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AtT Corporation - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on essay funny, AtT Corporation. Bedminster, New Jersey 07921. Sat Essay Themes! It takes the right technology, the right people, and a bold vision to be the The World's Networking Company. For more than 125 years, ATT has been known for unparalleled quality and flies funny, reliability in communications. Backed by the research and development capabilities of ATT Labs, our commitment to innovation has made us a global leader in local, long distance, Internet, and transaction-based voice and data services.
ATT Corporation organizes its business into two segments, business services and consumer services. Design Thesis! ATT's consumer services business, the bedrock of its existence for more than a century, provides domestic and international long-distance telephone service to roughly 35 million residential customers in the United States, as well as Internet service through ATT Worldnet and ATT digital subscriber line (DSL) service to a much smaller portion of the U.S. population. Of The Flies! ATT's business services segment, which the company regards as its future, involves offering global communications services to plagiarism three million customers, ranging from small businesses to large, multinational corporations. For its corporate clientele, ATT provides domestic and international voice service, domestic and international data and Internet protocol (IP) services, networking services, and domestic and international wholesale transport services. ATT had its origin in on lord flies funny, the invention of the telephone in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell. In 1877, Bell and several financial partners formed the Bell Telephone Company, and in 1878 they formed the New England Telephone Company to license telephone exchanges in New England.
The two companies licensed local operating companies in Chicago, New York, and writing, Boston. Over the next year, Bell and his backers sold a controlling interest in the companies to a group of Boston financiers. The companies were soon embroiled in patent disputes with Western Union Telegraph Company, the world's largest telegraph company. During the dispute, the of the funny, two Bell companies were consolidated into essay, the National Bell Telephone Company, and Theodore J. Vail was named general manager. In November 1879, the patent suit was settled out of court. Western Union left the telephone business and sold its system of 56,000 telephones in 55 cities to Bell. Bell agreed to stay out of the telegraph business and paid Western Union a 20 percent royalty on on lord of the flies funny, telephone equipment leases for the next 17 years. Between 1877 and 1881, Bell licensed numerous local operating companies as a way to key elements promote the on lord of the flies, telephone without having to raise capital. The companies signed five- to ten-year contracts, under which Bell got $20 per sat essay themes telephone per year and the right to buy the licensee's property when the contract expired. National became the American Bell Telephone Company in 1880 and obtained more capital at that time. Starting in 1881, Bell urged the locals to make the contracts permanent, rescinding Bell's right to buy the essay on lord of the, respective properties but giving Bell variously 30 to 50 percent ownership of the transfer pricing study, operating companies.
The companies could build long-distance lines to connect exchanges in their territories, but they were prohibited from connecting them with those of other operating companies or independent phone companies. Bell thus became a partner in the local telephone business, allowing it to influence the locals and conserve capital for long-distance operations. American Bell needed large amounts of equipment, and in 1881 it acquired Western Electric, a major Western Union supplier, to essay flies funny serve as its manufacturer. Bell then consolidated into thesis, Western Electric several other manufacturers it had licensed to essay on lord of the funny make telephones. More long-distance lines were being built as telephone technology improved. In 1884, Bell built an experimental line between Boston and New York. Main Sat Essay! The next year, it added a Philadelphia-New York line.
To construct, finance, and operate its long-distance system, Bell established the American Telephone and essay on lord flies, Telegraph Company in 1885 to operate as its long-distance subsidiary. At that time, the nascent U.S. telephone system was primarily a series of unconnected local networks. Vail, who was named ATT president, wanted to get a long-distance network in place before Bell's basic patents expired in 1894. By the essay, time it established ATT, Bell was in firm control of the telephone business. It regulated the operating companies' long-distance lines and Western Electric, their major supplier. It also had the right to take over their property if they violated their contracts. In 1888, a huge blizzard in New England knocked most telephones out of service. Funny! The company responded by pushing to put more cables underground. Later that year, it became clear that a long-distance network would cost more than planned, and key elements essay, ATT floated $2 million in bonds to raise capital. The company returned to public investors frequently throughout its history to finance its ever-expanding enterprises. For decades, ATT stock was the most widely held in on lord of the flies funny, the world.
In order to mall attract so many investors, ATT was forced to be efficient, even though it lacked real competition for much of on lord flies funny, its history. Technical advances came regularly. Bogie Thesis! The first coin-operated public telephone was installed in essay on lord flies, 1889. During 1891, two-party and four-party service was introduced, and the first automatic dial system was patented. A New York-Chicago long-distance line opened in 1892, and utc admissions essay, Boston-Chicago and New York-Cincinnati lines were initiated in essay on lord flies, 1893. Bell initially had a monopoly on the telephone because of thesis, its patents, but in 1894 its patent expired.
Rather than compete by providing better and less expensive service, Bell often took the growing independent phone companies to essay on lord of the flies funny court, claiming patent infringements. Essay! As Western Electric would not sell equipment to the independents, new manufacturers sprung up to accommodate them. The independents were particularly successful in rural areas in the West and essay of the funny, Midwest where Bell did not provide service. By 1898, some cities had two unconnected phone systems, one Bell and one independent. This competition forced Bell to expand faster than it otherwise would have. It jumped from 240,000 phones in 1892 to 800,000 in 1899. The company needed capital to keep up with this expansion, and Massachusetts, where American Bell was based, presented far more regulatory interference than New York, where ATT was based. As a result, in 1899 ATT became the utc admissions essay, parent company of the Bell System until the breakup in 1984. ATT's capital jumped from $20 million to more than $70 million. By 1900, ATT was organizing itself into the vertical structure that characterized it for decades thereafter.
It had assets of $120 million compared with a total of $55 million for the independents, but its finances were run overly conservatively and its service was reputedly poor. Meanwhile, the telephone was having a dramatic impact on the United States, where large numbers of people still lived in the relative isolation of farms or small towns. The telephone lessened their isolation, and the response to the new invention was enthusiastic. The number of rural telephones shot from 267,000 in 1902 to 1.4 million in 1907. The telephone was coming to be viewed as indispensable by virtually all businesses and most private homes. Fighting the essay on lord of the, Independents: Early 1900s. Competition from independents continued to mount. Their rates were sometimes half of Bell's, and the United States was in essay writing, an antimonopoly mood.
Many rural communities started their own not-for-profit phone companies that were later sold to essay on lord of the independents or Bell. By 1907, the independents operated 51 percent of all phones. Utc Admissions Essay! ATT was fighting back, having made the decision to of the flies take on the independents when it moved and changed its name. The company's first and most effective action was to slash rates. The arrogance of early company officials was replaced by a desire to please customers. ATT also bought out independents, set up its own independents, and used its political and financial clout to strangle competitors. ATT's greatest advantage was its virtual monopoly of long-distance service, which it refused to let independents use. The invention of essay, a certain electric device, the of the funny, loading coil, in 1899 gave long-distance service a push by allowing smaller-diameter wires to be used, which made underground long-distance cables feasible. They were implemented for an underground New York-Philadelphia line in thesis, 1906, but long-distance signals remained weak and on lord of the flies, difficult to hear until the invention of the vacuum-tube repeater in 1912. Competition had given ATT a necessary push, forcing it to expand and grow, but it also weakened its finances.
Between 1902 and 1906, debt grew from $60 million to $200 million. Through a series of bond purchases starting in 1903, financier J.P. Morgan tried to wrest control of the company from the Boston capitalists, beginning a free-for-all that lasted several years. When the key elements essay, dust cleared in 1907, Morgan and on lord of the flies funny, his New York and London backers had won, and they brought back Vail as president. Design! Vail had left in on lord funny, 1887 because of differences with the Bostonians, whose view was focused narrowly on short-term profit. Vail and his backers had a wider vision than the Bostonians, believing they should create a comprehensive, nationwide communications system.
At the same time, Vail was a monopolist, believing competition had no place in the telephone industry. He and transfer pricing case study in india, Morgan set out to essay on lord of the flies make ATT the sole supplier of U.S. telecommunications services. In 1910, Vail became president of Western Union after ATT bought 30 percent of Western's stock. For the first time telegrams could be sent and delivered by phone. Telephone and telegraph lines could back each other up in emergencies. ATT gobbled up independent phone companies at an ever-increasing rate. When Morgan found an independent in financial trouble, he used his power as a leading banker to squeeze its credit, often forcing it to utc admissions essay sell to ATT. By 1911, ATT had bought so many small independents that Vail consolidated them into a smaller number of state and regional companies. ATT's ownership was motivated partly by profit but also by the desire to ensure good service. Antimonopoly pressures from essay on lord flies consumers and government began to mount on ATT well before then.
A crucial turning point came in plagiarism essay writing, 1913, after Morgan's death, when Vail decided to sell Western Union and allow independents access to ATT's long-distance lines. The move cost $10 million and ended ATT's dream of of the flies, a national telecommunications monopoly, but it won ATT respect and ended growing pressure to dismember it. Coast-to-Coast Long-Distance Achieved in of persuasive essay, 1915. Essay! By that time, ATT was working on the first coast-to-coast telephone line, using loading coils and repeaters. On January 25, 1915, Alexander Graham Bell, in New York, and former collaborator, Thomas Watson, in San Francisco, engaged in plagiarism writing, a coast-to-coast repeat of the first-ever telephone conversation 39 years earlier. ATT was also making important progress in essay of the flies funny, automatic switching systems and thesis, sent the first transatlantic radio message in 1915. As the telephone became a matter of national interest, pressure for federal regulation mounted, and Vail welcomed it as long as regulators were independent. During World War I, the ATT network was used for domestic military communications. ATT also set up extensive radio and telephone communications lines in France.
The war pushed ATT's resources to the limit, with a $118 million construction budget for 1917. Essay Of The! In 1918, a year in which ATT had ten million phones in service, the U.S. Transfer! government took over the telephone system. The government set rates and put ATT under a branch of the essay flies, post office, although the company continued to be run by its board of directors. Plagiarism Essay Writing! One of the government's first decisions was to essay on lord funny start a service connection charge. It then raised both local and long-distance rates. Lower rates had been touted as a major benefit of public ownership.
When the key elements, rates went up, support for government ownership collapsed, and in August 1919 the government gave up its control of ATT. Vail retired in on lord of the flies funny, the same year, leaving the presidency to Harry Bates Thayer, and died in 1920. ATT grew rapidly as a regulated monopoly during the essay, laissez-faire 1920s. The Graham Act of 1921 exempted telephony from the Sherman Antitrust Act. The Bell System controlled 64 percent Of almost 14 million telephones in the United States in on lord of the flies funny, 1921.
Another 32 percent, although owned by independents, were plugged into the ATT network. Writing! Commercial radio boomed, and ATT entered cross-licensing patent agreements with General Electric, Westinghouse, and essay on lord of the flies, Radio Corporation of America, with which it was soon embroiled in legal disputes. By the end of 1925, ATT had a national network of 17 radio stations. ATT put its first submarine cable into service between Key West, Florida, and Havana, Cuba, in 1921. In 1925, Bell Labs became a separate company, jointly funded by ATT and Western Electric. The same year, Thayer retired and was succeeded by Walter S. Essay Writing! Gifford, who served for the next 23 years. His influence on the U.S. Essay On Lord Of The Flies Funny! telephone industry was second only to Vail's. Gifford quickly got ATT out of radio and key elements, other side ventures, although it tried to establish a controlling interest in motion picture sound technology in the late 1920s.
He reduced the fee licensees paid from the 4.5 percent of gross revenue established in 1902, to 4 percent in 1926, and 2 percent in 1928. ATT stockholders grew from 250,000 in 1922 to nearly 500,000 in 1929. Funny! In 1929, Bell Labs gave the first U.S. demonstration of color television. By 1932, ATT had the second largest financial interest in transfer case study, the film industry but sold it in 1936. The first years of the Great Depression badly hurt ATT. Many subscribers could no longer afford telephones. ATT sales for 1929 were $1.05 billion; by 1933, they were $853 million. Western Electric sales in 1929 were $411 million; 1933 sales were $70 million. Essay On Lord Flies! Western Electric laid off 80 percent of of persuasive essay, its employees, and ATT laid off 20 percent. By 1933, telephone use began growing again, and by 1937 it exceeded pre-Depression levels. During the late 1930s, the newly formed Federal Communications Commission (FCC) conducted a long, damaging investigation of ATT's competitive practices that reopened the on lord, battle over ATT as a monopoly.
In 1939, ATT had assets of $5 billion, by far the largest amount of capital ever controlled by a corporation up to that time. It controlled 83 percent of all U.S. telephones and 98 percent of transfer pricing study, long-distance wires. Subsidiary Western Electric manufactured 90 percent of all U.S. telephone equipment. The FCC's final report was initially ignored due to the outbreak of World War II but had significant impact later. Essay On Lord Of The Flies! Growth During World War II. Telephone use, particularly long distance, grew tremendously during World War II, with 1.4 million new telephones installed in 1941 alone. Western Electric and Bell Labs devoted themselves primarily to military work from 1942 to 1945, filling thousands of government contracts and bogie design, making technological innovations. Essay Funny! The most important work was in radar, the experience that gave ATT a huge lead when microwave radio relay became the principal means of transmitting long-distance telephone and television signals in essay writing, the postwar period. On Lord! The end of the war brought serious labor trouble. Thesis Mall! ATT and on lord of the, the National Federation of Telephone Workers faced off over wages, working conditions, and benefits, producing a nationwide strike in 1947. Public opinion went against key elements of persuasive essay the strikers, and essay on lord of the funny, the eventual compromise favored ATT.
Gifford retired in bogie, 1948, and Leroy A. Wilson became president. His first task was to push a rate increase past government regulators. He got one in 1949 that helped ATT sell more stock to on lord flies raise needed capital. As an sat essay themes, outgrowth of the essay on lord funny, 1930s FCC investigation, the U.S. Thesis! Department of Justice filed suit in 1949, seeking to split Western Electric from ATT. Essay On Lord Of The! ATT succeeded in key elements of persuasive essay, delaying the case until the essay on lord of the flies, Eisenhower administration, which was not as interested in regulation, took power. In the meantime, the government talked Western Electric into taking over utc admissions, the management of an advanced weapons research laboratory. It formed Sandia Corp. in 1949 to do so.
In the on lord of the funny, 1950s, Western Electric worked on the Nike antiaircraft missiles, making $112.5 million on the venture. Western and Bell Labs worked with others on a huge air-defense radar system. These defense projects gave ATT a powerful lever against the antitrust suit. In a consent decree in 1956, ATT agreed to limit its business to providing common-carrier services and to limit Western Electric's to providing equipment for the Bell System, except for utc admissions government contracts. The antitrust case was settled on this basis. In 1951, Wilson died and Cleo Craig became president. In the next few years, ATT made it possible to dial directly to other cities without using an operator.
This and ensuing developments enabled long-distance charges to essay of the be repeatedly reduced. In 1955, ATT laid the first transatlantic telephone cable, jointly owned with the British Post Office and the Canadian Overseas Telecommunications Corporation. Craig retired in 1956, and Frederick R. Kappel became president. Expanding into Space: Bellcom and Telstar. ATT formed Bellcom to supply most of the communications and guidance systems for the U.S. space program from 1958 to 1969. Design Thesis! Bell Labs worked intensively on satellite communications, and the first ATT satellite, Telstar, was launched in 1962.
Comsat, a half-public, half-private company handling U.S. satellite communications, was founded in 1962, with ATT owning 27.5 percent at of the funny, a cost of sat essay, $58 million. ATT worked on an electronic switching system throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Essay On Lord Of The! The project was more complicated than expected, and by the time the first electronic equipment was installed in 1965, ATT had spent about $500 million on the project. The speed and main themes, automation that electronic switches gave the phone system, however, made possible the vast increases in traffic volume in the 1970s and 1980s, as the United States moved to an information-based society. Essay Funny! In the 1950s and 1960s, other companies began trying to capture specific portions of ATT's business. The Hush-a-Phone Company marketed a plastic telephone attachment that reduced background noise. Microwave Communications Inc. (MCI) tried to establish private-line service between Chicago and St. Louis. Carter Electronics Corporation marketed a device that connected two-way radios with the telephone system. ATT responded by forbidding the connection of competitors' equipment to the Bell System. Several FCC investigations followed, with decisions that created competition for terminal equipment and utc admissions, intercity private-line service.
ATT began to face serious competition for the first time in 50 years. Kappel retired in 1967 and was replaced by H.I. Romnes, a former president of Western Electric. ATT's earnings were leveling off after tremendous growth in the early 1960s. There also were service problems in 1969 and 1970, with numerous consumer complaints in New York. Essay On Lord Of The Flies! Similar predicaments followed in Boston, Denver, and essay writing, Houston. ATT borrowed money and essay on lord of the, raised rates to pay for repairs. More serious problems were beginning for essay ATT. In the early 1970s, sales by the interconnect industry were growing, and businesses were buying telephone equipment from essay on lord funny ATT competitors.
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission accused ATT of discriminating against women and plagiarism essay writing, minorities. ATT, without admitting it had done so, signed consent decrees under which it agreed to increase the hiring, promotion, and salaries of women and on lord flies, minorities. MCI claimed ATT was still preventing it from competing and filed an antitrust lawsuit in bogie design, 1974. The situation became disastrous when the Department of Justice (DOJ) filed another antitrust suit later in of the flies, 1974, this time asking for the dismemberment of ATT. The DOJ charged that ATT had used its dominant position to suppress competition. The suit dragged on utc admissions essay, for years. During the years of the essay on lord funny, suit, ATT continued to grow. Both 1980 and plagiarism essay writing, 1981 were years of record profits. The $6.9 billion ATT made in 1981 was the highest profit for any company to essay of the flies that time.
The Breakup of the Bell System in the 1980s. The DOJ suit finally came to trial in 1981. By then, ATT and the government both wanted to settle the case. ATT longed to get into computers and information services but was prevented from doing so by its 1956 agreement. Thesis Mall! In 1982, the FCC required ATT to set up a separate, unregulated subsidiary called American Bell to sell equipment and enhanced services. In January 1982, ATT and the DOJ jointly announced a deal to break up the essay on lord of the flies funny, Bell System, while freeing the remainder of ATT to main sat essay themes compete in non-long-distance areas such as computers. Federal Judge Harold Greene gave final approval for the ATT breakup in August 1983. Flies! At that time, ATT was the largest corporation in the world; its $155 billion in main sat essay themes, assets made it larger than General Motors, Mobil, and Exxon combined. After the breakup, on January 1, 1984, ATT had $34 billion in assets.
Its net income dropped from $7.1 billion to essay on lord $2.1 billion, and its workforce from 1.09 million to themes 385,000. Its 22 regional operating companies were split off into seven regional holding companies, and ATT lost the right to essay on lord flies funny use the Bell name. ATT stockholders received one share in each of the regional companies for every ten ATT shares they owned. ATT also lost the highly profitable Yellow Pages, which went to the regional companies. The new ATT consisted of two primary parts: ATT Communications, the long-distance business, and ATT Technologies, a group of other businesses that mainly involved the manufacture and sale of telecommunications equipment for consumers and businesses. Western Electric was broken up and folded into ATT Technologies. Long distance was expected to provide the bulk of short-term revenue for plagiarism essay writing the new ATT, but the on lord of the flies, unregulated technologies group, backed by Bell Labs, was expected to design thesis quickly blossom. ATT Technologies initially concentrated on switching and transmissions systems for telephone companies. ATT was losing ground to competitors in that sector and wanted to fight back. The company also worked on telephone-equipment sales, sold through ATT phone centers and such retailers as Sears. American Bell changed its name to ATT Information Systems and began pushing computers.
ATT International quickly signed a deal with the Dutch company N.V. Philips to sell switching equipment throughout the world, setting up ATT Network Systems International. To help pay for the breakup, ATT took a fourth-quarter charge of $5.2 billion in 1984, the largest to that time. Flies! ATT, however, was now free to go into sat essay themes, computers, a field it had longed to get into since the 1956 consent decree, and on lord of the flies funny, the company began spending hundreds of millions of dollars to develop and market a line of computers. James E. Olson became president of ATT in 1985, cutting 24,000 jobs from the bogie design, information division later that year to improve its profits.
In 1986, Olson became chairman, and essay on lord of the, Robert E. Allen became president. Olson concentrated on centralizing management and refocusing company strategy around the idea of managing the flow of information. The company chose Brussels, Belgium, as the site for its regional headquarters serving Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Essay! It also began joint ventures with companies in Spain, Italy, Ireland, Denmark, South Korea, and Taiwan to get its telecommunications products into foreign markets. On Lord Of The Funny! Still, foreign revenues accounted for only 10 percent of company earnings, compared with 40 percent for many other U.S.-based multinationals. Company earnings declined because of a slumping business equipment market and greater than expected reorganization costs. Earnings also suffered from thesis shopping a drop in rental revenues as more ATT customers decided to buy their telecommunications equipment outright. Meanwhile ATT's computer operations were in trouble.
The company had developed a new operating system, Unix, for its computers. While Unix had some advantages, users of of the flies, personal computers were not familiar with it, manufacturers of bogie design, larger computers were committed to their own proprietary systems, and buyers stayed away. ATT computer operations lost $1.2 billion in 1986 alone. On Lord Funny! At the end of the year, the company restructured its computer operations to concentrate on telecommunications-based computers and computer systems. It custom designed a system for American Express that automatically phoned customers while putting customer information on a terminal screen. At the end of 1986, ATT cut another 27,400 jobs and took a $3.2 billion charge. Income for the year was only $139 million. In 1987, the DOJ recommended that the regional operating companies be allowed to compete with ATT in long distance and telecommunications equipment manufacturing--its two core businesses. The idea was unacceptable to Judge Harold Greene, overseer of the ATT breakup.
Because of fierce competition from MCI and shopping mall, other companies, ATT retained 76 percent of the long-distance market, down from 91 percent in 1983. Unix made some gains in essay of the flies funny, 1986 and 1987, and ATT formed the Archer Group, a consortium of computer makers manufacturing Unix systems. It included Unisys and pricing in india, Sun Microsystems. After nearly $2 billion in essay flies funny, losses in computers, the data systems group finally signed a major contract with the U.S. Air Force in 1988. The $929 million contract for minicomputers provided only a slim profit margin, but ATT hoped that the deal would push its computers over the top, make Unix an industry standard, and lead to further government sales. Olson died in 1988, and Allen became chairman. Thesis! More Changes in the Late 1980s. Funny! MCI and others continued to erode ATT's share of the $50 billion long-distance market, which stood at 68 percent at the end of 1988. To fight back, ATT redeployed 2,500 employees to sales positions and aggressively tackled the business communications market.
ATT also took a $6.7 billion charge to modernize its telephone network and cut 16,000 positions. Thesis Shopping! As a result, the company lost $1.7 billion in 1988, its first-ever yearly loss. Some industry analysts, however, felt the company was finally turning around after four years of confusion and drift. It won two major government contracts that year. One, expected to earn ATT $15 billion by 1989, was to essay of the flies build a new government telephone system. Competitor US Sprint Communications won a $10 billion contract for essay a second part of the same system. Regulators finally gave ATT the right to match the low prices of essay flies funny, MCI and mall, US Sprint, leading to the end of the essay of the flies funny, long-distance price wars waged since the ATT breakup. ATT showed a $2.7 billion profit for 1989, its largest since the breakup.
In mid-1990, ATT raised its long-distance rates after low second-quarter earnings. It had been hurt by main sat essay themes declining long-distance revenue and slow equipment sales. The company, however, soon made several important sales. It received an extension of a $100 million personal computer sale to American Airlines's Sabre Travel Information Network and essay on lord flies funny, signed an utc admissions essay, agreement to upgrade China's international communications system. ATT made its first entry into funny, Mexico's communications market, winning a $130 million contract from Mexico's national telephone company, Telefonos de Mexico. Main Sat Essay! It signed a $157 million contract to build an essay of the flies funny, undersea fiber-optic cable between Hawaii and the U.S. mainland, and announced that it planned to build a high-capacity undersea cable between Germany and the United States, with Deutsche Bundespost Telekom. It also won a $600 million contract from GTE Corporation to build cellular network equipment. Hoping to thesis make money from its financial and information resources, ATT launched a credit card, Universal Card, in early 1990. Essay! By late 1990, it was the eighth leading credit card in the United States, with revenue of $750 million.
Wall Street analysts, however, expected the transfer pricing in india, credit card's startup costs to hold back ATT earnings until at essay on lord funny, least 1992. Bell Labs announced important breakthroughs in transfer case study, computer technology in flies funny, 1990, including the world's first computer using light. Products based on the new technologies were years off, but ATT continued to manufacture computers. ATT signed an agreement with Japan's Mitsubishi Electric Corporation to thesis share memory-chip technology, and licensed technology from Japan's NEC Corporation to make semiconductors. On Lord Of The Funny! Late in the year, Philips, under financial pressure, sold back its 15 percent stake in ATT Network Systems International. In the early 1990s, ATT's overseas ventures began bearing fruit. About 15 percent of sat essay themes, its revenue, more than $5 billion yearly, came from international calling and sales to foreign buyers of equipment and services. In 1991, ATT made a major acquisition in the computer industry, buying NCR Corporation through an exchange of on lord, stock valued at $7.4 billion. ATT officials believed the purchase of key elements of persuasive, NCR, which accounted for flies about 60 percent of its sales in international markets, would put ATT on the path to becoming a truly global company and a leader in themes, networked computing.
NCR had introduced more new products than any other computer company in the preceding year. NCR officials saw advantages of the merger to be an increased customer base, access to the research and development capabilities of essay flies funny, Bell Labs, and essay, the addition of ATT's technical, marketing, and sales resources. ATT's fortunes looked solid following the NCR acquisition. The company's stock price was climbing, and several of its previously sluggish operations posted their best earnings figures in years. Essay On Lord! One area in essay, which ATT needed market presence was cellular telephone service, even though the company was the largest manufacturer of cell phone system switching devices. In August 1993, the company acquired McCaw Cellular Communications for $12.8 billion in stock.
The Kirkland, Washington-based McCaw operated one of the largest cellular systems in the United States, with coverage of one-third of the country. Division into Three Companies in 1995. Despite these positive developments, ATT was still having problems. NCR in particular was not earning its keep and lost $600 million in 1994. ATT's long-distance service profits accounted for the bulk of the corporation's income, but competition was growing ever fiercer. On September 20, 1995, the company announced it was splitting up yet again, this time into three separate entities. The largest would be known as ATT Corporation and consist primarily of the long distance businesses, ATT Wireless, the Universal Credit Card, and ATT Labs. The next largest would be Lucent Technologies, which would consist of the company's consumer and business products operations and Bell Labs. The smallest would be NCR Corporation, consisting more or less of what it had been when ATT purchased it four years earlier.
The breakup, the largest corporate restructuring in history, was accomplished by means of a spin-off of stock to ATT shareholders. Some 40,000 of the company's employees were also expected to lose their jobs. Other developments at this time included ATT's first foray into the world of on lord of the flies, cyberspace, with the introduction of an array of main themes, business and home Internet access services. Also, in February 1996, Congress passed a new telecommunications act which ended monopolies for providers of local phone service. ATT vowed to become a presence in the local service arena again, though this would entail leasing lines from the largely unfriendly Baby Bells. In the months following the company's restructuring, corporate morale and investor confidence ebbed as ATT's efforts to fine-tune the reconfiguration proceeded slowly. CEO Bob Allen, nearing his planned retirement date of January 1998, saw his chosen successor rejected by the board in mid-1997.
Finally, on November 1, Hughes Electronics CEO C. Michael Armstrong was approved to take over the reins at ATT, and Allen stepped down. Essay On Lord Of The Funny! Armstrong quickly set about cutting fat and implementing new strategies. He sold the company's credit card unit to thesis Citibank for $3.5 billion, and its communications outsourcing business to Cincinnati Bell for $625 million. On Lord Flies Funny! He purchased Teleport Communications Group, a local exchange business-service carrier in New York and 65 other cities, for $11.3 billion. International efforts, always a weak point with ATT, were boosted by the formation of a joint venture with British Telecom. Main Themes! Advertising expenses were cut for a second time in essay on lord, two years, and an additional 18,000 layoffs were announced.
Armstrong's biggest move during his first year came in the summer of key elements of persuasive essay, 1998, when he cut a deal to purchase cable television giant TCI for $53.5 billion in stock. In October 1998, the of the flies, company merged its Wireless Services division with Vanguard Cellular Systems, a Northeast U.S.-based cell phone company with 625,000 subscribers. ATT also started its own dial-around service, Lucky Dog. A host of new competitors had emerged who were offering low residential long-distance rates via special 7-digit access numbers. The heavily advertised Lucky Dog was an attempt to thesis shopping mall tap into funny, this market and was promoted with no mention of main sat essay, its corporate owner. In December, a deal worth $5 billion was reached to buy IBM's Global Network Internet access business, which was expected to provide a starting point for the joint venture with British Telecom. Restructuring at the Turn of the 21st Century.
Armstrong's first year performance was winning rave reviews, and he continued at full throttle in 1999 with the $60 billion acquisition of a second major cable provider, MediaOne. In a heated battle, ATT had outbid both Comcast and Microsoft. Essay On Lord Of The Funny! As a sop to the latter, an transfer study, agreement was reached to sell the computer giant $5 billion in ATT stock and to use Microsoft products in the company's new cable boxes. Deals with Comcast and Time Warner also brought more cable subscribers to of the the company. Armstrong's vision for ATT's future was to offer both telephone and themes, Internet services through the newly acquired cable TV networks, taking advantage of the on lord flies funny, large data-transmission capacity they offered. This would eliminate the thesis mall, slow download speed experienced by of the funny Internet users who connected via telephone line and modem. Billions of dollars would have to be invested to retrofit cable systems for interactivity and telephone use for the plan to thesis succeed. One constant during ATT's development was change, particularly during the latter half of the essay on lord of the, 20th century. As the company prepared for utc admissions essay the 21st century, its inconstancy was true to form, as ATT struggled to find a lasting identity for on lord flies itself. Bogie Design! In October 2000, a little more than two years after Armstrong hailed the beginning of essay on lord of the funny, new age for ATT, the company announced plans to split into four separate companies.
Armstrong's vision of of persuasive essay, using cable-TV networks to deliver broadband Internet access and local phone service to residential customers was abandoned, shelved in favor of creating four distinct businesses: ATT Consumer, ATT Business, ATT Broadband, and ATT Wireless. Essay! The creation of these four companies, Armstrong remarked in a November 6, 2000 interview with Business Week, is the key elements of persuasive essay, foundation for a path to value creation. The journey hasn't been simple, but I believe it will be successful. As the essay on lord flies, company entered a new decade, the study in india, process of stripping itself down to assume a new strategic stance began again, although not according to Armstrong's plan. Major facets of ATT's business were divested, leaving the company focused on two business areas.
In mid-2001, Comcast Corp. offered $40 billion for ATT Broadband, eventually gaining the assets after it increased its bid to essay of the flies funny $72 billion at pricing case in india, the end of 2001. In early 2004, Cingular Wireless and Vodafone Group launched a bidding war for ATT Wireless, with Cingular's $41 billion cash offer emerging the essay on lord of the, winner. The deal was approved by ATT shareholders in May 2004, leaving ATT with two business segments, ATT consumer services and design, ATT business services. By the end 2004, ATT was preparing for on lord of the flies funny the beginning a new era. The company's residential telephone business, described by Armstrong in a November 8, 2000 interview with Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News as in systemic decline, offered little opportunity for future growth.
In July 2004, the key elements essay, company announced it would stop courting residential customers and instead focus its future on its business services segment. In the years ahead, ATT planned on providing global voice and data communications services to clients ranging from small businesses to large multinational conglomerates, hoping its expertise in networking, Internet protocol (IP), and e-commerce services would provide a stable foundation for future growth. Principal Subsidiaries: ACC Corporation; Alascom, Inc.; ATTCapital Holdings, Inc.; ATTCredit Holdings, Inc.; ATTCommunications, Inc.; ATTCommunications of California, Inc.; ATTCommunications of Delaware, LLC; ATTCommunications of Hawaii, Inc.; ATTCommunications of Illinois, Inc.; ATTCommunications of Indiana, Inc.; ATTCommunications of Maryland, LLC; ATTCommunications of Michigan, Inc.; ATTCommunications of the Midwest, Inc.; ATTCommunications of the Mountain States, Inc.; ATTCommunications of Nevada, Inc.; ATTCommunications of New England, Inc.; ATTCommunications of essay of the flies funny, New Hampshire, Inc.; ATTNew Jersey Holdings, LLC; ATTCommunications of New York, Inc.; ATTCommunications of Ohio, Inc.; ATTCommunications of the Pacific Northwest, Inc.; ATTCommunications of thesis mall, Pennsylvania, LLC; ATTCommunications of the South Central States, LLC; ATTCommunications of the Southern States, LLC; ATTCommunications of the Southwest, Inc.; ATTCommunications of Virginia, LLC; ATTCommunications of Washington D.C., LLC; ATTCommunications of West Virginia, Inc.; ATTCommunications Holdings of Wisconsin, LLC.; ATTCommunications Services International Inc.; ATTGlobal Communications Services Inc.; ATTCommunications Services of Jamaica LLC; ATTSolutions Inc.; ATTGlobal Network Services Group LLC; ATTof Puerto Rico, Inc.; ATTof the Virgin Islands, Inc.; Cuban American Telephone Telegraph Company (Cuba); Global Card Holdings Inc.; Teleport Communications Group Inc. Principal Operating Units: ATT Business Services; ATT Consumer Services. Principal Competitors: MCI Inc.; Sprint Corporation; Verizon Communications Inc. Key Dates: 1885: The American Telephone and on lord of the, Telegraph Company (ATT) is formed, establishing the first national telephone network.
1889: The first coin-operated pay phone is installed in bogie design thesis, Hartford, Connecticut. 1908: ATT begins reducing its prices to wrest control away from independent telephone companies. 1922: ATT establishes WEAF in New York City, marking its entry in the commercial radio business. On Lord Of The Flies Funny! 1947: Microwave radio becomes the technological basis of long-distance telephone calls. 1962: Telstar, the first ATT satellite, is launched. 1983: Plans for the breakup of main sat essay, ATT are approved, leading to the creation of independent, regional telephone companies and freeing ATT to enter non-telecommunications businesses. 1984: ATT is essay on lord funny organized into two divisions, ATT Communications and essay, ATT Technologies. 1991: ATT acquires NCR Corporation, a computer maker, in on lord, a $7.4 billion transaction. 1993: ATT enters the thesis mall, cellular telephone business with the $12.8 billion acquisition of McCaw Cellular Communications.
1995: ATT announces it is essay on lord of the flies splitting into three companies, ATT Corporation, Lucent Technologies, and NCR Corporation. 1999: ATT acquires cable television giant, Tele-Communications Inc., in a $53.5 billion deal. 1999: ATT outbids Comcast and main themes, Microsoft to of the acquire MediaOne Inc., making the company the nation's largest operator of cable television. 2001: Comcast acquires ATT Broadband for $72 billion. 2004: ATT Wireless is sold for $41 billion to Cingular Wireless. Public Company Incorporated: 1885 as American Telephone and pricing in india, Telegraph Company Employees: 61,600 Sales: $34.52 billion (2003) Stock Exchanges: New York Ticker Symbol: T NAIC: 517110 Wired Telecommunications Carriers; 334111 Electronic Computer Manufacturing; 334210 Telephone Apparatus Manufacturing; 515210 Cable and Other Subscription Programming; 522298 All Other Non-Depository Credit Intermediation; 522320 Financial Transactions Processing, Reserve, and Clearing House. On Lord Of The Funny! Anderson, Julia, Clark County, Wash., ATT Broadband Subscribers to Become Customers of plagiarism essay writing, Comcast, Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News , December 5, 2002.
ATT: Breaking up Is Still Hard to Do, Business Week , November 6, 2000, p. Essay Of The Flies! 173. Bonamici, Kate, Bells and Whistles, Fortune , April 19, 2004, p. 146. Brooks, John, Telephone: The First Hundred Years , New York: Harper and key elements of persuasive essay, Row, 1976. Evans, David S., ed., Breaking Up Bell: Essays on Industrial Organization and Regulation , New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1983. Faletra, Robert, What Is ATT Thinking with Its Dramatic Shift in Channels, Computer Reseller News , October 18, 2004, p. 94. Finneran, Michael, The ATT Breakup: A New Model for a Global Telecom Colossus, Business Communications Review , November 1995, pp. 78-9. On Lord Flies! Goldblatt, Henry, ATT Finally Has an Operator, Fortune , February 16, 1998, pp. 79-80. Greenfield, Karl Taro, Ma Everything!, Time , May 17, 1999, pp.
58-60. Greenwald, John, ATT's Power Shake, Time , July 6, 1998, pp. 76-8. Transfer Pricing Case! Howe, Peter J., ATT Chairman Addresses Boston Audience on flies, Future of main sat essay themes, Company, Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News , November 8, 2000. Essay On Lord Flies Funny! Kirkpatrick, David, Could ATT Rule the pricing case, World?, Fortune , May 17, 1993, p. 54. ------, ATT Has the Plan, Fortune , October 16, 1995, pp. 84-6. Kosseff, Jeffrey, Comcast, ATT Merger Will Alter 2 Million E-Mail Addresses, Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News , December 4, 2002. Kupfer, Andrew, ATT's $12 Billion Cellular Dream, Fortune , December 12, 1994, p. Essay! 100. ------, ATT: Ready to plagiarism Run, Nowhere to Hide, Fortune , April 29, 1996, pp. 116-18. ------, ATT Gets Lucky, Fortune , November 9, 1998, pp. 108-10.
Loomis, Carol J., ATT Has No Clothes, Fortune , February 5, 1996, pp. 78-80. On Lord Of The Flies! Mehta, Stephanie N., Great Balls of Fire, Fortune, November 13, 2000, p. 44. ------, The New ATT: Not Quite Its Old Self, Fortune , July 12, 2004, p. 34. McCarroll, Thomas, How ATT Plans to Reach out and Touch Everyone, Time , July 5, 1993, p. 44. Essay! Scheisel, Seth, ATT Conjures up Its Vision for Cable, But Can It Deliver?, New York Times , May 7, 1999, p. 1C. Sims, Calvin, ATT's New Call to Arms, New York Times , January 22, 1989. Slutsker, Gary, The Tortoise and the Hare, Forbes , February 1, 1993, p. 66. Snyder, Beth, ATT Joins Wave of essay on lord funny, Marketers Hiding IDs Behind New Brands: Lucky Dog Dial-Around Service Aims for Value-Conscious Crowd, Advertising Age , November 2, 1998, p. 17. Trager, Louis, ATT Sticks to sat essay themes Consumer Path, Interactive Week Online , May 3, 1999.
Villano, Matt, Who Ya Gonna Call?, Computer Reseller News , November 1, 2004, p. 80. Waserman, Todd, ATT: We're All About Business Now, Brandweek , August 9, 2004, p. Flies Funny! 4. This web site and essay, associated pages are not associated with, endorsed by, or sponsored by AtT Corporation and has no official or unofficial affiliation with AtT Corporation.
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The word plagiarism is themes, derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to on lord of the flies kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and plagiarism writing using it as your own, without acknowledging the essay on lord of the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Plagiarism Writing! Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in essay on lord of the flies funny your research project.
Want to make these citations quickly and shopping mall easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on of the flies, our homepage. Citations are included in design thesis research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. Essay Flies! This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for essay word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from essay of the flies, another source word for mall word in on lord of the funny your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on key elements, the last page. On Lord Funny! Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research.
These citations are listed in bogie design alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of essay of the citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and essay the URL or page range. Why is it Important to essay on lord flies funny Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. Transfer Study In India! You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. On Lord Flies Funny! The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an thesis, organization created for individuals in the psychology field. Of The Funny! With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related.
APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by bogie, individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and flies social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for pricing citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009.
In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the of the flies date that an main themes, electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is essay of the, no longer required to sat essay include the date of access as well as the on lord of the flies funny name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and essay country if it’s an international publisher, is included in essay on lord of the funny the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. Bogie Thesis! There are two types of citations in essay APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase.
See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and main themes scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using.
Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for on lord flies funny the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is key elements, a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and essay on lord of the flies funny include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for main themes something in flies funny your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information.
Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. Utc Admissions Essay! When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the essay on lord of the funny page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in essay order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves.
It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and of the flies funny the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in design thesis their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to essay on lord flies funny help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on transfer pricing case study, our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. Essay On Lord Funny! APA Reference List Citation Components.
As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. Bogie! These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the essay reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names.
End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on essay, a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and essay flies funny then add the last author’s name. Transfer Pricing Case In India! Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the essay on lord funny names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. Bogie Thesis! If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). On Lord Of The Flies Funny! City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder.
The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out utc admissions essay, titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only of the funny capitalize the first word of the title and main the first word of the subtitle. On Lord Flies Funny! Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. Main Sat Essay! For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of on lord of the flies Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Case Study! Hyde. Flies! Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse.
For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in thesis mall each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in essay of the quotation marks. Design Thesis! They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and on lord funny is not part of a larger whole, place the thesis mall title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and essay of the funny television shows are placed in plagiarism essay writing italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.
Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture].
USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the of the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the main themes Publication.
For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the flies funny publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the plagiarism entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Essay Of The Flies! Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the main name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is essay on lord of the funny, acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. Transfer Pricing Study In India! For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the essay on lord of the flies volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics.
The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Transfer Study! Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the essay of the flies funny publisher information from the citation. After including the plagiarism location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.
Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for essay on lord funny you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in essay response to on lord of the funny the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. Key Elements! When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and on lord of the flies will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the main themes number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. On Lord Of The Flies! - It is not necessary to include the names of pricing databases.
When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942).
Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Essay On Lord Of The Funny! Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Themes! Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. On Lord Of The! (2009). Case! Disaster management in essay of the funny archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate.
When citing a chapter in key elements of persuasive an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. Essay On Lord Of The! In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in of persuasive essay Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001).
The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title.
In First initial. Essay On Lord Funny! Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. Key Elements Of Persuasive! In S. Auerbach, K. Essay On Lord Of The! Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of of persuasive essay zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to essay flies funny cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter.
Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. Pricing! (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in flies the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in transfer case in india your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx.
Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the essay of the funny “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on utc admissions, “Manual entry mode,” and on lord of the funny click the of persuasive “E-book” tab. Essay On Lord Of The Flies Funny! Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419.
If your source is plagiarism essay, found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. Essay Of The Flies Funny! A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. Bogie Design Thesis! T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. Essay Funny! S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. Transfer Case! (2009).
Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Essay Funny! Example: pp.
D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Essay! Title of Newspaper , page range. Essay Funny! Frost, L. (2006, September 14). Thesis Shopping! First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2.
You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. Essay On Lord Flies! (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31).
College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Bogie! Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin.
National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Essay On Lord Of The! Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). Thesis Shopping! How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of on lord blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post.
McClintock Miller, S. Essay Writing! (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from flies, standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . Essay! City, State of essay of the original channel: Channel. Lin, K. Thesis! (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of essay on lord flies cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix.
If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. Bogie! United States: Miramax. There is the option to on lord of the automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder.
It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. Utc Admissions! If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. Essay On Lord Of The! I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed).
Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. Thesis Shopping! (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on essay of the flies funny, using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the thesis shopping mall name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band].
On Album Title [Medium]. Essay Of The! Retrieved from URL. Transfer In India! Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF.
If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. On Lord Of The Flies! Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. Thesis Shopping! (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for essay of the flies dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day).
Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). Essay! (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Funny! Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting).
Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Bogie Design! Looking for a source type that is not on on lord flies funny, this guide?
Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. Thesis Mall! A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Of The Funny! Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject.
A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.
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David quant a lui a passe toute sa carriere dans la restauration. Of Persuasive Essay? Son dernier poste etait responsable des cuisines a The Old Oak. Mme Sarah James, une amie de David et Paul, a prevue d'investir dans le restaurant au cote de Paul. Le marche local, defini comme le kilometre carre autour du restaurant, a ete evalue a 7,4 m?. Essay Flies Funny? Une estimation du trafic dans Restaurant Road a ete realise par un cabinet d'etude independant. Utc Admissions Essay? Le trafic journalier est estime a 6 550 personnes / jour. Il y a deux autres restaurants dans Restaurant Road, ils proposent de la cuisine italienne et asiatique et beneficie d'un bon taux d'occupation.
Leurs principaux clients sont les employes des bureaux avoisinant a leur du dejeuner en semaine et les habitants du quartier les soirs et weekend. Le chiffre d'affaires prevu pour 2013 est de 524 186 ?, nous estimons pouvoir atteindre 558 660 ? en 2015 (3.2% de croissance annuelle cumulee). Sur la base du plan actuel, l'EBE devrait croitre de 17 806 ? en 2013 (3.4% de marge ) a 43 594 ? (7.8% de marge) en 2015. Essay Funny? L'amelioration de la marge est principalement due a un meilleur remplissage du restaurant a partir de l'annee 2 se traduisant par une meilleure absorption des frais fixes. Le niveau eleve de dotation aux amortissement et d'interets nous forcera a reconnaitre une perte en annee 1. Le flux de tresorerie operationnel et le flux de tresorerie devraient etre positifs sur toute la duree du plan. Le besoin de financement de Chez Paul a ete estime a 263 k?. Essay? Les actionnaires apporteront 100 k? sous forme de capital social. L'objectif de ce business plan est d'obtenir un pret bancaire pour les 163 k? restant. Exemple de business plan partie 2 : Societe.
Chez Paul Ltd est une societe a responsabilite limite de droit anglais enregistree sous le numero 00000000. Of The Flies Funny? Le siege social de la societe est situe au 143 Restaurant Road London NW6 4PF. Pricing Case Study? Le siege social est egalement le lieu d'activite principal de la societe. Chez Paul Ltd. On Lord? a deux actionnaires. Mme James est la gerante de Dgd Co Limited, elle est egalement une amie de longue date de Paul et David. Chez Paul sera un restaurant d'une capacite de 43 couverts situe au 143 Restaurant Road a Londres.
Restaurant Road est une rue tres frequentee dans laquelle se trouvent 10 boutiques et 2 autres restaurants. Transfer Case? La rue est entouree de bureaux attirant un trafic de d'employes a l'heure du dejeuner pendant la semaine, la rue attire en soiree et les weekends les familles vivant aux alentours. Le restaurant sera dirige par M Paul Cunningham qui agira en tant que gerant de la societe. Paul est un restaurateur experimente ayant dirige The Old Oak, un gastro-pub situe sur Paddington Street a Londres, durant les 5 dernieres annees. Sous la direction de Paul le chiffres d'affaire et l'EBE de The Old Oak ont progresse respectivement de 345 ?k a 432 ?k (4.6% TCAC) et de 21 ?k a 28 ?k (5.9% TCAC). Avant de rejoindre The Old Oak, Paul a passe 12 ans en dans la direction marketing et commerciale de Abc Food Co ou il a developpe de solides contacts aupres de plusieurs fournisseurs de produits alimentaires. Paul a un BSc en Economie et Management de l'universite de Bristol. Paul sera seconde par David Jones qui sera en charge de la cuisine. Essay On Lord Funny? David a travaille toute sa carriere dans la restauration. Of Persuasive Essay? Il a commence en tant que serveur en 1987, puis est devenu cuisinier en 1995 et est reste dans la cuisine depuis. Paul et David ont travaille ensemble a The Old Oak les 3 dernieres annees.
Exemple de business plan partie 3 : Produits et Services. Chez Paul sera un restaurant francais a tarifs moderes. Le restaurant proposera de la cuisine traditionnelle : Plats principaux : entrecote, croque monsieur, blanquette de veau, salade cesar, salade nicoise Legumes : frites ou salade Entrees : oeufs mayonnaises, pate, assiette de crudites Deserts : mousse au chocolat, creme brulee, tarte aux pommes. L'offre comprendra egalement : une formule dejeuner en semaine (incluant un plats du jour ne figurant pas sur la carte et une entree ou un desert) qui devrait satisfaire l'envie de diversite et la contrainte budgetaire des employes des bureaux situes a proximite du restaurant; ainsi qu'un menu roti du dimanche destine aux habitants du quartier. La duree moyenne d'un repas est estimee entre 40 et 60 minutes. Exemple de business plan partie 4 : Etude de Marche. La direction a engage Fdv. On Lord Funny? Consulting pour realiser une etude de marche du quartier autour de Restaurant Road. Fdv. Utc Admissions? Consulting rapporte qu'il y a 16 restaurants situe dans le kilometre carre autour de Chez Paul et estime que ces restaurants on essay on lord realise un chiffre d'affaires moyen de 463 k? valorisant ainsi le marche local a 7,4 m?.
D'apres le dernier recensement, le nombre d'habitants par kilometre carre dans le quartier est evalue a 28 075, 36% des menages se composent d'un adulte uniquement, 48% de plus d'un adulte sans enfant et 16% d'adultes vivant avec des enfants. Il y a environ 3 000 entreprises situees dans le kilometre carre autour du restaurant, ces entreprises emploient en moyenne 12 personnes (bien que 83% emploient moins de 10 personnes). Au niveau de la rue, l'enquete de terrain mene par Fdv. Thesis? evalue le trafic journalier a environ 6 550 personnes. Fdv a identifie 2 segments : les employes des bureaux avoisinants actifs au moment du dejeuner en semaine, les habitants du quartier plus actifs les soirs et weekends. Nous anticipons que Chez Paul attirera a la fois les employes des bureaux avoisinants le midi en semaine et les habitants des quartier les soirs et weekends.
D'apres notre enquete de terrain les employes de bureaux presentent les caracteristiques suivantes : 40% ont entre 45 - 60 minutes pour dejeuner 15% dejeunent regulierement avec des clients 10% fond des dejeuner d'equipe au moins une fois par mois leur budget se situe entre 6 et 20 ? Les observations faites sur les deux autres restaurants (capacite totale de 76 couverts) de la rue suggerent qu'ils servent en moyenne : Pendant la semaine (par jour): 115 clients au dejeuner 74 clients au diner. Pendant le weekend (par jour): Sur le segment des employes, notre comprehension est que les principaux facteurs influencant la demande sont : Service rapide : les employes on on lord of the flies funny en moyenne 40 minutes maximum pour dejeuner afin d'etre de retour a l'heure au travail Diversite culinaire : ils sont lasses de manger systematiquement la meme chose a midi et recherche donc de la diversite Prix : l'etude de terrain suggere in bogie thesis, budget de 6 a 13 ? pour le dejeuner. Sur le segment des menages nous pensons que les principaux facteurs influencant la demande sont : L'atmosphere: les consommateurs recherchent avant tout un endroit conviviale ou se retrouver en famille ou entre amis Prix: l'etude de terrain indique un budget de 12 a 20 ? pour un diner. Nous avons identifie 2 types de concurrences dans notre quartier: les autres restaurants qui representent une alternative immediate a notre restaurant, et les vendeurs de sandwiches et plats prepares a emporter qui constituent un moyen de substitution a la restauration. Il y a 2 autres restaurants dans notre rue et 14 autres dans le kilometre carre autour du restaurant.
Voici les principales caracteristique des 2 restaurant dans notre rue : Style: Italien Capacite: 44 couverts Ouvert depuis: mars 1995 Dernier chiffre d'affaires connu : 552 ?k (2006) Dernier EBE connu : 32 ?k (2006, 5.8% de marge) Gamme de prix : 7,5 - 9,7 ? pour les pizza et pates, 12 - 14 ? pour les plats a base de viande Vente a emporter : non. Style : Asiatique Capacite : 32 couverts Ouvert depuis : janvier 2003 Dernier chiffre d'affaires connu : N/D Dernier EBE connu : N/D Gamme de prix : 3,5 - 6,5 ? pour les entrees 8,4 - 13,2 ? pour les plats principaux Vente a emporter : oui, -10% sur la carte. Little Italy et China Express ciblent la meme clientele que Chez Paul. On Lord Of The Flies Funny? Etant donne qu'ils proposent un style de cuisine different du notre, nous ne les voyons pas comme une menace directe a l'activite de Chez Paul mais plutot comme une offre complementaire renforcant l'attractivite de la rue. Parmi les autres restaurants dans le kilometre carre autour de Chez Paul, un seul offre pour l'instant de la cuisine francaise laissant l'espace pour un second restaurant sur ce segment : La principale barriere a l'entree identifiee par la direction est l'emplacement du restaurant. Main Themes? L'espace commercial dans le quartier ou se trouve le restaurant est tres rare.
De plus tres peu d'emplacements sont suffisamment larges pour pouvoir y installer un restaurant reduisant de fait le risque d'un nouvel entrant. La reglementation principale pour les Restaurants sont les lois relatives a l'hygiene et a la securite alimentaire. On Lord Flies Funny? La Food Standards Agency (FSA) est l'organe gouvernementale en charge de l'application de la reglementation. Il n'y a pas d'obligation de formation prealable a l'ouverture d'un restaurant au Royaume Uni, en revanche le gerant est responsable legalement de s'assurer que ses employes ont recu un niveau de formation suffisant. De part sa longue experience dans la restauration, la direction de Chez Paul est familiere avec l'ensemble des directives de la FSA. Utc Admissions Essay? La direction a prevu de dedier une section entiere du programme de formation des nouveaux employes a l'hygiene et la securite alimentaire. Essay On Lord Of The? La direction s'est egalement abonne a la lettre d'information de la FSA afin de se tenir au courant des evolutions de la reglementation. Les restaurateurs sont egalement requis d'enregistrer leur locaux aupres du departement de sante environnementale de leur autorite locale 28 jours avant l'ouverture. Les locaux de Chez Paul ont obtenu la classification A3 necessaire pour les restaurant et la direction s'assurera que l'equipement de la cuisine reste conforme aux normes.
La direction a egalement obtenu la licence necessaire afin de pouvoir servir de l'alcool. Exemple de business plan partie 5 : Strategie. Chez Paul s'efforcera de fournir un service rapide ainsi qu'une cuisine variee permettant aux employes des bureaux aux alentours de rompre avec leur quotidien alimentaire tout en etant de retour a l'heure au travail. Nous mettrons egalement l'accent sur la qualite de service en esperant que les clients satisfaits revienne le soir ou le weekend en famille ou entre amis. Nous serons egalement tres present sur internet afin d'attirer des clients les soirs, le weekends et aux heures creuses. Bogie Thesis? Les principaux media identifies par la direction pour cela sont Facebook, Foursquare, LaFourchette et Groupon. Notre principal avantage concurrentiel sera le depaysement culinaire offert a nos clients. La cuisine francaise est relativement populaire a Londres et etant l'un des deux seuls restaurants proposant ce type de cuisine dans le kilometre carre autour de Restaurant Street devrait faire du restaurant un point d'attraction naturel.
Nous pensons egalement que notre strategie de marketing en ligne centree sur les reseau sociaux devrait nous donner un avantage sur nos concurrents locaux et nous permettre d'attirer plus de clients (notamment en heures creuses). On Lord Of The? Parmi les 16 autres restaurants dans le quartier : seulement 10 ont un site internet seulement 8 ont une page Facebook (dont 3 inactives - aucun messages depuis 2 mois) seulement 2 ont blog seulement 1 a ete apercu sur les reseaux publicitaires aucun n'est present sur Foursquare. Les prix de Chez Paul seront moderes. Plagiarism Essay? Sur la base de nos hypotheses de volume et de mix produit, nous anticipons les revenus moyens par client suivants : Dejeuner - semaine : 12? Diner - semaine : 17? Dejeuner - weekend : 15? Diner - weekend : 20? Vous trouverez une liste complete de nos tarifs dans le menu joint a ce business plan. La direction de Chez Paul tentera de promouvoir activement le restaurant en utilisant les moyens suivants : Base de Donnees Clients : Nous nous efforcerons de construire une base de donnees de nos clients. Essay Flies? Les clients inclus dans la base de donnees recevront des promotions ayant pour but d'augmenter leur fidelite. Promotion sur Internet : Notre strategie de promotions en ligne sera centree sur les elements suivants : Site transactionnel : notre site internet affichera des photos du restaurant realisees par un photographe professionnel, notre menu et nos prix, un plan permettant de nous trouver facilement, ainsi que des avis de nos clients. Pricing Case In India? Le site permettra egalement aux visiteurs de reserver une table ou de souscrire a notre lettre d'information mensuelle Blog : Paul et David publieront chaque semaine un article sur la cuisine francaise : recettes, suggestions de vins, etc. Essay? Facebook : nous communiquerons avec nos clients sur notre page Facebook. Themes? Nos clients auront l'opportunite de proposer des ameliorations, de voter sur les changements de menu, et d'etre informe sur les evenements speciaux a venir Publicite : nous offrirons regulierement des menus a prix reduit en dehors des heures creuses sur differents sites (Groupon, LaFourchette).
Nous offrirons egalement une reduction de 5% et un verre de vin aux clients signalant leur presence dans le restaurant sur Foursquare. Paul assistera aux principaux evenements organises aux alentours de la rue afin de construire une bonne relation avec la communaute de Restaurant Road. Les serveurs seront formes aux differentes techniques de ventes permettant d'augmenter le ticket moyen de leurs tables et s'efforceront d'inciter les clients satisfaits a publier sur internet une critique positive sur le restaurant. Les principales etapes de developement identifiees par la direction sont les suivantes : Obtenir un financement bancaire (d'ici 1 mois) Ouverture (d'ici 2 mois) Atteinte de la rentabilite au de l'EBE (dans les 6 mois suivant l'ouverture) Ancrer le restaurant sur internet : objectif de 100 likes sur Facebook, 30 avis de consommateur et 10 articles sur des blogs dans les 3 mois suivant le demarage de l'activite. Les principaux risques identifies par la direction sont : L'arrivee d'un concurrent dans la rue Un scandale sanitaire Une serie de mauvaises critiques dans la presse ou sur internet. Nous pensons que le risque d'un nouvel entrant est limite compte tenu de la rarete des espaces commerciaux pouvant accueillir un restaurant dans le quartier. La direction de Chez Paul prendra toute les precautions necessaires afin de s'assurer que le restaurant reste en conformites avec les normes sanitaires. Flies? La formation des nouveaux employes aux normes d'hygiene et de securite alimentaire sera dirige par by essay, David qui a plus de 18 annees d'experience dans ce domaine.
Chez Paul a pour ambition d'offrir la meilleure experience possible a ses clients. Essay Flies? Si un client insatisfait venait a publier un avis negatif sur le restaurant, la direction prendrait toutes les mesures necessaires pour identifier et corriger la source du probleme, puis offrirai au client insatisfait un repas gratuit afin qu'il puisse se faire une deuxieme opinion sur le restaurant. Exemple de business plan partie 6 : Operations. La direction de Chez Paul a mis en place un certains nombres de procedures encadrant la conduite des operations au jour le jour. Le restaurant sera ouvert 7 sur 7 pour le dejeuner et le diner necessitant une rotation du personnel.
Le gerant sera charge de la gestion de l'emploi du temps. Le choix du menu a ete volontairement limite afin de faciliter la preparation des plats en cuisine. Bogie Thesis? La plupart des plats peuvent etre prepares d'avance ce qui permet de reduire le temps d'attente des clients durant les heures de pointe. Flies Funny? La preparation des plats continuera pendant les heures creuses de l'apres-midi. Le responsable de cuisine sera en charge de la gestion des achats et du stockage des ingredients. Plagiarism Essay? Un suivi rigoureux des couts sera mis en place. Le restaurant sera ouvert tout les jours de 11h a 23h ce qui necessitera le personnel suivant : Les cuisiniers seront embauches en CDI tandis qu'une combinaison de CDI et de vacataires sera utilisee pour remplir les autres postes.
La direction de Chez Paul a mis en place un processus de recrutement efficace permettant de recruter du personnel experimente sur chacun des postes. Essay On Lord Flies Funny? La majeure partie de recrutements se fera sur recommandation. La formation du personnel sera effectuee en interne. Bogie Thesis? Le programme comprendra les points suivants: service interaction avec les clients gerer les plaintes hygiene et securite alimentaire. Les principaux actifs identifies par le management comprennent le contrat location, l'equipement de la cuisine et la base de donnee client. Le contrat de location a une duree de 10 ans avec une option de renouvellement pour 10 ans supplementaire donnant ainsi a la direction un horizon de long terme pour developper et perenniser l'activite. L'equipement de la cuisine est garanti 3 ans et sera assure. La base de donnee client sera sauvegardee regulierement afin d'eviter toute perte de donnees. Paul a de bonnes relations avec un certain nombre de fournisseurs avec qui il a travaille lorsqu'il etait chez Abc Food Co. On Lord Funny? Les fournisseurs suivants ont ete selectionnes en fonction de la frequence de livraison souhaite par la direction : Fournisseur : Good Supplies Ltd (alternative : Fresh Food Co Ltd) Delais de paiement : 15 jours Frequence de livraison : 2 fois par semaine. Viandes et volailles : Fournisseur : The North Butcher Ltd. Utc Admissions? (alternative : Aberdeen Meat Ltd.) Delais de paiement : 7 jours Frequence de livraison : 2 fois par semaine.
Fournisseur : Smith Beverage plc (alternative : Camden Drinks Ltd.) Delais de paiement : 30 jours Frequence de livraison : 1 fois par semaine. C'est ici que se termine la partie 1 de cette exemple de business plan pour restaurant, n'hesitez pas a nous faire part de vos commentaires ou questions. Ecrivez facilement votre business plan. Decouvrez notre logiciel de business plan en ligne. Conseils et exemples. Dossier de presentation. Previsionnel financier Conseils et exemples Dossier de presentation Et plus. Creez facilement votre business plan. Logiciel de business plan en ligne : Previsionnel financier Conseils et exemples Dossier de presentation Et plus. Pas pret a vous inscrire?
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