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Behavior Specialist Resume Example. Modify your resume and get the about behavior specialist job you want! A social services behavior specialist helps people with behavioral issues learn the skills needed to improve their lives. Some behavioral specialists work with adults suffering from addiction, while others work with children and teens to how to write latters help them modify problematic behaviors. About! Start by listing your professional experience and counterfeit, education. Next, add bullet points that highlight your soft skills, like strong communication skills, compassion and patience. Also, include any specialized experience, such as making referrals to drug and about books, alcohol treatment centers. For more ideas on how to stand out from the competition, see our behavior specialist resume example. A behavior specialist helps young people with behavioral issues learn the skills needed to improve their behavior. Essay On Flower! To become a behavior specialist, it will take experience working with young people, plenty of patience and compassion, and a resume that gives institutions confidence in your abilities. That#8217;s where our resume examples come in.

Designed to books show you the elements of an effective behavior specialist resume, these resume examples are the perfect first step toward building a job-winning resume of your own. Resume Tips for Behavior Specialist. Locating jobs as a behavior specialist requires a balanced combination of developed job-search skills and a strong mindset. Resume Career! These tips can help you navigate the job search and find the right position for you. 1. Make the about most of money essay, your screen time. The Internet is one of the about books best tools you have, but you want to make sure that you are using it for more than traditional job searchers. Make the most of your online networks and participate in essay on huckleberry a range of industry social media pages, blogs and forums.

Broadening your connects will help substantially. 2. Balance online and essay about books, real world connections. While the Internet is an important piece of networking, you also want to resource essay make an effort in getting to know individuals face to face. Personal interaction can give individuals a deeper understanding of your skills and personality and can give you an edge in the search. Books! 3. Be patient.

The job search is a long tedious process, and you want to make sure that you are patient with both the search and the process. Resume Career One! Don#8217;t be tempted to give up on yourself just because it takes some time. About Books! Understand that it is a long process and essay on flower, don#8217;t be too hard on yourself. 4. Stay positive. With a range of rejection and missteps it can be easy to feel a little down and depressed, but the more positive you can stay throughout the books journey, the more opportunities you will be able to human resource take. Essay About Books! You are a much more attractive candidate when you possess a positive frame of mind. 5. Be proactive in the search. It might be tempting to simply wait for responses from potential employers or wait for a company you are interested in to money essay post a position, but following up on leads or contacting companies you would like to work for allows you to essay books find otherwise hidden positions and demonstrate your persistence. Behavior Specialist Job Seeking Tips. One of the essay on huckleberry most important pieces to successfully finding jobs as a behavior specialist is a solid resume.

Use these do#8217;s and don#8217;ts to craft a resume that stands above the rest. Essay! 1. Do create an easy to read format using bullet points to quickly highlight your skills. You want potential employers to quickly identify your aptitude. 2. Don#8217;t write in paragraph form. You want to avoid using first person pronouns and explaining experiences in paragraphs instead list items. 3. Do highlight quantifiable achievements, as they will demonstrate your skills even more clearly. 4. Don#8217;t use generic verbs like ˆ?workˆ or responsible for, as these will distract from your unique experiences and skill set. 5. Essay On Flower! Do use clear action verbs like ˆ?aidedˆ or ˆ?ledˆ to demonstrate the concise experiences that you gained in your last job. Essay Books! Attract attention with professional resume designs.

Finalize and essay on flower, download your resume in multiple formats. Attract attention with professional resume designs. Improve your resume with our pre-written text. Finalize and download your resume in multiple formats. Improve your resume with our pre-written text.

Attract attention with professional resume designs. Essay Books! Finalize and download your resume in multiple formats. Attract attention with professional resume designs. Improve your resume with our pre-written text. Finalize and download your resume in multiple formats. Essay On Flower! Improve your resume with our pre-written text. Attract attention with professional resume designs. Finalize and download your resume in multiple formats. Attract attention with professional resume designs. Improve your resume with our pre-written text.

Finalize and download your resume in multiple formats. Improve your resume with our pre-written text. School Counselor/Behavioral Specialist Resume. Company: St. Vincent#8217;s Services. Date Range: 08/2012 to Current. Essay About Books! Maintain structure in the classroom Provide the students support with the schoolwork Escort them to and from court appointment. Observed and monitored client behavior and latters, responses to treatment. Recorded client information on special flow sheets, accurately indicating suicidal precautions, sleep flow and restraints. Essay Books! Monitored client census by using the thesis teknik mempengaruhi pencapaian Daily Movement Report and recording admissions, discharges, doctor appointments and site visit data. Facilitated a smooth discharge by encouraging and reassuring clients throughout their transitions.

Behavioral Specialist/Mobile Therapist Resume. Company: Youth Advocate Programs, Inc. Date Range: Mar 2006 Current. Design, Write, and Update Treatment Plans for BHRS Clients. Supervise and Monitor Treatment Plan Compliance of Therapeutic Support Staff (TSS). Consult with Parents, Teachers, Counselors, Special Education Supervisors, Principals, and other Team Members to Collaboratively design treatment plan, Align on Treatment Plan Strategies and Transfer Strategic Skills. Observe and monitor client behavior and responses to treatment. Essay About Books! Collect Data related to Treatment Plan progress, and Analyze all data, including any from parents and school and human resource paper, TSS. About! Conduct Functional Behavioral Analyses as appropriate to support development of human resource paper, effective treatment planning and interventions. Administer Intensive one on one Therapy with clients to essay about work on Treatment Plan goals. Conduct Structural and Strategic Family Therapy Sessions to work on resume career one, Treatment Plan goals.

Company: Sunny Days, LLC. Date Range: November 2012 to Current. Provide Applied Behavior Analysis to children with Autism. Create programs and tasks to foster preferred behavior to clients. Works with Behavior Supervisors, BCBA, and parents on a weekly basis to achieve desired targets. Organize proper coding, billing statements and daily reports on a monthly basis to ensure timely deadlines. Tracks quantifiable data during each sessions. Essay! Calculates raw scores and converts to money percentages to update current goals. Applied Behavior Specialist Resume.

Company: Connecticut Behavioral Health. Date Range: 11/2014 to Current. Working with school teacher assisting in essay tutoring individual student. Working 1 to 1 with student providing educational help. Using behavior plan specific interventions. Aiding with and ensuring student#8217;s safety. Date Range: April 2011 to Current. Implement goals designed to promote educational , physical and social development. Use Applied Behavioral Analysis to find functions of behaviors and work to teknik belajar pencapaian change behaviors to a more appropriate behaviors. Attend trainings on ABA and other topics in order to work more effectively and efficiently with clients with special needs.

Maintain constant professional communication with parents and supervisors to ensure the essay books effectiveness and ongoing progress of client#8217;s program/goals. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. LiveCareer’s builder, resume examples, and latters, resume writing tips are featured on some of the world’s top online and offline publications including: Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.

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HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Essay. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) causes AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) that disables the immune system. It was discovered in 1983 .HIV enters the body through the bloodstream and essay duplicates itself rapidly. The victim is susceptible to infectious diseases that eventually are fatal (1). Statistically, HIV/AIDS is the number one killer of African-American women ages 25 to essay on flower 34, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Between 2000 and 2003, they were nineteen times more likely than White females and five times more likely than Hispanic females to books contract the essay on flower disease. African-American men were seven times more likely than White men and three times the essay books rate of Hispanic men to contract HIV/AIDS (2). In 2008, there is still not a cure for AIDS. Essay On Flower? Instead, scientists have discovered drugs that can slow down the progression of the disease.

Protease inhibitors (PIs) are antiviral drugs that slow down the spread of HIV (1). The virus produces a protein called protease so that it can replicate itself. “Protease cuts long chains of proteins and enzymes into shorter chains, the essay about first step in the process by which HIV infects a cell” (1). If this doesn’t happen, replication does not continue. In 1987, AZT was the first anti-HIV medication that was created. It showed hope and kept people healthier longer. Canadian Essay? However, the side effects were very high for men. Essay Books? Since that time, more HIV medications have evolved.

Antiretroviral therapy usually consists of combinations of nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, or fusion inhibitors, which are prescribed in the later stages of HIV (19). Essay On Flower? Dual protease inhibitor therapy is also being used clinically (3). They are also associated with improving morbidity and mortality of HIV-positive persons (5). Although these drugs are expensive, they have proven to be the most successful therapy in managing HIV. However, some patients don’t comply 100% with their treatments. This is largely due to the side effects. Sometimes they make a patient feel worse than the actual disease. The most commonly reported ones are abdominal pain, abnormal bowel movements, diarrhea, fatigue, headache, and nausea. Children usually develop a skin rash.

The more serious side effects are liver problems and pancreatitis. Some patients have also seen large increase in triglyceride ad cholesterol levels. Diabetics saw an increase in their blood sugar levels. Other patients developed diabetes while taking protease inhibitors (16). Presently, nine PIs have been approved for use in the United States and Europe: amprenavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, lopinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, tipranavir, and nelfinavir. Three non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are used for treatment of HIV: nevirapine, delavirdine, and efavirenz (7).

Drug treatment selection depends on books, factors such as drug resistance, tolerability, drug interactions, and effectiveness. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) “has been proposed so that practitioners may better maintain appropriate plasma concentrations of drugs in career one, their patients by identifying interactions with other medications and assessing medication adherence (7). Figure 1 shows the structures of these compounds. Fig. 1. Chemical structures of books, protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. About 50% of “treatment-naive patients” don’t have continued antiviral response after one year of therapy (18).

In some cases, there is a development of drug resistance and metabolic complications. Also, “there is increasing evidence that virological treatment failure is correlated with variations in the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs (20). Canadian? This can be due to drug interactions, low bioavailability, and variations in metabolic enzyme activity. Atazanavir (ATV) has good oral bioavailability and a favorable pharmacokinetics profile (18). With this in mind, patients can mostly take a once-daily dose. A separate analytical method has been recently published for quantifying ATV in about books, human plasma using solid phase extraction and HPLC with PDA (photodiode array) detection at 201 nm (18). This method provides excellent separation of resume one, ATV from its internal standard, clozapine (CLZ) and the other PIs, thus, obtaining an accurate measurement of the drug (see figure 2). Books? CLZ elutes at 8.9 minutes, and belajar ATV elutes a 24.4 minutes.

A 40-ml injection resulted in books, a recovery yield of 100%. Fig. 2. Essay? Chromatogram of ATV with PIs/NNRTIs (8000 ng/ml) spiked with CLZ. Nelfinavir mesylate has been shown in phase III controlled clinical trials to essay about books significantly reduce viral load and counterfeit essay increase CD4 + cell counts when used with reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Essay About Books? It’s prescribed as part of triple drug combination therapy (9). CD4 + are helper T cells. They are important for immune reconstitution in patients that are receiving antiretroviral therapy (10). After a large number of paper, these cells are destroyed, AIDS develops (7). Six clinical trials was conducted in the past ten years using 2, 148 HIV-infected children enrolled in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group treatment trials (10).

Patient ages varied from 2 to 7 years of age. The focus was to observe short-term variability of CD4 percentages. The study found that 49% of patients had CD4 percentages above 25%. Essay About? 32% of patients had CD4 counts between 15% and 24%; 19% were less than 15%. Finally, 5.4% had a CD4% of less than 5% (10). In June 2006, Darunavir (DRV) was licensed in the United States. Thesis Teknik? It is about a promising PI that is active against HIV strains that are resistant to the other PIs that currently on the market (17). It is prescribed in 600-mg doses that are taken twice daily with 100 mg of human resource essay paper, ritonavir that acts as a booster. Protease inhibitors are associated with unfavorable pharmacokinetics and many side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances and lipid abnormalities (5).

Four of the most common PIs used are indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and nelfinavir (3 ). “Monitoring blood concentration of PIs, which can indicate both therapeutic and toxic levels of the drugs as well as patient noncompliance with the medication, may improve the care of both HIV-infected adults and children” (3). When ritonavir was first introduced, it was given in doses of 600 mg every 12 hours. “However, patient intolerance of full doses led to essay its primary use as a pharmacologic enhancer to how to write latters increase the about concentrations in plasma of a second protease inhibitor to improve the convenience of antiretroviral regimens by extending the dosing interval, reducing pill burden, and /or eliminating food-induced reductions in mempengaruhi pencapaian, pharmacokinetic exposure” (8). Researchers used High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to determine concentrations of PIs in blood. Various methods have been used to about books study the pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. Interpreting plasma levels can be used to “individualize drug dosage of antiretrovirals (4). Quality control (QC) procedures must be done to ensure that these methods are accurate and precise. “Such procedures usually include intralaboratory (internal) method validation, intralaboratory QC procedures, and participation in an interlaboratory QC program for antiretroviral drugs” (4).

Since the career one latter hadn’t been done before, it was established so that laboratories can obtain better measurement results of antiretroviral drugs. Nine laboratories participated in the first part of the program. The first part of the experiment involved the measurement of the about books protease inhibitors: indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and latters saquinavir. All had a specified purity of 99% or higher. Essay? QC samples were prepared by spiking blank plasma from HIV-negative volunteers with PI standard. The low concentrated standards ranged from 0.087 to essay on flower 0.15 mg/L while the intermediate concentrated standards contained ranged from essay about books, 2 to 3 mg/L of all four PIs. Essay On Flower? Finally, the high-concentrated standards contained approximately 5 to 11 mg/L of drug. All drugs were dissolved in methanol following accurate weighings and essay about books diluted with blank plasma (4).

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to human resource essay analyze twelve samples. All laboratories measuring more than one protease inhibitor used as assay for essay about, “simultaneous determination” (4). Six laboratories used HPLC/UV and finn three labs used HPLC-MS/MS. Mass spectrometry detection is often recommended for measurement of low concentration levels. Also, this type of analysis is essay usually faster and “does not require complete resolution of drugs for detection and essay on flower quantification” (5).

Only five laboratories were able to measure all four PIs. Three laboratories were not able to essay about books determine nelfinavir. Thesis Belajar Mempengaruhi Pencapaian? One laboratory only measured indinavir (4). Acceptable accuracy results are between 80% and 120%. Only indinavir resulted in an acceptable accuracy of 80%. The remaining PIs had between 36% and 74% accuracy. These results should encourage laboratories to improve their analytical methods and QC procedures. Essay Books? Other PIs, such as amprenavir and lopinavir, can be analyzed as well (4). HIV-positive plasma samples are heat inactivated before analysis, approximately 58°C for 40 minutes, to decrease the risk of infection to the operator.

They may also go through a freeze/thaw cycle. As with the essay on flower QC study, blank plasma was spiked with seven PIs (indinavir, amprenavir, atazanavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, lopinavir, and books nelfnavir) at canadian money, low, intermediate, and books high concentrations measured in ng/ml. Essay On Flower? Certain assays only require 100 µl of plasma for analysis. “This is advantageous when measuring PI concentrations as part of essay, clinical studies as they often necessitate hourly sampling to generate complete PK profiles; therefore less blood can be drawn from the patient” (5). In addition, seven PIs can be quantified in counterfeit essay, one assay, but impossible to assay all seven in a single preparation. “The use of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) has emerged as the developmental method of essay about, choice supporting clinical and pre-clinical pharmacokinetic studies” (13). Recovery for paper, the HPLC-MS/MS methods was above 87% for all seven drugs at all three concentration levels (5). It was successful in quantifying seven PI concentrations in plasma of books, HIV positive persons that participated in a run time of nine minutes. One? Therefore, the books assay may be used for determining PI concentrations in on huckleberry, semen, lymphocytes, and cerebrospinal fluid (5). A fast and highly-sensitive LC-MS-MS method was developed that could analyze five protease inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir) in one run using an internal standard. Sample sizes were small (ng/ml) and about books run times were approximately 5 minutes.

Recoveries for resume, all five PIs were between 87% and 92%(11). Tipranavir is part of a class of non-peptidic PIs that works against both “wild-type virus and variants resistant to current PIs”(6). It also has a high genetic barrier. Tipranavir is essay books prescribed in a 500-mg dose taken in combination with 200 mg of ritonavir twice daily as part of antiretroviral therapy for patients with HIV-1 strains that are resistant to multiple PIs (6). Fig.

3. Tipranavir chemical structure. An HPLC-UV method has been validated and is currently applied when monitoring tipranavir (TPV) plasma levels in HIV patients. Samples were prepared for solid phase extraction (SPE) by conditioning the cartridges with 0.1% phosphoric acid, pH 7. TPV stock solutions with a concentration of 5 mg/ml were diluted from with 50% methanol. Samples were spiked with TPV at 1.875, 7.5, 18.75, 37.5, 60, and 75 µg/ml in how to write latters, triplicate. QC samples were diluted with blank plasma and phosphate buffer to 5.625, 22.5, and 67.5 µg/ml. Clozapine was used as the internal standard (6).

5-ml aliquots of blood samples were obtained from HIV infected patients. The plasma obtained from centrifugation was heated at 60° C for one hour in a water bath. TPV in plasma was measured at a UV absorbance of 201 nm with a retention time of essay about, 32.2 minutes. Thesis Belajar? Its internal standard, clozapine (CLZ) has a retention time of 8.3 minutes (6). Figure 4 below shows the chromatogram of TPV, its internal standard, and all other PIs and NNRTIs present. Essay About Books? Figure 5 shows TPV and its internal standard CLZ only. Fig. 4. Write Latters? Chromatogram of books, plasma control sample of TVP (22.5 mg/ml) spiked with internal standard and all PIs and on huckleberry NNRTIs. Fig. Essay? 5. Chromatogram of calibration sample of how to write, TVP (37.5 mg/ml) spiked with internal standard CLZ. Isocratic HPLC methods combined with the use of essay about books, UV and fluorescence detection produces more sensitivity.

Amprenavir is a fluorescent compound. Its internal standard PR25 can also be seen under fluorescence (see figure 6). Fig. 6. Resume One? Blank plasma with 100 ng/ml amprenavir and 1000 ng/ml of about, PR25 seen under fluorescence. In conclusion, much progress has been made in the development of protease inhibitors and other antiretroviral therapy. HPLC with UV detection has been the most commonly used method of analysis.

It is rapid, simple, and highly sensitive. Counterfeit Money? LC-MS-MS has been noted at about books, the developmental method of choice for latters, clinical and pre-clinical pharmacokinetic studies (13). More compounds can be analyzed in less time. Also, they can be used for methods using other human biological matrices. For the majority of protease inhibitors, all side effects are not known. In 2007, darunavir was the essay about books new HIV protease inhibitor with eleven other antiretroviral agents on the market. They can affect patients that have diabetes, liver problems, and hemophilia; their conditions can worsen as a result of taking PIs.

Only a patient’s health care provider can determine the best treatment option. Nagel, Rob. 2007. Resource Essay Paper? Protease Inhibitors. UXL Encyclopedia of Science; [cited 2008 May 8], Available from essay about books, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SciRC?ste=1docnum=cv2644301082.

Health Hotline: HIV and Genital Herpes [cited 2008 May8]; Available from http://www.ebony.com. “HPLC Assay for Common Protease Inhibitors Developed.”Antiviral Weekly; [cited 2008 May 07; Available from http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SciRC?ste=1docNum=A60069570. Aarnoutse, Rob E., Verweij-van Wissen, Corrien P.W.G.M., van Ewijk-Beneken Kolmer, Eleonora, W.J., Wuis, Eveline, W., Koopmans, Peter P., Hekster, Yechiel A., and Burger, David, M. 2001. International Interlaboratory Quality Control Program for Measurement of Antiretroviral Drugs in Plasma; Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo 46(3): 884-886. Dickinson, Laura, Robinson, Lesley, Tjia, John, Khoo, and mempengaruhi pencapaian Saye, Back, David. Essay About? 2005. Simultaneous determination of HIV protease inhibitors amprenavir, atazanavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir in human plasma by resume, high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; J of Chrom. B 829:82-90. Colombo, S., Beguin, A., Marzolini, C., Telenti, A., Biollaz, J., and Decosterd, L.A.

2006. Determination of the novel non-peptidic HIV-protease inhibitor tipranavir by HPLC-UV after solid-phase extraction; J of Chrom. B 832:138-143. Rezk, Naser L., Tidwell, Richard R., and essay about Kashuba, Angela D.M. Canadian? 2004. High-performance liquid chromatography assay for the quantification of HIV protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in human plasma; J of Chrom. B 805:241-247.

Shelton, Mark J.,Hewitt, Ross G., Adams, John, Dela-Coletta, Andrew, Cox, Steven, and essay Morse, Gene D. 2003. Pharmacokinetics of essay on flower, Ritonavir and Delavirdine in essay about, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients; Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo 47(5): 1694-1699. Zhang, Kanyin E., Wu, Ellen, Patick, Amy K., Kerr, Bradley, Zorbas, Mark, Lankford, Angela, Kobayashi, Takuo, Maeda, Yuki, Shetty, Bhasker, and Webber, Stephanie. 2001.Circulating Metabolites of the human essay Human Immunodeficiency Virus protease Inhibitor Nelfinavir in Humans: Structural Identification, Levels in Plasma, and Antiviral Activities; Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo 45(4): 1086-1093. Carey, Vincent J., Pahwa, Savita, and Weinberg, Adriana. 2005. Reliability of CD4 Quantitation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Children: Implications for Definition of Immunologic Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy; Clinical and Diagnostic Lab Immunology 12(5): 640-643. Chi, Jingduan, Jayewardene, Anura L., Stone, Judith A., Motoya, Toshiro, and Aweeka, Francesca.

2002. Simultaneous determination of five HIV protease inhibitors nelfinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and amprenavir in human plasma by LC/MS/MS; J of Pharm and Biomedical Analysis 30:675-684. Verbesselt, R., Van Wijngaerden, E., and de Hoon, J. Essay? 2007. Simultaneous determination of 8 HIV protease inhibitors in write latters, human plasma by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography with combined use of UV and fluorescence detection: Amprenavir, indinavir, atazanavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, saquinavir, nelfinavir and M8-nelfinavir metabolite; J of about books, Chrom. B 845:51-60. Frerichs, Valerie A., DiFrancesco, Robin, and Morse, Gene D. How To Write? 2003. Essay About Books? Determination of protease inhibitors using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; J of Chrom, B 787:393-403. Gangl, Eric, Utkin, Ilya, Gerber, Nicholas, and Vouros, Paul. 2002. Structural elucidation of metabolites of ritonavir and indinavir by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; J. of Chrom. A 974:91-101.

Turner, Michele L., Reed-Walker, Kedria, King, Jennifer R., and Acosta, Edward P. 2003. Simultaneous determination of nine antiretroviral compounds in human plasma using liquid chromatography; J. of Chrom. B 784:331-341. D’Avolio, Antonio, Siccardi, Marco, Sciandra, Mauro, Lorena, Baietto, Bonora, Stefano, Trentini, Laura, and Di Perri, Giovanni.2007. HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous quantification of the new HIV protease inhibitor darunavir, and essay finn 11 other antiretroviral agents in plasma of HIV-infected patients; J. of books, Chrom. Write Latters? B 859:234-240. Colombo, S., Guignard, N., Marzolini, C., Telenti, A., Biollaz, J., and Decosterd, L.A. 2004. Essay? Determination of the new HIV-protease inhibitor atazanavir by liquid chromatography after solid-phase extraction; J. of Chrom.

B 810:25-34. Weller, Dennis R., Brundage, Richard C., Balfour, Jr., Henry H., and Vezina, Heather E. An isocratic liquid chromatography method for determining HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor concentrations in resume career, human plasma; J. of Chrom. B 848:369-373. Sarasa-Nacenta, Maria, Lopez-Pua, Yolanda, Mallolas, Josep, Blanco, Jose’ Luis, Gatell, Jose’ M., and Carne’, Xavier. Simultaneous determination of the essay books HIV-protease inhibitors indinavir, amprenavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and nelfinavir in human plasma by reversed-phase high- performance liquid chromatography; J, of Chrom. B 757:325-332. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

Date: 4 April 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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The Great Homework Debate: What’s Getting Lost in the Hype. Homework – is it an essay, unnecessary evil or a sound and valuable pedagogical practice? The media coverage of the debate often zeroes in on human, these two seemingly polar opposite views, even though they may not be all that far apart. Homework can be good until – well, until it isn’t. About. Assign too much or the wrong kind (or both) and the law of diminishing returns kicks in, says Dr. Harris Cooper, professor of essay on flower, psychology and neuroscience at essay about, Duke University, r esulting in undue stress for students, aggravation for parents and no academic pay-off. But as Cooper, author of “The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents,” recently told NEA Today, homework levels and parental attitudes haven’t really changed dramatically over essay on flower the years. Essay. Cooper also concludes – perhaps a shock of those who are convinced that very little in our classrooms is resume, working as it should – “the vast majority of educators have got it right.” There’s a lot of books, focus on homework now, but has it been scrutinized so heavily in the past? Harris Cooper: Throughout the 20th century, the one public battle over essay about books homework was quite cyclical. You can go back to World War I or a little after, when it was considered important for kids to exercise their brain like a muscle and that homework was a way to write latters, do that.

During the 1930s, opinions changed. In the 1950s, people were worried about falling behind the communists, so more homework was needed as a way to speed up our education and technology. During the 1960s, homework fell out of favor because many though it inflicted too much stress on kids. About Books. In the 1970s and 1980s, we needed more homework to human essay paper, keep up with the Japanese economically. More recently, as everything about education and teachers is being scrutinized, homework has come into question again. What’s interesting is essay about books, that the one actual percentage of people who support or oppose homework has changed very little over the years.

And the essay actual amount of homework kids are doing has changed very little over the last 65 years. But haven’t we seen an uptick in the amount of on huckleberry, homework assigned to elementary students? HC: There is a little bit of an uptick in lower grades. But when you look at essay books, the actual numbers, we’re talking about the difference between an average of 20 minutes and 30 minutes. So you’ll find some people who say the amount of homework being given to 2 nd graders, for example, has increased 50 percent. But If you look at the actual numbers, it’s ten more minutes per night. And probably a driving force behind that is obviously end-of-grade testing and accountability issues. Perhaps more legitimately is the how to importance of early reading. As they say, in third grade you learn to read, and in fourth grade you read to essay, learn.

So this has led to more reading assignments. While most high school students are still doing approximately the same amount of counterfeit money essay, homework on average, there’s a great deal of variation. That’s due to choices some kids make about how rigorous an academic program to take and books the increased competition over college admissions. So there are a lot of kids out there taking four or five advanced placement and resource essay honors classes now, which might not have been the case a while back. According to the MetLife Foundation national homework survey, 3 out of 5 parents said their kids are getting just the right amount of homework. One said too much and one said too little. That survey is a few years old now but I doubt that’s changed. You’ve concluded that homework generally can improve student achievement. Essay About. At what grade levels do we usually see this effect? HC: There’s very little correlation between homework and achievement in the early grades.

As kids get older, the correlation gets stronger. But there are experimental studies even at the earliest grades that look at skills such as spelling, math facts, etc. Teknik Mempengaruhi Pencapaian. where kids are randomly assigned to essay about books, do homework and not do homework. They show that kids who did the homework performed better. But we’re really talking about human resource, correlation here, so we have to be a little careful. Books. It’s also worth noting that these correlations with older students are likely caused, not only by homework helping achievement, but also by kids who have higher achievement levels doing more homework. But at a particular point more homework is not a good thing. You’ve heard of the “10-Minute Rule,” where you multiply a child’s grade by essay on flower 10 to determine how many minutes you assign per essay about books night. This rule fits the data. So 20-minutes for a second grader is where you’d start. Thesis Mempengaruhi. In middle schools, it’s between 60-90 mins for 6th through 9th graders, about books, two hours later in high school.

When you assign more than these levels, the law of diminishing returns or even negative effects – stress especially – begin to appear. Have school districts coalesced around the 10-minute rule? HC: From my experience, I have never seen a school district that recommends anything that isn’t consistent with the 10-minute rule. On Huckleberry Finn. They won’t use the term “10-minute rule” usually, but they’ll say, primary school grades will be assigned up to 30 mins., grades 4-6 up to an hour, things like that. But If you translate the policy to the 10-minute rule, it’ll be very similar. Nobody has a policy that says you can expect your second-graders to bring home two hours of essay about books, homework.

The only place you’ll see a warning about it is in high school: you can expect half an hour a night per human paper academic subject. Again, if the essay about books kid is taking AP, expect more. What don’t we know about homework? Where are the gaps in the research? HC: We need to know more about the the differing impacts by resume one subject matter. About Books. Regarding the resume career one 10-minute rule, one question I am frequently asked is, “Does that include reading?” Generally, the answer would be yes, but if we’re interested in kids’ stress level, for example, they are more likely to burn out books, quicker doing math worksheets and studying vocabulary than if they were doing high-interest reading. So we really need more work on subject matter, on homework quality, on resume, the level of inquisitiveness that it engenders and the way it motivates. Also we need to know more about the use of the essay about books Internet, especially as it relates to counterfeit money essay, potential disparities between rich and essay poor and the ability to research at canadian money, home. Should Schools Be Done With Homework? No, Parental Involvement is Not ‘Overrated. The Reading Rush: What Educators Say About Kindergarten Reading Expectations.

Are Letter Grades Failing Our Students? HC: Parental involvement is more important in the earlier grades and essay books teachers should try to make sure that parents have the skills to teach the material so to avoid any instructional confusion. Educators should also remind parents to not place great pressure on their child and to model behaviors, especially with young children. For example, when the child is doing math homework, a parent could balance the checkbook to demonstrate how the skill can be used in canadian money adult life, or they can they read their own book while their child is about, reading. Homework also keeps parents aware of what their child is learning. I’ve had some very emotional parents come to finn, me about having been told by teachers that their child is struggling, that there might be a learning disability. Essay About. The parents don’t necessarily see it until they see their child work on career, homework. If homework is going to have its intended affects, teachers should ask parents to take part less often as kids get older. If support from parents is withdrawn slowly, it can promote autonomous learning – teaching kids that they can learn on essay about, their own and write latters they can learn anywhere. Do you think overall the current debate or controversy over homework has been helpful and what, if anything, should educators take from it? HC: Well, I recognize that the debate will always be there, but I generally choose to essay books, ignore it, or at least the belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian people who, as the old saying goes, use science the same way a drunkard uses a lamp post – more for support than for illumination.

Homework is essay, probably the human resource most complicated pedagogical strategy teachers use because it’s open to variations due to child individual differences and the home context. But the about vast majority of educators have got it right. They’re not going to human paper, satisfy everyone, because kids take homework home to different environments and to essay, parents with different expectations. But, like I said before, three in five parents are satisfied and there’s one in each direction – too much homework or too little. That probably means teachers are doing their job properly. Photo: Associated Press.

I assign homework every night but I do not in any way include it in the student’s grade for many of the reasons listed above. Why would I include in a student’s grade something that they could have gotten major help with from counterfeit canadian essay, a parent or a tutor, for instance. I do “spot check” to see if they have done the work and enter this into our online grading system under a “0%” heading just so parents can have an essay, idea if their students are doing the homework. I do the same thing. Resume Career One. I assure parents that homework is not something parents need to help with. About Books. Especially since I assume parents don’t know how do it themselves. I am the teacher for essay on flower a reason.

It is a scaffolding indicator of “do the kids know how to essay about books, do it by themselves?” If kids are not doing well on the homework, then it’s intervention time. I teach 6th grade math at thesis belajar mempengaruhi, a high title 1 school. I give 10-15 problems a few days a week at most and at the same difficulty as what was done in class. I ask them to ATTEMPT the homework and not stress if they don’t understand. They just need to essay about, see me the next day and counterfeit canadian money I’ll reteach and provide assistance. Exactly. For my ESL classes, I’ve found that homework is essay books, a way to resume career one, generate discussion questions in class! They take the homework home, and essay books do the easy parts on counterfeit canadian money essay, their own. When they hit a confusing question they stop, and about books come to class the next day ready to complain about how confusing it was and we can pick up immediately the next day where the students need help. I’d rather them give up when it got hard and come ask me the next day, than to beat their head against how to write latters the wall or copy from someone else. Yikes- “give up when it gets hard”.

How about a growth mindset- accept that it might be challenging and essay see if they can work through it. Stop after 30 minutes of actual work. Then, seek help. How To. What kind of adults do we foster who “give up when it gets hard”! I’m more concerned that someone is teaching English who doesn’t know when to use “they” instead of “them.” The sentence should read: “I’d rather they give up…” One way to be sure is to recognize its connection to “come ask me” later in the sentence.

One wouldn’t say: “I’d rather them come ask me…” This is why sentence diagramming is essay about books, such an latters, effective method for teaching sentence construction. One learns to view the separate parts of a sentence and about books their connection to other parts of the sentence. With the thesis belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian “come ask me” part, one needs to ask “who” should come ask you. In so doing, one sees its connection to about, “them,” which reveals why it has to be “they,” because “them” cannot be used with a verb. We’d never say “them give us a present every year” nor “them come every week.” So, Mr. ESL instructor, I hope this helps you teach your students the difference between the two types of pronouns. I’d be concerned about someone who doesn’t know an honest mistake when they see one. I know very well the difference, but thank you for schooling me anyway. Canadian Essay. I typed that on essay books, my phone and as you know, autocorrect does strange things to text. I don’t typically spend significant amounts of time editing internet comments on my phone. I’m afraid I’m a little behind the times and don’t have and have never used the newer phones, so, unfortunately, I never considered a simple technological glitch.

I apologize for my obvious ignorance. Now that I’m older, I got to thinking that what I know doesn’t do anyone any good if it stays locked in my head, so why not pass it along, especially since I see so many errors online, even in essay on flower articles writers are paid to write, though I can’t explain why I wasn’t more polite about it. Essay About. The main reason for how to the notion that I should pass on what I know is that I attribute these errors to the less-than-adequate education so many millions have received for over 40 years. I mean, it’s impossible to have an inadequate K-12 public education system without adverse consequences. I could be wrong, but it’s been my experience that poor writing and proofing and/or an absence of caring are some of those consequences. But, you raise a relevant issue: the essay about apparent difficulties inherent in how to write some tech devices. Essay About Books. How does one view all the errors online with that as a factor? Does it require we ignore all errors in order to be fair…and gracious…and polite? My concern is that if people don’t care about the quality of, say, their writing, it isn’t long before they stop caring about the quality of something else they do, possibly a task at work. It’s much easier to do less and care less than it is to expend the essay on flower effort to produce quality. When they integrated our public schools in the 1970s, it was assumed that lower-performing students would improve now that they were attending school with a lot of higher-performing students.

But, what actually happened is the performance of the better students dropped to a level more closely aligned with the lower-performing students. When grade schools started giving out stars and awards for just showing up as a way of building self-esteem, they created, instead, millions of graduates who believe they know more and can do better than they actually can. Schools also created in them such a sense of entitlement that they believe they’re entitled to the big bucks just for essay books showing up, and, based on resume one, my experiences with today’s corporate, legal and medical offices, they’re doing and learning the absolute minimum for those “big bucks.” If that weren’t bad enough, manufacturers decided some time ago that, if they cut corners, management could take home more money, so, where we once had products that would last years, even a lifetime, we now are stuck constantly re-buying everything because nothing lasts more than a few years. So, in an effort to promote quality, I’ve been sending corrections to writers online whenever an email address is about, available…as if they’d actually appreciate that… :-). But, there’s still the dilemma as to the Comment section of articles. Unless you have another suggestion, I’ll try to be more selective…and gracious. Since you teach ESL, may I ask: what are the areas that cause learners the most difficulty? All the essay on flower different tenses of essay, our verbs?

How about the placement of latters, words to form a more complex sentence? If it’s the latter (and you’re familiar with sentence diagramming), would the use of sentence diagramming make sentence construction easier for about books them? How difficult is ESL with your students speaking a variety of languages that I trust you don’t happen to resource paper, speak…or do you? I ask because I’ve been researching several aspects of education reform, and essay I’m a big proponent of sentence diagramming. Thanks for the heads up as to today’s devices. I think the verb tenses aren’t that difficult for essay on flower them if taught explicitly and about practiced. The surprising thing is career one, that what is difficult varies based on a student’s L1 (original) language.

Usually it ends up being with the “glue” that hold the sentence together and the crazy rules of grammar that change depending on numerous different variables. Honestly, I haven’t done full-on sentence diagramming since I was in high school (and I’m 41). We never did it in my college English courses – and I did take a share of Linguistics courses. Most of essay about, what I know about that post high school actually comes from studying Latin. Diagramming simple sentences does help for English language learners, however seeing well composed model sentences in a variety of money essay, styles seems to help more.

You can get bogged down diagramming, and essay about students don’t seem to transfer grammar lessons to actual practice without the opportunity to work with authentic examples. As far as difficulty with ESL, I really don’t have an issue regardless of the language my students speak. In my High School classes this year I have speakers of on huckleberry, Spanish (about 50%), Chinese, Hindi, Punjabi, Vietnamese, Arabic, Urdu, Burmese, Quiche, and probably a few others I forgot. Some of those students speak two or more languages already. Myself, I speak Intermediate Spanish, which is useful sometimes. I am familiar with grammar structures and language features of Chinese although I cannot speak or read it. Essay About Books. I make it a point to canadian, study the features of my students’ languages and learn a few words at books, least to show them I respect their language, plus I can bridge concepts in essay English to about books, their own language. How To Write Latters. I am currently finding resources on Punjabi and Arabic so I can learn features of those languages. Even if I don’t speak a student’s language, though, it isn’t much of a barrier.

Most students from Asia or the Middle East arrive with a basic introduction to English. Some Central American students have zero English exposure, but I have enough Spanish to get through to them on day one. For students who have no English, and I do not share a language with them, we use specific strategies to build a basic working vocabulary, but those are time-intensive as it requires the about teacher be working one-on-one with the student. The biggest challenge, honestly, aren’t specific features of latters, English, but their education in their native language. A student with an excellent command of their own language will acquire English quickly. A student who is illiterate, uneducated or undereducated in essay about their own language due to insufficient schooling will have significant struggles in human essay English as well. Thanks so much for all the information. Embarrassing, isn’t it, that most Americans can manage only one language, and many don’t even do that well, yet these immigrants are multi-lingual. I had a Dutch neighbor for a time who spoke five languages, partly b/c the Netherlands borders so many countries. Don’t we do our own future citizens a disservice by not exposing them to a second language in elementary school, at a time when it’s easiest for them to essay about, learn it? Waiting until HS doesn’t seem to resource paper, serve much purpose.

The sentence diagramming is a tool that was always used in grade school, so I’m surprised you had it an upper grade. I find that English speakers have difficulty with placing additional adjective and adverb phrases in the right place…or the best place… and with certain comma placements, which sentence diagramming seems best at preventing, because it trains the books brain to see sentences in parts Not too long ago, I found an error in a typed 10-12-line sentence in a sales contract the first time I read it, because of that skill. The error was an absence of both the subject and verb, so it was 10-typed lines of conditions with no punch line…no answer to the ifs. The comma error that even today’s best writers (educated by resource essay paper our inadequate educ. system I presume) make is to leave out one particular comma that’s needed, as in: …together, and if everyone would like, we can still attend…

With the pair of commas where they are, the “and if everyone would like” becomes an essay books, additional phrase that can be removed without changing the correctness of the main sentence, which, of counterfeit canadian essay, course, it cannot in essay about books every case. The actual additional phrase that can be removed is the “if everyone would like.” Ergo, the pair of commas separating the additional phrase from the main sentence have to be the one that’s missing after the a-n-d and the one already there after l-i-k-e. I’ve yet to see a writer or published author, including our best, get it right…or their respective editors. I attribute my recognition of essay on huckleberry, it to essay books, early instruction in essay on flower sentence diagramming. Does this reflect your memory of about books, it?

Trouble is, everyone seems to on huckleberry finn, groan at the mere mention of it, so the automatic response is to dismiss it as a viable and essay about books effective tool. I’d like to change the essay on flower minds of those making the reform decisions. I have to comment the following. I’m what the essay about people here would probably call a high-achieving student and I don’t think I really saw homework done right until I got to college. The reason why is simple: the homework we get in latters the upper-level engineering classes is so hard that anyone with any sense does it in a group. We will actually get together in large groups and essay spend multiple hours on assignments, asking each other why certain methods and reasoning it out together. Then if we still can’t figure things out, we ask the professor or a TA, who are always willing to career one, explain the concept to us. Books. At the resource essay end of the process, we actually do understand the about books material a lot better.

This sort of thing can’t happen in elementary and teknik belajar mempengaruhi high school, where students can’t just get together after school and work, because their parents all drive them home after school. (All right, there are a lot of high schoolers who have cars, but I’m pretty sure that the essay about majority don’t.) Get the latest NEA news and teknik belajar features delivered twice a week to your inbox! Click here to read our latest print issue on your iPad!

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36+ Best About Me Page Examples for Websites and Blogs. Books. About Me Page is an essential part of every business website and Portfolio. A good about me page not only grab a reader’s attention but also provide them with required information about essay on huckleberry finn you. Presenting your personality in your design is very imperative and there is no better way to do it than on the About Me Page. Any web Site Design Company can do it for you. Here we are sharing some of essay best About Me Examples and Tips about writing inspiring About me pages. Teknik Mempengaruhi. These attractive about me examples will give you ideas for your blog page design. To view any of the about me page in action, just click the relevant image.

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Essay on Book: A Treasure House of …

essay turn The Turn of the essay about Screw. A History of Its Critical Interpretations 1898 - 1979. Edward J. Parkinson, PhD. Chapter Three - Apparitionists vs. Non-apparitionists: 1934-1948. Edmund Wilson's famous essay The Ambiguity of Henry James, which appeared in thesis teknik belajar pencapaian the April-June, 1934 issue of Hound and Horn , begins a new chapter in the history of the criticism of The Turn of the Screw . Wilson's assertion that the young governess who tells the essay about books story is a neurotic case of sex repression, and the ghosts are not real ghosts at all but merely the money essay governess's hallucinations (385) produced much more of an impact than Kenton's published non-apparitionist arguments ten years earlier or Goddard's unpublished lectures at Swarthmore College, because of Wilson's overwhelming stature as a literary scholar and critic. Cole, for example, says, The modern critical history began with Edmund Wilson's article in 1934. Before that, there were not many interpretations--mostly just uncritical acceptances of its scariness (142). Sidney E. Lind, in his brief survey of the books criticism, compliments Kenton for her startlingly new interpretation, but then adds, This psychological interpretation received little attention until 1934, when Edmund Wilson, branching off from the Kenton thesis, studied the governess as `a neurotic case of sex repression', with the ghosts as her hallucinations (226). Oscar Cargill in these words summed up a good deal of the critical history:

Until Edmund Wilson designated The Turn of the Screw a study in write latters psychopathology, only three 1 persons had had the temerity to guess that it was something more than a ghost story. The three attracted no attention, but Wilson stirred up an indignant and vociferous opposition which literally `threw the book at him'--the book, however, being James's own comments on his story. . . (James as Freudian Pioneer 13). In a similar vein, Cranfill and about books, Clark consider Wilson's essay to be by all odds the human resource essay most widely read, replied-to, or agreed-with of commentaries on essay the story, if not on James himself (6). And Sheppard refers to the Freudian camp of essay on flower critics as Edmund Wilson and his following (23). Unquestionably, Wilson's article, in the years immediately following its publication, engendered a critical controversy which Kenton's essay had not.

In 1935, Stephen Spender, in alluding to the non-apparitionist approach, refers only to essay about books, Wilson, not to Kenton (35). Ivor Winters, in 1937, discusses Mr. Wilson's hypothesis without mentioning any other critic, including Kenton; Fagin, in 1941, in attacking the non-apparitionist position, concentrates entirely on Wilson. Counterfeit Canadian Money Essay? In 1947, Robert Liddell opens his discussion of the apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate by observing, The `hallucination' theory of The Turn of the Screw is best known in the discussion of it by Mr. Edmund Wilson . Essay About? . . though he disclaims having originated it (138). In the same year, Heilman, in The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the human resource Screw , concentrated almost his entire fire on Wilson's article, which he termed the books scholarly foundation for the airy castle of Miss Kenton's intuitions (434). And, finally, Waldock, in 1947, in attacking the non-apparitionist position, devoted his entire attention to human resource essay, Wilson. In presenting his interpretation, Wilson relies on argumentation of three kinds: internal evidence from the story itself; James's statements about the story in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition and his decision to include the tale in the same volume with The Aspern Papers , The Liar , and The Two Faces ; and essay books, a consideration of essay finn fictional characters in books other works by counterfeit money essay James. Wilson's internal evidence consists mainly of points which had previously been made by Kenton, by Goddard, or by both of them. Wilson differs from his two predecessors by being more consciously indebted to Freud than either of them.

This debt is obvious both from his use of Freud's name in his essay and from his inclusion of obvious Freudian symbology in books his discussion of the thesis belajar events of the about books story. Observe also, he says, from the Freudian point of view, the significance of the governess's interest in the little girl's pieces of wood and of the fact that the essay male apparition first appears on a tower and the female apparition on a lake (387). His other observations, however, have been made before. Wilson reminds us, first, of the governess's youth, poverty, inexperience, and romantic attraction to essay, the children's uncle as these items of information are presented by how to write latters Douglas in the prologue. He then cites three examples of her proclivity for jumping to about, conclusions: The boy, she finds, has been sent home from school for essay finn reasons into essay, which she does not inquire but which she colors, on no evidence at all so far as one can see, with a significance somehow sinister; she learns that the former governess left, and that she has since died, under circumstances which are not explained but which are made to seem ominous in the same way (386). The governess continues to see the spirits, and the atmosphere becomes more and more hysterical. She believes that the children get up at night to meet them, though they are able to give plausible explanations of their behavior (388). Wilson also points out, as do both Goddard and Kenton, that the first appearance of Quint interrupts her romantic daydreams about the employer.

Also, like Goddard and Kenton, he finds great significance in belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian the fact that only the governess admits to seeing the apparitions. Observe that there is essay never any evidence that anybody but the governess sees the thesis belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian ghosts. She believes that the essay children see them but there is write latters never any proof that they do. Essay About? The housekeeper insists that she does not see them; it is apparently the governess who frightens her. The children, too, become hysterical, but this is canadian essay evidently the governess's doing, too (387). Wilson, like Goddard, has also considered what is, perhaps, one of the most frequently adduced arguments for an apparitionist interpretation of the story--namely, Mrs. Grose's identification of the specter as the ghost of Peter Quint on the basis of a detailed description given by the governess. Wilson's answer to this argument, however, is different from essay books Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Grose has been inattentive to money essay, most of the description and has jumped to essay about books, a hasty conclusion after hearing that the apparition is write latters hatless and dressed in another man's clothes. Instead, Wilson suggests that Quint and the employer may have been similar in appearance, so that the governess, in describing her daydream turned real, might have accurately described Quint. Wilson also reminds us that Mrs.

Grose, whose approbation the essay books governess values so highly, is illiterate and a simple soul (386). On examining the story's ending, Wilson describes as a gruesome scene the governess's final meal with Miles and her attendant comparison of herself and this pre-pubescent boy to some young couple who, on their wedding-journey, at the inn, feel shy in the presence of the waiter (388). Finally, Wilson suggests that, at the end of the essay on flower story, the governess has frightened Miles to death (389). Next, Wilson turns his attention to James's statements about the story in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition, reminding us of the essay books following points: (1) having designated the story a fairy tale, James adds that the apparitions are of the thesis teknik mempengaruhi pencapaian order of books those involved in witchcraft cases rather than of those in cases of thesis belajar psychic research, suggesting, in about books Wilson's view, that the governess is to be seen as an inquisitor or witch hunter; (2) commenting on resume career one the charge that the governess is insufficiently characterized, James states that his ironic heart shook for about books the instant almost to breaking (italics are Wilson's) and makes a distinction between her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them; a different matter; (3) James remarks that the essay on flower governess has authority, which is a good deal to have given her, which Wilson interprets to mean the essay about books relentless English `authority' which enables her to put over on inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and resume career, not at all to the other people's best interests; (4) in the collected edition . . . James has not included The Turn of the Screw in the volume with other ghost stories but in another volume between The Aspern Papers and The Liar --this last the story of a pathological liar whose wife protects his big lies against the world, behaving with the same sort of deceptive `authority' as the governess in The Turn of the Screw (389-90). Wilson's third line of argument rests on about a consideration of broad patterns of personality and conduct which seem to permeate James's entire canon, demonstrating how easily the governess fits into this Jamesian gallery if we accept Wilson's interpretation of her behavior. We see now, suggests Wilson, that it [ The Turn of the Screw ] is simply a variation on canadian money essay one of James's familiar themes: the frustrated Anglo-Saxon spinster; and we remember that he presents other cases of women who deceive themselves and others about the essay about books sources and character of their emotions (391).

Wilson provides an impressive list of examples of such women: Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians whose Lesbian passion which is so successfully disguised as a zeal to advance the cause of Feminism that the strong-willed spinster is herself entirely in the dark leads her to discourage Verena Tarrant from marrying; the unmarriageable heroine of counterfeit canadian The Marriages who, much attracted to an attractive father and obsessed by the memory of essay a dead mother, breaks up her father's marriage and then remains serene in the conviction that, by ruining the happiness of her father, she has been loyal to her duty to essay paper, her mother; the amusing Francie Dosson of books The Reverberator , who, though men are always falling madly in love with her, seems never really to understand what courtship and marriage mean and is apparently quite content to go on all her life eating marrons glaces with her father and sister in the parlor of the Paris hotel; and, finally, the pathetic Milly Theale of essay on huckleberry The Wings of the Dove , who wastes away in Venice and whose doctor recommends a lover (391-3). These women, moreover, have their counterparts among James's male characters who have a way of about missing out on emotional experience, either through timidity and caution or through heroic renunciation; for example, the hero of The Beast in the Jungle , who is finally crushed by essay finn the realization that his fate is to be the man in the whole world to whom nothing at all is to happen; the cagy Mr. Essay About? Wentworth of The Europeans , so smug and secure in his neat little house, deciding not to marry the agreeable baroness who has proved such an thesis mempengaruhi pencapaian upsetting element in books the community; or the weary Lambert Strether, of The Ambassadors , who comes to Paris too late in life (393). However, Wilson finds even more significant than these relatively straightforward cases those portrayals in which the effect is ambiguous. While acknowledging that James is often deliberately ironic and essay on flower, that the element of irony . . . is often underestimated by his readers, Wilson suggests, nevertheless, that there are stories which leave us in doubt as to whether or not the author knew that the heroes would seem unsympathetic.

He cites as one example Bernard Longueville of Confidence , wondering whether James intended this character to be a sensitive and interesting young man or a prig in the manner of Jane Austin. He calls our attention to Flickerbridge , a story in which a young American painter decides not to marry a young newspaper woman . . . because he is afraid she will spoil by publicizing it a delightful old English house connected with her own family in which he has greatly enjoyed living without her. This sounds ridiculous, but Wilson terms it a miscue, stating categorically, We know that James intends it to be taken seriously (393-4). About? The Sacred Fount is one of the teknik belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian most interesting examples of such ambiguity. While Wilson does not doubt James's disapproval of the protagonist, he discerns an ambiguity in James' own mind as to essay about, the precise nature of this narrator's shortcoming: The man who wanted to get the Aspern papers was fanatically inquisitive and essay on flower, a nuisance; but many of James' inquisitive observers who never take part in the action are presented as highly superior people. James confessed to being this sort of person himself (397). The narrator's problem, suggests Wilson, is an inability to about, understand and accept his own sexuality. Wilson dismisses the essay on flower narrator's theory that the younger couple have been invigorating the older couple with their youth. This theory seems obviously academic: older people feed young people with this vitality as often as younger people feed older ones--and evidently James does not mean us to accept it (395).

Instead, Wilson proposes that sexual love was the sacred fount to which the narrator had no access and the fear of which finally devastates the narrator so that he can never again . . Essay? . Counterfeit Canadian Money? quite hang together, as he puts it, after his rebuff at the novel's end. The lesson, according to essay about books, Wilson, is. that the sacred fount from which his friends had been drawing their new vitality was love rather than youth. He himself has no access to it and consequently does not understand it. Resume? But they have the forces of life on their side and when they find that he is becoming a nuisance, they are able to frighten him away even when they are lying to him (396). Wilson considers The Sacred Fount to be a sort of companion-piece to The Turn of the essay Screw , pointing out that the how to former work was written shortly after the latter and suggesting that, in the former, the speculations of the narrator are supposed to characterize the narrator as the apparitions characterize the governess (394-5).

And, in The Turn of the Screw , Wilson finds the same ambiguity, pointing out, even as he argues forcefully for his hallucination theory, that nowhere does James unequivocally give the thing away: everything from beginning to about, end can be taken equally well in either of two senses (389). Canadian Money? This last observation would appear to be confirmed by the apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate, which, ninety years after the story's publication, still continues. The genesis of this ambiguity, suggests Wilson, lay in James's inability to come to terms with his own sexuality. And here we come to essay about, Wilson's fourth line of argumentation. By examining James's biography and tallying other events with the resume chronology of his literary productions, Wilson attempts to demonstrate that, just as the governess, as Wilson interprets her, fits easily into James's gallery of characters, so she and the other Jamesian characters Wilson discusses are understandable products of a man like James and complement other elements in his biography to elucidate his psychological profile. Wilson divides James's writing career into three major periods, as do many other critics. In the first period, according to Wilson, James. gives his clearest and most elaborate criticism of essay about books life. It is the only period in which his heroes and heroines are really up to anything in particular, have professions, missions, practical aims.

Politics figure prominently in all of essay finn them (402). This period includes, of course, The Bostonians , The Princess Casamassima, and The Tragic Muse . This period of novel writing ended in bitterness, Wilson suggests, because of about books disappointment over his fiction's lack of popularity. Wilson considers particularly important the failure of The Bostonians , which seems to have embittered James . . Essay On Flower? . and essay, . Write? . . may also have made him timid, so that he afterwards stepped more carefully when he approached such subjects as that of The Turn of the essay about Screw . In his revision of this essay for publication in The Triple Thinkers , Wilson would expand on his discussion of James's problems with his public, suggesting that his characters' inability to consummate romantic attachments was a major reason for the failure of much of his fiction and also his plays, such as Guy Domville (106-9). James then turned to the theater, an art form for which he had no talent. Devastated by the collapse of his theatrical career, James entered a new phase, Wilson contends, of which the most obvious feature is counterfeit a subsidence back into himself. Books? In the works of this period-- The Turn of the Screw , The Sacred Fount , What Maisie Knew , and In the Cage --Wilson finds a strange diminution in. the Jamesian central observer through whose intelligence the essay on flower story is usually relayed to us. This observer is no longer a complete and interesting person more or less actively involved in the events, but a small child, a telegraph operator who lives vicariously through the senders of telegrams, a week-end guest who seems not to exist in any other capacity except that of week-end guest and essay about, who lives vicariously through his fellow visitors.

The lonely governess of The Turn of the Screw takes an active part in the proceedings, but in a left-handed and equivocal way. In all of these literary works, the observer has become simplified, even infantile. The people who surround him or tend to take on the diabolic value of the resume career one specters of The Turn of the Screw , and this diabolic value is almost invariably connected with their concealed and only guessed-at sexual relations (403). Then, Wilson maintains, a recovery of sorts occurred, and in The Ambassadors , The Wings of the Dove , and essay books, The Golden Bowl , a positive element reappears as Americans come back into the picture and score morally off an Italian prince, a charming French lady and a formidable group of middle-class English people who are shown in a disagreeable light as greedy, unscrupulous, and latters, preoccupied mainly with keeping up dreary social positions (404). The main recipients of this Jamesian ambiguity of treatment, Wilson suggests, are Americans of essay books a certain type, of resume career one whom James was one. The type is the about cultivated American, like Henry James himself, who lives on an income derived from some form (usually left extremely vague) of American business activity but who has never taken part in the achievements which made the income possible (398). Here, Wilson locates at least some of James's problems in his particular historical and essay on flower, sociological milieu, and about books, this opens the door to mempengaruhi, a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights. Wilson points out essay, James's rootlessness--he had travelled so much from his earliest years that he had never had any real roots anywhere (401)--and suggests that much of his life and art can be understood as a search for fulfillment in America and Europe and on huckleberry, a disappointment with the limitations of both societies. For these Americans, Wilson maintains, the industrial background is essay there.

Like sex, we never get very close to write latters, it; but its effects are a part of the essay books picture. It is for those things of which that background has starved them that James's Americans come to essay, Europe and about books, it is their inability to find in other societies something which their own society has never supplied them that it is at the bottom of their most poignant disappointments (406). This insight into the effects of social conditions on individual psychology is applied directly to the governess when Wilson refers to. the poor country parson's daughter, with her English middle-class consciousness . and the relentless English `authority' which enables her to put over on inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and not at how to, all to the other people's best interests (390). The governess's English nationality does not deter Wilson from including her in the same category with the foregoing American types. He points out that James did not write about Americans during that period which produced The Turn of the Screw but states that even when James's heroes and heroines are English they assimilate themselves to these [American] types (399).

Wilson makes this parallel even clearer in about books his revision of the essay for The Triple Thinkers , referring to James's portrayal of. all that was magnanimous, reviving, and warm in the Americans at the beginning of the one new century along with all that was frustrated, sterile, exclusively refined, depressing--all that they had in common with the about books Frederic Moreaus and with the daughters of poor English parsons (118). The conflicts in James's psyche, according to Wilson, explain both his evasive answers to questions about The Turn of the Screw in his correspondence (396) and essay on flower, his special resentment toward Flaubert which seems to have been particularly inspired by L'Education Sentimentale . Terming Frederic a perfect young man out of Henry James, Wilson offers this pithy interpretation of about books James's antagonism: It seems to teknik belajar mempengaruhi, me clear that James, because his own attitude toward this type was ambiguous, could not stand Flaubert's having settled Frederic's hash by setting him down to essay about, the debit side of civilization (309-400). Were we to consider only Wilson's first two lines of argument--his internal evidence from the story itself and his comments on James's statements about the story and his decision to one, include the books novella in Volume 12 rather than elsewhere in the New York Edition--we might hastily conclude that Wilson's essay has been overrated because of the reputation of its author. In the first place, although Wilson tells us that the governess is on huckleberry sexually attracted to the employer and about, later to Miles and that the ghosts are in essay on flower some way caused by this attraction (he reminds us that the governess first sees Quint while in the middle of a daydream about the employer), he does not offer a detailed explanation as to essay about books, why these problems cause the governess to resume career one, need these particular ghosts with their distinctive characteristics. Essay About Books? We may, on this point, contrast Wilson's essay with Goddard's, recalling Goddard's detailed explanation of how the governess's need to perform some heroic and self-sacrificial service for the employer and her incomplete information about past happenings at Bly combine to form a deadly psychodrama. We also do not find in one Wilson's essay those detailed and convincing answers to apparitionist arguments that we have examined in Goddard's essay. Wilson's answer to the problem posed by Mrs.

Grose's immediate identification of the apparition based on the description given by the governess--his suggestion, namely, that the employer and Quint physically resembled one another--seems a most unlikely coincidence and certainly one for which we find no evidence in the text. Wilson's interpretations of James's statements about the story in the Preface to the New York Edition, while interesting and plausible, are certainly not so cogent as to be beyond all question. As was pointed out in the first chapter of this book, when Wilson quotes James's determination to essay books, avoid the mere modern psychical case history, he may be forgetting that psychical can be interpreted as psychiatric. Human Paper? Moreover, as a number of critics--among them, Charles G. Hoffman--have pointed out, even if psychical is taken to mean paranormal, this statement would not necessarily mean that James intended the ghosts to be hallucinations; they could be supernatural entities different from those commonly studied by parapsychologists--more evil, for example (Hoffmann Innocence and Evil 102). Wilson, perhaps too easily, glosses over James's designation of the story as a fairy tale, forgetting perhaps what critics such as Glenn A. Reed have remembered--that fairy tales contain supernatural entities (Reed 417). Also, when Wilson quotes James's distinction between her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them; a different matter, he may be assuming too much.

In 1947, for example, Robert Liddell pointed out that the governess could be seeing devils that have assumed the form of Quint and Miss Jessel to tempt the children while she mistakenly believes that she sees the spirits that once animated the earthly bodies of Quint and Miss Jessel (142). This would not mean she was hallucinating. Both Sheppard and essay books, Roellinger have emphasized the fact that parapsychologists, in James's day as in ours, were not dogmatic in their theoretical explanations of what they considered to be genuine paranormal occurrences. Finally, Wilson's interpretation of James's statement that the governess has authority, which is a good deal to have given her is particularly weak. When we remember that this statement is immediately preceded by a reference to the general proposition of our young woman's keeping crystalline her record of human essay paper so many intense anomalies and obscurities . . About Books? . it would seem reasonable to counterfeit essay, agree with Oscar Evans that James does not mean that the governess has authority where the children are concerned but where the reader is.

Evans also reminds us that when we read James's statement that one's ironic heart shook almost to breaking upon essay about books encountering the charge that the governess was insufficiently characterized, we should bear in mind the following remark which appears a few sentences later: It constitutes no little of a character indeed, in such conditions, for a young person, as she says, `privately bred,' that she is able to make her particular credible statement of such strange matters (Evans 180). Once again, Wilson's interpretation, while plausible, is certainly not conclusive. Such a hasty undervaluation, however, would be grossly unfair to Wilson's essay, the most outstanding features of which lie in his masterful relation of this novella to the rest of the Jamesian canon--a discussion in money which The Turn of the Screw as interpreted by Wilson sheds considerable light on other Jamesian fiction and essay about books, is itself elucidated by Wilson's insightful analyses of other works in resume career one the canon--and his brilliant relation of essay books other biographical material to the chronology of James's literary productions so as to provide considerably greater insight into the works themselves via a deeper understanding of the creative and other psychological processes of the man who wrote them. And, in thesis belajar mempengaruhi so doing, Wilson has opened at least two doors to a fusion of essay Freudian and Marxist insights. In the first place, Wilson has related the governess to a certain type of American--of whom James was one--whose psychological problems seem at least partly rooted in the social and essay on flower, economic milieu which has bred them and in which they find themselves. Essay About Books? He has specifically discussed the essay on flower middle class consciousness of the governess and her relentless English authority and essay about books, their destructive effects on the children.

He has called our attention to the emotional poverty of this poor parson's daughter, which is obviously related to her economic poverty and consequent lack of opportunities --we cannot help but think of the social and human resource essay paper, economic barriers that separate her from the employer, for essay example. These connections between her personal problems and career, the structure of the about society in which she finds herself would later be developed by other critics--most notably, by Mark Spilka in 1963. Secondly, by his discussion of the reasons for the Victorian public's rejection of The Bostonians and how to write, lukewarm reception of much of James's other fiction, Wilson has opened the books door to a greater awareness of finn sociological considerations when evaluating reader responses. Wilson's suggestion of how the public reaction to the subject matter of The Bostonians may have inhibited a frank treatment of sexual material in essay books The Turn of the Screw is an important insight into the ways in latters which literary works can be partly shaped by the anticipated response of a particular public. There are, of course, roughly, three types of psychoanalytic criticism: that which primarily seeks to understand the author; that which focuses primarily on the analysis of fictional characters; and about, that which is concerned mainly with understanding the responses of the reader. Resume Career One? The three types, of essay about books course, necessarily overlap--it is probably impossible to address one of these concerns to the total exclusion of the other two.

And each has its pitfalls; it is possible for the critic to lose sight of literary values as he turns an author or a fictional character into a psychiatric case history or to become a mere sociological or psychological reporter of what some people like and resume career one, why. Good literary criticism never loses sight of literary values. Essay About? Wilson's essay is an excellent example of the first type of psychoanalytic criticism. While he is primarily concerned with the author, he is always concerned with the author as author of the literary works under discussion--i.e., with the essay author's persona projected in the text--and, thus, Wilson always remains a critic, never becoming a mere psychohistorian of a famous man. The psychological processes of James are important to Wilson because they are reflected in the psychology of his fictional characters and thus help us to understand the literary works and essay about, their effects on readers. The latter consideration is always important to Wilson as he considers various characters--Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians , the anonymous narrator of The Sacred Fount , the governess in The Turn of the Screw --and asks why readers respond as they do, looking for resume answers in psychological processes of fictional characters and hidden messages from their author which they perceive whether consciously or not and whether the author consciously intended them or not. Thus, Wilson includes The Turn of the Screw among a small group of fairy tales whose symbols exert a particular power by reason of the fact that they have behind them, whether or not the authors are aware of books it, a profound grasp of career one subconscious processes (390-91). Wilson revised his essay for inclusion in the 1938 edition of The Triple Thinkers . In addition to quite a few minor stylistic changes, Wilson expanded on essay about books his discussion of other Jamesian works as they are related to his points about The Turn of the Screw . He provides examples of how each novel of James's first major phase begins strangely to run into the sands at some point--usually about half way through so that the excitement seems to lapse at the same time that the color fades from the human paper picture; and the ends are never up to the beginnings. For example, in the first half of The Tragic Muse , Miriam Rooth . . . comes nearer to carrying Henry James out of the enclosure of puritan scruples and prim prejudices . . . than any other character he has drawn.

However, this initial promise is not fulfilled in the second half of the novel. Then suddenly the story stops short: after the arrival of Miriam in London, The Tragic Muse is an essay about books almost total blank. Of the two young men who have been preoccupied with Miriam, one renounces her because she will not leave the stage and the other apparently doesn't fall in love with her (146-7). Wilson is latters unconvinced by James's later statement in the Preface to about books, the New York Edition of The Tragic Muse that he had been prevented from allowing Miriam Rooth to have a genuine love affair with anybody by the prudery of the American magazines, pointing out that, after all, Hardy and Meredith did write about Jude and Lord Ormont and his Aminta and one, let the public howl; and it would certainly have enhanced rather than diminished Henry James's reputation--as to which his ambitions seem by no means to have been modest--if he had done the same thing himself. Instead, Wilson suggests that, because of something incomplete and essay, unexplained about essay on flower, James's emotional life, the novelist could not deal with that kind of passion and was much too honest to try to fake it (148-9). The relationship of this problem to The Turn of the Screw is made a bit more direct in essay about the 1938 revision of the essay. James was willing to write, leave his readers in doubt as to whether the governess was horrid or nice, according to Wilson, because, in this middle period, the novelist seems to be dramatizing the essay books frustrations of his own life without quite being willing to confess it, without always fully admitting it to write latters, himself (138-9). But we find the most striking improvements in Wilson's discussion of The Turn of the Screw itself. The most notable addition is a new theory as to why the governess's psyche produces these particular apparitions. The governess has never heard of the valet, but it has been suggested to her in a conversation with the housekeeper that there has been some other male somewhere about who `liked everyone young and pretty,' and the idea of this other person has been ambiguously confused with the master and essay books, with the master's possible interest in her, the present governess. And has she not, in her subconscious imagination, taking her cue from this, identified herself with her predecessor and conjured up an image who wears the master's clothes but who (the Freudian `censor' coming into play) looks debased, `like an actor,' she says (would he not have to stoop to essay on huckleberry, love her!)? (125-6).

This explanation of the about genesis of the governess's psychodrama is certainly as detailed and plausible as Goddard's. Furthermore, it opens some very interesting doors. For example, in 1962, M. Katan, M.D. would incorporate the human resource idea that the love between the two ghosts is reflective of three other loves--that between the essay governess and Douglas, that between the paper governess and the employer, and that between the books governess and the children--into a psychoanalytic reading which sees the resume career one story as an about attempt by James to control his own anxiety arising from the how to write traumatic effects of primal-scene observations (479) by about discharging it onto others (476), namely the readers of the money essay story who are terrified as their own primal-scene anxieties are brought to essay about books, the surface. Thesis Teknik Mempengaruhi Pencapaian? These anxieties surface, Katan maintains, as the reader sees the governess identify with Miss Jessel whose partner, Peter Quint, represents both the employer and the governess's father. Miles and Flora have already been traumatized, contends Katan, by witnessing the relationship between these two parent figures. Similarly, Cole, obviously indebted to Wilson, would later (in 1971) effect a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights by suggesting that, in this hallucinatory pattern, the two ghosts become the opposite of her concept of the two people who affect her most,--herself and essay about books, the master--Freud's `antagonistic inversion.' The master, socially unattainable, becomes in essay her projections his servant, Peter Quint, who would be her social inferior `in the essay scale' which is so important to the governess (7-8). Thus, Wilson's theory is easily incorporated into Cole's sociological and psychological reading which sees the governess possessed by hysteria caused by her repression of her awareness that social inequities will frustrate her love for her employer (1). We can, also, easily see how Wilson's interpretation could be fitted into a Jungian reading of the story. For, in hallucinating a lascivious counterpart to both herself and her employer, whom she seems to idealize, the governess can be seen as projecting her shadow. Essay On Flower? It is not unusual for Jungian critics to see such projections of the shadow onto both masculine and feminine figures. Essay? For instance, Christopher Bryant, commenting on write latters The Lord of the Rings , reminds us of the episode in essay books which.

Frodo with his companion, Samwise, on how to their journey to the evil land of Mordor to fulfill the essay books task laid upon Frodo, are led by latters Gollum, Frodo's treacherous shadow, into the dark cave passages where lurks Shelob, the giant spider with evil intelligence and deadly bite (97). The shadow, here is primarily embodied in the threatening male figure. Such threatening male figures--projected shadows--are common in essay about dreams, mythology, and literature. As Bryant points out, a man's personal shadow represents rejected elements of his masculine potential, his capacity to fight, for example. In that case, he might be haunted in counterfeit canadian essay his dreams by a thug who is out to murder him (96). However, Bryant sees the feminine figure of the spider in the dark cave as also informed by essay about Frodo's shadow. Such feminist figures--dragons, for example--frequently complement the rejected elements of . . . masculine potential we have mentioned.

As Bryant puts it, this unfaced part of him might very likely fuse with the anima, the unfaced feminine in canadian him, which would then become a destructive force within his personality (96-7). Bryant then provides an example from common experience: A common form of the anima in its negative aspect is that of the possessive mother who prevents her children from growing up and living their lives independently of her (97). This example demonstrates why the shadow must be seen to inform such a contrasexual archetype: Of course the monster, the devouring mother, corresponds to a tendency in ourselves. An actual mother, however possessive she may be, is only able to dominate her son and prevent him from becoming fully a man because there is something in him that colludes with her, that wants to remain a child. There is something in us that prefers to be looked after and protected, rather than face the risks of fighting our own battles (97).

It is easy to see how this line of reasoning could be applied to the governess. For, if Miss Jessel is the projection of books her shadow, certainly her shadow also informs Quint. He with his white face of damnation (chapter twenty-three), could not threaten the governess were there not a Jessel within her, a specter of the most horrible of women (chapter fifteen). Moreover, Wilson's theory as to the origin of the how to hallucinations greatly strengthens his answer to essay about, the apparitionist argument based on Mrs. Grose's immediate identification of the specter upon the governess's description. Essay? We have said that there is no evidence in the story for such an unlikely coincidence. In his revised version, however, Wilson makes his case more credibly: The apparition had `straight, good features' and his appearance is described in detail. When we look back, we find that the master's appearance has never been described at essay books, all; we have merely been told that he was `handsome.' It is impossible for us to know how much the ghost resembles the latters master--certainly the governess would never tell us (126). Furthermore, with this story in mind--that Miss Jessel is a projection of a part of the governess's own personality--Wilson offers a very insightful reading of the scene in the schoolroom in chapter fifteen in which the governess sees Miss Jessel at the schoolroom writing table. . . . she had looked at me long enough to essay about books, appear to say that her right to sit at my table was as good as mine to sit at hers, the governess tells us. In this scene, maintains Wilson, the on huckleberry finn morbid half of her split personality is getting the upper hand of the other . . . it is she who is intruding upon the spirit instead of the spirit who is essay about books intruding upon her (127).

In this revision of the essay, Wilson expands on resume one his earlier discussion of the essay about story's final scene, recalling the governess's vision of the white face of damnation at one, the window and asking, But is the governess condemning the spirits to damnation or is essay books she succumbing to damnation herself? (129). This idea would later, in human resource paper 1964, be developed in more detail by Muriel West in The Death of Miles in The Turn of the Screw . West considers in detail the context of the governess's final outburst and concludes that, in essay this scene, Miles is, indeed, dispossessed, but that the governess succumbs to possession herself. Wilson makes a number of additional points about the story in this more detailed discussion. He observes, for example, that the ghosts stop appearing for awhile after Mrs. Grose threatens to contact the uncle, that the governess suppresses the letters the children write to their uncle, and on huckleberry, that Miles and Flora may have met after the final vision of Jessel at the lake. This last occurrence would, of course, explain Miles's question--It's she ?--in the story's final scene. Wilson also, in this revision, calls attention to the peculiar psychology of governesses, who, by reason of their isolated position between the family and the servants, are likely to become ingrown and morbid (131). Wilson makes one point which seems extremely questionable.

Commenting on the scene in which the candle is blown out while the governess is in Miles's room, Wilson suggests that the gust of frozen air felt by the governess is the only detail which is books readily susceptible of double explanation. Wilson suggests that this must be a tactile hallucination because the governess later sees that the window is tight (127-8). Wilson's assumption that there is belajar mempengaruhi no ambiguity here is unwarranted. Spirits have been known to cause drafts in essay about books closed rooms. To sum up, then, Wilson's revision of his article for the 1938 edition of The Triple Thinkers is a great improvement over teknik belajar pencapaian, the original essay. In the revised version Wilson has expanded on his discussion of about books Jamesian works as they are related to The Turn of the Screw and has looked in more detail at the story itself. His explanation of the psychological origins of the phantoms provides telling insights into the story and opens the door to additional Freudian, Jungian, and Marxist insights. The debate which Wilson sparked concerning the essay on huckleberry reality of the ghosts continued throughout the period under discussion. In 1948, Elmer Edgar Stoll attacked Wilson's interpretation as a kind of essay in-reading on the part of the essay critic. He considered Kenton's attempt to press on essay books `toward the story behind the story` an example of the now timeworn fallacy of confounding art and reality, likening such criticism to inquiring into the previous history of Falstaff or Hamlet, of the heroines or the Macbeths, who (of course), except as meagerly furnished by the dramatist have none (230) and suggested that Wilson viewed such things as Flora's insertion of one piece of wood into another through the eyes of his own Freudian preoccupations, thus imposing on the work an anachronistic set of significances (229). Stoll disagrees with Kenton's interpretation of James's description of the work in the Preface to the New York Edition as an on huckleberry amusette to essay about, catch those not easily caught, suggesting that such passages mean . . . not catching the readers in essay paper a trap but capturing their attention and interest (230).

Stoll correctly points out a long literary tradition of genuine ghosts which are visible to some people and invisible to about, others--citing examples from Hamlet , Macbeth , and Julius Caesar --but then unwisely adds, The reality, on essay on flower the other hand, of the supernatural is conveyed by other means--by suggestion of essay about books indirection--as here, plainly enough (230). Stoll seems here to be overstating the similarities between these Shakespearean works and The Turn of the Screw . The ghost of Hamlet's father, after all, is seen by quite a few people at how to latters, the beginning of the play, although it is invisible to Gertrude when it appears to Hamlet in about books the Queen's chamber. Similarly, while it is true that the ghost of Banquo is essay invisible to all but Macbeth, it must be remembered that the earlier supernatural visitations--the Weird Sisters--were visible to both Macbeth and Banquo. Other arguments advanced by Stoll are weaker still. Stoll wonders how the governess's subconscious could transform the employer so completely as to make him a horror and no gentleman.

The subconscious, he suggests, should hardly go, unaided, so contrary as this (231). But Stoll's unsupported assertion seems to books, fly in the face of considerable psychiatric evidence concerning the strange distortions wrought by the subconscious mind--in dreams, for example. His suggestion that Wilson reads into events a psychoanalytic significance foreign to the mind of essay on huckleberry finn James might suitably be applied to the later psychoanalytic criticism of Cargill which was published in 1956, a source study suggesting that Freud's writings per se influenced James in his composition of the work. The argument is essay books less compelling when applied to a critic such as Wilson who holds that universally valid Freudian insights can fruitfully be applied to historical figures such as statesmen or clients of psychoanalysts. Paper? Stoll begs the question by objecting that Wilson's interpretation fails to explain the children's taking so keen an essay books interest in secretly looking at and holding commerce with the ghosts and paper, intriguing and conspiring together for that purpose, as well as their corruption under the influence of the valet and the former governess, both when alive and when dead (231). The above data are communicated to books, us only by the governess; consequently, if she is unreliable, there is nothing for Wilson or any other critic to explain about counterfeit money, these happenings. Stoll is also on slippery ground when he claims that Wilson's theory is about invalidated by the confessions of the boy when approached on the subject and the deep resentment of the girl, along with the hesitating but increasingly frank admissions of the housekeeper (231). A detailed analysis of the boy's final confession--as provided, for example, by Muriel West in The Death of Miles in The Turn of the Screw , can certainly accommodate a non-apparitionist reading of the story.

Those critics--for example, Cranfill and Clark--who have documented the governess's relentless persecution of the human resource paper children have offered a plausible explanation of the deep resentment of the girl without postulating supernatural entities. And Goddard's theory of how the governess' fears and essay books, repressed desires and the housekeeper's memories and anxieties unconsciously collaborate (14) demonstrates that this argument from resume one Stoll is not unanswerable. Stoll also reminds us that the governess is highly recommended by Douglas in the prologue. Douglas, however, is seeing her ten years after the events have taken place. Furthermore, Stoll would seem again to be begging the question by essay books assuming that the evaluation given by thesis belajar mempengaruhi the second narrator--i.e., by Douglas, must be accepted at face value. If one narrator's account can be questioned, why not another's? If, on essay books the other hand, we agree with Stoll that to question a narrator in a fictional work is like discounting prologues or epilogues, choruses or soliloquies, addressed the audience and essay on flower, necessarily to about books, be taken at face value (230), then it would appear that we must dismiss Wilson's reading from the outset and essay, that evidence adduced from another narrator is redundant.

When Stoll suggests that Wilson is forgetful, like most contemporary critics, of Aristotle on plot and character (232), in not taking the governess's account at books, face value, he seems, like some critics of the Chicago School, to be unthinkingly and rigidly applying classical canons where they would appear to latters, have no relevance. Stoll also errs in mixing Douglas's descriptions of the governess with James's statements in essay the New York Edition Preface about agents and finn, demons, forgetting apparently the difference between the statements made by a fictional character and an author's comments about his own work. He also seems to fall into about books, the trap of the intentional fallacy. Stoll may be right to fault those critics with whom intentions do not count at all, but he shows no awareness of the distinction other critics have been careful to make between a mere stated intention and an intention which has actually been realized in the construction of the literary work. Thus, Halliburton says that the intentionality to finn, be sought is not in the author but in the text (Guerin 268). Finally, Stoll's remark that hallucinations scare only the hallucinated (231) is manifestly untrue. Certainly the story of children in the care of an insane governess--as the novella is read, for essay example, by Goddard or by Cranfill and Clark--is very terrifying. Many of the points made by resume one Stoll in 1948 had been made by other critics earlier in essay books the period under discussion.

In 1947, for example, Robert N. One? Heilman, in an article entitled The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the Screw , also relied heavily on what he perceived to be James's stated intentions in the Preface to the New York Edition version of the essay about story. He was particularly scornful of Wilson's interpretation of the statement, She has authority, which is a good deal to have given her, arguing that James intended here to invest the essay on flower governess with credibility and, in so arguing, lashing out essay about, intemperately at Wilson: Once again, then, the word authority has brought about, in an unwary liberal, an emotional spasm which has resulted in a kind of emotional blindness (434). In arguing that the story is not primarily about the governess, Heilman quotes James's statement which appears on page xix in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition: . Canadian Essay? . . Essay? I saw no way, . . . to exhibit her in relations other than those; one of career which, precisely, would have been her relation to her own nature (435), forgetting apparently what immediately follows: We surely have as much of her own nature as we can swallow in watching it reflected in her anxieties and essay about books, deductions. . . . Ironically, Heilman accuses Wilson of ignoring the first part of this quotation and then proceeds himself to ignore the second part. Heilman also refers to James's statements about the story in correspondence but with the same selectivity, quoting extensively only the 1898 letter to H. G. Wells. Heilman argues, with some cogency, that. the governess's feelings for the master are never repressed: they are wholly in human paper the open and are joyously talked about: even in the opening section which precedes Chapter 1, we are told that she is in love with him (436). We must wonder, however, how joyous this hopeless infatuation could be and also if affection could be consciously acknowledged while sexual feelings of a more overtly genital nature were repressed.

Heilman suggests that the infatuation is a not entirely successful method of explaining her refusal to communicate with the employer, a refusal which would have ended the story as we know it. But, when he suggests that a technical procedure should not be mistaken for a psychopathological clue (437), he perhaps forgets that it might be both and also that it might be not quite successful in about explaining this dereliction of duty only if it is considered normal--not reporting to the employer these unusual and dire events is, after all, irrational. Heilman next turns his attention to the famous identification scene--Mrs. Grose's identification of the apparition as Quint on the basis of the governess's description following the second apparition. Heilman rather convincingly faults Wilson's suggestion that Quint and the employer might have physically resembled one another, suggesting that it can hardly be supposed that Mrs. Grose, who in such matters is very observant, would not at some time comment upon the strange resemblance of human resource essay master and man (438). However, Heilman does not discuss other approaches to this problem--for example, Silver's suggestion that the governess has picked up information about Quint's appearance from the neighboring village, Cargill's suggestion that Flora may have been a source of about books information (James as Freudian Pioneer 19), or Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Grose may not have been listening attentively to all of the description (15-16). Heilman, like Stoll, is unconvinced by Wilson's reminder that only the governess is known to see the ghosts.

This he attributes to a sinisterly mature concealment of evil (439) on teknik belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian the part of the children and to the obtuseness of the appropriately named Mrs. Grose, the good but slow-witted woman who sees only the obvious in life--for instance, the sexual irregularity of Quint and Miss Jessel--but does not unassisted detect the essay subtler manifestations of evil (438). This argument, though questionable, is canadian money essay certainly superior to Stoll's simplistic, incomplete, and misleading comparisons to Shakespeare. Heilman sees great significance in the objective fact of the dismissal of Miles from essay about books school--a dismissal which is unexplained and canadian money essay, which is absolutely final (439). He perhaps fails to appreciate, however, the significance of the books fact that the thesis governess has not given us the text of the headmaster's letter and Douglas's assertion that Miles was unusually young for a residential school.

Heilman also attaches great importance to Miles's supreme surrender of the name of Quint at essay, the end of the novella. In arguing that point, however, he is unfair to counterfeit canadian money essay, Wilson when he asserts that in plain defiance of the about text Wilson says that Miles has managed to see Flora before her departure and thus to find out what the governess is latters thinking about (439). Wilson, instead of making such a bald assertion, had merely pointed out that the text leaves open the possibility of such a meeting with Flora and a discussion of the governess among the two children and Mrs. Grose. Goddard had earlier made the same point in his then unpublished essay.

Heilman summarizes the unacceptable behavior of the children--their nocturnal vigils, Flora's obscene language, Miles's evasive answers to questions, etc.--but seems not to have thought of the explanation later to be advanced by Lydenberg: What is happening to the children is, clearly and terribly, the governess herself (40). In A Treatise on essay about books the American Novel , Robert Liddell presented what he considered to essay on flower, be a thorough and irrefragable refutation of Wilson's theory. Liddell maintains that Wilson's reading requires us to disbelieve Douglas's estimate of the governess's character and give a very strained explanation of her description of Quint (141). About Books? We considered these two points in our discussion of Stoll, so there is no need for repetition here. Liddell also suggests that such an interpretation compels us to believe, on no evidence, that Miles had got into touch with Flora after the scene by the Lake (142). However, in our discussion of Heilman's essay we pointed out that such a meeting has been plausibly postulated by essay on huckleberry Goddard. Liddell also objects that Wilson's reading necessitates the assumption that the governess is deluded about the very sense-data experienced in Miles's room, not only about her interpretation of them (141).

Here, however, Liddell seems to beg the about question, for a woman capable of hallucinating ghostly visitants could certainly be deluded about the very sense data experienced on that occasion. Liddell's next move is simply to assert his position and then announce that his mere assertion in some way constitutes proof: But the chief objection is one of general impression: this is not what the story means, and only perverted ingenuity, of a kind which has little to do with literature, could have detected the `clue'. This is the ultimate answer to all such theories, from the Shakespeare-Bacon controversy to Verrall's brilliant perversities about Greek tragedy. Here there is a desire for a `scientific' explanation, an essay on flower unwillingness to make the necessary `suspension of disbelief' in essay ghosts, which is completely opposed to the spirit in which the book should be read. It is only because Mr. Wilson is such a distinguished critic that the theory is worth further examination, and final refutation (142).

Here, it would appear, Liddell has abandoned argument for pontification. Liddell does a somewhat better job with his consideration of the external evidence--i.e., James's statements about the story. Counterfeit Essay? Commenting on about James's distinction in the Preface between the governess's record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them, a different matter, Liddell offers an interpretation which is a plausible alternative to Wilson's hallucination theory: . How To Write Latters? . . we can doubt her explanation of the happenings, without supposing her to essay books, be the victim of hallucination. She clearly believes that she sees the spirits that once animated the earthly bodies of Quint and Miss Jessel; we can believe that she did indeed see ab extra apparitions, that another person with the right vision could have seen, without accepting her view of counterfeit canadian essay their eschatological status. They are not spirits of the dead, matter for psychical research, but `goblins damned'--devils that have assumed the form of Quint and Miss Jessel to tempt the children (142). This is similar to the point Roellinger would later make; Roellinger pointed out essay books, that psychic investigators were frequently tolerant of various explanations for money events considered to be genuinely paranormal. Liddell, however, is on less firm ground when he cites evidence from James's notebooks and correspondence concerning the origin of the essay books story in Archbishop Benson's anecdote. Liddell may be correct in his assertion that Henry James began to construct this story not from essay on flower a character, but from a scrap of anecdote (143), but surely the story's genesis is less important than the essay final form it took. A similar point can be made about human paper, Liddell's evaluation of the significance of the story's debts to The Mystery of Udolpho and Jane Eyre : It is from books literature rather than from the abnormal psychology of himself or his governess that the relation between her and the ghosts arises (144). Essay On Flower? Source studies can be of great value--but surely they are starting points for a discussion of the work's significance, not substitutes for the discussion itself.

Critics of lesser importance also attacked Wilson's non-apparitionist interpretation. A.J.A. Books? Waldock based his entire case on resource essay paper Mrs. Grose's positive identification of the male apparition as the ghost of Peter Quint upon essay about books hearing the detailed description of the governess. Certainly Wilson's explanation--that Quint and the employer resembled one another--does postulate an unexplained coincidence of enormous proportions, as Wilson himself later came to essay, see. However, if we consider answers other critics have suggested in essay about response to this argument--the explanations of Goddard and Silver, for example--we must consider Waldock overconfident in his categorical designation of essay this identification scene as the sharp little rock on which his [Wilson's] whole theory must split (332).

Nathan Bryllion Fagin fell blatantly into the intentional fallacy by about books resting his case exclusively on the argument that Wilson's theory has no relation to resume, James's intention (198). Fagin casually refers to the fact that Freudian psychology was something Henry James could not have been conscious of dealing with (198), ignoring the novelist's lifelong interest in mental illness, his brother's pioneer research in the field, and his sister's long and about, painful struggle with schizophrenia. In commenting on Wilson's assertion that the novella might be informed by a profound grasp of subconscious processes, Fagin, with almost incredible lack of sophistication, advances the following argument: But by essay on flower the same method it is possible to build up an excellent case for a Freudian interpretation of Hamlet , and surely that would not be reflective of Shakespeare's intention. Although it might be an interesting disclosure of the workings of the psychoanalyst's mind, it would tell us little or nothing about Shakespeare's (198). The foregoing provides an interesting example of how the intentional fallacy can impoverish our understanding of literary works. Fagin is on firmer ground when he argues that the work can be read as a moral allegory in the Hawthorne tradition. He seems, however, not to entertain the possibility that this approach and the Freudian one could be synthesized--as, for example, they would later be by both Firebaugh and Lydenberg. Philip Rahv also was guilty of the intentional fallacy and essay about books, rather hasty in essay on flower his assumption that the non-apparitionist approach is so elementary as to make the story less rather than more interesting (624). Psychological insights such as those of Wilson and Goddard seem, on the contrary, to add depth and meaning to the story.

Rahv may be correct, however, in arguing against an exclusive concern with the psychology of the governess: It lets off, so to speak, too many of the about agents--the servants and the children (624). Of course, readings such as those of Firebaugh or Lydenberg, which synthesize apparitionist and non-apparitionist approaches are not open to career, this objection--and neither are some psychoanalytic reader-response approaches. Although he does not offer a detailed analysis, Rahv seems to favor the latter approach, for he seems mainly concerned with how the story produces its designated horror in the reader: . . . it is not difficult to see that in The Turn of the about books Screw the element of mystification is united with an element of essay on flower morbid sexuality. It is the sexuality expressed through the machinery of the supernatural that makes for the overwhelming effect (624). This type of psychoanalytic reading does not concern itself exclusively with the governess. About Books? For example, according to Rahv, the `badness' of the prowling demonic spirits is of an erotic nature. . . (624). Some critics, of course, agreed with Wilson's approach to the story. Stephen Spender, in 1935, praised Wilson for having worked out in great detail a theory that The Turn of the Screw is a story of the repressed sexual delusions of the governess who is the narrator.

According to Spender, Wilson's theory is plausible because. the sexual imagery is amazingly worked out. The valet, whom she sees, appears on a tower, and is dressed in the clothes of the finn master, with whom she is in love. About? The governess, her predecessor and essay on flower, rival, always appears behind a lake of water (35). Ivor Winters, commenting on the dispute between Wilson and his apparitionist antagonists, opined that, while there are difficulties of interpretation either way, (316-17), Wilson's view is books more plausible than the how to write latters popular one (317). Winters went on to assert that the story thus interpreted has great illustrative value (317) for essay about Winters's moralistic theory of literature, which holds that the essay finn work of literature, in so far as it is valuable, approximates a real apprehension and communication of a particular kind of objective truth and that the literary work is good in so far as it makes a defensible rational statement about a given human experience (the experience need not be real but must be in some sense possible) and at the same time communicates the emotion which ought to be motivated by that rational understanding of that experience (11). Winters is contrasting this theory of the function of literature with three other theories: the essay didactic--which, holding that the function of belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian literature is to provide instruction, fails to realize that the paraphrasable content of the books work is how to write never equal to the work, and that our theory of literature must account not only for essay the paraphrasable content but for the work itself (4); the hedonistic--which sees pleasure as the end of life, and literature either as a heightener of pleasure or as the purveyor of a particular and more or less esoteric variety of pleasure (4); and the Romantic--which sees literature as a form of what is known popularly as self-expression (8). According to Winters, The Turn of the essay finn Screw --when interpreted according to his moralistic theory--can be seen as an illustration of the gap between rational motive and about, resulting state of mind, a gap which is so wide as to include every item in the story: for this reason the governess must be insane (317). Winters's approach here is, thus, very different from career one that of new critics such as Goddard who base their arguments on the text itself, phenomenological critics such as Kenton who seek to ascertain the books author's method, or psychoanalytic critics such as Wilson. Instead, Winters suggests that the story be read a certain way because, when read that way, it lends support to a particular theory of literature, the counterfeit canadian superiority of which can be established on other grounds--namely, the theory's avoidance of the shortcomings of its three rivals and its ability to account both for the power of about books poetry and essay paper, of artistic literature in general on its readers and for the seriousness with which the great poets have taken their art (11).

Paradise Lost , according to Winters, can serve as a clear illustration of the shortcomings of the three other theories: Milton, for books example, did not write Paradise Lost to give pleasure to Professor So-and-So, nor did he write it to give free reign to human resource essay, his emotions; he wrote it in order to 'justify the ways of books God to man,' and the justification involved not merely a statement of theory but a conformity of the emotional nature of man with the theory (12). Osborn Andreas, relating the work to the whole of the Jamesian canon, sees it as one of many examples of emotional cannibalism, which he defines as any act of interference with others which is motivated by an egoistic desire for emotional gratification (22). We find here a synthesis of what we might term authorial criticism--as Andreas provides numerous examples of other such cannibals--and formalistic criticism, as Andreas offers us a reading of a number of incidents in the story itself which end with the children being swept away to destruction by the force of their governess's emotional cannibalism (47). Thesis Mempengaruhi? Thus, for example, Andreas accounts for the illness of Flora and the death of Miles by suggesting that. the governess . . . subjects Flora and Miles . . . to books, all the vagaries of her progressively more and more deranged mind, until through sheer terror Flora goes into a delirium with brain fever, and canadian, Miles, harder pressed than Flora, is literally scared to death (46). Andreas offers us an explanation of the reader's experience which is consistent with Wilson's analysis of the about governess as suffering from sex repression if we remember that, for Freud, sex is more than genitality: The sense of human resource essay horror we get from The Turn of the Screw comes from its purity; we cannot say of the governess as we can of Madame Merle or Kate Croy: she wanted money. The governess wanted emotion for its own sake only, and she therefore did not need any of the essay about books ordinary and easily recognized motivations. She is a symbol of that rapacity which peoples its private world with emotions torn from their context and filched from the persons of those whom it has victimized (50).

Some critics during this period appear to have been groping for a synthesis of the apparitionist and non-apparitionist positions, although detailed developments of mempengaruhi that type did not occur until Firebaugh and Lydenberg, independently of one another, formulated such positions in 1957. For example, in a 1942 radio symposium which The Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. later published in a volume entitled The New Invitation to Learning , Katherine Anne Porter, Allen Tate, and essay about books, Mark Van Doren discussed The Turn of the Screw . In the essay on flower course of this discussion Van Doren said that. . . . it is she [the governess] who corrupts the children and brings about the about death of the little boy. Nevertheless, that is precisely my way of understanding how potent the evil in this story is. The evil isn't merely thought to be; it is an actuality which passes through her as a perfectly transparent and non- resistant medium and then passes through the children. The evil is somehow there (229).

Tate summed up his view of the story in essay on flower this way: The governess doesn't invent these apparitions; they merely use her as a medium. Essay? Because, obviously, the monstrous proportions of the evil are so great that they are beyond the power of resume career any individual imagination to invent. Essay? There is something much stronger than the governess operating through her (229). Later, Tate suggested that. . . . her personal motivation, what she expected to get out of it and all that--has a perfectly naturalistic basis. Nevertheless, I would describe it as the matrix out of thesis mempengaruhi which something much greater comes.

As a matter of about books fact, we can go back and take the great tragic characters in drama, or the great religious heroes, too. They will all have some psychological motivation which we can see in terms of their peculiar situations. At the same time . . . the psychological basis doesn't explain it all. . . (231). Porter eloquently and clearly summed up the essay paper consensus: An illuminant is not always an illuminant for good. The most dangerous people in the world are the illuminated ones through whom forces act when they themselves are unconscious of books their own motives. And yet, no force has ever acted through either a saint or an evil person that wasn't somehow directed to further the ends and the ambitions and the hopes of that person, which makes me feel that the instrument is not altogether so innocent and thesis teknik belajar mempengaruhi, so helpless as we have been saying. Essay Books? Because, after all, the governess had her positive motive--she was in love with the master. She had a deep sense of her inferior situation in life, and was almost hopeless of ever attracting his attention.

And I do think that this love, which was quite hopeless, which was an ingrown thing, took this form; she herself, in her imagination--yes, unconscious of her motives--designed all this dram to make the write latters desire situation possible--that she would arrive somewhere at a level with the about man she loved and create some sort of communication with him (230-31). Leon Edel, in his introduction to the 1948 edition of The Ghostly Tales of Henry James , seemed to counterfeit canadian money essay, imply that the objective reality or lack thereof of ghostly visitations is not of much importance in this and other Jamesian ghostly tales, for, according to Edel, of about books paramount interest are . Essay Finn? . . the persons who see the apparitions. The interest, thus, is not in books ghosts per se but in haunted people--and, these haunted by phantoms usually of their own creation. It is the experience of these people, contends Edel, that affects us--regardless of what realities may or may not exist apart from their experience. Finn? Henry James's ghosts possess an essay about unusual degree of reality because we see them unvariably through the people who see or `feel' them. It is thesis teknik mempengaruhi these people's vision of the supernatural that he almost invariably gives us; which is why his ghost stories have seemed to some readers to be among the most terrifying ever written (26-27). D. Effects on Psychoanalytic Criticism. In addition to providing the major impetus for the debate between apparitionists and non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay contributed to a greater interest in the psychological analysis of James the man and in the effects his psychological characteristics had on the art which he produced. Thus, echoing Wilson, F. R. Leavis, in 1937, discerned in the author some failure about the roots and at the lower levels of life (416), which, in turn, was mirrored in his fiction. L. C. About Books? Knights, in 1938, without specifically discussing The Turn of the one Screw , listed a host of about trapped spectators in the Jamesian canon, each of whom is merely a watcher, unable to participate freely and fully in human experience (602) and human resource paper, contended that this preoccupation with the plight of the trapped creature (605) can be at least partially attributed to two elements in the author's history: the tendency of the elder Henry James to too successfully cultivate in his second son the faculty of detachment by, among other things, too much exposure to diverse geographical influences; and the fact that, later, James settled in England . . . but he never became at home there. . About Books? . (601).

The language Knights employs to describe the villains who trap others and are sometimes trapped themselves seems to essay finn, echo many critics' descriptions of the governess. Books? Thus, his egotists--whether they are calculating or frivolous or insensitive or armed with righteousness or a mixture of these qualities--are condemned because, as moral parasites, they thwart the free development of another's life (603-4). One paragraph is worth quoting at some length: . . . Henry James's `villains' have one characteristic in resource paper common: they all, in some way, use other people. They may prey on others for their money, but James is not much interested in common robbery, and usually their predatoriness takes forms which are less obvious and more gross. They make excessive demands for sympathy and about books, try to absorb their victims' life into their own, as Olive Chancellor attempts to absorb Verena Tarrant in The Bostonians ; they `primed with a moral scheme of the most approved pattern' which--like the representatives of Wollett in The Ambassadors --they apply as a universal yardstick, or--like the relatives of Owen Wingrave--they demand a course of conduct which cuts across the essential nature of the individual; or they display a gross insensitiveness to write, the feelings of books others, like the crude young reporter in money The Reverberator or the cultivated literary gentleman of The Aspern Papers . As these references indicate, the `villainy' that James is interested in is rarely simple wickedness; it is quite often an unholy righteousness, and it is no accident that the phrase `the brutality of her good conscience' from essay about The Middle Years , turns up again as `a high brutality of thesis teknik mempengaruhi pencapaian good intentions,' in The Spoils of Poynton (602-3). In 1943, the psychoanalyst Saul Rosenzweig, without specifically discussing The Turn of the Screw , opined that James's ghosts, unlike the ordinary creatures of their kind, . . . fail to represent the remnants of once-lived lives but point instead to the irrepressible unlived life (436).

Rosenzweig traces this peculiar preoccupation to a combined guilt and inferiority (440) resulting from an identification with his maimed father and guilt over books, his own exemption from service in the Civil War following a back injury which was in some sense a repetition--that by essay on huckleberry one of those devious paths of identification which creates strange needs in sensitive personalities (440). Rosenzweig suggests that James's prolific expenditure of energy (455) on behalf of the British cause during World War I, along with his becoming a British citizen, were the means of recovery from identification with the books crippled (`castrated') but powerful father (454) and that . . Resume One? . he re-established contact with the realities of his environment by these acts and in the same degree he thus succeeded in laying to rest the ghost of his unlived past before death overtook him (455). Finally, Leon Edel, in his introduction to The Ghostly Tales of Henry James , without mentioning Wilson by name, accounts for the ghostly tales of the 1890's as reverting to the stratagem of about . . . boyhood . . . when he had escaped into a passivity that won him the human paper name of `angel' and essay books, made him the essay on flower favorite of his mother (xviii). In obvious debt to Wilson, Edel accounts for this reversion by tracing the double disappointment of lack of essay about books suitable appreciation of how to latters his fiction in the 1870's and his later disasters in essay writing for the theater. The preoccupation with abnormal childhoods found in The Turn of the Screw and other stories of the period Edel traces to James's renewed obsession with his own childhood. Essay? The governess is afflicted with the consuming curiosity of Fatima, Blue Beard's ultimate wife, (xxi) and her curiosity reflects the sexual unfulfillment of the author: . . . What was the relationship between Miss Jessel and Peter Quint? The governess is essay about books jealous of her predecessors and human resource essay, filled with hostility--and curious to the point of exasperation; and it is a curiosity suppressed and never appeased, for about books the children do not talk of the past. This curiosity was not peculiar to essay on huckleberry, the governess; it is the curiosity of the author of the tale and extends to other of the characters, observers, narrators, Henry created during these years.

The middle-aged writer is curious about his childhood; and there is at the same time a return to the curiosity of the child himself sitting back and surveying his elders and wondering what happens in the locked rooms of the adult world (xxii). One of the merits of psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on the author is that analysis of a particular work can then be fruitfully related to the rest of the author's canon. This Edel does--as Wilson had done fourteen years earlier. This story, Edel insists, is thus not the isolated work most critics have believed it to be but rather the culminating point of the forces--the conflicts, struggles, frustrations, the sense of artistic oblivion (death-in-life), the regression to childhood--the forces that prompted Henry James to about, put down a dozen ghostly tales in ten years. . . (xxiii). We began this chapter with a consideration of what is arguably the historically most important non-apparitionist essay on essay on flower The Turn of the Screw . In 1948 Robert N. Heilman published The Turn of the essay books Screw as Poem, which is perhaps the most famous argument for the apparitionist position. Heilman contends that, at on huckleberry finn, the level of action, the story means exactly what it says--i.e., that the governess's assumptions about the evil of Quint and Jessel, the corruption of the children, and the return from the dead of the nefarious servants--are all to be accepted at face value. The plot conveys the oldest of themes--the struggle of evil to possess the human soul (175). This theme is combined with highly suggestive and even symbolic language which permeates the entire story--so that the story becomes, indeed, a dramatic poem (176). Heilman attends closely to the language of the story and cites numerous examples of essay books references to the innocence and beauty of the children at essay on huckleberry, the outset and the depth of their later degradation to establish that, in this story, the incorruptible . . Essay About Books? . have taken on corruption (176) and that the real subject is the dual nature of man, who is a little lower than the counterfeit canadian essay angels, and who yet can become a slave in the realm of evil (177-78). Consequently, according to Heilman, the ghosts are evil, evil which comes subtly, conquering before it is wholly seen; the essay books governess, Cassandra-like in the intuitions which are inaccessible to others, is the guardian whose function it is to detect and attempt to ward off evil; Mrs. Grose--whose name, like the essay on flower narrator's title, has virtually allegorical significance--is the commonplace mortal, well intentioned, but perceiving only the obvious; the children are the victims of evil, victims who, ironically, practice concealment--who doubtless must conceal--when not to conceal is essential to salvation (175).

Heilman detects also in essay the language of the story unmistakable echoes of the how to write Garden of Eden (178). According to Heilman, Miles and Flora become the about childhood of the race . . Essay On Huckleberry? . . Even the names themselves have a representative quality as those of James's characters often do: Miles--the soldier, the archetypal male; Flora--the flower, the essential female. . . (178-79). The language used to describe the children and the change within them is complemented, according to Heilman, by James's management of the setting and of other ingredients in the drama, as the idyllic descriptions of Bly in the spring (at the beginning of the story) suggest that the country estate is almost an Eden where `the three lived in a cloud of music and love' and where `the old trees, the thick shrubbery, made a great and pleasant shade'. . Books? . . Essay On Flower? The change in the children, Heilman points out, which is shown by the change from essay about books images of light and purity to those of essay on flower darkness and ill health and even premature age are accompanied by changes in essay the language used to describe the setting, which is gradually altered until we reach the on huckleberry dark ending of a November whose coldness and deadness are unobtrusively but unmistakably stressed;. . About Books? . ' the autumn had dropped . . . and blown out write latters, half our lights' . . .; the about books governess now notices `grey sky and withered garlands,' `bared spaces and scattered dead leaves' (179). Thus, the end of the story, says Heilman, corresponds to not merely the end of a year but the end of a cycle: the spring of gay, bright human innocence has given way to the dark autumn--or rather, as we might pun, to the dark fall.

As this progression occurs, the essay on flower earlier light imagery changes to about, a hard, powerful, ugly light--an especially effective transformation of the apparently benign luminousness of the spring as Quint, Jessel, and Miles are shown, at one, various times, to be glaring (179-80). Coincidental to this passage of time in the story, Heilman observes, is a shift from language suggestive of youthful innocence to that which suggests an abnormal aging of the about books children. Heilman gives examples of career one instances in which we are aware of a strange maturity in them--in, for about instance, their poise, their controlled utilization of their unusual talents to give pleasure. Heilman also reminds us of descriptive phrases applied by the other governess and/or Mrs. Resume Career? Grose. Thus, . . . the governess speaks of books her feeling that Miles is `accessible as an older person' . Career One? . . the governess assures Mrs. Grose . . . that, at essay books, meetings with Miss Jessel, Flora is `not a child' but `an old, old woman' . . . Mrs. Grose sums up, `It has made her, every inch of her, quite old' (180). Heilman, furthermore, calls attention to the language used to one, describe Quint, whose characteristics are unmistakably the essay about books characteristics of a snake and to thesis teknik mempengaruhi pencapaian, language which suggests that the influence of the two spectres has been that of a poison redolent of the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden (181).

By this combination of about books language suggesting external malign influences and language suggesting change in the children, moreover, James, according to counterfeit money, Heilman, presents evil both as agent (the demons) and as effect (the transformation in the once fresh and beautiful and innocent children) and, consequently, these attacking forces, as often in Elizabethean drama, are seen in books two aspects. Dr. Faustus has to career one, meet an enemy which has an inner and an outer reality--his own thoughts, and Mephistopheles. . . (183). In Heilman's view, Miles's final cry, You devil! is. his final transvaluation of values: she who would be his savior has become for essay about him a demon. His face gives a `convulsive supplication' [sic]--that is, actually, a prayer, for and to Quint, the demon who has become his total deity. But the god isn't there, and Miles despairs and dies (183-84). Here Heilman sees biblical motifs combined with other literary ones: . . . Faustus's savage attack, in thesis teknik mempengaruhi Marlowe's play, upon the Old Man who has been trying to save him. . . and Everyman; and mankind undergoing, in his Golden Age, an elemental conflict. . . (184).

The language applied to the governess, Heilman suggests, and the words used by the governess suggest. that James is attaching to her the quality of savior, not only in a general sense, but with certain Christian associations. Essay About Books? She uses words like `atonement'; she speaks of herself as an `expiatory victim,' of her `pure suffering,' and at various times--twice in the final scene--of her `torment.' Very early she plans to `shelter my pupils,' to `absolutely save' them; she speaks variously of her `service,' to `protect and defend the little creatures . . . bereaved . . . loveable' (184). In addition to combinations of literary motifs, Heilman perceives various theological threads in the story. Write? The last scene is suggestive, he says of the Catholic sacrament of confession. About? . . . the long final scene really takes place in the confessional, with the how to write priest endeavoring, by both word and gesture, to essay, protect her charge against the evil force whose invasion has, with consummate irony, carried even there. This theme of salvation and damnation which finally achieves specific form in resume the sacramentalism of the closing scenes is enriched by faint traces of theological speculation as to the nature of essay about books original sin. Thus, Heilman calls attention to the governess's description of the children as blameless and foredoomed, observing that. . Resume Career One? . . Essay? original sin . . . fits exactly into on huckleberry finn, the machinery of this story of two beautiful children who in a lovely springtime of existence already suffer, not unwillingly, hidden injuries which will eventually destroy them (185). Finally, these biblical, theological, and literary allusions are complemented by a few dry and casual ecclesiastical mementos, even though the novella contains no old familiar signs announcing a religious orientation of experience . . . nothing of the Bible overtly . . Books? . no texts, no clergymen . . . no conventional indices of religious feeling--no invocations or prayers or meditations. . . . Essay? These few dry and casual ecclesiastical mementoes, however, according to Heilman, exert some ever-so mild symbolic pressures, as of a not very articulate wispish presence that quietly makes itself felt. Thus, Heilman reminds us that. the reading of the story . . . Essay Books? takes place during the Christmas season; the framework action begins on Christmas Eve.

Quint appears for the first time on a Sunday, a grey, rainy Sunday, just before the governess is about to go to the late church service with Mrs. Grose; after that she is, she says, `not fit for church' . . . she speaks of the `inconceivable communion' of which she has learned--a Black Mass, as it were (186). Some of this religious material, moreover, says Heilman, is organized into a definitely ironic pattern which mimics the major New Testament events--i.e., those occurring from Good Friday through Easter Sunday. Miles's direct confrontation with the canadian money governess on the way to church, in the fourteenth chapter, according to Heilman, introduces a straight-line action which continues with remarkably increasing tension to essay books, the end of the story . . . and on huckleberry, here is the notable point--takes only about books, three days. Ironically, the governess undertakes her quasi-priestly function with a new intensity and aggressiveness on a Sunday--beginning thus on the day when the New Testament action is mempengaruhi pencapaian not begun but successfully completed. Essay About? Three days later--after having definitely failed to save Flora--she ends her ministry with her final attempt to save Miles. The would-be redeemer of the living is called `devil'; in Quint we see one who has risen again to tempt the living to destruction--that is, the resurrection and the death.

Here, Sunday does not triumphantly end a symbolic ordeal that had begun in apparent failure on Friday; rather it hopefully initiates a struggle which is to end, on the third day, in bitter loss. . . . To transmit its quality and to embrace all of its associations, may we not call it a Black Easter? (187). Heilman does not suggest that this material yields some straightforward paraphrasable message, nor, it would appear, would he be interested in such a message. He is attempting, instead, to delineate that combination of elements James has fashioned which. . . .endows his tale with an atmosphere in which we sense the pressure of essay on flower so much more imaginative force than meets the casual fiction-reading eye. In attempting to state schematically the origins of essay about that pressure, we fall into much more blunt statements that we ought to career, make. We say, too forthrightly, that Bly `becomes' a Garden of Eden. Books? As in studying all good poetry, we must resist the impulse to line up, on a secondary level of meaning, exact equivalents for the narrative elements, for essay on flower such a procedure stems from the rude assumption that every part of the story is precision- tooled cog in essay books an allegorical machine (188). Nevertheless, Heilman is careful to insist that, while the story cannot be reduced to some paraphrasable message, these patterns, which overlap and interfuse in essay on flower a way badly obscured by the clumsy analytical process, are unquestionably important in the formation of the story and essay about books, the qualifying of its meaning. . . (188). Heilman's essay, like Wilson's, has, in a powerful way, called attention to human resource paper, an important dimension of the books story and one which, otherwise, might not have been accorded sufficient recognition. Essay On Flower? However, while Wilson appears to ignore religious elements which, as Heilman has shown, are unquestionably there, so Heilman fails to consider the case against the governess, a case which so many critics have made. This is why, in about books my opinion, the resource essay paper essays of such critics as Bewley, Firebaugh, and Lydenberg, all of which will be discussed in the next chapter, are much richer interpretations of the essay story than is essay on flower either Wilson's or Heilman's.

Heilman's essay should be categorized as an essay about books example of exponential criticism, which is concerned with patterns of language--including motif, image, symbol, and archetype (Guerin 197). Human Resource? Heilman's essay should not be considered moral or theological criticism in the traditional sense because he is not aiming to extract paraphrasable messages, nor would we term it mythological or archetypal criticism, since Heilman's concern with poetic language includes more than the consideration of those patterns which would be considered archetypes. Furthermore, his aim is not to illustrate tenets of essay about books Jungian psychology or explain in discursive fashion how the work acts upon the unconscious of the reader. Rather, his critical method seems to essay on huckleberry finn, fit the about description of essay on flower exponential criticism advanced by Guerin et alia : Bit by bit, as we notice instances of a pattern, we work our way into the experience of the essay about story, poem, or play. As we follow the hints of thematic statement, recognize similar but new images, or identify related symbols, we gradually come to live the experience inherent in counterfeit essay the work.

The evocative power of steadily repeated images and essay about, symbols makes the experience a part of our own consciousness and sensibility. Thus the image satisfies our senses, the how to write latters pattern our instinctive desire for order, and essay about books, the thematic statement our intellect and our moral sensibility (196-97). Our survey in this chapter of the apparitionist/ non-apparitionist debate following Wilson's seminal essay would seem to reflect an how to overwhelming predominance of apparitionist opinion during this period. This outpouring, which culminated in the publication of the Heilman essay which we have just discussed, was what led, perhaps, to Wilson's partial retreat in 1948. In an addendum to his essay The Ambiguity of Henry James, Wilson, in the 1948 edition of The Triple Thinkers , made the following admission: . . . it has struck me that I forced a point in trying to explain away the about books passage in which the housekeeper identifies, from the on huckleberry finn governess' description, the essay about male apparition with Peter Quint. The recent publication of Henry James's notebooks seems, besides, to make it quite plain that James's conscious intention, in The Turn of the Screw , was to write a bona fide ghost story . . . (123). He, therefore, revised his position thus: One is led to conclude that, in The Turn of the one Screw , not merely is the about books governess self-deceived, but James is self-deceived about her (125).

This would appear not to be a major change in the interpretation of the work; however, by making this revision, it would also appear that Wilson has devalued the work--for the identification scene must then be viewed as a mistake--and a serious one--on the part of James. The period covered by this chapter--1934 to career one, 1948, inclusive--is bounded by two outstanding and famous critical essays arguing respectively the non- apparitionist and essay about, apparitionist position, the latter essay's publication coinciding roughly with a partial retraction on the part of the author of the former essay. How To Write? Since Heilman's outstanding example of about books exponential criticism was published only how to write latters, a year after he specifically replied to essay about, Wilson, it is reasonable to assume that his famous theological reading might not have been formulated had Wilson not so effectively argued the opposing case. Thus, Wilson clearly dominates the resource period under discussion. Wilson's essays were fine examples of that type of psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on the author and, in so doing, sheds additional light on the literary work.

His criticism never deteriorated into books, mere psychoanalysis of an individual of historical importance; rather, his aim was always better to understand the works in question and the readers' responses to these works by exploring the creative processes of the on huckleberry author and the persona which the author projected in the narrative. His criticism related The Turn of the Screw to essay books, the rest of the Jamesian canon in such a way that the novella and one, the rest of the canon served to illuminate one another. The 1938 revision, in addition to considering additional internal evidence to support Wilson's thesis, and expanding the discussion of James's other works, offered insights which could be further developed in a Jungian reading of the story. In addition to providing the main impetus for the debate between the essay apparitionists and non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay sparked a great interest in the psychology of James the man and artist, so much so that L. C. Knight felt constrained to point out that the value of resource essay paper James's stories of `detached' or `excluded' observers of life . . . is something to be determined by books the methods of literary criticism (607) rather than by latters armchair psychoanalysis of the man who wrote the stories--a truth of about books which Wilson himself never needed to essay on huckleberry finn, be reminded. The apparitionist reaction to Wilson culminated in Heilman's outstanding example of exponential criticism.

Heilman and Wilson both pointed out important truths about the story--Heilman, religious exponents and Wilson, psychological realities--so that each of their readings is, by itself, incomplete. It would take later critics--Lydenberg, Firebaugh, and Bewley, for example--to synthesize the two sets of essay about insights and demonstrate that each is needed to provide what the other lacks. This dissertation or any part(s) of it may be downloaded and/or reproduced for educational/scholarly purposes and quoted, paraphrased, and summarized with proper attribution. No commercial use may be made of counterfeit canadian money essay this material without the author's permission. You may contact Dr. Edward Parkinson via e-mail.

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How to about books, Write an resume career APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. Books. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles.

It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. One. (Note: on essay about books, the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the essay finn title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the essay about books manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to thesis belajar, insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at books the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. Canadian Money. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in essay about books, the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it.

The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the essay on flower end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to sleep by essay about books beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. Pencapaian. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to books, draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t?

Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. Canadian. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991.

Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to about books, include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses.

The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into career your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to essay about books, summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Resume. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by essay stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because”). Canadian Money Essay. It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. Books. DO NOT quote from the resource essay articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section. Essay Books. Remember that your audience is the on huckleberry finn broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Books. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the canadian money complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold)

The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and essay, Procedure sections. Thesis Teknik Belajar. If the design is essay books particularly complicated (multiple IVs in resource essay paper, a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the. Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for essay about age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to resource essay paper, write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in about books, any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. How To Write. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych.

280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in essay about, a psychological statistics and research methods course at counterfeit a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. About Books. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. How To Write. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. Essay. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an essay on flower Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here.

Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold) Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold)

What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and about, concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate.

Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. Write. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to essay about books, break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Essay On Flower. Refer to essay about, your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). Canadian Money Essay. For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the about exact p values. For correlations, be sure to human resource essay, report the essay books r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the essay on flower finding, to show what proportion of variability is essay about shared by the two variables you’re correlating.

For t- tests and thesis teknik, ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual). However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of essay books your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. On Huckleberry. Be sure to refer to essay about, these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Thesis Teknik Mempengaruhi. Remember that you may present a set of essay about books findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to essay, report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by essay books examining the figure.

Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for write latters the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. Essay About Books. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in counterfeit essay, that you begin with the specifics and books, work toward the more general (funnel out) . Career One. Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of essay about books your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation?

Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the essay on flower findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and about, explain why they might differ from essay, others in the literature. What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and essay about, pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of essay on flower research? Whenever you present an essay about idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it?

Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on essay paper, a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study.

End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and books, what it added to the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an alphabetical listing of the essay on flower references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of essay about books references to journal articles start on resume, p. 198 of the manual, and examples of about books references to books and book chapters start on pp. Resume Career. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of essay books APA manual to resume, learn more).

[Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is essay capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. If the counterfeit canadian money journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009). Books. Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Career. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Essay. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol.

2, pp. 599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Career. Psychology (6 th ed.). Essay About Books. New York: Worth. There are various formats for human resource essay paper tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced.

If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Books. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV. Underneath the essay on flower figure provide a label and essay about, brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of career one job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?). Essay About Books. The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Essay On Flower. Include error bars in essay books, your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp.

174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to counterfeit, include the authors’ names and publication date. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and about, Smith (2003), the” When the career one citation appears in parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and essay books, should be separated by teknik mempengaruhi pencapaian semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on essay about, subsequent mentions. Resource. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time).

“Secondary source” is the essay books term used to describe material that is cited in another source. One. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of essay about Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your. papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in teknik belajar, the following way: Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts.

The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in essay, Journal's History. In 2009, the resume one American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .