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BOOK REVIEW: Past reflections and future visions for role of national gallery in SA. Art History. A History of The Iziko South African National Gallery: Reflections on Art and National Identity. This first book-length history of the South African National Gallery provides an understanding and appreciation of the art collections for scholars, connoisseurs and the uninitiated. As a cultural and art historian with a senior lecturer post at the University of Cape Town’s Michaelis School of Fine Art, author Anna Tietze has had a long-standing interest in public art-collecting and has curated exhibitions at the national gallery since the 1990s. Data Analysis Of. The gallery functions as a site of vital dialogue and does so with regard to both its historical and its contemporary collection. It is important that it continues to do so in a way that is historically aware, she writes. The national gallery grew out of the initiative of the South African Fine Arts Association in 1870 and opened in romanesque art history essay, 1930 in the building it occupies today on Government Avenue in Cape Town. It is a collection of helping your students homework a guide much more than paintings, prompting Tietze to romanesque use the terms museum and gallery interchangeably. The book’s chapters each detail the different directors who served as curators at the gallery.
Each sought ways to present the collection to the public in a way that is engaging and educational in aesthetics and history. The first directors, John Wheatley and Edward Roworth, were chairs of fine art at Michaelis and usdoe helping your homework a guide for teachers honorary directors of the gallery. In the early years, the gallery was an extension of the art school and dependent on generous gifts including the Lady Michaelis gifts, the Alfred de Pass collection and the Abe Bailey bequest. After the art history essay Second World War, the gallery appointed its first professional director, John Paris. He was an art historian with experience in art museums and took an internationalist position, building bonds across national boundaries and positioning the institution as a scholarly centre of research within a largely European tradition. In the 1960s, under Matthys Bokhorst, there was a significant change in identity. Despite SA’s international isolation, funding increased enormously from the government, the Rembrandt Van Rijn Art Foundation and the establishment of The Friends of the Gallery in 1968. This allowed more staff to be appointed, increased the an essay on democracy work of the romanesque art history essay education department and pioneered the an essay on democracy and poverty collecting of work by South African artists.
Despite the romanesque essay widening cultural gap between the apartheid government and museums, the late 1970s and 1980s, under the directorship of Raymund van Niekerk, was a vibrant period for education with a focus on pupils in impoverished areas. Photography expanded the data field of fine art and exhibitions and acquisitions tackled the romanesque realities of mary white essay apartheid, poverty and protest. Black art finally began to receive significantly more attention in public exhibitions, writes Tietze. The 1990s tasked the gallery with redress and transformation and acquisitions of South African artists increased. Exhibitions such as Decade of Democracy (2004) showcased South African art produced in the decade after the fall of apartheid and art history Picasso in Africa (2006) juxtaposed 82 works by spatial essay, Picasso with 32 African works, illustrating the African inspiration behind Picasso’s style. Director Marilyn Martin was praised for transforming the institution. The last director of the national gallery was Riason Naidoo, who attempted to explore a postcolonial vision, as he put it. His 2011 People’s Painter exhibition of 80 works by romanesque art history, Vladimir Tretchikoff was the blockbuster exhibition of his five-year contract, which was not renewed.
Within the detailed historical narrative, Tietze follows two motifs; the health essays government’s lacklustre funding of the institution and the evolving classificatory boundaries of an art collection. Art History. In 1999, the gallery was amalgamated under the structure of Iziko Museums, leading to further reductions in funding, while the institution was expected to organization essay satisfy the government policy of social cohesion and nation building. Iziko Museums is essay, restructuring, reducing the number of director positions from eight to seven. The three directorships of health natural history, social history and art collections started in 1999 are being brought together under two new directorships — research and exhibitions, and collections and digitisation. A growing number of commercial exhibition venues in essay, Cape Town and the imminent opening of the Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa have made it increasingly vital that art museums connect with the commercial world, Tietze writes. It might be sensible for the gallery to beef up another aspect to its identity. An Essay On Democracy And Poverty. She recommends the amalgamation of the social history and romanesque essay art collections and that the gallery position itself as the repository of a specifically historical archive. There is a strong desire to re-imagine the gallery in essay, post-apartheid and postcolonial terms, which suggests it show less European and American work and more African work. Tietze suggests it shouldn’t be one or the other option.
I feel uncomfortable about romanesque art history essay, attention being paid to African artefacts at the expense of its European and American collections. They represent the half a g is 4 p tastes and interests and collecting practices of that time, she writes. I think that the institution should be something like a living record of how people thought and felt and what they were interested in. One of the common misconceptions about the National Gallery specifically is that the national in that term means you must reflect the nation’s art. Art History Essay. What is needed is a restored recognition of humanness and an essay the sense in romanesque art history, which there are broad similarities between people. I am calling that an internationalist position. She wants a return to the function of big national galleries or museums such as the Louvre in Paris or the national galleries in London and Washington that largely show art of an international tradition and cosmopolitan culture.
The limited space in the gallery, a handicap for most of its existence, is now critical, with one exhibition room permanently dedicated to storage. Tietze draws attention to the Lady Michaelis collection of paintings, prints and drawings. Not since the ’60s has the half a g is 4 p gallery had room to show the works on paper. It would be wonderful if the romanesque essay gallery could digitise its collection so one could see many more of these things, she says. Tietze has suggested virtual displays as a solution to primary health accessing works in the permanent collection that are rarely seen, with additional interactive and educative benefits that can demystify and reveal a world behind the scenes … offer an art history essay, anthropological view of creative traditions. She is working on an account of the evolution of an essay on democracy art education in SA from the first school in 1860 in Cape Town to the story of Michaelis. Education policies are interesting in how global they are. To understand the art teaching going on romanesque art history, in SA, it is best to understand what is going on in Europe and America.
It is ano-ther case of internationalism. Virtual reality project puts us on borderland with migrants. CHRIS THURMAN: Zille’s nostalgia is no basis for a political programme. Is UCT justified in taking down artworks that could cause offence? Please sign in or register to comment. Need to stay informed? Subscribe from R120 per month to get the best of Business Day, the essays Financial Mail, Business Times, RDM and more, along with perks such as exclusive Financial Times content. BOOK REVIEW: Jansen pens a moving eulogy to his mother. Book review: Wild Ride: Inside Uber's Quest for World Domination. BOOK REVIEW: Fascinating tale of hat maker’s casteless sanctuary. Romanesque Essay. BOOK REVIEW: Apocalypse darkens Meyer novel.
BOOK REVIEW: Jazz club’s feverish years recalled. Investors Monthly is a magazine published by Times Media, Media Division included in the Financial Mail on the last Thursday of the month. Need to stay informed? Subscribe from R120 per month to get the best of Business Day, the Financial Mail, Business Times, RDM and more, along with perks such as exclusive Financial Times content. BOOK REVIEW: Jansen pens a moving eulogy to his mother. Book review: Wild Ride: Inside Uber's Quest for World Domination. Care Essays. BOOK REVIEW: Fascinating tale of hat maker’s casteless sanctuary. BOOK REVIEW: Apocalypse darkens Meyer novel. BOOK REVIEW: Jazz club’s feverish years recalled. Art History Essay. Investors Monthly is a magazine published by Times Media, Media Division included in the Financial Mail on the last Thursday of the month. 2017 tiso blackstar group.
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Restaurant Review Essays and Research Papers. Restaurant Review It was rainy, crowded and loud at art history essay, the entrance, the smell of an essay and poverty cigarette and rum filled the air of the art history essay . lobby area. It was Saturday night at the T.G.I.F in an essay and poverty, San Francisco, the romanesque art history Giant's were playing so the place was packed and fans were being loud. The restaurant is located on analysis a corner nearby Pier 39 and it almost has an Aspen look to it. The building itself is made of bricks with big colorful windows and huge cherry finished wooden doors with brass handles. Inside.
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Mom Pop’s Restaurants , Inc. Primary. Facts - Pop Westerfields had entered the restaurant business by taking over family . restaurant at the corner of Halsted Avenue and Third Street, operating the first restaurant in in Homewood, Illinois, in 1982 - The initial “Strategy” was to art history, serve very good meals in traditional American style at white, reasonable prices. - In early 1990, the Westerfields owned six restaurants in Illinois, Indiana, Southern Michigan using MomPop name, and employed 9 full-timed. Cost , Food , Franchise 637 Words | 4 Pages. Restaurant Business Plans Feasibility. 1/14/2015 Restaurant Business Plans, Feasibility Studies, Restaurant Consultants, Opening a new restaurant The . Restaurant Group Guiding your restaurant to success Our Services Restaurant Business Plans Would you like to open a new restaurant or start a chain of romanesque art history restaurants ? We’d like to an essay on democracy, show you how we can get it done quickly, professionally and inexpensively. We can help you put together a business plan, create a feasibility study, or deliver the whole process from start to finish. Contact Us. Business plan , Competition , Concept 688 Words | 3 Pages.
JM Signature Restaurant Summary: • Successful restaurant owner plans to open new restaurant in romanesque essay, . entertainment district • He set a goal of mary $4M in revenue for first year of operations, which is said to be overly optimistic by his accountant. • Joshua has two choices: Should he open? And if he does what is the most appropriate marketing plan? • While there is considerable information about population, income levels, economic demographics, competition… the key here is to evaluate. Household income in the United States , Lunch , Management 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Proposal for Open?ng New Restaurant. requesting finical support to open a new restaurant at art history, A.A around 5killo area This proposal is prepared for requesting financial support to . An Essay. open a new restaurant at Addis Ababa around 5killo which is private owned by romanesque art history essay, 5 interested members of partnership. The aim of the proposal is to request finance support from different financing sectors to open the restaurant . As it is known to open any business, the essay main requirement is finance. Therefore, to open this restaurant partners can’t able to afford all the. Addis Ababa , Ethiopia , Foodservice 1666 Words | 5 Pages. . INTRODUCTION Online Restaurant Reservation System (ORRS) is web application. This system wake to provide service facility to restaurant and also to the customer.
The services that are provided is food ordering and reservation table management by essay, the customer through the system online, customer information management and primary essays menu information. Application software , Computer software , Emulator 600 Words | 4 Pages. ? Fast Food Restaurants in romanesque art history essay, America are Contributing to Obesity Fast Food Restaurants in America are contributing to . Obesity In 2009, 34% of Americans are overweight or obese; at this rate, 43% of white Americans will be considered overweight or obese by the year 2018. (Hellmich, 2009) By definition, a person is romanesque, considered to be overweight if they have a Body Mass Index (BMI) in excess of 25 or more, while a person is considered to be obese if their BMI is over 30. What is contributing to. Body shape , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 962 Words | 3 Pages. Corky’s Barbecue Restaurants SWOT Analysis Louis Gladney MGT 450 Professor Darryl Jones July 30, 2012 . Corky’Barbecue Restaurants SWOT Analysis Corky’s Barbecue (BBQ) is one of the oldest BBQ restaurants in the Memphis, Tennessee area who is well known for its great tasting and unique flavor. The BBQ business is one of the most competitive businesses in the South and with the data complexity and romanesque essay ever changing environment we live in, competition. Cash flow , Competition , Competitor analysis 579 Words | 3 Pages. Just-A-Shore Away Lounge amp; Restaurant Executive Summary Just-A-Shore Away Lounge amp; Restaurant is a 30 seat . Data Analysis Of. fine-dining restaurant with a 15 seat lounge that focuses on healthy yet tasteful seafood dishes with influence of many countries. It will be located in the rapidly expanding, City of Progress, Enterprise, Alabama.
In Enterprise Alabama the citizens are fond of romanesque essay seafood and are eager for a fine-dining seafood restaurant . Analysis Of. The average person in art history, the U.S. consumes about 14 pounds. Eating , Fish , Fish products 789 Words | 3 Pages. Demand for Restaurants and Determinant Factors. INTRODUCTION The paper presents an analysis of the different factors influencing the restaurant industry and how these factors increase or . decrease the mary essay demand for romanesque art history, such services. The hypothesis that will be examined is that the performance of restaurants is mostly based on the type of analysis food chosen by customers when they decide to go out for dinner, lunch, breakfast, or simply for a snack. What type of essay food refers mainly the white nationality or concept of the food, (traditional American, Italian, Indian. Eating , Kompakt , Kompakt albums 1559 Words | 7 Pages. Punjab by romanesque art history essay, Nature Top Indian Restaurant Takeaway - Authenticated Indian Dine in and Takeout at Ranelagh Dublin. Punjab by Nature Top Indian Restaurant Takeaway - Authenticated Indian dine in and Takeout at Ranelagh Dublin Punjab by Nature Indian . Restaurants Takeaway - Authenticated Indian dine in and Takeout rejuvenating the authentic taste of Indian cuisines for several years situated at Ranelagh, Dublin The Punjabi by Nature has been serving Authentic Indian Punjabi cuisine for organization, over 14 years. It has become a success story in Dublin by consistently preparing Authentic Punjabi Cuisines in. Dublin , India , Indian cuisine 663 Words | 3 Pages.
being truly a trans-national epitome and embraces every culture with due dignity and respect, it is art history essay, just apt for us to theme our restaurant . menu into a “Food Fusion”. Fusion food is a combination of data analysis various forms of cookery and comes in several forms. Regional fusion combines different cuisines of art history a region or sub-region into a single eating experience. Data Analysis Of. Asian fusion restaurants , which combine the various cuisines of different Asian countries, have become popular in many parts of the United States and. Asian cuisine , Cuisine , Fusion cuisine 998 Words | 4 Pages. “This is the worse restaurant I have ever been to! (…) ” exclaimed Lily, a friend of mine, as we walked out of the romanesque art history essay restaurant . that night.
We all, undoubtedly, have had a bad restaurant experience at least once in our lifetime. And if the judgment of the goodness or badness of a restaurant remains very subjective, we can still unanimously find similarities, common criteria between good restaurants . Mary White. Thus, what makes a good restaurant ? A good restaurant first of all , serves fresh and art history tasty food. Secondly. Customer , Eating , Food 903 Words | 3 Pages. Five Trends in the Restaurant Industry.
Five Trends in the Restaurant Industry The number one growing trend in the restaurant industry is the idea of fresh, healthy . meal options. According to primary health care essays, the NRA a growing number of consumers are becoming more health conscious, and therefore looking better their diets. Restaurant owner have taken note of this and are trying to romanesque art history, provide a healthy selection of food for its consumers. In fact forty percent of restaurant owners had budgeted more spending in 2010 compared to 2009. Analysis. They are willing to. Eating , Facebook , Fast food 1487 Words | 4 Pages. Review on the Chedi Hotel’s Restaurant. few moments, we were led to their restaurant and art history essay had some speeches with Food Beverage manager talking about half a g is 4 p brief background of the hotel and . the process of dining banquet management. Romanesque Art History. After we took a short sightseeing around the establishment, we were back to the dining area. Mary White Essay. The table-settings were amazingly prepared by essay, the restaurant staffs.
Each of us took our own seat waited for the lunch. 2. Appearance of organization essay Facility When we first got in the restaurant , I noticed that the dining room was. Alcoholic beverage , Busboy , Coffee 716 Words | 2 Pages. always head out to art history essay, one of my favorite restaurants , Boston Pizza. Boston Pizza has been around since the helping your students homework 1960’s and started out as a small one . Romanesque Art History. store location but has grown into one of western Canada’s most popular restaurants with over 150 locations in Canada with a few locations also spread out in the USA.
There are many choices that can compare in some aspect to the feeling I get when I go to a Boston Pizza but the combination of cleanliness of the on democracy and poverty restaurant , a variety of choices on the menu and. American cuisine , Hamburger , Italian cuisine 801 Words | 2 Pages. Benihana: Restaurant and Food Cost. 1. What are the differences between Benihana's production process and romanesque that of a typical restaurant ? How do these differences affect a . customer's dining experience? Method Typical American food: you order form the primary health menu and the bus boy will bring to your table Food is prepared table-side. Provides unique “dinner and a show” type of experience. Floor plan: Allows more floor area for dining (only 22% of space is for preparation, storage and office space) Small bar/lounge area - Attentive. Chef , Eating , Food 563 Words | 3 Pages. Restaurant Expansion Project Focus groups .All Students .Some teachers and staff .Passer- by This restaurant locates . just along the campus, the major customer is students, also some teachers and staff are customers.
Questions: 1. How often do you visit the restaurant ? 2. How do you feel each time you visit the restaurant ? 3. Romanesque Art History Essay. How does the food taste? 4. What kinds of food is your favorite? 5. What do you think of the prices the restaurant offers? 6. What most often disappoints. Eating , Food , Han Chinese 403 Words | 3 Pages. types of restaurants you prefer the most? Vegetarian Non vegetarian 8.What types of usdoe helping students a guide for teachers food you prefer the romanesque art history most? . South Indian North Indian Chinese Continental 9.What time you prefer to be at food court? Breakfast Lunch High Tea Dinner 10.What kind of half a g is 4 p food you used to have at office?
Homemade canteen inside the company outside restaurants . Coffeehouse , Food , Food court 301 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and romanesque art history Contrast Mcdonal's and Sonic Restaurants. McDonalds and Sonic Restaurants By: Stephanie Sumler . When comparing Sonic (America’s Drive Inn), and on democracy McDonald’s patrons would “be” surprised to know that these two restaurants are the same in many ways, but their different at romanesque essay, the same time. Although McDonald’s and Sonic sell similar food items they both have many differences in store design, menus, and customer service. Sonic Restaurants gives customers. Drive-through , Food , French fries 1061 Words | 3 Pages. Running Heading: RESTAURANT CONSULTANT RESTAURANT CONSULTANT Restaurant Consultant The . With A Guide For Teachers. restaurant industry accounts for over $580 billion in annual revenue. In the United States, there are nearly one million operating restaurants providing approximately thirteen million jobs. (Parsa, Gregory, and Terry, 2011). Dunn and Bradstreet, a prestigious risk management company, states that the romanesque essay restaurant industry has one of the an essay highest business failure rates among the retail and service industries (Parsa.
Brand , Consultant , Consulting 1942 Words | 6 Pages. Restaurant: Rooms and Access Aisles. Restaurant Planning amp; Layout In any establishment a client’s first impressions on entering the dining room are of great importance. The . creation of atmosphere by the careful selection of romanesque art history essay items in terms of shape, design and color enhances the usdoe students with a guide overall decor or theme and contributes to the total harmony. Physical Layout: Good planning and physical layout are important keys to success in the food and romanesque beverage industry.
An effectively planned and well-run restaurant is a highly lucrative.
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Romanesque Art essays
3 Oracle Text CONTAINS Query Operators. Romanesque Art History Essay? This chapter describes operator precedence and white essay provides description, syntax, and examples for every CONTAINS operator. The following topics are covered: Operator precedence determines the romanesque art history order in which the components of a query expression are evaluated. Text query operators can be divided into two sets of operators that have their own order of evaluation. These two groups are described later as Group 1 and Group 2. In all cases, query expressions are evaluated in order from left to essays, right according to the precedence of their operators. Operators with higher precedence are applied first. Operators of equal precedence are applied in order of their appearance in the expression from left to romanesque art history, right. Within query expressions, the Group 1 operators have the usdoe helping a guide following order of evaluation from romanesque art history essay, highest precedence to lowest:
Within query expressions, the Group 2 operators have the following order of evaluation from highest to lowest: Other operators not listed under Group 1 or Group 2 are procedural. These operators have no sense of precedence attached to them. They include the SQE and thesaurus operators. Table 3-1 Query Expression Precedence Examples. An Essay And Poverty? In the first example, because AND has a higher precedence than OR , the query returns all documents that contain w1 and all documents that contain both w2 and w3 . In the second example, the query returns all documents that contain both w1 and w2 and all documents that contain w3 . In the third example, the fuzzy operator is first applied to w1 , then the AND operator is applied to arguments w3 and w4 , then the OR operator is art history applied to term w2 and the results of the mary essay AND operation, and finally, the score from the fuzzy operation on w1 is added to the score from the OR operation. The fourth example shows that the equivalence operator has higher precedence than the AND operator. The fifth example shows that the AND operator has lower precedence than the WITHIN operator. Precedence is altered by art history grouping characters as follows: Within parentheses, expansion or execution of operations is resolved before other expansions regardless of operator precedence.
Within parentheses, precedence of operators is maintained during evaluation of expressions. Within parentheses, expansion operators are not applied to expressions unless the essay operators are also within the parentheses. Use the ABOUT operator to return documents that are related to a query term or phrase. In English and French, ABOUT enables you to romanesque art history essay, query on concepts, even if a concept is not actually part of a query. For example, an ABOUT query on heat might return documents related to temperature, even though the term temperature is half a g is 4 p not part of the query. In other languages, using ABOUT will often increase the number of essay returned documents and may improve the sorting order of results. For all languages, Oracle Text scores results for an ABOUT query with the most relevant document receiving the highest score. English and French Behavior.
In English and French, use the ABOUT operator to query on concepts. Mary White? The system looks up concept information in the theme component of the index. You create a theme component to your index by setting the INDEX_THEMES BASIC_LEXER attribute to YES . You need not have a theme component in romanesque essay the index to issue ABOUT queries in English and French. However, having a theme component in the index yields the best results for half a g is 4 p, ABOUT queries. Oracle Text retrieves documents that contain concepts that are related to your query word or phrase. Art History Essay? For example, if you issue an ABOUT query on California , the system might return documents that contain the terms Los Angeles and San Francisco , which are cities in California.The document need not contain the half a g is 4 p term California to be returned in this ABOUT query. The word or phrase specified in art history essay your ABOUT query need not exactly match the mary white themes stored in the index. Oracle Text normalizes the word or phrase before performing lookup in the index. Romanesque Art History Essay? You can use the mary ABOUT operator with the CONTAINS and CATSEARCH SQL operators. In the case of CATSEARCH , you must use query templating with the CONTEXT grammar to query on the indexed themes.
See ABOUT Query with CATSEARCH in art history the Examples section. In English and essays French, returns documents that contain concepts related to phrase , provided the BASIC_LEXER INDEX_THEMES attribute is set to YES at index time. Romanesque Essay? The score returned is a relevance score. Oracle Text ignores any query operators that are included in phrase . If your index contains only theme information, an ABOUT operator and operand must be included in your query on the text column or else Oracle Text returns an mary white essay, error. The phrase you specify cannot be more than 4000 characters. ABOUT queries give the best results when your query is formulated with proper case. This is because the normalization of your query is based on the knowledge catalog which is case-sensitive. However, you need not type your query in exact case to obtain results from an ABOUT query.
The system does its best to interpret your query. For example, if you enter a query of CISCO and the system does not find this in the knowledge catalog, the system might use Cisco as a related concept for look-up. Improving ABOUT Results. The ABOUT operator uses the romanesque art history supplied knowledge base in English and French to interpret the phrase you enter. Your ABOUT query therefore is limited to knowing and interpreting the concepts in the knowledge base. You can improve the on democracy results of your ABOUT queries by adding your application-specific terminology to the knowledge base. The phrase you specify in an ABOUT query cannot be more than 4000 characters. To search for documents that are about soccer, use the following syntax: You can further refine the query to romanesque art history, include documents about soccer rules in international competition by primary health essays entering the phrase as the query term: In this English example, Oracle Text returns all documents that have themes of soccer , rules , or international competition . In terms of scoring, documents which have all three themes will generally score higher than documents that have only one or two of the art history themes. You can also query on unstructured phrases, such as the following: You can use other operators, such as AND or NOT , to combine ABOUT queries with word queries. For example, you can issue the following combined ABOUT and word query: You can combine an ABOUT query with another ABOUT query as follows: You cannot combine ABOUT with the WITHIN operator, as for example 'A BOUT (xyz) WITHIN abc' . ABOUT Query with CATSEARCH.
You can issue ABOUT queries with CATSEARCH using the query template method with grammar set to CONTEXT as follows: Use the ACCUM operator to search for documents that contain at least one occurrence of any query terms, with the on democracy returned documents ranked by a cumulative score based on essay how many query terms are found (and how frequently). term1 ACCUM term2. ACCUMulate first scores documents on how many query terms a document matches. A document that matches more terms will always score higher than a document that matches fewer terms, even if the terms appear more frequently in the latter. In other words, if you search for dog ACCUM cat , you'll find that. scores higher than. Scores are divided into an essay on democracy ranges. In a two-term ACCUM , hits that match both terms will always score between 51 and 100, whereas hits matching only one of the terms will score between 1 and 50.
Likewise, for romanesque art history essay, a three-term ACCUM , a hit matching one term will score between 1 and 33; a hit matching two terms will score between 34 and 66, and a hit matching all three terms will score between 67 and 100. Within these ranges , normal scoring algorithms apply. (See Appendix F, The Oracle Text Scoring Algorithm for more on how scores are calculated.) You can assign different weights to different terms. For example, in mary essay a query of the romanesque essay form. the term Brazil is weighted three times as heavily as soccer . Therefore, the document. will score lower than. but both documents will rank below. Note that a query of soccer ACCUM Brazil*3 is equivalent to soccer ACCUM Brazil ACCUM Brazil ACCUM Brazil . Since each query term Brazil is considered independent, the entire query is helping your students for teachers scored as though it has four terms, not two, and art history essay thus has four scoring ranges. The first Brazil-and-soccer example document shown above will score in usdoe homework for teachers the first range (1-25), the second will score in romanesque art history essay the third range (51-75), and the third will score in the fourth range (76-100). (No document will score in the second range, because any document with Brazil in it will be considered to match at least three query terms.) This produces the following output. Note that the document with both dog and cat scores highest.
Use the AND operator to search for documents that contain at least one occurrence of mary essay each of the query terms. term1 and term2. To obtain all the documents that contain the romanesque art history essay terms blue and data black and red , issue the following query: In an AND query, the score returned is the score of the lowest query term. In this example, if the romanesque art history three individual scores for the terms blue, black, and red is 10, 20 and 30 within a document, the document scores 10. The AND operator returns documents that contain all of the query terms, while OR operator returns documents that contain any of the query terms. Spatial Organization? See OR (|). Use the broader term operators ( BT , BTG , BTP , BTI ) to expand a query to include the term that has been defined in romanesque a thesaurus as the broader or higher level term for a specified term. They can also expand the spatial organization essay query to include the broader term for the broader term and the broader term for that broader term, and so on up through the art history essay thesaurus hierarchy. Specify the half a g is 4 p operand for the broader term operator. Oracle Text expands term to include the broader term entries defined for the term in the thesaurus specified by thes . For example, if you specify BTG(dog) , the expansion includes only those terms that are defined as broader term generic for dog . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. The number of broader terms included in the expansion is determined by the value for level . Essay? Specify a qualifier for primary health essays, term , if term is a homograph (word or phrase with multiple meanings, but the same spelling) that appears in essay two or more nodes in on democracy and poverty the same hierarchy branch of thes . If a qualifier is not specified for a homograph in romanesque a broader term query, the query expands to include the broader terms of all the homographic terms.
Specify the number of data of levels traversed in the thesaurus hierarchy to return the art history broader terms for the specified term. For example, a level of 1 in primary essays a BT query returns the romanesque art history broader term entry, if one exists, for health essays, the specified term. A level of 2 returns the broader term entry for the specified term, as well as the broader term entry, if one exists, for the broader term. The level argument is optional and has a default value of essay one (1). For Teachers? Zero or negative values for the level argument return only the original query term. Specify the name of the romanesque art history essay thesaurus used to and poverty, return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value. If you specify thes , you must also specify level . The following query returns all documents that contain the term tutorial or the BT term defined for tutorial in the DEFAULT thesaurus: When you specify a thesaurus name, you must also specify level as in: Broader Term Operator on Homographs. If machine is a broader term for crane (building equipment) and essay bird is a broader term for crane (waterfowl) and no qualifier is specified for a broader term query, the your students homework for teachers query. If waterfowl is specified as a qualifier for crane in a broader term query, the query. Romanesque? expands to the query: When specifying a qualifier in a broader or narrower term query, the mary white qualifier and its notation (parentheses) must be escaped, as is shown in this example. You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in art history the CTX_THES package.
For more information on browsing the broader terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.BT in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the EQUIV operator to specify an acceptable substitution for half a g is 4 p, a word in a query. Romanesque Art History? term1 equiv term2. The following example returns all documents that contain either the phrase alsatians are big dogs or labradors are big dogs : The EQUIV operator has higher precedence than all other operators except the expansion operators (fuzzy, soundex, stem). Use the usdoe your homework a guide for teachers fuzzy operator to expand queries to art history, include words that are spelled similarly to the specified term. Spatial Organization Essay? This type of romanesque expansion is helpful for finding more accurate results when there are frequent misspellings in your document set.
The fuzzy syntax enables you to rank the half a g is 4 p result set so that documents that contain words with high similarity to the query word are scored higher than documents with lower similarity. You can also limit the number of expanded terms. Unlike stem expansion, the number of words generated by a fuzzy expansion depends on what is in the index. Results can vary significantly according to the contents of the index. Oracle Text supports fuzzy definitions for English, German, Italian, Dutch, Spanish, Japanese, OCR, and art history essay auto-language detection. If the organization essay fuzzy expansion returns a stopword, the stopword is not included in the query or highlighted by CTX_DOC.HIGHLIGHT or CTX_DOC.MARKUP . If base-letter conversion is enabled for a text column and the query expression contains a fuzzy operator, Oracle Text operates on the base-letter form of the query.
Specify NOWEIGHT or N for no weighting of results. Consider the CONTAINS query: This query expands to romanesque essay, the first six fuzzy variations of government in the index that have a similarity score over 70. In addition, documents in primary health the result set are weighted according to romanesque essay, their similarity to government . Documents containing words most similar to government receive the highest score. Half A G Is 4 P? You can skip unnecessary parameters using the appropriate number of commas. Romanesque Art History Essay? For example: Backward Compatibility Syntax. An Essay And Poverty? The old fuzzy syntax from essay, previous releases is still supported. This syntax is as follows: Use this operator to find all XML documents that contain a specified section path. You can also use this operator to do section equality testing. Your index must be created with the PATH_SECTION_GROUP for this operator to work. Using Special Characters with HASPATH and INPATH.
The following rules govern the use of special characters with regard to both the an essay HASPATH and INPATH operators: Left-brace ( ) characters are not allowed inside HASPATH or INPATH expressions unless they are inside the equality operand enclosed by double quotes. Romanesque Art History? So both ' HASPATH( ) ' and care essays ' HASPATH(/A/ ) ' will return errors. However, ' HASPATH(/A[B= ]) ' will be parsed correctly. With exception of the backslash (), special characters, such as dollar sign ($), percent sign (%), underscore (_), left brace ( ), when inside the equality operand enclosed by romanesque art history double or single quotes, have no special meaning. (That is, no stemming, wildcard expansion, or similar processing will be performed on them.) However, they are still subject to on democracy, regular text lexing and will be translated to whitespace, with the exception of characters declared as printjoins. A backslash will still escape any character that immediately follows it. For example, if the art history hyphen (-) and the double quote character () are defined as printjoins in a lexer preference, then: The string B_TEXT inside HASPATH(/A[B=B_TEXT) will be lexed as the phrase B TEXT . The string B-TEXT inside HASPATH(/A[B=B-TEXT) will be lexed as the word B-TEXT . The string B'TEXT inside HASPATH(/A[B=B'TEXT) will be lexed as the word BTEXT . You must use a backslash to escape the double quote between B and TEXT , or you will get a parsing error.
The string inside HASPATH(/A[B= ) will be lexed as a phrase B TEXT . finds and and poverty returns a score of 100 for the document. without the query having to reference dog at all. Section Equality Testing. but it also finds. To limit the query to the term dog and nothing else, you can use a section equality test with the HASPATH operator. For example, finds and returns a score of 100 only for the first document, and not the art history second. Because of how XML section data is recorded, false matches might occur with XML sections that are completely empty as follows: A query of HASPATH(A/B/E) or HASPATH(A/D/C) falsely matches this document. This type of false matching can be avoided by inserting text between empty tags. Use this operator to do path searching in XML documents.
This operator is like the WITHIN operator except that the half a g is 4 p right-hand side is a parentheses enclosed path, rather than a single section name. Your index must be created with the PATH_SECTION_GROUP for the INPATH operator to work. The INPATH operator has the following syntax: Top-Level Tag Searching. Any-Level Tag Searching. Direct Parentage Path Searching. For example, a document containing. Single-Level Wildcard Searching. For example a document containing.
Multi-level Wildcard Searching. Any-Level Descendant Searching. Descendant/Attribute Existence Testing. Attribute Value Testing. Tag Value Testing. AND and OR Testing. Combining Path and Node Tests. You can nest the entire INPATH expression in another INPATH expression as follows: When you do so, the two INPATH paths are completely independent. Romanesque Art History Essay? The outer INPATH path does not change the context node of the inner INPATH path. For example: never finds any documents, because the inner INPATH is looking for dog within the top-level tag A, and the outer INPATH constrains that to document with top-level tag D. A document can have only usdoe helping students homework for teachers, one top-level tag, so this expression never finds any documents.
Tags and attribute names in path searching are case-sensitive. That is, finds Adog/A but does not find adog/a . Instead use. Using Special Characters with INPATH. See Using Special Characters with HASPATH and romanesque INPATH for information on using special characters, such as the percent sign (%) or the of backslash (), with INPATH . Top-Level Tag Searching. To find all documents that contain the term dog in the top-level tag A: Any-Level Tag Searching. To find all documents that contain the term dog in the A tag at any level: This query finds the following documents: Direct Parentage Searching. To find all documents that contain the term dog in a B element that is a direct child of a top-level A element: This query finds the following XML document: but does not find: Tag Value Testing. You can test the value of tags. For example, the query: Finds the following document: But does not find: You can search the content of art history attributes.
For example, the query: Finds the document. Attribute Value Testing. You can test the usdoe helping your students with homework for teachers value of attributes. For example, the art history essay query. Finds the document: But does not find: You can test if a path exists with the white essay HASPATH operator. For example, the query: finds and returns a score of romanesque 100 for the document. Usdoe A Guide? without the romanesque query having to reference dog at all. Testing for Equality. The following is an example of an INPATH equality test. Spatial? The following limitations apply for art history, these expressions: Only equality and inequality are supported. Range operators and functions are not supported.
The left hand side of the equality must be an attribute. Tags and an essay on democracy literals here are not enabled. The right hand side of the equality must be a literal. Art History Essay? Tags and attributes here are not allowed. The test for equality depends on your lexer settings. With the default settings, the query. matches the following sections: because lexer is case-insensitive by default. because of and is are default stopwords in data analysis English, and a stopword matches any stopword word. because the underscore character is not a join character by default. Use the MDATA operator to query documents that contain MDATA sections. MDATA sections are metadata that have been added to documents to speed up mixed querying. MDATA queries are treated exactly as literals. Art History Essay? For example, with the and poverty query. the $ is not interpreted as a stem operator, nor is the . (period) transformed into whitespace.
A right (close) parenthesis terminates the MDATA operator, so that MDATA values that have close parentheses cannot be searched. The name of the MDATA section(s) to search. The value of the MDATA section. Romanesque Art History Essay? For example, if an MDATA section called Booktype has been created, it might have a value of paperback . Suppose you want to query for books written by the writer Nigella Lawson that contain the word summer . Assuming that an MDATA section called AUTHOR has been declared, you can query as follows: This query will only be successful if an AUTHOR tag has the exact value Nigella Lawson (after simplified tokenization). Nigella or Ms. Nigella Lawson will not work. MDATA query values ignore stopwords. The MDATA operator returns 100 or 0, depending on whether the document is a match. The MDATA operator is on democracy not supported for CTXCAT , CTXRULE , or CTXXPATH indexes.
Table 3-2 shows how MDATA interacts with some other query operators: Table 3-2 MDATA and Other Query Operators. When MDATA sections repeat, each instance is a separate and independent value. For instance, the art history essay document. can be found with any of the following queries: but not any of the following: Use the MINUS operator to lower the score of documents that contain unwanted noise terms. MINUS is useful when you want to search for documents that contain one query term but want the spatial organization presence of a second term to cause a document to art history, be ranked lower. term1 minus term2. Suppose a query on the term cars always returned high scoring documents about Ford cars . You can lower the scoring of the Ford documents by using the expression: In essence, this expression returns documents that contain the term cars and possibly Ford. However, the score for a returned document is the score of cars minus the score of Ford . On Democracy? Use the narrower term operators ( NT , NTG , NTP , NTI ) to expand a query to include all the terms that have been defined in romanesque art history a thesaurus as the narrower or lower level terms for a specified term.
They can also expand the query to include all of the narrower terms for essay, each narrower term, and so on down through the thesaurus hierarchy. Specify the operand for the narrower term operator. Art History Essay? term is expanded to include the narrower term entries defined for the term in the thesaurus specified by thes . The number of narrower terms included in the expansion is organization determined by the value for level . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Specify a qualifier for art history, term , if term is a homograph (word or phrase with multiple meanings, but the same spelling) that appears in two or more nodes in the same hierarchy branch of thes . If a qualifier is not specified for a homograph in a narrower term query, the query expands to and poverty, include all of the art history essay narrower terms of all homographic terms. Specify the number of levels traversed in the thesaurus hierarchy to return the narrower terms for the specified term. For example, a level of 1 in white essay an NT query returns all the narrower term entries, if any exist, for the specified term. A level of 2 returns all the narrower term entries for the specified term, as well as all the narrower term entries, if any exist, for each narrower term.
The level argument is optional and has a default value of romanesque one (1). Zero or negative values for the level argument return only the and poverty original query term. Specify the name of the thesaurus used to romanesque art history essay, return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value. On Democracy And Poverty? If you specify thes , you must also specify level . The following query returns all documents that contain either the term cat or any of the NT terms defined for cat in the DEFAULT thesaurus: If you specify a thesaurus name, you must also specify level as in: The following query returns all documents that contain either fairy tale or any of the narrower instance terms for fairy tale as defined in the DEFAULT thesaurus: That is, if the terms cinderella and snow white are defined as narrower term instances for fairy tale , Oracle Text returns documents that contain fairy tale, cinderella, or snow white. Each hierarchy in a thesaurus represents a distinct, separate branch, corresponding to the four narrower term operators. In a narrower term query, Oracle Text only expands the query using the branch corresponding to the specified narrower term operator. You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on art history essay browsing the usdoe helping your a guide for teachers narrower terms in romanesque art history essay your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.NT in primary Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the NEAR operator to return a score based on the proximity of two or more query terms. Oracle Text returns higher scores for terms closer together and lower scores for terms farther apart in a document.
The NEAR operator works with only word queries. You cannot use NEAR in ABOUT queries. Backward compatibility syntax: word1 ; word2. Specify the terms in the query separated by essay commas. The query terms can be single words or phrases and may make use of other query operators (see NEAR with Other Operators).
Optionally specify the size of the biggest clump. The default is 100. Oracle Text returns an error if you specify a number greater than 100. A clump is the smallest group of words in of which all query terms occur. Art History Essay? All clumps begin and end with a query term. For near queries with two terms, max_span is the primary care maximum distance allowed between the two terms. Romanesque? For example, to query on dog and cat where dog is within 6 words of cat , issue the following query: Specify TRUE for Oracle Text to spatial organization, search for terms in the order you specify. The default is FALSE . For example, to search for the words monday , tuesday , and wednesday in that order with a maximum clump size of art history essay 20, issue the an essay on democracy and poverty following query: To specify order , you must always specify a number for the max_span parameter. Oracle Text might return different scores for the same document when you use identical query expressions that have the order flag set differently.
For example, Oracle Text might return different scores for the same document when you issue the following queries: The scoring for the NEAR operator combines frequency of the romanesque art history terms with proximity of terms. Data Analysis? For each document that satisfies the art history query, Oracle Text returns a score between 1 and 100 that is proportional to the number of of clumps in the document and inversely proportional to romanesque art history, the average size of the clumps. This means many small clumps in half a g is 4 p a document result in higher scores, since small clumps imply closeness of terms. Romanesque Essay? The number of an essay on democracy and poverty terms in a query also affects score. Queries with many terms, such as seven, generally need fewer clumps in art history essay a document to score 100 than do queries with few terms, such as two. A clump is the smallest group of half a g is 4 p words in romanesque art history essay which all query terms occur. All clumps begin and end with a query term. You can define clump size with the max_span parameter as described in this section. The size of a clump does not include the query terms themselves. So for the query NEAR((DOG, CAT), 1) , dog cat will be a match, and dog ate cat will be a match, but dog sat on your with homework a guide for teachers cat will not be a match. Essay? NEAR with Other Operators.
You can use the NEAR operator with other operators such as AND and OR . Scores are calculated in the regular way. For example, to find all documents that contain the terms tiger , lion , and cheetah where the terms lion and tiger are within 10 words of each other, issue the following query: The score returned for each document is the half a g is 4 p lower score of the near operator and the term cheetah . You can also use the equivalence operator to substitute a single term in a near query: This query asks for romanesque art history, all documents that contain the phrase stock crash within twenty words of Japan or Korea . Primary Health Care Essays? The following operators also work with NEAR and ; : All expansion operators that produce words, phrases, or EQUIV . Romanesque Art History Essay? These include: Backward Compatibility NEAR Syntax. You can write near queries using the syntax of helping students with homework a guide for teachers previous Oracle Text releases. For example, to find all documents where lion occurs near tiger , you can write: or with the semi-colon as follows: This query is equivalent to the following query: Only the syntax of the NEAR operator is backward compatible. Art History? In the example, the care essays score returned is calculated using the clump method as described in romanesque this section. Highlighting with the NEAR Operator.
When you use highlighting and your query contains the near operator, all occurrences of all terms in the query that satisfy the proximity requirements are highlighted. Highlighted terms can be single words or phrases. For example, assume a document contains the following text: If the query is on democracy and poverty near((chocolate, vanilla)), 100, FALSE), the following is highlighted: However, if the query is near((chocolate, vanilla)), 4, FALSE), only the following is highlighted: For more information about the procedures you can use for romanesque essay, highlighting, see Chapter 8, CTX_DOC Package. Section Searching and NEAR. You can use the NEAR operator with the WITHIN operator for organization essay, section searching as follows: When evaluating expressions such as these, Oracle Text looks for clumps that lie entirely within the given section. In this example, only those clumps that contain dog and romanesque art history essay cat that lie entirely within the organization essay section Headings are counted. That is, if the term dog lies within Headings and the term cat lies five words from dog , but outside of Headings , this pair of words does not satisfy the expression and is not counted. Art History? Use the usdoe helping your students homework a guide NOT operator to search for documents that contain one query term and not another. Essay? term1 not term2. To obtain the documents that contain the term animals but not dogs , use the following expression: Similarly, to obtain the documents that contain the term transportation but not automobiles or trains , use the half a g is 4 p following expression: The NOT operator does not affect the scoring produced by the other logical operators. Use the OR operator to search for documents that contain at least one occurrence of any of the query terms.
For example, to obtain the documents that contain the romanesque art history term cats or the term dogs , use either of the following expressions: In an OR query, the helping your with score returned is the score for the highest query term. In the example, if the scores for cats and dogs is 30 and 40 within a document, the document scores 40. The OR operator returns documents that contain any of the query terms, while the AND operator returns documents that contain all query terms. See AND (). Use the preferred term operator ( PT ) to essay, replace a term in a query with the preferred term that has been defined in a thesaurus for the term. Mary White Essay? Specify the operand for the preferred term operator. term is essay replaced by the preferred term defined for the term in the specified thesaurus. However, if no PT entries are defined for the term, term is not replaced in the query expression and term is the result of the expansion. You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument.
Specify the name of the thesaurus used to essay, return the romanesque essay expansions for the specified term. Students With Homework For Teachers? The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables before using any of the thesaurus operators. The term automobile has a preferred term of car in a thesaurus. A PT query for automobile returns all documents that contain the word car . Documents that contain the word automobile are not returned. Romanesque Art History Essay? You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on browsing the half a g is 4 p preferred terms in essay your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.PT in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Half A G Is 4 P? Use the related term operator ( RT ) to expand a query to include all related terms that have been defined in a thesaurus for the term. Specify the romanesque essay operand for an essay on democracy and poverty, the related term operator. term is expanded to essay, include term and mary white essay all the related entries defined for term in thes . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the art history expansions for the specified term. Primary Care? The thes argument is optional and has a default value of romanesque art history DEFAULT . Your Students With Homework A Guide? As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in art history the thesaurus tables before using any of the thesaurus operators. Primary Health Essays? The term dog has a related term of wolf . A RT query for dog returns all documents that contain the art history word dog and wolf . You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package.
For more information on browsing the related terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.RT in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the an essay soundex (!) operator to expand queries to include words that have similar sounds; that is, words that sound like other words. This function enables comparison of words that are spelled differently, but sound alike in English. Soundex works best for languages that use a 7-bit character set, such as English. Romanesque Art History Essay? It can be used, with lesser effectiveness, for languages that use an 8-bit character set, such as many Western European languages. If you have base-letter conversion specified for a text column and half a g is 4 p the query expression contains a soundex operator, Oracle Text operates on the base-letter form of the romanesque essay query. Use the stem ($) operator to search for an essay on democracy, terms that have the romanesque art history essay same linguistic root as the and poverty query term. If you use the BASIC_LEXER to art history, index your language, stemming performance can be improved by using the usdoe a guide index_stems attribute.
The Oracle Text stemmer, licensed from Xerox Corporation's XSoft Division, supports the romanesque essay following languages with the BASIC_LEXER: English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, and Dutch. Care Essays? Japanese stemming is supported with the JAPANESE_LEXER. You can specify your stemming language with the BASIC_WORDLIST wordlist preference. Behavior with Stopwords. If stem returns a word designated as a stopword, the art history essay stopword is not included in the query or highlighted by CTX_QUERY.HIGHLIGHT or CTX_QUERY.MARKUP . For more information about primary health care essays, enabling the stem operator with BASIC_LEXER, see BASIC_LEXER in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements.
Use the SQE operator to call a stored query expression created with the romanesque essay CTX_QUERY.STORE_SQE procedure. On Democracy And Poverty? Stored query expressions can be used for art history, creating predefined bins for organizing and categorizing documents or to perform iterative queries, in which an organization essay, initial query is refined using one or more additional queries. To create an SQE named disasters , use CTX_QUERY.STORE_SQE as follows: This stored query expression returns all documents that contain either hurricane , earthquake or blizzard . This SQE can then be called within a query expression as follows: Use the synonym operator ( SYN ) to expand a query to include all the terms that have been defined in a thesaurus as synonyms for the specified term. Specify the operand for essay, the synonym operator. Primary Essays? term is expanded to include term and all the synonyms defined for term in thes . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Specify the name of the essay thesaurus used to return the expansions for organization essay, the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of romanesque DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value.
The following query expression returns all documents that contain the of term dog or any of the synonyms defined for dog in the DEFAULT thesaurus: Compound Phrases in Synonym Operator. Expansion of compound phrases for a term in a synonym query are returned as AND conjunctives. For example, the compound phrase temperature + measurement + instruments is art history essay defined in a thesaurus as a synonym for the term thermometer . Spatial Organization? In a synonym query for thermometer , the query is expanded to: You can browse your thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on romanesque art history browsing the synonym terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.SYN in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the threshold operator () in two ways: at the expression level. at the query term level. The threshold operator at the expression level eliminates documents in the result set that score below a threshold number. The threshold operator at the query term level selects a document based on how a term scores in the document. Within an expression, returns documents that contain the query term with score of at least n . At the expression level, to search for documents that contain relational databases and to return only documents that score greater than 75, use the an essay on democracy following expression: At the romanesque art history essay query term level, to select documents that have at data least a score of 30 for lion and contain tiger, use the following expression: Use the translation term operator ( TR ) to expand a query to include all defined foreign language equivalent terms.
Specify the operand for the translation term operator. term is romanesque art history essay expanded to include all the foreign language entries defined for term in thes .You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Optionally, specify which foreign language equivalents to return in the expansion. The language you specify must match the language as defined in thes . (You may specify only one language at a time.) If you omit this parameter or specify it as ALL , the mary system expands to use all defined foreign language terms. Romanesque Art History Essay? Optionally, specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables before you can use any of the thesaurus operators. If you specify thes , you must also specify lang . Consider a thesaurus MY_THES with the following entries for cat : To search for all documents that contain cat and the spanish translation of helping your students with a guide for teachers cat , issue the following query: This query expands to: You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on romanesque art history essay browsing the related terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.TR in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the of translation term operator ( TR ) to expand a query to art history essay, include all the defined foreign equivalents of the query term, the synonyms of query term, and essay the foreign equivalents of the synonyms. Specify the operand for this operator. term is romanesque art history expanded to include all the primary care essays foreign language entries and synonyms defined for term in thes .You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Optionally, specify which foreign language equivalents to return in romanesque art history essay the expansion.
The language you specify must match the language as defined in thes . Essays? If you omit this parameter, the system expands to use all defined foreign language terms. Optionally, specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables before you can use any of the romanesque art history essay thesaurus operators. If you specify thes , you must also specify lang . Consider a thesaurus MY_THES with the mary essay following entries for cat : To search for all documents that contain cat , the spanish equivalent of cat , the synonym of cat , and the spanish equivalent of lion , issue the romanesque art history following query: This query expands to: You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. Helping Your Students With Homework A Guide? For more information on browsing the translation and synonym terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.TRSYN in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the top term operator ( TT ) to replace a term in a query with the romanesque art history top term that has been defined for the term in the standard hierarchy (Broader Term [ BT ], Narrower Term [ NT] ) in a thesaurus. Data? A top term is the essay broadest conceptual term related to data analysis of, a given query term. For example, a thesaurus might define the art history essay following hierarchy: The top term for dog in primary health essays this thesaurus is animal . Top terms in the generic ( BTG , NTG ), partitive ( BTP , NTP ), and romanesque instance ( BTI , NTI ) hierarchies are not returned. Specify the operand for the top term operator. And Poverty? term is replaced by the top term defined for the term in the specified thesaurus.
However, if no TT entries are defined for art history essay, term , term is data analysis of not replaced in the query expression and term is the result of the expansion. You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value. The term dog has a top term of animal in essay the standard hierarchy of a thesaurus. A TT query for your a guide for teachers, dog returns all documents that contain the phrase animal . Documents that contain the word dog are not returned. You can browse your thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on romanesque browsing the top terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.TT. The weight operator multiplies the mary score by the given factor, topping out at 100 when the score exceeds 100. For example, the romanesque art history query cat, dog*2 sums the score of on democracy cat with twice the score of romanesque art history essay dog , topping out at 100 when the score is greater than 100. In expressions that contain more than one query term, use the weight operator to adjust the relative scoring of the query terms.
You can reduce the score of a query term by using the weight operator with a number less than 1; you can increase the score of a query term by using the weight operator with a number greater than 1 and less than 10. The weight operator is useful in ACCUMulate ( , ), AND (), or OR (|) queries when the expression has more than one query term. Spatial? With no weighting on essay individual terms, the score cannot tell you which of the query terms occurs the most. With term weighting, you can alter the usdoe helping your students a guide for teachers scores of individual terms and hence make the overall document ranking reflect the terms you are interested in. You have a collection of sports articles.
You are interested in the articles about romanesque, soccer, in particular Brazilian soccer. It turns out that a regular query on soccer or Brazil returns many high ranking articles on US soccer. To raise the ranking of the data of articles on Brazilian soccer, you can issue the following query: Table 3-3 illustrates how the weight operator can change the essay ranking of three hypothetical documents A, B, and data analysis of C, which all contain information about romanesque art history, soccer. The columns in the table show the total score of four different query expressions on the three documents. Table 3-3 Score Samples. The score in the third column containing the query soccer or Brazil is the score of the half a g is 4 p highest scoring term. The score in the fourth column containing the query soccer or Brazil*3 is the larger of the score of the first column soccer and romanesque art history essay of the score Brazil multiplied by three, Brazil*3 . With the initial query of soccer or Brazil , the documents are ranked in usdoe your students homework a guide the order C B A. With the query of soccer or Brazil*3 , the documents are ranked B C A, which is the preferred ranking. Weights can be added to multiple terms. The query Brazil OR (soccer AND Brazil)*3 will increase the relative scores for romanesque art history essay, documents that contain both soccer and Brazil . Wildcard characters can be used in spatial organization essay query expressions to expand word searches into pattern searches. The wildcard characters are: The total number of wildcard expansions from all words in art history a query containing unescaped wildcard characters cannot exceed the maximum number of expansions specified by the BASIC_WORDLIST attribute WILDCARD_MAXTERMS . An Essay On Democracy And Poverty? For more information, see BASIC_WORDLIST.
When a wildcard expression translates to a stopword, the stopword is not included in the query and not highlighted by CTX_DOC.HIGHLIGHT or CTX_DOC.MARKUP. Romanesque Essay? Right truncation involves placing the wildcard on the right-hand-side of the data analysis search string. For example, the following query expression finds all terms beginning with the pattern scal : Left- and Double-Truncated Queries. Romanesque? Left truncation involves placing the wildcard on the left-hand-side of the search string. To find words such as king , wing or sing , you can write your query as follows: For all words that end with ing , you can issue: You can also combine left-truncated and right-truncated searches to create double-truncated searches. The following query finds all documents that contain words that contain the an essay on democracy substring %benz% Improving Wildcard Query Performance. You can improve wildcard query performance by adding a substring or prefix index.
When your wildcard queries are left- and double-truncated, you can improve query performance by creating a substring index. Substring indexes improve query performance for all types of left-truncated wildcard searches such as %ed , _ing , or %benz% . When your wildcard queries are right-truncated, you can improve performance by art history creating a prefix index. Care Essays? A prefix index improves query performance for essay, wildcard searches such as to% . An Essay And Poverty? For more information about creating substring and prefix indexes, see BASIC_WORDLIST in Chapter 2. You can use the WITHIN operator to art history, narrow a query down into document sections. Document sections can be one of the following: special sections (sentence or paragraph) If section is a zone, expression can contain one or more WITHIN operators (nested WITHIN ) whose section is a zone or special section. On Democracy And Poverty? If section is romanesque essay a field or attribute section, expression cannot contain another WITHIN operator. The expression can contain one or more WITHIN operators (nested WITHIN ) whose section is a zone or special section. The expression can contain one or more WITHIN operators (nested WITHIN ) whose section is a zone or special section.
The WITHIN operator has the following limitations: You cannot embed the helping with homework for teachers WITHIN clause in romanesque art history essay a phrase. For example, you cannot write: term1 WITHIN section term2. Since WITHIN is a reserved word, you must escape the health essays word with braces to search on it. Romanesque Essay? WITHIN Operator Examples. Querying Within Zone Sections.
To find all the mary documents that contain the term San Francisco within the section Headings, write your query as follows: To find all the documents that contain the term sailing and contain the term San Francisco within the romanesque art history essay section Headings , write your query in one of two ways: Compound Expressions with WITHIN. To find all documents that contain the terms dog and cat within the same section Headings , write your query as follows: This query is for teachers logically different from: This query finds all documents that contain dog and cat where the terms dog and romanesque essay cat are in Headings sections, regardless of whether they occur in the same Headings section or different sections. Near with WITHIN. To find all documents in which dog is near cat within the on democracy section Headings , write your query as follows: The near operator has higher precedence than the romanesque art history WITHIN operator so braces are not necessary in this example. This query is data equivalent to romanesque, (dog near cat) WITHIN Headings . Nested WITHIN Queries. Essay? You can nest the romanesque within operator to search zone sections within zone sections. For example, assume that a document set had the health zone section AUTHOR nested within the zone BOOK section. You write a nested WITHIN query to find all occurrences of scott within the AUTHOR section of the BOOK section as follows: Querying Within Field Sections. Art History Essay? The syntax for querying within a field section is the data same as querying within a zone section. The syntax for most of the examples given in art history the previous section, Querying Within Zone Sections, apply to field sections.
However, field sections behave differently from zone sections in terms of. Visibility: You can make text within a field section invisible. Of? Repeatability: WITHIN queries cannot distinguish repeated field sections. Romanesque Essay? Nestability: You cannot issue a nested WITHIN query with a field section. The following sections describe these differences. Visible Flag in Field Sections. Organization? When a field section is created with the visible flag set to FALSE in CTX_DDL.ADD_FIELD_SECTION , the text within a field section can only be queried using the WITHIN operator. For example, assume that TITLE is a field section defined with visible flag set to FALSE. Then the query dog without the WITHIN operator will not find a document containing: To find such a document, you can use the romanesque essay WITHIN operator as follows: Alternatively, you can set the visible flag to TRUE when you define TITLE as a field section with CTX_DDL.ADD_FIELD_SECTION . For more information about creating field sections, see ADD_FIELD_SECTION in Chapter 7, CTX_DDL Package. Repeated Field Sections.
WITHIN queries cannot distinguish repeated field sections in a document. For example, consider the document with the repeated section author : Assuming that author is defined as a field section, a query such as ( charles and mary essay martin) within author returns the document, even though these words occur in separate tags. To have WITHIN queries distinguish repeated sections, define the sections as zone sections. Romanesque? Nested Field Sections. You cannot issue a nested WITHIN query with field sections. Doing so raises an error. Querying Within Sentence or Paragraphs. Querying within sentence or paragraph boundaries is useful to analysis, find combinations of words that occur in the same sentence or paragraph. Art History? To query sentence or paragraphs, you must first add the special section to your section group before you index.
You do so with CTX_DDL.ADD_SPECIAL_SECTION . To find documents that contain dog and cat within the an essay on democracy same sentence: To find documents that contain dog and cat within the same paragraph: To find documents that contain sentences with the romanesque essay word dog but not cat : Querying Within Attribute Sections. You can query within attribute sections when you index with either XML_SECTION_GROUP or AUTO_SECTION_GROUP as your section group type. Assume you have an XML document as follows: You can define the section [email protected] to be the attribute section title . You can do so with the CTX_DLL.ADD_ATTR_SECTION procedure or dynamically after indexing with ALTER INDEX . When you use the AUTO_SECTION_GROUP to analysis, index XML documents, the art history system automatically creates attribute sections and names them in the form [email protected] . If you use the XML_SECTION_GROUP , you can name attribute sections anything with CTX_DDL.ADD_ATTR_SECTION . To search on Tale within the attribute section title , you issue the following query: Constraints for Querying Attribute Sections. The following constraints apply to querying within attribute sections: Regular queries on attribute text do not hit the document unless qualified in a within clause. Assume you have an XML document as follows: A query on Tale by itself does not produce a hit on the document unless qualified with WITHIN [email protected] . (This behavior is like field sections when you set the visible flag set to false.) You cannot use attribute sections in data a nested WITHIN query. Art History? Phrases ignore attribute text.
For example, if the original document looked like: Then this document would hit on the regular query good men , ignoring the analysis intervening attribute text. WITHIN queries can distinguish repeated attribute sections. This behavior is like zone sections but unlike field sections. For example, you have a document as follows: Assume that book is a zone section and [email protected] is an attribute section. Romanesque Art History Essay? Consider the query: This query does not hit the document, because tale and bondage are in different occurrences of the attribute section [email protected] . The WITHIN operator requires you to know the name of the section you search. A list of defined sections can be obtained using the CTX_SECTIONS or CTX_USER_SECTIONS views. For special and zone sections, the terms of the query must be fully enclosed in a particular occurrence of the section for the document to satisfy the mary white essay query.
This is romanesque essay not a requirement for field sections. For example, consider the query where bold is a zone section: This query finds: but it does not find: This is because dog and cat must be in the same bold section. This behavior is especially useful for special sections, where. means find dog and cat within the same sentence. Field sections on health care essays the other hand are meant for non-repeating, embedded metadata such as a title section. Queries within field sections cannot distinguish between occurrences. All occurrences of a field section are considered to romanesque art history essay, be parts of a single section. For example, the query: can find a document like this:
In return for this field section limitation and for the overlap and nesting limitations, field section queries are generally faster than zone section queries, especially if the section occurs in every document, or if the search term is common.
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Art History - Study Guide | Related Essays
Cars Should Be Banned From City Centres. In this debate, we focus on facilitating the efficiency of commerce in city centre, mostly Central Business District, and on art history essay reducing the urban pollution from spatial organization essay, its root, by not harming the romanesque essay basic necessity of the people, who are working and living in the city centre, about transportation. Please cast your vote after you've read the arguments. You can also add to the debate by leaving a comment at essay the end of the page. On avoiding the art history essay inefficiency of commerce as the basic function of City Centre.
Before we proposition start our debate, we find it necessary to spatial essay, clear up some definition of art history, words. Firstly, we only discuss private vehicle here. Spatial Organization Essay. Secondly, the City Centre we are to discuss means Central Business District, CBD. We believe that cars greatly damage the romanesque essay efficiency of commerce which is the basic function of CBD, because it creates traffic jams. We ban cars to force people use great public transportation provided there and to reinsure the efficiency of commerce. The use of cars is the reason why traffic jams happen everyday in CBD. White Essay. Those who works there mostly car afford to live there, so cars is unnecessary for them. For those who are not living in there, they can go there with buses and metros, because once authority set up a CBD, they already provide CBD most lines of buses and metros. However, people rather use cars since they believe that using a car is a symbol of wealth, even if it's unnecessary like we proved. And the widespread of this psychology bring more and more cars in the street, so traffic jam occurs. Traffic jam harms the basic function of CBD, which is to essay, facilitate the efficiency of commerce.
The nature of CBD is an area where people could have business more conveniently as all the big companies and financial organs can be found there. An Essay On Democracy And Poverty. So they can enjoy efficiency of romanesque art history, trading, which businessman can gain profits with lower cost of time. However, when there are traffic jams, people take more times on essay the road rather than in the company. The efficiency of trade is greatly harmed. That's why we need to art history, ban cars to reinsure that CBD can be functional.
Our action against traffic jam is justified since the on democracy function of CBD is of the benefits of the city as a whole. In this case, people cannot fulfill full liberty to romanesque art history, use their property because the city is providing them with great facilities to gain profits, so they shall maintain CBD to usdoe helping students homework, function. That's the justification of our action. With a clear justification, we are proud to propose. Propositon advocates for commerce, yet they want to affect a major mean of transportation, how is that logical? We will prove it is art history counter-productive. The main objective for the PROP side is just to avoid traffic jams, with the reason for that being that, somehow (we still didn't understand the logic behind that how, though), the fact that people lose time while in traffic makes them inefficient.
Even if that was logical, the truth is that people that work in those commercial and financial districts obviously take the fact that there is certain traffic into consideration when working in those centers however the important fact is that in order to continue to be employed they have to work all of their hours and your students with homework a guide for teachers, do their job effectively, otherwise they would be fired from the company, for as simplistic this is, it is logical and real unlike an assumption of inefficiency. Secondly, the essay fact that there is traffic in those centers actually doesn't affect commerce or transportation significantly because the objective of those CBDs are built that way is so that major financial institutions and corporations are all close together to facilitate commerce and data of, so in romanesque art history essay that way it takes minutes to go from any place of that CBD to mary white essay, another one walking or even by romanesque car with traffic. Organization. For example, Frankfurt's Innenstadt is just .6 square miles while the World's largest CBD (in New York) is 7.82 and Chicago's is the only other CBD in romanesque art history USA that passes the 3 square miles[[demographia.com/db-cbd2000.pdf]]. What does that mean? That traffic is not a real obstacle at CBDs. Prop says that they believe on not giving people full liberty to use their property in order to maintain a CBD functioning yet as we have said, its function is not affected at all and we will explain in one of half a g is 4 p, our arguments below how it is art history essay wrong to deny someone to use their well-earned car as a means of transport. We will also talk about an essay, how we don't oppose public transportation however cars are needed in this system.
Car uses at CBD is a quintessential example of rational irrationality that takes a toll on essay the entire society. Using cars at CBD demonstrates the half a g is 4 p rational irrationality that ultimately undermines the interests of every rational individual. Romanesque Essay. Driving cars could be fast, and therefore I should drive a car. This is the data rationale for an individual. And it surely makes sense. But when millions of people in town all think the same and romanesque art history, consequently acting the same, we get problems. Cars are everywhere, making driving a short distance take a long long time: people get stuck in cars, wasting fuels, polluting the environment (for just for waiting!). No body can travel around at all. Yes, we love to realize people's full liberty's to drive cars and listen to car radios, but that liberty comes with a cost, a cost too big for the society to function, a cost that severely undermines everybody's liberty in this regard.
Because when people adheres perfect rationally to their preference, sometime they also act without regard to the irrationality of the decisions cost-benefit analysis in the bigger picture. And the total traffic turmoil is the bigger picture that people forget to take into account. As a result, no one wins. No one get to effectively move at all. Care Essays. Sometimes we need to limit some freedom in order to art history, people to enjoy more freedom in the same way we ban hate speech, we ban racially discriminatory contents. In order for every one to be able to MOVE in CBD, we ban cars here. PROP has taken a line of upholding certain liberties in order to avoid certain harm, in this case traffic. We say that apparent harm is not really a harm but something natural of the cities but that even if it was a harm, it is on democracy not enough to withhold a liberty, and even if it was, in practical terms they will do more harm by creating a heart attack on a city whose main artery will be blocked. First it was claimed that the reason why people use cars to show wealth, and after our rebuttal now it is that people may think it is quicker but it's not. Well, in romanesque reality we cannot know what are the routes or thoughts of the people but we cannot generalize for either way, because sometimes the distances can be covered quicker by using a car (specially through roads that aren't as packed or at certain hours where there is less traffic) and those people will be affected with such a bad policy like this one.
Yet, in the cases where actually public transportation could be quicker than car (because of the places where they live, routes they should take or whatever), we don't believe the reason for people using cars is not stupidity but it may be for more factors such as comfort or security and for that they are willing to maybe take an extra hour at the traffic creating a traffic that affects someone else that also has the choice of care, public transportation but still prefers their cars (for whatever reason) and so, it is just plain bad to try to reduce an apparent harm that the people are actually willing to romanesque art history, take and prefer to have! If they didn't they could use public transportation (as PROP has assumed it is quicker)! The other problem that PROP addresses is pollution but then that can be said about almost everything we do (eating meat and using computers are terrible for global warming, for example) yet the solution is primary health not prohibiting everything but try to mitigate the damage, such as the policies of some cars not circulating certain days or using alternative energy sources. The policy will help the transformation of CBD. The ideal CBD is a place that makes people enjoy the combination of work and life, therefore making the art history essay atmosphere more conducive for increasing productivity and employee satisfaction. Yet the primary health essays status quo is essay quite the opposite: people are trapped in their cars--agitated by the non-moving traffic; blocked by the window to primary health, actually strike a nice conversation like passengers do in the public transportation system; in the mean time your car is pumping into air toxic gases and wastes simply for the waiting. Art History Essay. It creates a hostile environment from the start of the day! It reinforces the already thin humanly communication that a healthy employee needs; It turns all of us into the robot-like lives that reside in an essay machines. Art History. Sufficient scientific data has shown the lack of communication is more likely to lead to mental illness. The cold facade of CBD may not start from using cars, but it needs to be broken, starting from banning cars. By banning cars at CBD, we are not only providing people to have more access to talk to each other (which is more likely to happen in the proposed scenario than, say a iron-clad isolated vehicle), we are contributing to the human interaction, the self-actualization, and primary care essays, the satisfaction that eventually comes with socializing in people: we can be heartened by a conversation with a stranger on the bus; or we can breath the crispy air and romanesque essay, finally feel alive.
All of these can barely happen if we are trapped in a over-air-coned car and complaining about the traffic! In the mean time, by having the an essay on democracy and poverty ban, we become more environmental frjendly by both saving the energy and cutting cost. Last but not the least, less cars, and less demand for art history, funding roads. Mary Essay. Then there will be more money for improving public utilities. By removing cars from the CBD streets, we create opportunities for romanesque art history essay, people to interact; we save more spaces for public utility; and we save the analysis environment; And we get a more habitable CBD.
Really? Meeting people is the problem? Prop is basing this argument in 2 assumptions: 1st, that all people are extremely socially active as to have the necessity of talking to strangers in the streets. 2nd, that workers do not interact with others at all. Into the first one: A clarification of prop’s priorities is needed, if they pretend to defend efficiency then why should workers be meeting new friends in the streets of Polanco instead of heading straight to art history, work (remember that now they take longer, as they have to travel by public transport), I thought that was what Fridays and parties were for. Health Care Essays. The other thing is that fortunately most of them have it clear that they’ve got a responsibility with their jobs and thanks to this and to art history, the typical behavior of people they don’t tend to half a g is 4 p, be searching conversations anywhere, it could also be dangerous. Second assumption. Actually CBD workers do not have their job stations at bunkers, they have colleagues and partners to art history, whom they can talk to and relax during lunch or other moments. Also companies are conscious about the rhythm of life in cities and this is why they implement activities like picnics and analysis, balls for they employees, meaning that they don’t really have a necessity nor an incentive for increasing their friends in Facebook. If Prop is so worried about the traffic, then the real transformation should involve something that deals with this problem without affecting others.
And as evidence supports public transportation is losing devotes [[http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2003/02/public-transit-a-bad-product-at-a-bad-price]], the real change comes along with the romanesque art history essay improvement of the existing vehicle infrastructure, taking the best out of what we have. Ideas like the development of organization essay, superstreets by the NCSU [[http://news.ncsu.edu/releases/wmshummersuperstreets/]] may prove to art history essay, be the answer to what this debate is looking for. Obviously, the first step towards transformation is opposing to this motio. The World's most important Chief Executive Officers pushing their ways in the subway! People should not be denied to use the means of transportation that they want, and less if it is one of their property, such as a well-earned car, or at least not for half a g is 4 p, the reasons provided by the proposition. PROP mentioned that the reason why people use cars is just to romanesque art history, show their wealth.
We don't just say that is false (for example, in spatial organization Caracas almost every car has blackened windows so the other people cannot see who is in the car) but we also say that there are many powerful reasons why anyone, and specially those that work in romanesque CBDs, would decide to use their cars as best option for transportation (yet again, not opposing public transportation). A good reason for that is spatial organization essay security. Someone like a CEO of a big transnational or the director of a financial institution becomes a vulnerable target when going on public transportation. It is art history essay just an absurd idea to think that those men (who may well be some of the most powerful men in the World) would decide to go in an overcrowded metro or bus instead of going with their cars, which are probably surrounded by other 4 with bodyguards. We believe these people need to go to their work in private cars because in any other case they would be an easy target for spatial organization essay, kidnappings or heavy assaults. If that's not the case then picture them with ten bodyguards around pushing everyone to get into romanesque art history, the metro wagon, which right now is already overcrowded in any city you can tell me, and now adding in basically almost everyone that works in spatial organization CBDs.
Yeah, picture the CEO of the biggest transnational you can think about getting into the bus. Art History Essay. Now imagine the reporters and helping with homework for teachers, general people stalking them. OPP can't. People have that right over their own cars and art history, they should use them if they want to avoid pushing and mary, being targets for robberies and romanesque art history, go comfortable in their cars as well. Whoever doesn't want to have traffic should use public transportation, however if you are willing to wake up an hour earlier but listening your car's music, go for analysis of, it. The Opp's entire case is based on one assumption: the traffic at CBD is fine, and therefore no need to change. However, they miss the central point of this debate which is CBDs are indeed crammed as hell. Otherwise we won't be having this at all. If they are truly as logical as they claimed, they should at romanesque essay least tell us how the all jammed-up CBD where everyone can't effectively transport is better than our proposed transportation which asks everyone especially the sedentary ones to and poverty, move their chubby buttocks. Opp talks about efficiency and how cars are efficient.
Yes, cars are pretty efficient, but not at CBD! What a real picture is hundreds of art history, thousands of cars all swarm in data the business center roads, car honking, people complaining yet no one is actually moving! There is a joke about the CBD of Beijing: with the majority of romanesque art history, 750'000 registered cars pouring in, the CBD roads are now called the giant car parking lot. How is that efficient? How does businesses' profit not hurt when you virtually spend the better part of your day stuck in your car; when the mail delivery vehicles get jammed and consequently delay delivery? When it actually takes longer time to drive than to walk?
And it is not just in Beijing, in and poverty Mexican city too, with more than 3 million registered vehicles, Mexico City is art history essay difficult to navigate. Major roads are nearly always congested..And the CBD which the Opp recognizes as the Axis of essays, Transportation is going to take the hardest blow since all cars go to CBD, and traffic jam there will amount to the degree of unbearable. Increased traffic as a result of the prohibition of cars. One of the romanesque art history essay predominant characteristics among CBDs is their privileged geographical location within the mary white essay cities in which they are located. Art History Essay. It is organization a general norm that this prominent zones must be accessible for the entire city and that they need to be greatly connected in art history essay terms of its proximity with transportation centrals and data, governmental institutions. This is the romanesque art history reason why much of the urban growth has its epicenter in Financial Districts, meaning that at the they will be the axis of the city or at least one of half a g is 4 p, most transited areas of it (that’s why they are built for, isn’t it?); it is the case of Polanco in Mexico, Innenstadt in Germany, the Yuzhong District in China and of many other CBDs in the world being connected with important avenues and districts. Because of this particular feature banning the presence of cars does not only romanesque essay, directly impact City Centres, people who would usually transit through this channels while heading to their destinations in primary health care essays the terminus of the essay city or that were simply encouraged to cross this areas would find their most convenient route closed. As if digging an enormous hole in the middle of the city, people would now need to muddle through the peripheries of the city in order to get to where they need. It would also result into fewer highways and the concomitant traffic jams generated. In the end this won’t only impact the schedules of helping your with homework a guide for teachers, all of the citizens, but it would also be reflected in the economy as the routes of the cities’ industrial transportation become slower and companies invest more time in moving their products.
Contrary to art history, what the proposition established, there is no economic incentive here and a greater affection for mary white essay, the lesser good. The Opp also tells us that because many CBDs are small and they provide us with many statistics, therefore cars don't hurt the traffic. Again, their evidence just further undercut their case. If CBD is generally quite small, with millions of cars wouldn't it be crammed to the point of explosion (like it is now!) and art history essay, that helps facilitate traffic? The answer is NO. More importantly If they are small, then businesses are just within walking distance, several subway or bus stops away, would that be easier for half a g is 4 p, people to run between meeting than get stuck in the car. Also on security issues, taking a subway or bus makes you more likely to face security issues such as robbery, and theft.
In order to make this point at least stand, the Opp should tell us how driving a car makes you less likely to art history, be robbed and stole from. And the helping your students with a guide evidence can point to the other direction: you can have your car stolen while you are at work; you can have the robber hiding in your car and attack you or just smashing your window which is essay more likely to make you hurt. And in the subway or bus, at least you can get help from other passengers! On personal safety of the privileged people, the Opp's argument goes, they are likely to be stalked on public transport system. Well please heed the definition, if these people are privileged to your students homework, hire body guards, then the vehicle they are using is not a private car because there are organizations who have vested interested in romanesque essay sending their car for the privileged ones to spatial organization essay, use in order to romanesque essay, make them better protected. A second problem derived from the analysis policy concerns the romanesque essay labor force of the CBDs. Mary. While it is true that a “car free zone” may actually help to reduce traffic within the area, it wouldn't ease the romanesque art history essay transportation requirements of its population. As noted by the affirmative team residents of CBDs could take advantage of this policy, but Business Districts are not intended to serve as residential zones. Primary Care Essays. In his book Commercial Structure and Commercial Blight, Brian Berry explains why land value is romanesque essay higher in CBDs than in any other place , and given the high cost of the land the population of this areas is reduced and living there is affordable exclusively for executives and top directors.
But we most keep an eye in the rest of the labor force of the big companies, the with a guide majority, as all of these other employees come from other zones in the cities or even from different cities just for the labor journey. Romanesque Essay. Forcing all of these persons to travel by health public transportation from their far away residences to the Financial Districts would take a really efficient system -fast, cheap, secure, clean, and always accessible- for making the measure successful. Truth is that there are not too many countries that can claim to have one of those. Essay. In the everyday experiences people face with crowded buses, dirty installations and a lot of irregularities that make it much more easier for them to travel by car, this with the normal amount of passengers, now if we add all of the people that are going to change their means of transportation then those anemic systems would collapse. In order for the policy to half a g is 4 p, succeed then we need to restructure not only the CBDs transport, but the whole city’s transportation system!
It is romanesque of course a titanic effort that takes lots of investment and usdoe helping your students homework, resources which would make the situation difficult to come true, the initiative would just turn into a daily headache for workers. Sedentary! The Opp talks about sedentary: business people who are sedentary need to move fast. Two responses: First, they can move faster by public transportation; Second. isn't it that being sedentary gives them all the art history more reason to move their chubby buttocks? More often than not, people take cars just because they are too LAZY to use their foot. And more importantly, this creeping mentality that all the privileged people get to use cars make the CBD snobs all the more willing to cram up in data analysis the cars, the millions of which are destroying the functioning transportation in romanesque the CBD! But at some point we have the courtesy to half a g is 4 p, concede, public transportation is not perfect. It asks you to walk a few steps; sometimes it gets too crowded, too stingy, too noisy.
But that is not public transportation is inherently about. It is not that all pleasant at the present is that it is art history essay so underfunded! In the usdoe with homework a guide for teachers case of D.C. metro system, About $50 billion in backlog repairs is needed for rail transit systems, but just $5.6 billion was spent in 2006. The governments are so obsessive with building more roads to accommodate cars (which doesn't quite solve the romanesque essay problem because it extends to helping your with a guide for teachers, size of the city, making people travel more distance and takes away the public space which otherwise could be a park to rest in, a museum to immerse in; or a library to art history, contemplate in), thereby making the funding available for care, public system barely meet the needs. If we ban cars in romanesque the CBD, the funding need for more roads will be reduced, and more money will be available for a comfortable and spacious subway and bus system. What commerce in CBDs is really like. In times of essay, a massively interconnected economy, with sales rising or falling for unimaginable events in distant parts of the world, the importance of this districts relays not in heavy industrial processes but in the service sector. The similarity among the firms located in CBDs reside in that almost all of the establishments there are dedicated to romanesque, administrative and organization, financial labors, not mattering if the enterprise sells cars or if it is an important telecommunication firm. We will find executives, managing directors, officers and employees which jobs are far from romanesque essay, being the sedentary tasks of staying in an office 8 hours a day. No, this class of workers requires jumping from meeting to meeting, they may need to travel themselves to supervise the correct fulfillment of a project in one of the an essay and poverty enterprise’s facilities, or they’ll need to take care from an international client who has come to close a deal.
Given the romanesque essay conditions of their jobs they may also require to carry themselves valuable and ostentatious objects as cell phones or laptops, a change of clothes, documents and things which are difficult to be controlled by just two hands in usdoe helping with homework for teachers one same moment. Viewed from romanesque art history essay, any of the perspectives it is clear that having a car is not a luxury for mary white essay, them, it is a requirement for their jobs and it is the reason why many companies take the initiative to provide their employees with a vehicle so that they can always be in time for their appointments, with the necessary equipment and without incidents. As simple as it sounds. Substituting their transportation means may mean a decrease in efficiency, because no matter how good a public transport is, it will always take more time than traveling by your own in romanesque art history your car. Even if the delay is spatial organization minimum, let’s say 20 minutes more than a car journey per art history essay, trip, a person who needs to of, attend to 4 different meetings in a single day will require more than an hour more than if he had travelled by car. Quite an elevated price to pay. Status Quo is way better for the problem they try to solve. If you block an artery of a human body the romanesque art history essay consequence of it will be a heart attack. Usdoe Your Students With Homework A Guide. Same applies with the main roads of a city, and that is what the Proposition tries to implement. As we have already said, through the CBDs transit many cars, not only essay, those of the people that work there, but also people that live around and want to go to any other place, or people that cross the city.
Actually there is more people that transit those streets than those that actually go to CBDs that, as we have raised, are small. And yes, we stand on our point that the traffic is organization not bad within CBDs because people don't take cars to travel 200 meters (the majority of the World's CBDs are less than a kilometer long). Does the proposition really think that people use cars when they can just arrive in one or two minutes walking? That's not the case, the traffic is caused by everyone that transits around the city and needs to art history, go through the center (from east to usdoe helping students for teachers, west, north to south. ). Now picture all the romanesque people that want to move within the city blocked! The only result will be total chaos of a city! The people will need to look for alternative routes (that will be even more jam packed, since they are not built to receive traffic, unlike those that pass in CBDs) and if there are none, then the government will need to build other roads (which is almost impossible) just to avoid those 600 meters that are the main artery of the city. It will just be a ridiculous policy.
Now, on the point of security, we don't say cars are perfectly safe (so of course the Proposition can raise hundredths of hypothetical crimes committed against car drivers) however in public transportation you are exposed and usdoe students with a guide for teachers, vulnerable, unlike cars, where you can go unnoticed and art history essay, less of a target (specially in those traffic roads without traffic lights), and in cases of spatial organization essay, high profile people, they may need bodyguard cars that ARE NOT public as the Proposition tries to say, since those services are not provided by the state. We say banning private cars in CBD instead of letting those cars stuck in the traffic jams is romanesque art history essay really important. Because it severely damage the efficiency of CBD, for example CBD of Beijing. Data Analysis Of. Besides the choice of public transportation, you can walk if the distance is not too far, and this how financial elites working in Wall Street do. Also, it is not difficult to see city mayer go to his office by public transportation. Essay. The concern of being a target of terrorist in this case is health far less harmful than living in a fixed habitation and working in a fixed location. It is much easier to know someones living place or working place, which makes them so easy to be targeted. Having a car is not a luxury. So that’s why so many people can buy it.
However, overuse of cars in CBD have CBD fail to romanesque, function or function less. The traffic jams caused by heavy traffic burdens requires a solution. OPP should not just talk about the benefit of owning a car without facing the data analysis situation we have. The solution of art history essay, removing heavy traffic burdens is not about broad avenues or more highways, as we witness a lot of cities in China with super broad and super complicated transportation systems still cannot find a way to essay, ease the burden of overuse of private cars, especially in the CBD areas where most of the cars are heading in or out. An example from CBD of essay, Seoul, Korea, a high way constructed in the super busy CBD, removed and mary white essay, replaced by an artificial river. Consequently, the former traffic burden in that region has been removed and make the place nicer and much more efficient in transportation. Art History Essay. But problem here today is the over use of cars in CBD region, which makes the region not as efficient as it is expected. Then we need to white, change, to perfect it with banning private cars used here. Otherwise, situation will just become worse and as a CBD can no longer act as a CBD.
Finally companies will look for other suitable places to move to and such an inefficient CBD would be abandoned. Why banning cars isn’t a smart decision. I dare you dear proposition to take a look into one of the streets of Raffles Place or of any other ironical CBD around the romanesque art history world. Places conceived for maximizing efficiency. How? By using cars! That is the reason why you’ll find yourselves surrounded by traffic lights, parking lots, big avenues and gas stations that were all built for supporting the smart and efficient drivers. By the way, all of these marvelous installments weren’t magically created. Governments had to usdoe your with a guide, make use of taxes to give maintenance to streets.
Entrepreneurs spent millions in art history building the parking slots in all of the primary health essays skyscrapers. And most importantly, normal people like you and me bought cars in order to take advantage of this scenario! Because doing it would lead them to easier and essay, more comfortable lives. The prohibition of cars will take away the soul-purpose of the investments of all of mary, these groups. It’ll turn what was once a very rentable active into romanesque essay, an obsolete and depressing passive. Appealing to half a g is 4 p, the recycling of this resources, like the transformation of big avenues into quicker effective transportation and romanesque art history, better investment is false and wrong. Government may have the resources for data of, doing it but it doesn’t justify the frittering of romanesque, billions of dollars that those roads cost to all of the your for teachers citizens [[ftp://ftp.dot.state.fl.us/LTS/CO/Estimates/CPM/summary.pdf]]. Romanesque. Do you really think that entrepreneurs will look happily while their inversions drop to 0 because of a negligence?
Like constructing the half a g is 4 p parking slots and art history, gas stations, remodeling them for making them again usable costs money, and a lot of it. What about the civilians who will be forced to organization, watch how their cars powder in their garages because they can only use them when they don’t have to work? That is certainly not what they bought them for, hours of effort going to waste. It is actually an abuse! To protect the essay investments of the many people who rely on the effectiveness of the usage of car, we beg you to oppose th. There are three key questions: 1,-Will this measure prevent traffic? This was the most discussed issue since Prop defined that as the spatial organization essay problem they tried to solve and we have clearly made the point that it won't be the case. Prop started off the debate by saying that, obviously, traffic jams are caused by cars, however there was not major analysis on that whilst we said that actually blocking the main artery of a city will give it a heart attack, since cars need to go through the centers in order to get to other places (or through) the city and here they would need to go around, something answered, whilst we also said a better investment is to romanesque art history essay, improve roads. 2.-Will it affect commerce? Yes because traffic isn't much of a problem within the CBDs since, as we said, they're purposely built small so everything is close together and by walking distance so the people actually walk there, however the nature of the people working there requires them to use their cars a lot (such as for supervising projects or transporting clients) since they are active and primary essays, need to be moving from place to place carrying laptops, without necessarily the essay public transport system being able to carry them everywhere, so in the end their policy will be the one that affects commerce.
Prop's main reason on helping your homework for teachers commercial harm is that somehow for essay, being in the traffic, people stop being efficient however Opp said that those workers take their cautions and are obliged to work their hours, regardless of the hours they lose outside work. Spatial. We also said that with slower routes, the industries will suffer losses, as will the government and its road investments . Their point of meeting friends in art history essay the subway was just pointless; we said relationships are done at the office and health care essays, parties. 3.-Should the romanesque right of using cars be denied? No, because Prop says that using cars is irrational, first by students with homework for teachers saying that people only use cars to show wealth and when we made our rebuttal saying that actually in some cities the art history essay majority of cars have darkened shields/windows they changed their minds saying that the reason was stupidity in the people thinking cars are quicker than the public transportation, and half a g is 4 p, we said sometimes they are , and even in those cases where they aren't, the truth is that they prefer to use their well-earned investment of car where they can be more comfortable even if they are willing to take more time, this is art history a matter of being their own choice, which Prop tried to cut on the basis that people are irrational. Most people clearly prefer traffic than public transportation. Moreover there could be other reasons such as security, and spatial organization essay, Prop answered that cars can still be targets for art history, crime, but we said that they could be a less vulnerable target. Then our point of high profile people fully stands on our side since Prop only answered saying they could still use security companies since they are public, something that is obviously not true. Half A G Is 4 P. They do a direct harm here. Opp made its point clear.
What do you think? Continue the essay Debate - Leave a Comment. 2 Comments on Cars Should Be Banned From City Centres why is there no talk about all the lives saved from car accidents? We would love to hear what you think – please leave a comment!