education thesis statement, make: Trying to explain everything that person means to you is too much to do in a short essay.
All of your description and all of your stories should be centered around proving these main points. You can use some of the organizing strategies for event essays for people too. Here are some suggestions: I . Revelation/Expectations Reversed. Your usual judgment about the person. How To? Analysis of thesis, personality/Physical description /some of background history. The revelation about them (story of a particular moment when you saw this person from a different perspective). I I. Conflict and number, Resolution Organizing. The story of a conflict you have with this person. Analysis of personality/Physical description/background history. The second story of conflict but this one resolves into a closer relationship.
Third story--conflict leads to a lesson learned. Art Education Thesis Statement? Fourth story--a different conflict/ lesson learned is conveyed to others. III. Research? Comparison and Contrast. Notice that both views are found in each paragraph or section.
This paper is thesis statement, ordered thematically. Another possibility is to mla book report, talk about all the views of another person first, then talk about art education, your views. Introduction: Description of person and drama, set-up of contrast between you. Body: Comparison and Contrast: How others view this person versus how I view this person. Or how I used to view that person versus how I now view them. Statement? Conclusion: How I have come to see this person. Tips for Writing a Descriptive Essay. How to mla book report, Write an Event Essay About a Memory, Place or Experience. by Virginia Kearney 7.
Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas and thesis statement, Writing Prompts. How to research, Write the statement Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18. How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by Virginia Kearney 16.
How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Virginia Kearney 11 days ago from United States. Hi, Ronald-The best topic is something that you know the meaning of easily, but not something that makes you very emotional, or which is hard to in dissertation, talk about. Think of a time when something happened and you learned something about yourself or someone else. Thinking about the end of your speech (what you learned) means that you already have the hardest part done. Hi what is the best topic to write an personal speech and i'll perform it in my teachers and in my classmates. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States.
Hi Ahm, when you deal with the meaning of the event is where you should talk about how this experience has affected your life. Generally, you would want to explain the meaning and how it changed you. As far as how long this part should be, I would advise you to art education thesis, give enough detail so that the reader understands the changes it made to you but avoid being overly personal about things you may not want everyone to know or which might reflect badly on another person. Have someone close to comparative essay, you or someone who understands the experience give you feedback after you write. Do you have any tips for how can I write a personal account of art education thesis, how the ordeal has affected my life? I'd like ask if I should describe the mla book report ordeal prolongedly or briefly.
Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Jorge--I actually have over 100 different articles about writing posted on Letterpile and art education thesis statement, HubPages, so generally you can find what you are looking for if you search for it. This particular type of article is also called reflective writing by some English textbooks and instructors. How To Do Literature? I think what you are looking for is this article: http://hubpages.com/writing/Reflective-Essay-Sampl. which focuses on the example and gives you a full essay. Jorge Lopez 4 months ago.
This is like watching a video about making a soufflé and only hearing people describe how it tastes or how hard it was to make. I'd really like to thesis statement, see a sample so I know exactly if I am framing it correctly. Do I write it like an editorial? Do I write it like a 3rd grader? I get it. It's subjective. Show me some examples of subjective papers. Essay? Walk me through it. Essay Peer 10 months ago. The setting of a novel or play often plays a big role in the overall telling of the story.
Below are tips on how to write a settings essay: • State your overall theme. • Write your introduction. • End your introductory paragraph with a hook, a statement enticing readers to keep reading. • Write the body of the essay one paragraph at a time. • Conclude the essay to tie together all of thesis, your points and reiterate your theme.
Suzette Gray 23 months ago from Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. I have now finished my very hard personal experience essay. As it is only for review in dissertation, my best friend I will not be posting it anywhere. Thank you VirginiaLynne for your comments and your inspiration. The only thing left to art education thesis statement, do is to show it to my friend and I must admit that I am being a bit of a chicken in doing this, but I will do it.
For me, to do this allows me to forgive myself for the hurts I caused my best friend. I thank you again. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Hi Watson. Your comment does make sense to anyone who has struggled in making a relationship work, and that is most of us! Suzette Gray 23 months ago from Cambridge, Ontario, Canada.
Thanks so much VirginiaLynne. On Muslim Marriage? Believe it or not the person I am writing about and the person who is trying to art education thesis statement, get me on the right track are one and the same and I very much appreciate his critique. I know why he is being tough on me and I too am being tough on myself. The experiences and the feelings are very emotional because when the friendship fell apart it was due to me trusting someone else and also a slip of the tongue. Needless to say I don't trust as easily now. Number Research? The last line that I just wrote was about me giving up on ever having that friendship again and the unexpected happened.
We are now friends but on a totally different level now than before. Writing about it is thesis, hard and I know that he wants me to be honest as he has been. I start writing and I can't stop. It is a friendship of over paper 3 and half years. Art Education Statement? It is hard to cut back on it so that it fits essay requirements. Comparative Essay? Thank you for your input and it is much appreciated.
I have a friend who used to help with college essays and she will help with this. Thesis Statement? She also knows what I am writing about. Thanks again. Comparative? I don't know if this even makes any sense. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Hi Watson--I appreciate your comment. One thing that is very difficult to do is to separate your feelings and experience from the piece of writing about statement, that experience. It is very easy to feel that the piece we write is really a part of ourselves and that any criticism of that piece is a criticism of us. Of course, that is particularly true if the person giving the critique is a close friend.
In my view, relationships are more important than the writing, so I think that I would either not share things with that person, or carefully explain that you just want to share the content but don't really feel ready to accept suggestions about the writing. I'm sure there are other people that you can get suggestions for an essay on muslim, improvement from. It might be that the thesis statement same suggestions coming from someone else would be helpful rather than hurtful. However, as an overall help in essay developing your writing, I suggest that you try to grow into the idea that what you write is a thing you produce, which can be done better or worse some days and which can generally always be improved. Then you are a participant in art education statement the critique, and a part of the paper audience trying to see how it can be shaped better. Suzette Gray 23 months ago from statement Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. I am not a student but I am wanting to write a personal experience essay about research, meeting someone unexpectedly who has become my best friend. This person has inspired me to better myself in thesis a lot of ways. We have had a lot of ups and downs in the relationship but right now the relationship is the best it has ever been.
He is in college at the age of 45 and that in itself is inspiring. I have sent this friend a few essays but he is being very critical. I know he wants me to really think about it and it is going to how to do literature, be very emotional for me. I really just wanted to put this somewhere and if anyone has any ideas they would be greatly appreciated. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Ii actually advise students to avoid using quotes to art education, start an paper on cystic fibrosis, essay.
I think starting with what you expected, or what most people think about the thesis statement library would work best. Mla Book Report? Another way you could introduce this is with a conversation with someone about using the library or by remembering the library you used as a child and comparing it to this college library. A final way to art education, do the introduction is by starting with a very detailed description of the research library. They you can talk about what your story is and art education thesis statement, what it meant to you. Mary Norton 2 years ago from resume Ontario, Canada. I have written some personal experience but it was a hit and miss. Statement? This time, you have given me a platform to write them. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. So very sorry Mary to hear about your loss. I think you could use a frame story for this sort of essay. Start perhaps with a memory right now about taking care of things and mla book report, maybe feeling frustrated about this or seeing something which reminds you of your mom.
Then go back in time and talk about your mom dying. End with a return to art education statement, the present time to talk about the meaning of her death and how it has affected you. I need help on research paper on cystic fibrosis, how to start my personal essay off. It is going to be about my mum dying in March of this year and me taking on the responsibility of art education statement, taking over the house and getting left to look after our two pets and my little sister . Research Paper? How would I go about starting this? heart4theword 6 years ago from hub. Some specifics to thesis, think about, in writing your essay. Thanks for sharing.
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After Yahoo: Why do powerful people lie? Why do leaders risk so much over what, in the grand scheme of things, is a small dishonesty? FORTUNE #8212; In the thesis statement wake of Yahoo CEO Scott Thompson’s departure amid controversy over his padded resume, the question remains: why did he do it? Whether Thompson embellished his bio with a college major he didn#8217;t earn, or simply signed his name to a document that someone else falsified, the lie cost him a flourishing career. Mla Book Report? It also added him to an ignominious list of powerful leaders who stepped down in disgrace over resume deceptions, including former RadioShack RSH CEO Dave Edmondson and Notre Dame head football coach George O#8217;Leary. Why do they do it? Why do they risk so much over what, in art education thesis statement, the grand scheme of things, is a small dishonesty?
Thompson didn#8217;t devise a multi-billion dollar Ponzi scheme or embezzle millions in company funds. At some point in the last few years, his actual accounting degree from Stonehill College on his bio changed into a degree in both accounting and computer science #8212; a false credential that appeared periodically in review in dissertation, his online bio when he was PayPal president. After he joined Yahoo yhoo in statement, January, his official bio containing the double major became part of the company#8217;s annual report filed to research on cystic, the SEC, a document that CEOs must personally attest is truthful. Thesis Statement? #8220;Whether he was the fabricator or complicit in the perpetuation of the falsehood, he didn#8217;t have the courage to correct it,#8221; says Adam Hanft, a consumer culture expert and branding strategist based in New York. At the risk of psychoanalyzing someone through the media, Hanft and other experts in leadership and human behavior offer four broad categories of explanation for this kind of deception. People lie when the truth is too painful, embarrassing, or simply perceived as inadequate. #8220;Clearly he didn#8217;t go to a first-tier school, so I would suggest that he was operating under some feeling of do literature insecurity or inadequacy,#8221; Hanft says. #8220;Here#8217;s somebody who achieved despite that, but #8212; as people do #8212; harbors some anxiety and the fear of thesis being found out.#8221; While Thompson might appear to write an essay on muslim, the outside world to embody success #8212; a rising star in corporate America whom Yahoo wooed from art education statement, PayPal to turn around the struggling Internet giant #8212; his own self-perception could be wildly different. #8220;Lying results from how to do literature in dissertation, a deep-seated belief: I am horrible on the inside.
I need to art education thesis, make up a bright, shiny self to show the world. Resume Cadeil? If anyone ever finds out thesis statement, who I truly am, everything will come crashing down,#8221; says New York-based psychoanalyst Elizabeth Singer. #8220;Look how fudging his academic record has brought about the shame he sought to avoid.#8221; In this competitive job market and economy, credential embellishing is far from rare. Mla Book Report? In fact, employers are seeing an increase in the number of art education thesis outright lies on resumes, such as changing employment dates to how to in dissertation, hide an employment gap or listing enhanced responsibilities, according to Michael Crom, vice president at thesis statement, Dale Carnegie Training. #8220;With the higher levels of unemployment and paper, the increased competition to thesis statement, get a few jobs, people begin to exaggerate and outright lie on help, their resumes,#8221; says Crom. Half of statement all resumes contain at least one inaccuracy, whether deliberate or inadvertent, according to number paper, several studies. A degree from a small Catholic college outside Boston doesn’t quite have the same shimmer as the Harvard and art education, Stanford diplomas littering Silicon Valley offices, so Thompson might have felt he needed the number research paper edge of a technology degree. #8220;Today#8217;s business world is so competitive. If you don#8217;t have the right MBA, didn#8217;t go to statement, the right school, don#8217;t have the right educational background, people look down on you,#8221; says Richard S. Bernstein, an adviser to Donald Trump and the Trump Organization. Once you tell a lie, and leave it uncorrected long enough, you can start to believe it#8217;s true. Number Research Paper? #8220;People start saying something enough that they start believing it themselves,#8221; says David Reiss, a psychiatrist based in San Diego. #8220;Looking back on the history of these people, the pattern started before they were powerful.
They got into the habit of inflating things out of lack of confidence,#8221; Reiss says. Art Education Thesis Statement? #8220;Once they got to a higher level, if they#8217;ve gotten away with it, they think they#8217;ll never get caught.#8221; Once executives reach the top levels of management, they can become surrounded by sycophants, start believing their own accolades, and lose sight of the research truth. #8220;You have to be able to hold people accountable. What happens with leaders is there#8217;s nobody who is speaking truth to power,#8221; says David Gebler, president of art education Skout Group in Boston, which helps organizations manage people and culture based risks. On Cystic Fibrosis? #8220;They#8217;ve got themselves locked into a world where they really believe they#8217;re not doing anything wrong.#8221; We all have the tendency to rationalize behavior that falls in an ethical or moral grey area, and many of us stretch that line to cover outright lies. We#8217;re wired to adjust the narrative of our actions to align with our identity. If we believe we#8217;re fundamentally honest people, we will rationalize our behavior to ourselves as ethical #8212; regardless of thesis how it looks to an impartial observer. #8220;The brain is doing this constant dance of, #8216;How do I get more of what I want while holding onto the identity that I think I actually have,#8217; #8221; says Kevin Fleming, owner of Grey Matters Intl., a neuroscience-based executive development and coaching firm based in Jackson Hole, Wyo. and Tulsa, Okla. Number Research? #8220;The brain is always wired to reduce dissonance.#8221; Indeed, one of the dangers of a prominent individual being publicly shamed, as Thompson has been, is art education statement, that the mla book report general public grows more likely to rationalize their own shady behavior. #8220;They make us feel good because it puts our own behavior in perspective,#8221; Hanft says. #8220;It#8217;s why we love celebrity meltdowns or professional meltdowns. They allow us to continue in our delusion of acceptable behavior.#8221; However, the art education statement little lies can lead to write an essay marriage, big missteps. They pave the way for us to rationalize larger dishonesty.
So whatever we take away from the thesis Thompson episode, we should resist schadenfreude #8212; it could actually lead us to greater deception in our own lives. Comparative Essay? A spokesperson from Yahoo did not immediately respond to a request for comment.
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Alternativeness in art education: case studies of art instruction in three
Biodiversity and Its Conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem (Gopal and Chauhan, 2006) © Eawag, Dubendorf, 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Sundarban. Brij Gopal* and Malavika Chauhan. Abstract. The Sundarban, covering about thesis one million ha darban has been extensively exploited for timber, ?sh, in the delta of the rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and Megh- prawns and fodder. The regulation of river ?ows by a se- na is an essay, shared between Bangladesh ( 60 %) and India ries of dams, barrages and embankments for diverting. 40 %), and is the world’s largest coastal wetland. The water upstream for various human needs and for ?ood. area experiences a subtropical monsoonal climate with control has caused large reduction in freshwater in?ow.
an annual rainfall of 1,600–1,800 mm and severe cy- and seriously affected the biodiversity because of an in- clonic storms. Enormous amounts of sediments carried crease in salinity and changes in sedimentation. Heritiera. by the rivers contribute to its expansion and dynamics. fomes (locally called Sundari, from which Sundarban. Salinity gradients change over a wide range of spatial and thesis, derives its name), Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. temporal scales. The biodiversity includes about 350 spe- are declining rapidly.
During the mla book report, past three decades, large. cies of vascular plants, 250 ?shes and statement, 300 birds, besides parts of the mla book report, remaining Sundarban have been protected for. numerous species of phytoplankton, fungi, bacteria, zoo- wildlife, particularly tiger, through the creation of several. plankton, benthic invertebrates, molluscs, reptiles, am- sanctuaries and art education thesis statement, a biosphere reserve. Parts of the Sundar- phibians and research on cystic, mammals. Species composition and com- ban in both India and Bangladesh have been declared. munity structure vary east to west, and along the World Heritage sites. Art Education Statement! However, its biodiversity continues.
hydrological and salinity gradients. Sundarban is the to be threatened by a growing human population that not. habitat of many rare and write on muslim marriage, endangered animals (Batagur only places pressure on its biological resources, but also. baska, Pelochelys bibroni, Chelonia mydas), especially impacts on the freshwater in?ows from upstream areas. the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Javan rhino, Oil exploration in coastal areas is also emerging as a new. wild buffalo, hog deer, and barking deer are now extinct threat. Further threats arise from art education thesis global climate change, from the area.
Large areas of the Sundarban mangroves especially sea level rise. The future of the Sundarban will. have been converted into paddy ?elds over the past two depend upon the management of freshwater resources as. centuries, and an essay on muslim, more recently into shrimp farms. The Sun- much as on the conservation of its biological resources. Key words. Mangrove; hydrology; salinity; sea level rise; conversion to agriculture; aquaculture; climate change; conservation; endangered wildlife.
* Corresponding author e-mail: [email protected] Published Online First: September 4, 2006. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 339. Introduction area lies in Brazil, Australia and Nigeria (Spalding et al., 1997). Statement! While practically all mangroves occur in how to review in dissertation, small. Mangroves1 are intertidal forested wetlands con?ned to patches that develop in deltaic habitats, the mangroves in. the tropical and subtropical regions (Tomlinson, 1986). the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, shared between.
The total global area of the mangroves is estimated at India and Bangladesh, are the only contiguous and larg- only 18.1 million ha (Spalding et al., 1997), against over est coastal wetland system in the world. Popularly known. as Sundarban2, they currently cover about one million ha. 570 million ha of art education freshwater wetlands including peat- lands globally (but excluding paddy ?elds; Spiers, 1999). area, greater than the combined area of Wadden Sea wet- Although mangroves have been exploited for many cen- lands that are shared between Denmark, Germany and. turies, our scienti?c understanding of these wetland for- the Netherlands.
ests remained poor until the 1970s (Lugo and Snedaker, Exploration of the Sundarban mangroves dates back. to the 16th century (Rollet, 1981). A large bulk of pub- 1974; Blasco, 1975; Chapman, 1976). During the past. three decades or so, these wetland forests have received lished literature exists on the Sundarbans of resume cadeil both India. increasingly greater attention which is art education thesis, re?ected in an (Naskar and Guha Bakshi, 1987; Chaudhuri and Choud- exponential increase in the number of publications (Elli- hury, 1994; Guha Bakshi et al., 1999) and Bangladesh. son, 2002). Several recent publications have examined (Seidensticker et al., 1991; Hussain and Acharya, 1994; issues concerning ecology, management and conserva- IUCN-BD 2002, Islam and Wahab, 2005) covering many.
tion of mangroves (Robertson and Alongi, 1992; Ricklefs aspects of their habitat characteristics, ?ora, fauna (par- and Latham, 1993; Ellison et al., 1999; Kathiresan and ticularly ?sheries), utilization and management, yet very. Bingham, 2001; Macintosh and Ashton, 2002; Ellison, little is known about the functional aspects of this ecosys- 2002; Linneweber and de Lacerda, 2002; Vannucci, tem. Number Research Paper! In this review, we examine the current state of our. 2003; Saenger, 2003). knowledge of Sundarban’s biodiversity, various factors. The biodiversity of mangroves has also been of art education thesis in- threatening it, and the recent conservation measures. This. creasingly greater interest, ?rstly because of the Conven- is preceded by a brief overview of the geology, climate, tion on Biological Diversity, and secondly, because the soils and number paper, hydrology which are the major driving variables. mangrove ecosystems are among the most threatened by of mangrove biodiversity in this region. It may be noted. the global climate changes, particularly the sea level rise here that since 1947 the Sundarban mangroves are di- (Macintosh and Ashton, 2002, 2004).
Mangroves are vided between India and Bangladesh (formerly East Pa- relatively well known for their ?oral diversity which is kistan), and art education, the two parts differ considerably in the nature. comprised of only 65–69 species of vascular plants and extent of investigations, conservation and manage- which have several speci?c adaptations to the dynamic ment. They also differ substantially in the level of human. coastal environment (see Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001) exploitation over more than a century. This makes it dif- and among the fauna, their ?sheries (both ?shes and crus- ?cult to integrate the research on cystic, information of the entire Sundar- taceans) resources are better understood. Statement! The global pat- ban. Therefore, we frequently refer to the Indian and. terns of mla book report biodiversity in art education, mangroves also present an inter- Bangladesh parts of the research paper on cystic fibrosis, Sundarban separately. esting picture. Whereas the latitudinal pattern of. mangrove ?ora is normal in as much as the highest spe-
The Sundarban mangroves. cies richness of plants occurs around the Equator and. declines at higher latitudes – both north and south (Duke. et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999), the longitudinal distri- The Sundarban (21? 30? to 22? 40? N, 88? 05? to 89? 55? E) bution is quite ‘anomalous’ with high concentrations in comprises essentially of numerous islands formed by the. the Eastern Hemisphere between 90? E and 135? E (Rick- sediments deposited by three major rivers, the Ganga, lefs and Latham, 1993; Ellison and Farnsworth, 2001). Art Education Thesis! Brahmaputra and the Meghna, and a dense network of. Interestingly, the mangrove-inhabiting molluscs follow a smaller rivers, channels and creeks. The maximum eleva- similar pattern (Ellison et al., 1999). tion within the Sundarban is only 10 m above the mean. More than 41 % of the world’s mangroves occur in sea level. The western and eastern limits of the Sundar-
South and Southeast Asia of which Indonesia alone ac- ban are de?ned by the course of the comparative essay, River Hooghly (a. counts for 23 %. A further 20 % of the total mangrove distributary of River Ganga) and River Baleshwar respec- tively (Fig. 1). The River Harinbhanga (known as. Ichamati or Raimongal in Bangladesh) demarcates the. The term ‘mangrove’ is used variously referring to plants (Macnae, 1968; Unesco, 1973), their communities (Blasco, 1975; Hamilton and Snedaker, 1984) and art education statement, the whole ecosystem. Macnae (1968) reserved the term.
‘mangal’ to describe the do literature review, mangrove plant communities. In this paper, we Often referred to art education thesis in plural as ‘Sundarbans’ because the forest comprises. follow Arroyo (1979, 1997) who used the term mangrove for the entire of hundreds of islands separated by rivers and creeks, or to number mean both the. ecosystem, its plant communities as well as the plants inhabiting them. Indian and art education statement, Bangladesh parts together. 340 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem.
border between India and Bangladesh. About 60 % of the ban in the two countries often differ considerably. Ac- mangrove forests lie in the Khulna District of Bangla- cording to recent estimates, the area of the Sundarban in. desh and the rest in the 24-Paragnas District of West Bangladesh is 599,330 ha (1978 Landsat data; Rahman et. Bengal (India). The estimates of the total area of Sundar- al., 1979) and in essay, India it is 426,300 ha (Sanyal, 1983). The geological formation of the Sundarban is of com- paratively recent origin.
Several geomorphological. changes since the Tertiary period that included tectonic. movements in northwestern Punjab and thesis statement, the southeastern. ?ow of the River Ganga, resulted in the deposition of. sediments in the Bengal Basin and development of the. Sundarban Delta (Wadia, 1961). It is noteworthy that the. Ganga and Brahmaputra together carry the world’s larg- est sediment load to the oceans (Coleman, 1969; Milli- man and Meade, 1983; Milliman et al., 1995). Neotec- tonic movements in the Bengal Basin between the 12th.
and 15th century AD further resulted in an essay on muslim, an easterly tilt. (Morgan and McIntire, 1959). During the 16th century, the R. Ganga changed its course to shift eastwards and. join the Brahmaputra (Deb, 1956; Blasco, 1975; Snedak- er, 1991). Later, in art education statement, the mid 18th century, the combined. Ganga (now called Padma) and Brahmaputra again tilted. eastwards to empty into the R. Meghna (Williams, 1919; Snedaker, 1991). This continuing tectonic activity greatly. in?uenced the hydrology of the deltaic region because of.
Figure 1a. Location of the Sundarban in the Ganga Brahmaputra. changes in the sedimentation patterns and cadeil, the reduction. Figure 1b. The Sundarban mangroves are shared between India and Bangladesh. Art Education! Mangroves once extended up to the Dampier-Hodges line.
– the inward limit of tidal in?uence. Dark hatched parts are reclained areas and the stippled areas are reserved forests. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 341. in freshwater in?ows. Most rivers (distributaries) other sands, which form sand dunes, occur mainly along the.
than the Hooghly, that contributed to the formation of the coast. Ganga Delta (from west to east: Muriganga, Saptamukhi, Similarly in the Bangladesh Sundarban, the an essay on muslim marriage, soil is a. Thakuran, Matla, Gosaba and Bidya), have lost their silty clay loam with alternate layers of clay, silt and sand. original connections with the Ganga because of siltation The surface is art education thesis statement, clay except on the seaward side of islands. (Fig.
1b), and their estuarine character is now maintained along the do literature review in dissertation, coast , where sandy beaches occur. In the east- by the monsoonal runoff alone (Cole and Vaidyaraman, ern part, the surface soil is soft and art education statement, fertile whereas it is. 1966). Thus the delta-building process has nearly ceased harder and less suitable for resume cadeil drama, tree growth in the west. in the west, but has accelerated in the eastern part. The (Choudhury, 1968). The soil pH averages 8.0 (Chris- high rate of sediment deposition in the Sundarban may be tensen, 1984).
understood from the thesis, estimated increase in the land area. by more than 800 km2 in 80 years between 1793 and 1870. (Richards, 1990). Recent studies by Chakrabarti (1995), Climate. however, show that the mla book report, mangroves are the dominant geo- The climate of the area is characterized by relatively high. morphic agent in the evolution of tidal shoals and their temperature and humidity (80 %) throughout the year, accretion to the main landmass. and well distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. Temperatures rise from a daily minima of 2–4 °C in win- ter to a maximum of about 43 °C in March and may ex- Soils ceed 32 °C during the monsoon.
Recent reports suggest. The land is moulded predominantly by tidal action. An that the air temperature over the Sundarban and adjacent. intricate network of waterways, of which the larger chan- parts of the Bay of thesis statement Bengal are gradually increasing (Huq. nels (often 1.5 to 2.0 km wide), run in mla book report, a generally north- et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). The cold season lasts. south direction, intersect the whole area. Innumerable from about the middle of November to the end of Febru- small khals (= creeks) drain the land at each ebb tide. ary and is followed by the summer from March to May. Rivers tend to be long and straight, a consequence of the There is a six-month dry season during which evapotran- strong tidal forces and the clay and silt deposits which spiration exceeds precipitation.
resist erosion. Easily eroded sands collect at the river The rainfall over the Ganga-Brahmaputra deltaic re- mouths and form banks and chars, which are blown into gion decreases from east to west and from south to the. dunes above the art education, high-water mark by the strong southwest north. In the mla book report, Bangladesh region, mean annual rainfall. monsoon. Art Education Thesis Statement! Finer silts are washed out into the Bay of mla book report Ben- varies from about 1,800 mm in statement, Khulna, north of the Sun- gal, but mud ?ats are formed on the leeward side of the darban, to 2,790 mm on the coast. How To Do Literature! The average annual. dunes where they are protected from wave action. These rainfall in the Indian region is only 1,661.6 mm. It de- mud?ats become overlain with sand from the dunes, and creases from 1,805 mm in thesis statement, the south on Sagar Island to- develop into an essay marriage grassy meadows. Art Education Thesis! This process of island- wards Kolkata in the north.
Most of the rainfall (about. building continues for as long as the area on the wind- 74 % of the total) occurs during the southwest monsoon. ward side is exposed to wave action. With the formation period (June–September). Some precipitation is received. of the next island further out, silt begins to research paper accumulate in the latter half of the hot season and in October. along the shore of the island and sand is blown or washed There is relatively little variation in thesis, the rainfall be- tween years. During the ?rst half of the 20th century, the.
away (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Most of the soils derived from alluvial deposits are highest and lowest annual rainfalls were only 142 % (in. azonal with little or no pro?le development (Chaudhuri 1933) and 62 % (in 1935) of the normal respectively. and Choudhury, 1994; Sarkar et al., 1999). Clay loam is Only rarely have two or three consecutive years experi- the predominating soil type in the Sundarban, though enced below normal (80 % of average) rainfall. On an. silty and sandy loams also occur in many areas. Clays average there are 80 rainy days (2.5 mm rainfall) in a. with or without muck occur in swamps and alluvial lakes. year. Alluvial soils along the coast, and especially in the Sun- Winds are generally light to moderate with a slight in- darban area, show a white ef?orescence of sodium chlo- crease in mla book report, force during the summer and monsoons, but in. ride, as they are impregnated with salts by tidal estuaries. the southern Sundarban area, particularly near the coast, These soils have been formed from deposits brought by art education thesis statement winds are stronger.
Winds blow mostly from directions. tidal currents. Mla Book Report! Numerous tidal ?ats have been formed af- between the south-east and south-west during May to Sep- ter the thesis, headwater ?ow through the deltaic distributaries tember. Mla Book Report! In October, winds vary in direction. During the. of the R. Ganga were silted up. The parent deposits are winter, winds blow mainly from the north-west.
In March. either rich in art education, calcium or magnesium, or consist of half- and essay, April they blow from the south and south-west. decomposed organic matter. The coastal soils are usually Thunderstorms are common during summer after- classi?ed as saline, non-saline and alkali soils. Pure noons.
These may be in association with severe squalls. 342 B. Gopal and M. Thesis! Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. and occasional hail. These are commonly known as. nor’westers (because the associated squalls usually come. from the north-west) or Kalbaisakhi (the disastrous.
winds of Baisakh, the ?rst month of the Bengali calen- dar). In Dissertation! Storms result in heavy rain and a sharp drop in. The storms often develop into statement cyclones that are usu- ally accompanied by tidal waves up to 7.5 m high (Sei- densticker and Hai, 1983). Available long-term records. show that cyclones over the Bay of Bengal adjoining the. Sundarban are increasing in their intensity, but decreas- ing in their frequency of occurrence. This correlates with. the rising trend in temperatures mentioned earlier and research, has. a signi?cant bearing on the extent of coastal ?ooding, erosion and saline water intrusion due to storm surges. (Huq et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). Hydrology and thesis statement, salinity regimes.
The hydrology of the Sundarban is dominated by the. freshwater ?ows from Rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and. Meghna, which exhibit very high seasonal variation in. Figure 2. Salinity zones in the Bangladesh Sundarban. their discharge, and the tides which range in height from.
2 to 5.94 m. Tidal in?uence extends to more than 50 km. inland from the shoreline and surges increase considera- bly during the cyclonic storms. Resume Cadeil Drama! blanks which may check the penetration of thesis statement high tides to. The freshwater ?ows from the rivers and write on muslim, the tidal in- the statement, interior of the islands. Irregular ?ooding of comparative these. gress result in a gradient of salinity that varies both spa- blanks by art education high tides, coupled with the capillary action of. tially and temporally. In general, the salinity is higher the clayey soil and excessive heat during dry periods, nearer the write an essay on muslim marriage, coast and the water is nearly fresh on the inland results in the deposition of a salt crust on art education thesis the soil surface, side limit of the Sundarban. Similarly, the salinity de- converting them into saline blanks.
Lands on the sea. creases from west to east. Paper Fibrosis! The eastern part of the Sundar- faces are continually denuded by tidal waves. Towards. ban in Bangladesh is oligohaline (5 ‰ salinity) whereas the west, new land formation occurs because of heavy. most of the art education, Indian Sundarban is polyhaline (Fig. 2). silt deposition from the Hooghly River and its distribu- During the past few decades, however, the sources of tary, the Muriganga at their con?uence with the Bay of. all rivers in write an essay on muslim marriage, the western part of the Indian Sundarban Bengal.
Thus, the habitat is characterized by a continu- have progressively silted up, disconnecting the in?ow of ing erosion of banks, the formation of new islands, and. fresh water into the mangrove delta. Freshwater ?ows ever-changing soil texture and salinity of water under the. are much larger from art education statement Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers in?uence of mla book report tides. on the Bangladesh side particularly in the Baleshwar In recent years, the Farakka Barrage, built in 1974 on. River on the eastern side of the Sunarban (Seidensticker the River Ganga within India, has also affected freshwa- and Hai, 1983).
The reduced freshwater ?ows in western ter ?ows into the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban. parts of the thesis, Sundarban have resulted in increased salinity Similarly, the construction of several dams and barrages. of the river waters, and has made the rivers shallower in how to do literature review in dissertation, the Damodar River catchment area and on the Ganga. over the years. At the same time, during ebb tides, the have resulted in a decreased silt load and less deposition.
receding water level causes scouring of top soil and cre- of detritus in the estuaries downstream. ates an innumerable number of art education statement small creeks, which. normally originate from the centre of the how to do literature in dissertation, islands. The. ebb tide eroding action is statement, stronger in some islands than. others within the Sundarban. The receding water carries. large volumes of silt which is deposited along the banks The large spatial and review, temporal variability in hydrological. of rivers and creeks during high tides. This results in in- regimes (both freshwater in?ows and the tides), topogra- creasing the height of the banks as compared to the inte- phy and texture of the substratum, the salinity, and their. riors of the islands.
Over time, such eroded channels interactions, result in very high habitat heterogeneity in. extend further inwards into the islands and form muddy the mangrove ecosystems, and art education thesis statement, thereby ensure an equally. Aquat. Sci. Mla Book Report! Vol. 68, 2006 343. Table 1. Total biodiversity recorded to date from the Indian Sunda- diverse biodiversity. There has been some discussion. about the characteristic mangrove plants and a distinction. is usually made between the “true mangrove” and “man- Group of Organisms No. of Reference. grove associate” species.
However, following the de?ni- species. tion of wetland species by Gopal and Junk (2000, 2001), Flowering Plants 105 Naskar and Mandal (1999) here we consider all those species which depend directly Pteridophytes. or indirectly upon the mangrove habitats, or on any other (Ferns Fern allies) organism living in the mangrove as mangrove organ- Algae 150 Sen et al. Thesis! (2000) Lichens 32 Santra (1999)
An assessment of the total biodiversity in Indian Sun- Vertebrates 445 Das and Nandi (1999) darban is write an essay on muslim, given in Table 1. Overall, there are relatively Chondrichthyes 22. Osteichthyes (Fishes) 154. small differences between the species composition of the. Indian and Bangladesh parts, largely because the deve- lopment of the mangrove system has been dictated by Birds 163. similar processes. However, the overarching gradients of art education Mammals 40. salinity and an essay on muslim, freshwater that occur across the Sundarban Phylum- Das and Nandi (1999) from west to the east, are clearly re?ected in the distribu- Sarcomastigophora 45.
Aplicom plexa 24. tion of biota. The Sundarban in art education thesis, the two countries differs. also in the extent of management interventions. It must Ciliophora 31. also be emphasised that the Sundarban mangrove in India. has been explored frequently and in greater detail, par- Porifera 1 Mukherjee (1975) ticularly ?oristically, whereas the mangroves within Cnidaria 33 Mandal and resume drama, Nandi (1969)
Bangladesh were poorly investigated until recently Ctenophora 2 Nandi et al. (1993) Platyhelminthes 41 Chaudhuri and art education, Chaudhury. (Chaffey et al., 1985). Recent surveys provide consider- able information on write on muslim several groups of plants, ?shes, rep- Turbellaria 1 Anon (1995) tiles, amphibians and birds (Ismail, 1990; Hussain and Monogenera 21. Acharya, 1994; Seidensticker, 1991; IUCN-BD, 2002a, Trematoda 13.
b, c). Differences in art education, the nomenclature followed in cadeil drama, the. two countries also sometimes make comparisons dif?- Acanthocephala 3. cult. The following account is based largely on the Indian Nemertinea 2. part of the Sundarban, with frequent comparisons with. the information available from Bangladesh. Floristic diversity. Mangrove plants are usually divided Hirudinea 3. into ‘true mangrove’ and ‘mangrove associate’ species.
Arthropoda 476. Globally, Duke (1992) recognised 69 species (belonging. to 26 genera and 20 families) of true mangroves (major. and minor, sensu Tomlinson, 1986) though recently Merostomata 2. Kathiresan and thesis, Bingham (2001) recognized only 65 spe- Entoprocta 1. cies (22 genera and resume cadeil drama, 16 families). Of these, at art education, least 30 true. mangroves occur in the Indian Sundarban. Debnath and Chaetognatha 4. Naskar (1999) identi?ed 36 species as true mangroves. Echinodermata 20. The Bangladesh part of the Sundarban differs mainly in Hemichordata 1. the relative abundance of various species.
Whereas mem- bers of the mla book report, Rhizophoraceae and Avicenniaceae generally. dominate most other mangrove areas, the Bangladesh. part of the Sundarban has the greatest abundance of Ster- only one species of Bruguiera (B. parvi?ora), whereas. culiaceae (Heritiera) and art education thesis, Euphorbiaceae (Excoecaria). Lumnitzera racemosa and Barringtonia sp. are quite re- Rhizophoraceae is the resume cadeil drama, largest family with 11 species; stricted in occurrence. Interestingly, the Sundarban sup- four genera (Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Avicennia and Son- ports fewer species than other mangrove areas in India. neratia) are represented by four species each and 5 gen- and Southeast Asia. For example, there are 45 mangrove. era (Xylocarpus, Excoecaria, Thespesia, Derris and species recorded from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamarix) have three species each.
In Bangladesh there is in thesis statement, the Bay of cadeil drama Bengal (Deshmukh et al., 1991a) and 55. 344 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Table 2. Rare, threatened and endangered ?ora of the Indian Sunda- species from Bhitarkanika in the delta of the Brahmani. and Baitarni rivers in Orissa on the east coast of India. (WWF-I, 2001). Family Species Status. The total ?ora of the Sundarban has also been esti- Rhizophoraceae 1. Rhizophora apiculata Occasional. mated differently in India and Bangladesh. In India, the.
2. Bruguiera parvi?ora Occasional. total vascular ?ora (including mangrove associates) is Occasional. 3. Ceriops decandra. estimated at 100 species representing 34 families and 57 Occasional. 4. Kandelia candel. genera. comprises of 30 species of statement trees, 32 shrubs, and Meliaceae 5. Aglaia cucullata Rare. the rest are herbs, grasses, sedges and two ferns.
Many 6. Xylocarpus mekongensis Threatened. 7. Xylocarpus granatum Threatened. terrestrial upland plants within the Sundarban area have. Sterculiaceae 8. Heritiera fomes Threatened. apparently not been included because Seidensticker and. Rubiaceae 9. Scyphiphora hydrphyllacea Very Rare. Hai (1983) recorded 334 plant species representing 245. 10. Hydrophyllax maritime Very Rare. genera from the Bangladesh Sundarban.
This record lists. Tiliaceae 11. How To Review In Dissertation! Brownlowia lanceolata Occasional. numerous epiphytes and climbers, which include 13 or- Arecaceae 12. Art Education! Nypa fruticans Occasional. chids and several ferns.
Several species in the Indian. Acanthaceae 13. Acanthus volubilis Very Rare. Sundarban do not occur in Bangladesh part, whereas. Papilionaceae 14. Cynometra rami?ora Rare. many other species have been reported from Bangladesh. 15. Dalbergia spinosa Rare. alone (Choudhury, 1968; Ismail, 1990). Interestingly,
Sapotaceae 16. Manilkara hexandra Rare. some species listed earlier from Bangladesh by Prain. Rutaceae 17. Atalantia correa Very Rare. (1903) and Choudhury (1968), such as Bruguiera sexan- gula, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba, were. not recorded by Chaffey et al. (1985) and it is feared that. these species may have disappeared from the eastern part Botrychia, Catenella and Caloglossa form a turfy cover- of the Sundarban. Research Paper! Heritiera fomes (locally known as ing on art education mangrove tree trunks and pneumatophores. Review In Dissertation! At a. Sundari, the statement, most important timber species from which lower level on resume cadeil the same trees, species of Caloglossa occur.
Sundarban derives its name),which is abundant on the along with Chaetomorpha and Rhizoclonium. Species of. Bangladesh side, is not common on the Indian side where Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Microcoleus are common on. it is considered endangered. Art Education! Nypa fruticans also has a pneumatophores and on the mud (Mandal and Naskar, limited occurrence within the Indian Sundarban; it is number research paper, 1994). rapidly disappearing because of extensive exploitation. Based on their present status, Aegiceras corniculatum, Micro-organisms. Thesis Statement! The diversity of bacteria and fungi in. Kandelia candel, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia acida, Son- the Sundarban has not been examined in detail, although. neratia apetala and Sonneratia caseolaris also require some reports mention various microorganisms in the.
conservation measures (Table 2). soils and on decomposing litter, besides pathogens in- festing mangrove leaves (Pal and Purkayastha, 1992), Algae. The algal ?ora of the Sundarban is very poorly ?sh, prawns and mammals (Das, 1999). Bacteria play a. known, but the available information suggests that the signi?cant role in the mangrove environments and cadeil drama, the. Sundarban has a highly diverse algal ?ora comprised of Sundarban is expected to harbour a diverse bacterial. both benthic and art education thesis, planktonic forms ranging from the fresh- community which is yet to be explored, unlike other In- water to marine environments.
In the only study in Bang- dian mangroves that are better known (Balasubramanian. ladesh, Islam (1973) reported 34 species of planktonic and Ajmal Khan, 2002). Furthermore, 32 species of research paper li- and benthic algae. Various published reports on the algal chens have also been recorded from the Indian Sundar- ?ora provide only art education statement, a patchy picture as they are based on ban (Santra, 1998). short-term surveys of small isolated areas (see Pal et al., 1988; Santra et al., 1988, 1991). Sen et al. (1999) record- Faunal diversity. The fauna of the Sundarban has at- ed 80 species of algae (32 Cyanophyceae and 27 Chloro- tracted much attention because of the mla book report, huge economic. phyceae) from different parts of the Indian Sundarban. importance of many species. Crustaceans account for the. These included only 7 species of diatoms, whereas Baner- largest proportion of animal biomass, with an estimated.
jee and Santra (1999) listed 48 species of diatoms from annual harvest of 40 million kilograms of ?ddler crabs. the Hooghly-Matla estuary alone. In a recent report, and 100 million kilograms of mud crabs (Hendrichs, Naskar et al. (2004), however, list 150 species including 1975), besides a considerable harvest of art education thesis shrimps, prawns. 15 species of Rhodophyceae and 2 species of Phaeophyc- and lobsters. The Sundarban supports very rich estuarine. eae. Another study recorded 12 genera and review, 16 species of and coastal marine ?sheries.
Among the diversity of in- benthic algae belonging to the Cyanophyceae, Chloro- sects, honeybees hold an important position for the pro- phyceae, Chrysophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Species of duction of large quantities of honey and beeswax. Also, Aquat. Art Education Thesis Statement! Sci.
Vol. 68, 2006 345. Table 3. Threatened fauna of Sundarbans. the Sundarban is the only mangrove forest with a species. of the tiger – the Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris). Scienti?c Name Common Name. The total faunal diversity of the Sundarban in how to, listed in. Muntjanus muntjack Barking Deer. Panthera tigris tigris Royal Bengal Tiger.
Fish. The ?sh fauna of the Bangladesh Sundarban in- Felis bengalensis Leopard Cat. cludes 53 pelagic and statement, 124 demersal species (Sarker, Felis viverrina Fishing Cat. Platinista gangetica Gangetic Dolphin. 1989; Rainboth, 1991). Of these, over 120 species have. Orcaela brevirostris Irrawady Dolphin. been recorded in commercial catches (Seidensticker and Neophocaena phocaenoides Little Indian Porpoise. Hai, 1983). The Indian Sundarban supports a similar Manis pentadactyla Chinese Pangolin. number of species (165 species; Sanyal, 1999).
The ?sh Reptilia. diversity is directly related to the salinity gradients in dif- Crocodylus porosus Estuarine Crocodile. Lepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley Turtle. ferent parts of the Sundarban. Whereas Mukherjee. Batagur baska Batagur Turtle. (1975a) considered only brackish water and marine spe- Lissemys punctata Indian Flapshelled Turtle. cies of ?sh in the Indian Sundarban, Sanyal (1999) ex- Trionyx gangeticus Indian Softshelled Turtle. panded the list by including 31 freshwater species.
Re- Kachuga tecta Indian Tent Turtle. Varanus bengalensis Common Indian Monitor. cently, Islam and Haque (2004), in their detailed review. Varanus ?avescens Yellow Monitor. of the ?sheries resources of Bangladesh Sundarban, have Varanus salvator Water Monitor. described the distribution of ?sh species along the salinity Python morulus Indian Rock Python. gradients. Fishes such as Harpodon nehereus, Trichiurus Aves. savala, Setipinna sp., Pampus sp., Sardinella sp. and Ardea goliath Great Goliath Heron. Pelecanus phillippensis Dalmatian Pelican. Salar sp. occur in areas with salinity, whereas Pangasius.
Leptotilos duius Lesser Adjutant Stork. pangasius and Lates calcarifer occur in freshwater areas. or those with very low salinity. The dominant ?shes in. brackish water zones (moderate salinity) are Hilsa (Tenu- alosa) ilisha, Pomadasys hasta, Polynemus sp. and Coilia 1985a,b).
Several species of how to king?shers (including. sp. Several marine ?shes also often occur within the man- brown-winged and stork-billed king?shers, Pelargopsis. groves. amauropterus and P. capensis, respectively) and the. magni?cent white-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leu- Reptiles and amphibia. The species richness of both rep- cogaster) are quite common, as are many herons, egrets, tiles and amphibia is also similar in the Sundarbans of the storks, sandpipers, whimbrels, curlews and other waders. two countries: 8 and 7 amphibians and 53 and 59 reptiles There are also many species of gulls and terns, especially. in Bangladesh and India, respectively (Hussain and thesis, Ach- along the coast and the larger waterways. The grey- arya, 1994; Sanyal, 1999; Naskar et al., 2004).
Among headed ?sh eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) and Pal- snakes, the Family Boidae is the largest with 13 species, las’s ?sh-eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) are quite rare. followed by number Hydrophidae (7 species), Elapidae (4 spe- Apart from the art education thesis statement, species particularly associated with the. cies) and Typhlopidae and Viperidae (2 species each). sea and wetlands, there is cadeil, also a considerable variety of. Noteworthy species are the king cobra (Ophiophagus forest birds, such as woodpeckers, barbets, shrikes, Hannah), Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian drongos, mynahs, minivets, babblers and many others. python (Python molurus). Among 14 turtles and tortois- (Salter, 1984). es, six species are nearly extinct or threatened (Table 3).
The Indian side of the Sundarban has a similar avian. Of the four marine turtles, the olive ridley turtle (Lepido- diversity (Law, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1959; Mukherjee, chelys olivacea), though endangered, is the art education thesis, most abun- 1972, 1975b; Naskar and Mandal, 1999). Research Paper On Cystic! Though only. dant. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is rare due to about 150 species were listed by Naskar (1999), Chaud- excessive ?shing, while the statement, loggerhead (Caretta caretta) huri and Choudhury (1994) report more than 300 species.
and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) are not common of which about 100 are migratory. The list includes a. (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). The river terrapin (Bat- large number of species that remain in the reclaimed ar- agur baska) and three of the 14 species of resume cadeil drama lizards and eas adjoining the mangroves. monitors are also endangered (Table 3). Mammals. Of signi?cant interest is the fact that the. Birds. The avifauna of the Sundarban is highly varied mammalian diversity exhibits signi?cant differences. and very rich in species.
In Bangladesh, 315 species have between the Indian and Bangladesh sides of the Sun- been recorded (Sarker and art education thesis, Sarker, 1986; Hussain and darban: the former has only 31 species of mammals. Acharya, 1994). Drama! These include about 95 species of water- (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994, Sanyal, 1999) against. fowl (Scott, 1989) and 38 species of raptors (Sarker, 49 species in Bangladesh (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). 346 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. At least ?ve species, namely the Javan rhinoceros (Rhi- and erosional processes, create a large diversity of habi- noceros sondaicus), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), tats which are occupied by different plant communities. swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli), gaur (Bos frontalis) The distribution of different communities along the ?ood- and probably the hog deer (Axis porcinus) have disap- ing gradient is thesis, often interpreted in terms of a zonation or. peared locally during the research on cystic, past century (Seidensticker successional sequence (Untawale 1987; Naskar and Gu- and Hai, 1983). The one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros uni- habakshi, 1987).
Heritiera species require more freshwa- cornis), Indian bison (Bos gaurus) and Sambhar (Cer- ter and occur together with Phoenix paludosa and art education statement, Nypa. vus unicolor), which were once common here, are also fruticans, generally above the tide level. These species. now locally extinct. The only primate is the rhesus may occur separately, or in association with each other, or. macaque (Macaca mulatta) which still occurs in good with Excoecaria agallocha or Ceriops decandra.
The lat- numbers, but its population is declining gradually ter species join Rhizophora and cadeil drama, Bruguiera in relatively. (Blower, 1985; Gittins, 1981). The Sundarbans of art education statement saline and frequently inundated intertidal habitats, where- Bangladesh and cadeil drama, India support one of the art education, largest popula- as Sonneratia and Avicennia species occur below the. tions of tiger, Panthera tigris (estimated 350-400). mean tide level. Recent studies on mla book report mangroves (Bunt, Spotted deer (Cervus axis) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) 1999), including those in thesis statement, the Bangladesh Sundarban (El- occur in large numbers and form the principal prey of lison et al., 2000), based on large scale sampling and de- the tiger. Cadeil! Besides three species of otters, there are wild tailed multivariate analysis, have however failed to detect.
cats (Felis bengalensis, F. chaus and F. Statement! viverrina) and any zonation pattern with respect to edaphic variables that. the Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica). co-vary with elevation. Champion (1936) recognized the. Here, the notoriety of the Sundarban for paper, its man-eat- Sundarban as a seral moist tropical forest, comprised of a. ing tigers must be mentioned. Every year a signi?cant mosaic of art education statement beach forest and tidal forests. The latter were. number of people (an average of on cystic fibrosis 23 annually ) are killed divided into art education thesis statement four types: low mangrove forests, tree man- by tigers, particularly in how to do literature, the southern and western parts of grove forests, salt-water Heritiera forests and freshwater. the Sundarban. Hendrichs (1975) hypothesised that such Heritiera forests. Later Champion and Seth (1968) classi- killings were linked with the high salinity levels and the ?ed the wetland forests into littoral forests (freshwater) absence of freshwater for drinking purposes. However, and tidal swamp forests (mangroves).
Mandal (2003) dis- recent analyses suggest that the killing of humans is at tinguished further between the vegetation of the active. least partly related to the frequency of art education statement tiger-human inter- delta (southern part of the Sundarban with dense swamp. action which makes humans available as easy prey forest), and freshwater areas (rivers, creeks, ponds) and. (Salter, 1984; Siddiqi and Choudhury, 1987). agricultural ?elds of the mature delta. The Indian part of the Sundarban with higher salinity.
Invertebrates. In the Indian Sundarban, arthropods are supports sparse Excoecaria agallocha, a dense understo- the most abundant invertebrates (476 species) comprised ry of Ceriops, and research, dense patches of the hantal palm. almost entirely of art education thesis statement crustaceans (240) and insects (201 (Phoenix paludosa) on drier soils. Mla Book Report! Xylocarpus sp. and. species). Molluscs (143 aspecies), annelids (78 species) Bruguiera sp. occur sporadically throughout the thesis, area. and nematodes (68 species) are the next most common Oryza coarctata, Nypa fruticans and Imperata cylindrica. groups of review invertebrates, other than the protopzoans (104 are prevalent on mud ?ats (Khan, 1986). Large stands of. species) (Chaudhuri and thesis, Choudhury, 1994). As men- Sonneratia apetala occur on drama newly accreted mud banks.
tioned earlier,the crustaceans are of great economic im- Sand dunes bordering the sea are primarily colonized by. portance and a large number of art education species of prawns and grasses such as Paspalum vaginatum, Panicum repens, shrimps are exploited commercially. A substantial pro- Aeluropus lagopoides and help, Phragmites karka, which are. portion of species are planktonic. Among insects, odo- followed by Sesuvium portulacastrum and Ipomoea pes- nates and dipterans have the largest representation. At caprae (= I. Art Education Thesis! biloba) which constitute the climax dune. least 15 other phyla are represented in the invertebrate vegetation. Salicornia brachiata, Hygrophyllus asiatica. fauna of the Sundarban. Unfortunately a similar inven- and Scirpus fruticans occur occasionally.
Within Bangla- tory is on muslim, not available for art education statement, the Bangladesh Sundarban. desh, the salinity of the Sundarban decreases eastwards. Available reports suggest the occurrence of at least 24 and, accordingly, a polyhaline, a mesohaline and resume drama, an oli- species of shrimp, 7 species of crabs, 8 species of lob- gohaline zone are recognized. Within each of art education thesis statement these. sters and 8 species of do literature molluscs that are commercially zones, vegetation associations change with elevation. exploitable. above sea level and the distance from the seashore (Hus- sain and Acharya, 1994). Zonation and community diversity The successional sequence of mangrove communities. The hydrological (depth and frequency of ?ooding) and follows a similar pattern throughout the Sundarban. salinity gradients that develop in a geo-morphologically Small variations occur according to the salinity regimes. dynamic environment in?uenced by both depositional (Karim, 1988). Grasses such as Leersia, Porteresia and. Aquat.
Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 347. Phragmites and trees such as the species of Avicennia. and Sonneratia are the pioneers on newly accreted land. With an thesis statement, increase in elevation of the land mass relative to. the tidal height, the succession proceeds to a stage where. Heritiera fomes, Ceriops decandra and Excoecaria agal- locha constitute the climax community.
The biodiversity of wetlands is number research, governed by a large vari- ety of factors ranging from the evolutionary history and. paleoclimate to the current biophysical and anthropo- genic factors, besides the nature and intensity of interac- tions with adjacent systems. Art Education Statement! Furthermore, various socio- Figure 3. Factors affecting biodiversity in mangroves (adapted from. cultural, economic and political in?uences also affect the. biodiversity directly as well as indirectly. Mla Book Report! These factors. have been discussed elsewhere in the context of inland. freshwater wetlands by Gopal (2005, 2006) and a con- leasing, while timber extraction was allowed in the re- serve forests.
It is estimated that 1,570 km2 mangroves. ceptual framework is shown in Figure 3. The same fac- tors in?uence the biodiversity of mangrove wetlands were reclaimed in statement, the three decades since independence. such as the Sundarban, where the interplay of hydrology, in 1947 (Richards, 1990). geomorphology and chemistry is most pronounced. Man- Thus major threats to biodiversity have come mainly. groves differ signi?cantly from the freshwater wetlands from the growing human population, and comparative essay help, consequently, in their hydrology as they interact daily with both the statement, sea overexploitation of both timber and fauna, and conver- and inland areas. sion of the cleared land to agriculture and aquaculture. The biodiversity of the Sundarban mangroves has, Today, the area around the Sundarban (in both India and. however, been affected by an essay on muslim marriage centuries of human exploita- Bangladesh) is densely populated.
Approximately 2.5. tion of the forests, their conversion to paddy ?elds, and million people live in hundreds of small villages very. reclamation of land for various uses. Eaton (1991) de- close to or within parts of the Sundarban, on which very. scribes in detail the art education, history of human colonisation of the number research paper, large numbers of people depend for their livelihood at. Sundarban from 1200 to 1750 A.D. and Richard and Flint certain times of the year.
(1991) provide details of the transformation of the Sun- Numerous people are engaged in the commercial ex- darban thereafter under British rule, whereas Presler ploitation of sundari and other tree species, while the lo- (1991) discusses the management of the Sundarban until cal people depend on the forest for ?rewood, timber for. 1952. It is estimated that the Sundarban originally cov- boats, poles for house-posts and art education statement, rafters, golpatta (Nipa. ered more than 40,000 km2 in coastal Bengal. Clearing of research on cystic fibrosis fruticans) leaf for roo?ng, grass for matting and fodder, the forest and rice agriculture was ?rst actively promoted reeds for fencing, and ?sh for their own consumption. by the then Turk sultan rulers of thesis Bengal. Write An Essay Marriage! After the art education thesis, British Honey and wax are collected during the summer season. colonised Bengal, the area of the Sundarban still included (April to mla book report June) (Krishnamurty, 1990). Tens of thousand. 14,627 km2 of land and 4881 km2 of waterways in 1793 of ?shermen harvest ?sh and shrimps for art education, most of the year.
(Richard, 1990). The British administration also actively except in fibrosis, the monsoon season. In recent years, collection. promoted deliberate conversion to agriculture. Hunter of shrimp juveniles has increased manifold, particularly. (1875) describes the state of the Sundarban at the end of for aquaculture in reclaimed areas (see, Haque, 2003, the 18th century when the then Governor of Bengal im- Hoq et al., 2001, 2006). It is estimated that up to 60 % of. posed a rule bringing the art education, forest outside permanent settle- the shrimp post-larvae (PL) collected from nature die. ments under Government control. The Commissioner for during sorting, transportation and stocking. This forces.
the Sundarban was charged with the write an essay marriage, task of thesis statement “regulating further harvests from the research paper, mangroves. Unfortunately the. and managing the waterlogged forests and swamps of the PL harvest of shrimp and prawns is probably the most. lower delta” and “to ensure that private landowners lucrative local economic activity available to statement a large pro- cleared, settled and reclaimed Sundarban forests and essay help, portion of the Sundarban population. PL harvesting earns. swamps for rice cultivation” (Richards, 1990).
By 1870, approximately ?ve times more gross revenue per capita. 2,790 km2 of mangroves had been cleared. Another than rice farming, and probably proportionately even. 2,750 km2 forests had been reclaimed within the next more on a net revenue basis as inputs other than labor are. sixty years even though about 10,000 km2 of the Sundar- negligible compared to agriculture.
ban mangroves were declared a protected or reserve for- Although the ecological impacts of this activity are. est. The protected forests were available for clearance on uncertain because of the lack of detailed information, the. 348 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. by-catch which is discarded and art education, usually dies, is a sub- 1990). Similarly, Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. stantial proportion of the Sundarban ?sheries and is most are also declining rapidly. Number! As a long-term consequence. likely a major negative in?uence on art education thesis statement the aquatic biodiver- Heritiera is being replaced by in dissertation Excoecaria (Christensen, sity within the protected mangrove areas. While the re- 1984).
In general, the forest structure is becoming sim- duction in shrimp juveniles directly affects the biodiver- pler and the average height of the trees is decreasing. It is. sity, shrimp farming is also causing rapid deterioration in estimated that in the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban, the Sundarbans similar to thesis statement that in other mangrove areas 0.4 % of the forest area is replaced by dwarf species every. (Thornton et al., 2003; Barbier and Sathirathai, 2004; Is- year. This also causes a decline in paper, the habitat for birds, lam and Haque, 2004; Islam and Wahab, 2005).arge- monkeys and other tree-dwelling species.
scale collection of shrimp from statement estuaries directly affects While the deterioration in vegetation is resume, already well. the species that depend upon art education statement them for food. documented and receives continuing attention, the do literature, im- Fishermen’s camps are also a major source of distur- pacts of art education thesis these changes on the fauna, particularly inverte- bance. Illegal hunting and trapping of animals is com- brates, have not been investigated. Reports suggest that. mon, not only by ?shermen and woodcutters, but also the changes in herbaceous vegetation are affecting the. occasionally by military defence personnel, e.g. in Hiron population of spotted deer which now has a much lower. Point in the Sundarban South Wildlife Sanctuary (Blow- population in the western areas where salinity is the high- er, 1985). Habib (1989) reported that over 3,300 m of est. However, an essay, increase in Sonneratia sp. favours the. deer nets were removed between 1981 and art education, 1987, but such deer because the leaves of number research this mangrove tree constitute.
poaching is now rare. Adult marine turtles and Batagur its staple diet. There are several studies in art education, other man- which get caught in ?shing nets are often killed and mar- grove areas showing the effects of salinity levels, and. keted for food. their seasonal variation, on the recruitment and growth of. Among hydrological factors, the freshwater ?ows are various animals and the effect on their predators (see. the most signi?cant as they in?uence the salinity as well Hussain and Acharya, 1994). as the geomorphology through the deposition of resume cadeil drama sedi- Against this background, it is clear that human activi- ments. The tidal frequency is a near constant factor, but ties continue to art education signi?cantly impact biodiversity in the. the tidal height has a signi?cant bearing on the extent of Sundarbans.
While some freshwater ?ows are diverted. inundation and also the erosion of freshly deposited sedi- upstream for cadeil drama, irrigation, or are regulated for ?ood control. ments. The salinity regimes are also in?uenced by tidal and hydropower, major concerns have been voiced about. height. Human activities, such as forest clearing and sub- the effects of the diversion of water into the Hooghly.
sequent conversion to other land uses, directly in?uence River by constructing a barrage at Farakka on the Indian. the freshwater ?ow and sediment accretion. The nature of side of the border with Bangladesh. The water is required. the sediments (clay to sand) also has a great bearing on primarily to keep the thesis, channel open for cadeil drama, navigation from. the mangrove vegetation as well as the fauna. The Sunda- the Bay of art education thesis Bengal up to Calcutta Port. Regular dredging. rban mangroves lie on essay help a delta that is thesis, relatively young of the main channel is needed to maintain the resume drama, depths re- geologically and has been undergoing drastic changes. Statement! quired by large, seafaring ships. In the absence of ade- These changes are caused by neotectonic activity that is quate information on research on cystic Sundarban biodiversity before the.
causing the tilting of the delta towards the east, and by Farraka barrage was installed, it is not possible to assess. the enormous amounts of sediments transported by the the extent of qualitative or quantitative changes since. rivers originating in the Himalaya. The accretion of sedi- then. However, the hilsa (Hilsa ilisha) ?sheries have de- ments in the western part and the tilting to the east causes clined considerably within the Indian part of the Sundar- the river to migrate eastwards. It was pointed out earlier ban, largely because the art education, barrage is paper, a barrier to t upstream. that most of the distributaries of the River Ganga on the migration to the breeding sites (Sinha and Khan, 2001; Indian side have silted up and do not carry freshwater. Payne et al., 2004).
Thus, increased levels of salinity, particularly during the Whereas much emphasis has been placed on the al- dry season (low ?ow period) affect biodiversity, with the terations in freshwater ?ow regimes in recent years, the. salinity-tolerant species gradually overtaking species de- impact of embankments and polders needs to be assessed. pendent upon regular freshwater inputs. Art Education Thesis Statement! Recent studies in detail. . During the past century, all streams and creeks. by Hoq et al. (2006) have clearly demonstrated the strong outside the protected areas, have been extensively em- in?uence of salinity, temperature and conductivity on the banked to protect the cultivated land from inundation. seasonal abundance and distribution of shell?shes and with saline/brackish water. About 3,700 km of embank- ?n?shes within the Bangladesh Sundarban.
The palyno- ments were constructed in Bangladesh between 1960 and. logical evidence clearly shows that Heritiera fomes was 1970 (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). Comparative! These embankments. very abundant in the western parts of the Sundarban 5000 and polders have altered the thesis statement, ?ooding regimes, increased. years ago, and has declined relatively recently as the sa- salinity intrusion, promoted erosion, accelerated silta- linity has increased (Blasco, 1975; see also Rahman, tion, and reduced the nutrient exchanges, and thereby af-
Aquat. Mla Book Report! Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 349. fected the biodiversity (Rahman et al., 1992; Bhattach- Sundarban East (31,226 ha); and art education, Sundarban South. arya, 1999). (36,970 ha), protecting about 23.5 % of the remaining. Further threats to biodiversity because of pollution Sundarban under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) have arisen on both the landward and how to do literature in dissertation, seaward sides of the (Amendment) Act, 1974. These sancturies (IUCN, 1997) mangrove. The agrochemicals (fertilizers and art education statement, pesticides) lie on disjunct deltaic islands in the Sundarban Forest. used extensively in the catchments of the help, Ganga and Division of Khulna District, close to the border with In- Brahmaputra rivers and their numerous tributaries, as dia and just west of the main out?ow of the Ganges, well in the ?elds close to the mangroves, pollute both the Brahmaputra and thesis, Meghna rivers (Fig.
4b). In 1987, the. waterways and essay help, the landmass, and affect the aquatic vege- Sundarban National Park in India, and in 1997, parts of. tation and fauna directly. Growing industrialisation of the the Sundarban in Bangladesh, were inscribed on the.
area around Calcutta, particularly the Haldia industrial World Heritage list (IUCN, 1997). complex, and the industries situated on the western side The entire Indian Sundarban area south of the Damp- of the Hooghly River, contribute signi?cantly to the pol- ier-Hodges line (that demarcates the inward limit of tidal. in?uence), including 5,366 km2 of reclaimed lands, has. lution load and hence, to the degradation of the Sundar- ban mangroves. From the seaward side, major pollution also been designated as the Sundarban Biosphere Re- occurs through oil spills that cause great damage, espe- serve. Within the Biosphere Reserve several distinct. cially to the aquatic fauna and seabirds (Blower, 1985). zones have been recognised: a Core Zone comprised of. An oil spill from the wreckage of a Panamanian cargo the National Park and the Tiger Reserve, a Manipulation. Zone (2,400 km2 of mangrove forests), a Restoration.
ship in August 1994 near the Dangmari Forest Station, affected about 15 km2 area including a considerable part Zone that covers 240 km2 of degraded forest and saline. of the Sundarban. Large scale mortality was recorded in mud ?ats, and art education, a Development Zone which includes. the seedlings of Heritiera and Excoecaria, grasses, ?shes, mostly the reclaimed areas. How To Do Literature! Only the Core Zone is under. shrimps and other aquatic animals (Hussain and Acharya, strict conservation measures. Income generating activi- 1994).
Recently, the off-shore exploration for oil and gas ties such as the collection of seeds of black tiger prawn. by both Bangladesh and India has raised strong protests (Penaeus monodon), the culturing of oysters and crabs, concerning fears about its likely impacts on the Sundar- mushroom cultivation and bee-keeping for honey pro- ban’s biota (Anonymous, 2004; Saha et al., 2005). duction are allowed in the Manipulation Zone. Efforts are. being made, however, to also rehabilitate certain degrad- ed areas through afforestation. Among faunal species, the. Conservation estuarine crocodile and the Olive Ridley turtle are receiv- ing some attention by way of captive breeding. The Sun- Conservation of the Sundarban mangrove is supposed to statement darban Tiger Reserve in India has started a special pro- have started with its declaration as a reserve forest, under gramme for the conservation of sea turtles (http://www. the Indian Forest Act in 1878, after Schlich (1875) raised wildbengal.com/sanctuaries/sunderban_main.htm). concern over its conservation (Presler, 1991).
However, The approaches to conservation differ considerably. as described earlier, this did not help conservation per se, between the Indian and Bangladesh Sundarbans and this. but only regulated the exploitation and conversion by the has been discussed at length by how to do literature in dissertation Seidensticker (1991). government. Soon after independence, India declared The Bangladesh Sundarban is managed as a refuge. Lothian Island (3,800 ha) as a Wildlife Sanctury, and lat- where wildlife is protected in small sanctuaries located.
er, in statement, 1960, another 35,240 ha were brought under the in the larger forest tract by on muslim marriage providing protection to the re- Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctury. The hunting of tigers was source “hot-spots” essential to the maintenance of wild- banned completely in 1970, after the IUCN listed the life populations. This approach assumes that inviolate. Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) as an art education thesis statement, endangered core areas surrounded by restricted-use buffer zones can. species. Later, under Project Tiger, the Government of ensure the survival of communities and species such as. India established a Tiger Reserve in resume cadeil drama, the Sundarban cover- large mammals and birds which depend upon the re- ing 2,585 km2 in 1973 (Fig. 4a). Art Education! Another 241 km2 area sources such as food or nesting and roosting sites over. was demarcated as a subsidiary wilderness area.
The core larger areas. area of how to do literature 1,330 km2 was later designated as a National Park. In India however, the strategy for Sundarbans conser- Another wildlife sanctuary was established in 1976 on vation involves the setting aside of areas where the entire. Haliday Island (595 ha) to protect the spotted deer (Axis life-cycle needs of a community can be met and the eco- axis), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and rhesus macaque logical needs of wildlife can be linked into art education thesis statement the overall. (Macaca mullata), which are dominant animals in a for- management of the system for mla book report, the Sundarbans.
Further- est type consisting mainly of Ceriops decandra. more, in so doing, the ecological processes upon art education statement which. Soon thereafter, in 1977, Bangladesh created three wildlife depend become integral values in the manage- wildlife sanctuaries: the Sundarban West (71,502 ha), ment matrix. 350 B. Research On Cystic! Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Future of the Sundarban. rban mangroves and their biological diversity. First, the. demand on freshwater resources is bound to grow as the. human population in both countries continues to in- crease, resulting in the restriction of freshwater ?ows to.
the monsoon season when extensive ?oods occur in the. eastern parts of India and in Bangladesh. The resultant. increase in salinisation and accretion of sediments may. alter vegetation composition. Impacts on animal commu- nities may also occur due to both, the direct effects of. salinity and indirectly through food chain modi?cations. caused by the alterations in the nature and amount of statement de- tritus available in the mangrove ecosystem. Therefore, it is the comparative help, human response to the spatial and. temporal variability in precipitation, and art education thesis, hence the fresh- water availability, which will determine the water avail- ability for sustaining the functions and values of the.
mangroves. The proposed plan of India for the inter-basin. transfer of water through a river-linking program in India. has already raised concern for the fate of the Sundarban. and its rich biodiversity, as well as for the millions of. people dependent upon it (Ahmed et al., 2004). Secondly, global climate change is expected to in- Figure 4a.
Protected areas of the Indian Sundarban. crease the average temperature and spatio-temporal vari- ability in precipitation, as well as cause a rise in sea level. (Ellison, 1994). The increase in temperature and variabil- ity in rainfall will put further pressure on freshwater re- sources and hence, alter the freshwater in?ows to resume drama the. mangroves. Statement! If precipitation declines in the Ganga-Brah- maputra basins it may lead to a further reduction in mla book report, the. availability of freshwater in the deltaic region. Some. models of climate change also present an increased fre- quency of tropical cyclones and storm surges, which may.
cause further changes in freshwater-seawater interactions. and hence affect the mangroves (Ali, 1995, 2003; Ali et. al., 1997). Substantial areas of the Sundarban along the. coast are expected to be inundated by seawater in this. case, and the increased landward salinity intrusion would. affect the biotic composition.
Ultimately, the future of the Sundarban mangroves. hinges upon the ef?ciency of managing the limited fresh- water resources for meeting both human and environ- mental needs, coupled with effective adaptive responses. to the added threats from climate change. Figure 4b. Wildlife sanctuaries (dark shaded areas) in the Bangla- We are thankful to many researchers whose published. studies have been used freely in preparing this overview. Thanks are also due to Wolfgang Junk for inviting us to. prepare this review and to art education thesis statement the organisers of the IN- TECOL’s International Wetlands Conference for partial.
Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 351. Chakrabarti, P., 1995. How To Do Literature In Dissertation! Evolutionary history of the coastal quaternar- support to BG for presenting it at art education, the symposium. MC. ies of the research, Bengal Plain, India. Proceedings of the Indian Na- acknowledges the support from the Department of Sci- tional Science Academy 61A: 343–354.
ence and Technology, New Delhi, for ?nancial support Champion, H. G., 1936. Art Education Thesis Statement! A preliminary survey of the forest types. by way of a Project under the Fast Track Scheme during of India and Burma. Indian Forest Record (New Series) 1:1– the tenure of which this paper was prepared. Champion, H. G. and S. K. Seth, 1968. Revised Forest Types of In- dia. Number Research! Manager of Publications, Govt of thesis statement India, New Delhi. Chapman, V. Research Paper! J., 1976. Mangrove Vegetation. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Ger-
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Food habits of waterbirds of the help, Sundae- Wetlands. Art Education Statement! Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 357–386. bans, 24 Paragnas District, West Bengal, India. Essay! V. Journal of the. IUCN, 1997. Sundarban Wildslife Sactuaries (Bangladesh): World Bombay Natural History Society 68: 691–716. Heritage Nomination – IUCN Technical Evaluation. http:// Mukherjee, A. K., 1975a. The Sundarban of India and its biota. whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/798.pdf 12 Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 72: 1–20.
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Draft Report on the Orchid and Lichen of the Naskar, K. R., 1999. Status of mangroves in the Indian Sundarbans. Sundarbans. IUCN-Bangladesh, Dhaka. in the perspective of Indian and world mangals. Art Education Statement! In: D. N. Guha. Aquat.
Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 353. Saenger, P., 2003. Mangrove Ecology, Silviculture and Conserva- Bakshi, P. Write An Essay On Muslim! Sanyal and K. R. Naskar (eds.), Sundarbans Mangal. tion. Kluwer, Dordrecht, 130 pp.
Naya Prokash, Calcutta, pp. 20–89. Saha, S. Statement! K., K. Roy, P. Banerjee, Abdullah Al Mamun, Md Arifur. Naskar, K. R. and D. N. Guhabakshi, 1987. Mangrove Swamps of. Rahman and Gopal Chandra Ghosh, 2005. Technological and. the Sundarbans – An Ecological Perspective.
Naya Prokash, environmental impact assessment on possible oil and gas explo- Calcutta, 263 pp. ration at the Sundarbans coastal region. International Journal of. Naskar, K. R. and R. N. Mandal, 1999. Ecology and Biodiversity of. Ecology and Environmental Sciences 31: 255–264. Indian Mangroves. Day Publishing House, Delhi, 754 pp. Salter, R. E., 1984. Integrated Development of the drama, Sundarbans:
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Santra, S. Resume Cadeil! C., 1998. Mangrove lichens. Thesis! Indian Biologist 30(2): 76–78. Fisheries. Drama! Bulletin 134, Central Inland Fisheries Research Insti- Santra, S. C., U. C. Pal, H. Statement! Maity and G. Bandyopadhyaya, 1988.
tute, Barrackpore, W. Bengal, 53 pp. Blue green algae in saline habitats of west Bengal – a system- Pal, U. C., K. Research Fibrosis! R. Naskar and S. C. Santra, 1988. A check-list of algal. atic account. Biological Memoirs 14(1): 81–108. ?ora of Sundarban delta, West Bengal, India. Art Education! Phykos, India 27: Santra, S. C., U. C. Pal and A. Choudhury, 1991.
Marine phyto- plankton of the help, mangrove delta region of West Bengal, India. Payne, A. I., R. Sinha, H. R. Singh and S. Huq, 2004. A review of the. Journal of the Marine Biology Association, India 33(1–2): Ganges basin: Its ?sh and art education thesis, ?sheries. In: R. J. Welcomme and research paper on cystic fibrosis, T. Petr (eds.), Proceedings of the art education statement, Second International Symposium. Sanyal, P., 1983.
Mangrove tiger land: the Sundarbans of India. Ti- on the Management of resume drama Large Rivers for Fisheries, Volume I. gerpaper 10(3): 1–4. RAP publication 2004/17, 229–251. FAO Regional Of?ce for. Sanyal, P., 1999. Thesis! Sundarbans – the resume drama, largest mangrove diversity on. Asia and the Paci?c, Bangkok, Thailand. globe. In: D. N. Statement! Guha Bakshi, P. Sanyal and cadeil, K. Thesis! R. Naskar (eds.), Prain, D., 1903.
The ?ora of Sundarbans. Records of the Botanical. Sundarbans Mangal. Naya Prokash, Calcutta, pp. 428–448. Survey of India, Part 2, no. 4: 232–370. Sarkar, D., G. N. Chattopadhyay and K. R. Naskar. 1999. Nature.
Presler, F. A., 1991. Forest Management in do literature review in dissertation, the Sundarbans, and properties of coastal saline soils of Sundarbans with rela- 1875–1952. In: J. Seidensticker, R. Kurin, and A. K. tion to art education statement mangrove vegetation. In: D. N. Guha Bakshi, P. Sanyal. Townsend (eds.), The Commons in South Asia: Societal Pres- and K. R. Naskar (eds.),.
Sundarbans Mangal. Naya Prokash, sures and Environmental Integrity in the Sundarbans. The In- Calcutta? pp. Essay! 199–204. ternational Center, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, Sarker, S. U., 1985a.
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Vol. Research Paper! 4. Endangered and/or Vulner- of the statement, Workshop on Coastal Zone Management in Bang- able Other Marine Invertebrates sand Vertebrates. Paper no. 58. ladesh.
Bangladesh National Committee for how to review, UNESCO-MAB, Marine Biological Association of art education India, Cochin. Sarker, S. U., 1985b. Density, productivity and biomass of raptoral. Rahman, M. A., 1990. A comprehensive report on Sundri (Heritiera. birds of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh.
Proceedings of SAARC. fomes) trees with particular reference to top dying in the Sunda- Seminar on cadeil Biomass Production, 15 April 1985, Dhaka, pp. 84– rbans. In: M. A. Rahman, K. Khandarkar, F. U. Ahmed and M. O. Ali (eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar on Top Dying of Sun- Sarker, S. U., 1989. Fish eating wildlife and some ?shes of the Sun- dri (Heritiera fomes) Trees. Bangladesh Agricultural Research. darbans, Bangladesh. The Journal of Noami 6(1–2): 17–29.
Council, Dhaka, 12–63. Sarker, S. U. and N. J. Sarker. 1986. Status and distribution of birds. Rahman, N., M. M. Billah and M. U. Chaudhury, 1979. Prepoara- of the thesis, Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Cadeil Drama! The Journal of Noami 3: 19– tion of an art education thesis, up to date map of Sundarban forests and estimation of. forest areas of the same by using Landsat imageries. Second.
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The ?sh communities and ?sheries of the. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K., 1,181 pp. Sundarbans with a framework for future studies. Mla Book Report! In: J. Seiden- Seidensticker, J., 1991. The Bangladesh Sundarbans as Wildlife. sticker, R. Kurin, and A. K. Townsend (eds.), The Commons in. Habitat: A Look Ahead. In: J. Seidensticker, R. Kurin, and A. K. South Asia: Societal Pressures and Environmental Integrity in.
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paddies for mangroves in south and southeast Asia. In: M. Wil- Management Plan. Conservation in the Bangladesh Coastal. liams (ed.) Wetlands: A Threatened Landscape. Basil Black- Zone. IUCN, Gland, 120 pp. well, Oxford, pp 217–233. Seidensticker, J., R. How To Do Literature In Dissertation! Kurin, and A. K. Townsend (eds.), 1991.
The. Richards, J. F. and E. P. Art Education! Flint, 1991. Long-term transformations in. Commons in South Asia: Societal Pressures and Environmental. the Sundarbans wetlands forests of Bengal. In: J. Seidensticker, Integrity in the Sundarbans. Research! The International Center, Smithso-
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Tropical Mangrove. years’ record analysis. Tiger Paper 14(3): 26–32. Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., Sinha, M. and M. Research Paper! A. Art Education! Khan, 2001. Impact of environmental aberra- tions on ?sheries of the Ganga (Ganges) River. Aquatic Ecosys- Rollet, B., 1981.
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Atlas. The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Management. Write On Muslim! Technical Report of the UNDP/UNESCO Re- Okinawa, Japan. search and Training Pilot Programme. Ministry of Natural Re- Spiers, A. G., 1999. Review of art education statement international/continental wetland sources, Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines, pp. 51–87.
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Alternativeness in art education: case studies of art instruction in three
formal resume This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for art education jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is resume cadeil drama, a summary of your work experience and statement education, used for on muslim job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for a CV.
A covering letter is art education statement, a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to write on muslim, an employer, from art education thesis, somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is research paper fibrosis, a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the layout of my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to use is art education thesis statement, 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on write, your CV).
The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to statement, emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of paper your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to keep the CV on art education statement, one side of paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is:
There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and mla book report your family name last (even if you write the family name first in your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to art education thesis statement, this address (if you move, ask the research fibrosis, owner to forward letters to you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to art education, leave a message for you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at your accommodation.
The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the research, left-hand column for dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00)
In the right-hand column, provide information about each of your job roles. Start by thesis statement, writing the comparative help, name of the company (in bold) and its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of what the art education thesis statement, company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and write an essay achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for thesis recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). You should not use the word I on write marriage, your CV; this is understood.
For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at art education statement the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the on muslim, left-hand column for art education statement the dates. For start and how to review in dissertation end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of statement exam subjects passed) on research paper, the next line.
List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of art education this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is research paper, clear. If you have been to a university, use the art education statement, word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the mla book report, level is clear. Art Education Thesis! If the university is one of the research paper, top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). Statement! State the do literature review in dissertation, name of the town and country after the university's name.
In the description, put the name of the art education, main subject studied (try to avoid using the research paper fibrosis, words major or minor, which are used in American English). If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Art Education Statement! Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is probably different from that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and 18, but not before this age. Research On Cystic! You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the art education thesis, words High School in the name. If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to drama, list only the art education thesis, number of subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to resume cadeil drama, list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to include details of art education statement this course.
If so, write this in a line under the an essay marriage, main table. For example, you could write Currently studying English at art education thesis statement ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to mla book report, drive for the job)
Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in art education thesis statement, British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by mla book report, your nationality eg Japanese.
You may want to write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is art education statement, not obvious to how to review, a British person from your name. Art Education! Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for research on cystic some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by the stamp in your passport, for art education thesis statement example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by comparative, a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at an interview.
Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is art education thesis statement, necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the how to in dissertation, person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer.
It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in art education thesis, English, and comparative essay help give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: [email protected] · Advised the main shop's customers about organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of supplements and organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division.
· Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and art education Excel, as well as e-mail and mla book report the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and Korean. If you are sending an thesis statement application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to an essay on muslim marriage, a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the thesis, level of your English ability. Explain in comparative, your letter how you can be contacted.
If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to thesis statement, be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to research paper, apply for the job of a part-time sales assistant in thesis, the food section of research fibrosis Fortnum Mason's in thesis statement, Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan.
This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in mla book report, London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school. Thesis! I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the do literature review, Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). My fluency in thesis, Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and cadeil enjoy working in a team.
My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by art education thesis statement, e-mail (see details at the top of mla book report this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and thesis statement covering letter carefully before you send them.
Use the spell-checker on the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and research paper ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). If you send an application by art education statement, e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to mla book report, hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the company and ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the art education statement, closing date for research applications, if there is thesis statement, one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the write marriage, case that people are invited for art education thesis statement an interview for only a small number of the jobs to paper, which they apply. Thesis Statement! Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. Mla Book Report! If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the art education statement, quality of research fibrosis your later applications.
Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.