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awa essay topics Chapter 2: Analysis of Issue. Chapter 3: Analysis of Argument. Chapter 4: About the E-Rater. Chapter 5: Improving Your Writing. Chapter 6: Real Essay Questions. 10 Most Common Errors. Theses! The A nalytical W riting A ssessment (AWA) consists of thesis printing camden two 30-minute sections, the theses, Analysis of Issue essay and the Analysis of Argument essay. You will receive a grade from 1 to 6, which will be sent with your GMAT scores. Thesis Printing Camden Street! Your essay will be graded by a human grader and an E-rater computerized grading program. If they disagree, it will be sent to a third human grader. If you do not write your essay in theses writing the proper format for the E-rater, it could lead to a lower score.
Throughout the thesis centre street, guidebook we have tips on the E-rater and theses a section exclusively about the E-rater. The good news is that the AWA can be beaten.The essay topics are available for narrative about peer pressure, you to review beforehand. Writing! The structures for thesis, the AWA answers are simple and may be learned. Theses Writing! In addition, while much GMAT preparation may appear useless and without any merit beyond test day, the skills, reasoning tools, and college experience techniques you learn for the AWA may be applied to any essay or persuasive writing. These skills will help you throughout business school and beyond. The Analysis of theses writing Issue question asks you to usc theatre supplement discuss your opinion toward an issue. You will need to write a well-balanced analysis of the issue the test presents to you. The most common topics relate to general business and public policy issues. Business issues include business ethics, marketing and labor. Government issues include regulatory and social welfare issues. Here is an example of an Analysis of Issue question: Does lowering tax rates increase economic growth?
Should countries sacrifice civil liberties for safety? Should countries limit free trade to protect their industry? Graders of the Analysis of Issue essay expect an essay that: Is well developed, logical and coherent; Demonstrates critical thinking skills; Uses varied sentence structure and vocabulary; Uses standard written English and follows the language#146;s conventions; Is free of mechanical errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization. How do I write a well-balanced essay? Time Breakdown: How to write a coherent 300 word essay in writing 30 minutes or less. Structure is the most important part of your essay. Your essay must be written in a standard format with the standard logical transitions.
The E-rater will scan your essay to identify if it has a standard structure. Introduction and thesis printing conclusion #150; These sections function as bookends to your essay, providing the most basic and crucial points of your essay. The rest of writing your essay will relate back to your intro. Peer! Your conclusion will reiterate these ideas. Number of Paragraphs - To satisfy the E-rater, your essay should be four to five paragraphs, two of theses which will be your introduction and conclusion. In addition your essay will include two to three body paragraphs. Each paragraph should have two to five sentences (total essay about 300-400 words).
The transitional phrases we use in the Template are intentionally simplistic. This is not a simple approach where you can fill-in-the-blanks. Flesh out the template somewhat and use it as a guideline to write a disciplined and focused essay. #8226; 3b: Finding errors. What is an argument? A strong argument tries to persuade the reader to accept a point of view. When writing an essay be sure to include the following in your argument: 1. A declarative statement of idea or opinion. 2. Support for the statement: including relevant facts, opinions based on facts and/or careful reasoning. Perfection! When writing an argument is writing, essential to both make a statement and then provide a foundation of evidence to back up this statement. What is the Analysis of thesis centre street Argument? Analysis of argument questions present a short argument on an issue.
You are asked to writing analyze the argument and discuss how well it is college experience, reasoned. You will be looking for flaws in reasoning and theses weak use of evidence. You will have to consider the assumptions that underlie the writer's thinking and what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken his or her conclusion. It is your job to come up with evidence that would strengthen or refute the argument, or what changes would make it more sound. How is it different than Analysis of Issue? On Analysis of experience Issue questions you try to argue grand issues such as Should China be in the WTO, or Should parents have vouchers to send children to the school of their choice. Reasonable people could differ.
Let's look at this example: In the first part of the writing, Analysis of usc theatre essay Issue topic, the writer tries to persuade you of their conclusion by referring to evidence. When you read the arguments in these questions, be on the lookout for assumptions and writing poor logical reasoning used to make a conclusion. The Question Stem. Question stems will ask you to casebooks contemporary decide how convincing you find the argument. Theses! You will be asked to explain why an argument is perfection, not convincing, and discuss what might improve the theses writing, argument. For this task, you'll need to: first, analyze the usc theatre supplement, argument itself and evaluate its use of evidence; second, explain how a different approach or more information would make the argument itself better (or possibly worse).
They say: Explain what, if anything, would make the argument more valid and theses writing convincing or help you to better evaluate its conclusion. Translation: Spot weak links in the argument and offer changes that would strengthen them. The Usual Suspects: Common Logical Fallacies. There are seven logical errors that appear commonly in the essay questions. When writing your essay argument you should explicitly identify the resume, logical flaw.
These flaws also tend to occur in the critical reasoning section of the Verbal GMAT, so your preparation here will benefit you when taking the Verbal section. 1. Circular Reasoning. Here, an unsubstantiated assertion is used to justify another unsubstantiated assertion, which is used to justify the first statement. For instance, Joe and Fred show up at an exclusive club. When asked if they are members, Joe says I'll vouch for Fred.
When Joe is asked for evidence that he's a member, Fred says, I'll vouch for him. 2. The Biased-Sample Fallacy. The Fallacy of the Biased Sample is committed whenever the data for a statistical inference is drawn from a sample that is not representative of the population under consideration. The data drawn and used to writing make a generalization is drawn from a group that does not represent the centre camden, whole. Here is an argument that commits the fallacy of the biased sample: ln a recent survey conducted by Wall Street Weekly, 80% of the respondents indicated their strong disapproval of increased capital gains taxes. This survey clearly shows that increased capital gains taxes will meet with strong opposition from the electorate. The data for the inference in this argument is drawn from a sample that is theses writing, not representative of the entire electorate. Camden! Introductory Paragraph (2-4 sentences)
Briefly restate the argument in theses writing your own words. Briefly trace the essay, argument's line of reasoning. Writing! Indicate the extent to which the argument is essay, logically convincing. If possible, sum up your arguments in one sentence (or two brief sentences). Here's a sample template for the first paragraph that accomplishes these goals: First Body Paragraph (3-5 sentences) The reasoning of the argument One of the premises of the argument One of the assumptions of the argument.
How to write a 300-word essay in 30 minutes. Using time appropriately is extremely important when writing essays on the GMAT. Theses! You must use your time wisely. Do not dive right in. Dedication Thesis God! If you begin writing immediately you will likely find it difficult to follow your critique all the way through without making mistakes in organization. Writing! Instead, take time to think about contemporary e essay forster, what you will be writing and create an outline first. 1. Dissect argument (4 minutes) 2. Select your points (5 minutes) 3. Outline (1 minute) 4. Writing! Type essay (20 minutes) 5. Proofread (2 minutes) The problem of poorly trained police officers that has plagued New York City should become less serious in the future. The City has initiated comprehensive guidelines that oblige police officers in multiculturalism and proper ways to deal with the city's ethnic groups.
#8226; 4a: Using Strategy. Essay Experience! #8226; 4b: International Students. W hat the writing, E-rater Grades. The E-rater is bot, or a distant cousin of search engine spiders used to analyze and read web pages. The E-rater will read your essays and look for phrases that indicate competent reasoning. The E-rater uses a stored battery of hundreds graded essays for each of the 280 essay questions (this is part of the reason that GMAT essays haven't changed in years, to do so would require re-programming the E-rater). The E-rater has sample 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 score essays for each topic.
The E-rater will evaluate your essay in terms of the stored essays in the E-rater's database. If the essay you wrote resembles the stored 6 essays in the E-rater's database, you will get that score. If your essay better resembles the 5's in the E-rater's memory, you will get a 5 from the god, E-rater. Theses! That is experience, why it is so important to read the 20 sample essays we have. You will see how well written arguments are structured and you will learn the proper style necessary to impress both the E-rater and the human grader. What the E-rater doesn't grade. The E-rater cannot detect certain things, such as humor, spelling errors or grammar. It analyzes structure through using transitional phrases, paragraph changes, etc. It evaluates content through comparing your score to that of other students. Writing! If you have a brilliant argument that uses an unusual argument style, the E-rater will not detect it. The E-rater does, however, detect spelling and grammar indirectly.
If your transition phrases and logical identifiers (e.g.- therefore, for perfection, example) are not properly spelled, the E-rater will not detect them. Since the E-rater uses the theses, presence of such transitional phrases as an indicator of effective writing, you are indirectly penalized if they are not spelled correctly. Does the college essay experience, E-rater impact human graders? The E-rater potentially puts pressure on human graders. Human graders will create problems if they constantly disagree with the E-rater and force a third, additional grader to look over the essay (this raises costs). In this way, the E-rater acts as a managerial tool to double-check graders and theses keep them in usc theatre supplement essay line. The bottom line: don't rely on your essay being appealing to the human grader. There is no guarantee that the grader will give you a high grade to counter a low E-rater grade. Try to theses follow the E-rater rules. About Peer! What are the implications for writing, the GMAT student? You should not try any bold or original approaches in your essay.
The essay should be written in a simple and organized fashion. If you write a boldly original piece, do not rely on the human grader to narrative essays peer pressure acknowledge the quality of your writing. This may not be the writing, place to expound upon how your master's thesis ties in with your GMAT essay. On the narrative about pressure, Argument Essay: The E-rater makes more sense on the Argument Essay because it is able to tell if you have identified the argument's logical flaw. The E-rater stores hundreds of essays for each essay question and you should use keywords that correspond the theses, stored 6 essays. When you have identified the essays about, logical flaws the essay questions, (use our usual suspects section to identify logical flaws), make sure to describe the logical flaws. This way the E-rater is theses writing, able to detect that you have identified the correct logical flaws. Pleasing the essay, E-rater: Make your essay highly rigid in structure. Theses Writing! Make it look, in its organization, like other 5 and 6 essays. Resume! Clearly demarcate sections using phrases such as for theses writing, example, therefore, etc.. Perfection! Use qualifiers judiciously.
The E-rater will associate careful use of qualifiers with high scorers. Read our 20 Real Essays essays to theses get a flavor for how 6 score writing is done. Use the exact terminology we do in the Usual Suspects section to identify logical reasoning flaws in thesis printing centre camden street the Argument Section. Errors that will ruin your score with the E-rater (DO NOT): 1. Write an essay in a unique and creative fashion. Writing! The E-rater will be evaluating you relative to casebooks critical e essay other writers, so a unique argument structure will not appear standard and will always backfire. 2. Misspell key phrases, such as for writing, example and resume therefore . Theses! The E-rater will not pick this up and assume that you did not use transition phrases.
3. Supplement! Throw in jokes and other unnecessary commentary. The E-rater will not detect the meaning under your writing, only its structure, so making clever comments will not raise your score. 4. Use unusual references that no other business school student would use. The E-rater uses other scorers as a template based on how well you resemble other scorers. On the Analysis of Issue question, if you do use unusual examples, try to use concept keywords and a tight structure. 6. Use a unique and clever rhetorical device that spices up your essay. The E-rater cannot detect cleverness and theses writing may find an essay like this confusing, redundant or disorganized.
7. Follow Steve Jobs' clever advertising campaign for Apple Think Different . For the AWA it is Think the Same. You want to write as 6 scorers write. The Analysis of Issue section, in particular, is an exercise in conformity. Write opinions in the mainstream of intellectual thought. You may have compelling evidence about the role of UFO's in college essay experience our daily lives, but your GMAT essay is not the place to introduce this startling news to writing the world.
How international students should tackle the AWA and the E-rater. The conventions for the AWA can be summarized in a single statement: written English requires that each paragraph be developed directly away from a topic (or thesis) sentence or directly towards a topic (or thesis) sentence. The former is known as deductive development; the latter is known as inductive development. Since this is the case for all English written prose it should be obvious that writers in thesis centre English have less freedom to wander from the main point of their discourse than writers in other languages. English expository prose style must be direct and to the point even though it is writing, necessary to contemporary critical e essay forster m new support each main idea with examples, explanations, and illustrations. Theses! The thesis (or topic sentence) must contain the germ of the idea that permeates the experience, entire paragraph. Each example or illustration must be connected to writing that idea with transitional markers such as for example , thus , or moreover . Your essays should be written in American, not English. Dedication Thesis! Phrases that are more commonly spoken in English (indeed, hence, etc..) are less common in theses an American writing style.
Phrases that are commonly spoken in English are unlikely to usc theatre essay be picked up by the E-rater, which picks up phrases used among high scorers (who are overwhelmingly American). Students from the theses writing, U.K., Hong Kong, India and other Commonwealth nations should adjust their syntax, style and language to resume perfection better suit the flavor of English used in America. That is the language of the theses writing, E-rater. Avoid any local jargon or particularly any unusual transitional phrases (e.g. heretofore). Got that mate? In addition, the human graders are overwhelmingly American and will have an thesis god, easier time with arguments written in American. The best solution to writing writing in the appropriate style is to read all of our sample essays. You should also familiarize yourself with American scholarly journals to see how American writers structure arguments. #8226; 5b(12): The Apostrophe.
Once you have mastered the material in the previous chapters and have an overall idea of what you want to say in your essay, you can focus on the best way to express it. Contemporary M New! This part of the E-Rater Guide will develop the skills you need to create well-developed and well-written essays. Theses Writing! We have divided the lessons for writing into two parts: Writing Style: learn to be clear, concise and compelling. Streamline your essay by avoiding unnecessary sentences. Avoid sentences that do not advance your argument. Avoid asking a question only to college answer it. Avoid sentences that announce that you are shifting the topic. Use transitional phrases instead of writing sentences to theses writing change your subject.
FILL: Who should be the next president? I think Mike Dukakis should give it another try. TO THE POINT: Mike Dukakis should make a second bid for the presidency. Resume! Exercise 1: Avoid fill sentences that do not serve a purpose. Condense the two-sentence groups into theses writing one, direct sentence. 1. Who was Abraham Lincoln? He was a President of the perfection, United States.
2. Patton was a famous general. He was renowned for his ability to writing surprise the enemy. 3. The twister destroyed three city blocks. Many buildings collapsed because of the twister. Thesis God! 1. Abraham Lincoln was President of the United States. 2. General Patton was famous for his ability to surprise the enemy. 3. Many buildings were destroyed by theses writing, the twister that destroyed three city blocks. Directness and clarity are valued over wordiness on dedication god, the GMAT. Do not use several words when one will work just as well. Many writers tend to add excessive phrases like take into consideration in order to sound scholarly. This only theses makes the text sound inflated and dedication even sometimes pretentious.
WORDY: I am of the theses, opinion that the forster, said managers should be admonished for their utilization of customer response services. Writing! CONCISE: We should tell the managers to casebooks critical e essay forster improve customer service. What is a qualifier? Why use qualifiers? WORDY : The Hess spy case was a rather serious breach of national security and likely helped the Soviets. CONCISE: The Hess spy case breached national security and helped the Soviets. Clear up the following sentences by eliminating excessive qualifiers. 1. You yourself are the theses writing, very best person to decide what you should do for a living.
2. It is possible that. College Experience! Try not to begin a sentence with This, Here is , There is, There are , or It is . These roundabout expressions indicate distance from your position and make your statement less definitive. Weak openings usually result from writing before you think- hedging until you find out what you want to say. WEAK: There are many ways in which we can change our current monetary system. Theses Writing! ACTIVE: Joe completed the assignment in centre camden street record time. Active voice is the preferred essay writing style for the GMAT. Writing! If possible you should always use the active voice, since it is more direct and shows action and intent.
Statements made in the passive voice are weak because it is difficult to tell who or what is responsible for essay, an action. Essay writers should avoid unnecessary phrases as I believe, I feel, and in my opinion. The grader knows whose opinion is being expressed and he or she does not need to theses be reminded. WEAK: I am of the opinion that excessive self-reference may add a level of casebooks critical e essay forster pomposity to an otherwise effective essay. Redundancy is the unnecessary repetition of an idea. For example, it is redundant to say a beginner lacking experience. The word beginner implies lack of experience by theses, itself.
You can eliminate redundant words or phrases without changing the meaning of the sentence. Watch out for words that add nothing to the sense of the sentence, because redundancy takes away from the clarity and conviction of a statement. Here are some common redundancies: Redundancy often results from god carelessness, but you may easily eliminate redundant elements when proofreading. 1. Those who can follow directions are few in theses writing number. Choose specific, descriptive words when you are making any statement on the GMAT. Vague language weakens your writing because it forces the reader to guess what you mean instead of concentrating fully on your ideas and style. WEAK: Mr. Brown is highly educated. FORCEFUL: Mr.
Brown has a master's degree in business administration. WEAK: She is a great communicator. FORCEFUL: She speaks persuasively. Notice that sometimes to be more specific and concrete you will have to use more words than you might with vague language (as in the first example). This principle is not in college essay experience conflict with the general objective of writing concisely. Being concise may mean eliminating unnecessary words. Avoiding vagueness may mean adding necessary words to theses illustrate your point. Edit these sentences by cutting down on vague language: 3. Thousands of species of animals were destroyed when the last ice age occurred. Dedication! 4. The secretary was unable to complete the theses, task that had been assigned. Cliches are overused expressions, expressions that may once have seemed colorful and powerful, but are now dull and worn out. Peer! Time, pressure and anxiety may make you lose focus, and that is when cliches may slip into your writing.
A reliance on cliches will suggest you are a lazy thinker. Theses! Keep them out of your essay by resume, thinking ahead and proofreading. WEAK: Performance in a crisis is the acid test for a leader. FORCEFUL: Performance in a crisis is the best indicator of a leader's abilities. Putting a cliche in quotation marks in order to indicate your distance from the cliche does not strengthen the sentence. If anything, it just makes weak writing more noticeable. Take notice of writing whether or not you use cliches. If you do, ask yourself if you could substitute more specific language for the cliche. International Students: You should avoid any regional expressions. Students from Britain and thesis camden the commonwealth nations should particularly beware of using local expressions that are not used in America.
Jargon includes two categories of words that you should avoid. First is the specialized vocabulary of theses writing a group, such as that used by a group of people such as doctors, lawyers, or baseball coaches. Second is the overly inflated or complex language that burdens many student essays. You will not impress anyone with big words that do not fit the tone or context of usc theatre essay your essay, especially if you misuse them. If you are not certain of theses writing a word's meaning or appropriateness, leave it out. An appropriate word, even a simple one, will add impact to your argument. Ask yourself Would a reader in a different field be able to understand exactly what I mean from the dedication thesis, words I've chosen? Is there any way I can say the same thing more simply? MBA candidates are particularly prone to using MBA jargon.
When you go to business school, you will find that MBAs have a language of their own with words such as incentivize or M A. Indeed, you will find that a large part of the lasting benefit of business school is learning the proper MBA language so that you will better relate with the MBAs who dominate the business world. For now, however, the GMAT is not the place for MBA jargon or any jargon for that matter. optimize time frame utilize ( use ) finalize (end, complete) conceptualize (imagine, think) maximize originate (start, begin) facilitate (help, speed up) bottom line parameter (boundary, limit) user-friendly (responsive, flexible, easy-to-understand) input/output blindside downside ongoing (continuing) Your essay graders may not be up to date on the latest trendy abbreviations. Also, avoid lazy and theses writing sloppy statements like. Since you are asked to write an explanatory essay, an occasional self-reference may be appropriate. Use them sparingly and only when there is no other way to explain what you mean. You may call yourself I as long as you keep the number of first-person pronouns to a minimum. Casebooks Contemporary E Essay Forster! Less egocentric ways of referring to theses the narrator include we and one. In my lifetime, I have seen many challenges to the principle of free speech. Supplement! Conversational speech is filled with slang and theses colloquial expressions. However, you should avoid slang on the GMAT analytical writing assessment.
Slang terms and colloquialisms can be confusing to the reader, Beware of two common sentence writing errors: Sentence fragment : a statement with no independent clause. Every sentence in formal writing must have an independent clause: a clause that expresses a complete thought and. RULES FOR SEMICOLONS. 1. Thesis Printing Centre Camden Street! Use a semicolon to link two independent clauses. To give a good party, you must consider the lighting; no one feels comfortable under the bright glare of fluorescent lights.
Note that the two clauses are connected in thought, but are each independent grammatically. A comma with a conjunction can stand in theses writing place of the semicolon, like this: To give a good party, you must consider the lighting , since no one feels comfortable under the bright glare of fluorescent lights. 2. Use a semicolon to narrative separate elements in a list if the elements are long - or if the elements themselves have commas in them. To get completely ready for your party, you should clean your house; make sure your old, decrepit stereo works; prepare a lot of delicious, strange food; and expect odd, antisocial, and frivolous behavior on the part of your guests. 3. Unlike commas, semicolons belong outside quotation marks.
One man at the party sat in a corner and read The Adventures of Bob; he may have been shy, or he may have found The Adventures of Bob too exciting to put down. 1. Use a colon when making a list, when what precedes the list is an independent clause. Theses! CORRECT: There are four ingredients necessary for a good party: music, lighting, food, and personality. A. Use the resume, hyphen with the compound numbers twenty-one through ninety-nine, and theses writing with fractions used as adjectives. CORRECT: Sixty-five students constituted a majority. CORRECT: A two-thirds vote was necessary to carry the measure. B. Use the hyphen with the prefixes ex , all , and dedication thesis god self and with the suffix elect . CORRECT: The constitution protects against self-incrimination. CORRECT: The president-elect was invited to chair the meeting.
The apostrophe is used to show ownership. Most of the time, it presents no confusion: The woman's finger. RULES FOR APOSTROPHES. 1. If the plural noun doesn't end in theses -s, add an apostrophe and -s, like above. (This is the easy part.) #8226; 6c. Additional Essays. Look at all the real AWA questions beforehand: To beat the competition, you will need to do some brainstorming for all 280 AWA questions. Any of usc theatre supplement them could appear on your GMAT, so you should spend some time preparing in advance. While there are many questions possible, the writing, good news is there are no surprises. You will be able to review all of the casebooks contemporary forster m new, potential questions beforehand. 1. The questions are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf format). If you do not have Adobe Acrobat you can download it for free click here to download Adobe 5.0.
These essays are not perfect answers, but represent what could be done in a 30 minute time period to get a score of writing 5 or 6. Analysis of Argument # 1: Olympia Foods. College! The author argues, using facts from the color-film processing industry's downward trend in cost over 24 years, that Olympic Foods will be able to cut costs and thus maximize profits in the future. The author bases his conclusion on the generalization that organizations learn to theses reduce costs over time and, since Olympic Foods has 25 years experience in the food processing industry, its costs should have declined considerably. Dedication Thesis God! There are two serious flaws in the argument. First, the argument uses a faulty analogy between the theses writing, color-film processing industry and the food processing industry. Analogies drawn between the two fields are highly suspect because there are many serious differences. While the narrative about peer, film processing industry faces a relatively simply processing challenge, food producers must contend with contamination, transportation and writing farm production (much more serious challenges). Thus, it is likely much more difficult to wring efficiency improvements in the food industry. Contemporary Critical E Essay! Second, the author uses a sweeping generalization. the author's prediction of margin improvements relies on the optimistic assumption that Olympic Foods' 25 years of experience will automatically result in operational efficiencies. The problem with this is that improvements in processes do not occur automatically over time, they require tremendous effort at continuous improvement and writing they require potential room for improvement.
It is possible Olympic Food has limited room for improvement or lacks the perfection, managerial will to writing improve its operations. Thus, there is no guarantee of improved operational efficiency over time. These essays are not perfect answers, but represent what could be done in a 30 minute time period to get a score of 5 or 6. Experience! I ssue #1: Radio and theses writing TV Censorship. The censorship and regulation of broadcast media for offensive material involves a conflict between the thesis printing centre camden, freedom of expression and theses writing the duty of government to protect its citizenry from potential harm. I believe that our societal interest in preventing the harm that exposure to obscenity produces takes precedence over the freedoms of individual broadcasters. Firstly, I believe exposure to obscene and offensive language and behavior causes people to mimic such behavior. There is anecdotal and scientific evidence to support this contention. Resume Perfection! Look at all the real AWA questions beforehand: To beat the competition, you will need to writing do some brainstorming for all 280 AWA questions. Any of them could appear on your GMAT, so you should spend some time preparing in advance. While there are many questions possible, the good news is essay experience, there are no surprises. You will be able to theses review all of the potential questions beforehand.
1. The questions are in perfection Adobe Acrobat (.pdf format). Theses! If you do not have Adobe Acrobat you can download it for free click here to download Adobe 5.0. We've graded thousands of essays and certain errors occur again and again and again. This is a list of the essay, top ten errors we see on essays. Read through each one carefully. Avoiding these errors will make your essay stronger. This argument throws in everything and discusses every topic of an issue in one paragraph. Writing! Paragraphs are discrete units meant for casebooks contemporary critical, discussing a limited range of ideas. Narrow the scope of your paragraphs and arguments into manageable, topic-specific units. On a larger level, limit the scope of your essays.
On issue questions, especially, it is not an theses writing, opportunity to college experience expound on your entire worldview.
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Obama’s Favorite Theologian? A Short Course on Reinhold Niebuhr. Some of the nation’s leading journalists gathered in Key West, Fla., in May 2009 for the Pew Forum’s biannual Faith Angle Conference on religion, politics and theses public life. Ever since then-Sen. Barack Obama spoke of his admiration for Reinhold Niebuhr in a 2007 interview with New York Times columnist David Brooks, there has been speculation about the extent to which the 20th-century theologian has influenced Obama’s views on faith, politics and social change.
Wilfred McClay, a historian specializing in American intellectual history and author of The Masterless: Self and Society in Modern America , which won the 1995 Merle Curti Award in casebooks e essay, intellectual history, offered an overview of Niebuhr’s unique form of progressive Christianity and addressed ongoing debates about the influence of Niebuhr’s work on writing, 20th-century American politics and international affairs. E.J. Dionne, columnist for The Washington Post , remarked on the recent revival of casebooks m new, interest in Niebuhrian thought and spoke about the theses, role Niebuhr played as a public intellectual active during the resume perfection, worldwide political upheavals of the writing, 1930s, ’40s and ’50s. Speaker: Wilfred M. McClay, SunTrust Bank Chair of Excellence in Humanities, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. Respondent: E.J. Dionne Jr., Columnist, The Washington Post ; Senior Advisor, Pew Research Center’s Forum on usc theatre, Religion Public Life. Moderator: Michael Cromartie, Vice President, Ethics Public Policy Center; Senior Advisor, Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion Public Life. And Obama went on for 25 minutes about his admiration for Reinhold Niebuhr. And then David did a column on Niebuhr and then we got an excuse to do Niebuhr.
So that’s why we’re talking about Reinhold Niebuhr – because our president likes Reinhold Niebuhr. But we thought you wanted to know about him anyway. So our session is really not about President Obama; it’s about Reinhold Niebuhr. Theses Writing? But we used that teaser “Obama’s Favorite Theologian?” just to college experience, get your attention. And I’m sure the president’s name will come up in our conversation. Bill McClay is an intellectual historian who’s taught at Tulane and theses writing Georgetown universities and now is an college experience, endowed chair at theses writing, the University of Tennessee at thesis camden, Chattanooga. Bill has, if you look at writing, his bio, written some very important books.
One is resume perfection, called The Masterless: Self and Society in Modern America , which was the winner of a best-book award – the Merle Curti Award in theses, intellectual history – in 1995. Remind me, Bill, who was Merle Curti? WILFRED MCCLAY: He was a great intellectual historian. MCCLAY: From the University of Wisconsin. CROMARTIE: Okay, good, well you won his award in 1995 and that’s why we invited you. Now ladies and gentlemen, we’re going to hear from Bill McClay and god then E.J. Theses Writing? Dionne is going to read to us from about five different books by Niebuhr that he has stacked over here. E.J.
DIONNE: Even a thriller. How do you like that? I have a thriller on my list. CROMARTIE: And you’re going to do all that in dedication thesis god, 15 minutes? CROMARTIE: Okay. Bill, we look forward. Thank you. MCCLAY: Thanks. This is really quite a change.
I think Francis Collins and Barbara Bradley Hagerty had a sort of uplifting, hopeful subject. And I have Niebuhr who’s – I think by the time we get through with this you may be ready to theses writing, slash your wrists. Narrative Essays Pressure? (Laughter.) But I hope not. Writing? I hope not. CROMARTIE: Do you have a song about college that – suicide? (Laughter.) MCCLAY: “Stormy Weather.” I’m leaning with “Stormy Weather.” But actually I think there are some connections with what Professor Robert Putnam is going to be doing tomorrow. So I think you will see some linkages. Niebuhr is a theologian. He’s also a student of theses, power politics and essay experience a great admirer of the theses, saying of Lord Acton, that the power corrupts and PowerPoint corrupts absolutely. (Laughter.) But now, there are souls who – let me finish – there are souls who are pure enough, children of light, as Niebuhr might say, who can – actually that’s a double-edged thing, you’ll see – but who can do it. But I’m not one of them.
So there will be no PowerPoint, which is not to say that there won’t be any corruption, but at least that particular occasion of sin is one I’m going to pass up. Mike’s right: The occasion for this – the hook – is dedication god, this discussion between David Brooks and writing then-Senator Obama, which was in 2007, actually. Resume Perfection? And actually, it was at a time when his candidacy was beginning to look very plausible. And it’s interesting – this may or may not be significant – but he said that Niebuhr was one of his favorite philosophers, according to David’s transcription – not one of writing, his favorite theologians. So that may or may not have any significance. And of essay, course, David did say that Obama gave a sort of perfect description of the book in perfect sentences and theses writing perfect paragraph structure for 20 minutes, which does suggest that he knew the book in narrative essays peer, question, The Irony of American History , which is theses, one of the books I’m going to talk about. Obama’s not the first American president to declare his fondness for Niebuhr. Jimmy Carter notably did, and both before and after his election. Some people think that the famous “malaise” speech had some Niebuhrian input, and certainly it was influenced by Christopher Lasch’s book The Culture of Narcissism , although in ways that Lasch didn’t particularly like. It always tends to college essay experience, happen, when politicians use your books in speeches – all of a sudden you’re not so thrilled to see it happening.
And I think Niebuhr would have been, probably, no exception. In any event, as Mike has said, I’m not really going to talk very much about Obama. I have a feeling you all would want to, and between E.J. and theses myself, we may have some thoughts. And certainly, I’m not going to get into the question of whether his interest – Obama’s interest in resume, Niebuhr – is genuine or not, whether he really understands Niebuhr or not. That’s unrelated to my pay grade. I won’t say above or below – instead, what I really want to do is what I said in writing, the title, is to lay out his vision, his worldview in a kind of short course. And obviously, if there’s an agenda here, it’s simply to indicate that his thinking, although it does develop – and about pressure whose doesn’t – has a core of consistency.
There is writing, a core to Niebuhr that seems to me carries through some three decades of concentrated work. I will avoid, strenuously, speculating about “what would Niebuhr do,” what would Niebuhr say, about embryonic stem cell research or whatever other present-day issue. I think there’s plenty to talk about, just with respect to what he did say and think. And I’ll lay that out and then we can speculate. Niebuhr is the outstanding public theologian of the 20th century, and I’m sure you know about him. You may not know much about him. He has become a figure of supplement, obscurity in theses, recent decades, and that’s partly because the term “public theologian” has come to represent something of a null set in recent times. I remember in the issue of Time right before 9/11, Stanley Hauerwas was dubbed America’s best theologian. But he’s not really a theologian who, whatever his other virtues, has much of practical import to thesis centre street, say about political life. But Niebuhr had an theses writing, unusually long and productive career.
He turned out many books, many articles; wrote journalistically; wrote highly, densely scholarly works. He was engaged. He was involved in usc theatre essay, the politics of the day, from World War I all the way to the Vietnam War. So he was not only a theologian of great distinction, but also a public intellectual who addressed himself to the full range of public concerns and had an enormously capacious mind that really could take in all kinds of issues that he wouldn’t necessarily have discussed in his books. His importance in his time tells you something about theses his time.
It was a time when theologians were important people. And it was a time when there was that great vitality in the mainline of Protestantism that Barbara referred to. It’s an indication of the essays about, severe attenuation of that influence that the closest thing to Niebuhr in writing, recent years has been the late Father Richard John Neuhaus – who converted to Catholicism (laughs) – and who had very low regard for the Protestant mainline. So Niebuhr’s career in some ways raises the issue of this now-attenuated influence and the fact that Neuhaus, who started out as a Protestant, ended up with Catholicism. The mainline Protestant world today is no longer the place where Protestants go for fresh ideas.
Also, as a general observation, Niebuhr is something of essays pressure, a counterpuncher as an writing, intellectual, and what I mean by that term I think will become evident; but in thesis street, short, it’s hard to know what he thinks about somebody or about theses some subject unless he’s reacting to them. That’s when he truly discloses himself: in thesis printing camden, taking exception to or responding to other thinkers, which is theses writing, why I think it’s very important to printing, see him in context and be very careful about theses writing what we can extract and use for casebooks critical m new, all occasions. One thing about the context is, I think it’s impossible to imagine him operating in anything other than a modern, Western, liberal environment, where there’s a strong tradition of science, of belief in the idea of theses, progress – a society that is in some ways poised on the cusp of a transformation into secularity, or at any rate a world in which a secular option exists. Supplement? He was very much a creature of theses writing, that historical moment and a critic of liberalism from within liberalism, a breed that flourished particularly in the late ’40s and ’50s – and supplement doesn’t seem to writing, exist, at centre, least in theses, the same form, today. The issues that he struggled with are quintessentially related to problems of advanced modernity, and science is one of them. I wouldn’t necessarily have emphasized this – but with Francis Collins here – his talk made me think again and again about how his own perspective on casebooks contemporary, science represents an advance over the dilemma that Niebuhr saw us in. Niebuhr upholds the idea of progress and remorselessly critiques it at the same time. Writing? I might add something else that you may know Niebuhr for perfection, – what’s called the “serenity prayer,” which goes something like “God, grant us the writing, serenity to accept the things we cannot change, the courage to change the things that can be changed, and thesis the wisdom to know the one from the other.” I’m reciting from memory. Theses? But the critical e essay forster m new, interesting thing is theses writing, what – to me anyway, as someone of conservative disposition – is what he leaves out, and that is preserving the things that need to be preserved. (Laughter.) It’s a striking omission! But it shows how thoroughgoing a progressive he was. There’s no hint of this in the serenity prayer – I don’t know whether anybody’s ever observed this about resume perfection it, but – CROMARTIE: It could be a first.
MCCLAY: It’s a first and last. So Niebuhr has an understanding of Christianity that’s grounded in a very complicated view of human nature. Actually, a lot of his persuasiveness derives from the fact that this view is more complicated and adequate than its secular equivalents. But first, let me give you a little background biography, which is all-important. He was born in 1892, not in a log cabin, you’ll be happy to theses writing, know, but in rural Missouri, the son of a German immigrant pastor, Gustav Niebuhr. And Gustav Niebuhr was a member of a tiny Protestant group called the German Evangelical Synod, which was very much an immigrant group. He really grew up in a German-speaking enclave, which was actually rather common in thesis, that part of the Midwest – Missouri and Illinois in late 19th- or early 20th-century farm communities. By the way, an interesting side point: The German Evangelical Synod eventually became part of the United Church of Christ, which is the theses, same Protestant denomination that the camden street, Rev. Theses Writing? Jeremiah Wright belongs to.
So there’s a sort of essay, odd little connection there. Reinhold inherited from his father this sense of pastoral vocation and a keen interest in social and political affairs. Theses Writing? He built on this with two years at Yale Divinity School, and so he began his career as a theologian and pastor as an advocate of what was called the “social gospel.” The social gospel was a movement within liberal Protestantism which located the meaning of the Christian Gospel in its promise as a blueprint for progressive social reform, rather than its assertions about supernatural reality. A few words about the social gospel, because it’s very important to this story. It arose out of a crisis within, particularly, Protestantism – although Catholicism had its own version of this – in response to industrialization and urbanization. In the Protestant case, particularly salient were the usc theatre supplement, challenges to biblical authority rising out of writing, these things, but more so out of god, Darwinism – Darwin and Darwinism. And not so much the writing, idea of evolution per se, which was a doctrine that easily comported with Christian faith, but the specific idea of natural selection. Perfection? It was the randomness of the writing, process of natural selection that was viewed as particularly threatening.
And an college, equally powerful threat came from the so-called “higher criticism” of the Bible, which deconstructed the Bible, for all intents and purposes, into a collection of redactions of successive texts by multiple authors over long periods of time, and therefore not a text that should be regarded as having any kind of theses writing, organic or authorial unity. So all of these things were terribly threatening, especially to Protestants. Why Protestants? Because the essay experience, whole basis of the Protestant Reformation, to oversimplify grandly, was to see the authority of the Bible as overriding – as superseding – the authority of the historical institutional church. There are some qualifications you’d need to theses writing, make to that statement, but basically that is a fair assessment. So that tremendous weight is placed on thesis printing centre street, the authority of theses, that text, and if its authority falls into question, then the entire foundation of Protestantism is threatened. So the social gospel was one way of thesis centre camden street, responding to theses, this problem. Social gospelers were modernists. They had dismissed the supplement essay, notion that the writing, Bible should be read authoritatively in the way that, say, fundamentalists – the fundamentalist movement was just getting going at this time – read the casebooks contemporary critical m new, Bible, or even the historical creeds.
But the social gospelers insisted that what they thought of as the heart of the Christian Gospel was very much valid and alive and worth preserving. It could be preserved by dispensing with these supernatural problematic elements and instead socializing the writing, Gospel, i.e., translating it into the language of usc theatre essay, social reform, including scientific social reform. Theses? They saw very little sense of antagonism between science and reform. Essays? And in the general optimism of the period, there were seen to be very few limits on what could be achieved. Walter Rauschenbusch, who was perhaps the leading figure in writing, the social gospel movement, put it this way – and forgive me, I’m going to have to read more quotes than I would normally read to give you a sense of essays, these thinkers. But here’s Rauschenbusch: “We have the possibility of so directing religious energy by scientific knowledge that a comprehensive and continuous reconstruction of social life in the name of God is within the bounds of human possibility.” So this idea of progress, the idea of perfectibility of the theses writing, human condition, of man himself, to use that term in a generic sense, is very much at the core of it all. By the e essay forster, way, one of the ways American sociology differed dramatically from, say, German sociology is theses, that from the very beginning it had an astonishingly religious content to it. Albion Small, who was the chairman of the department of sociology at the University of Chicago, the founder of the first sociology journal in the United States, the president of the college, American Sociological Association, and so on theses, and so forth, wrote the following: “Sociology is a science … of God’s image … a moral philosophy conscious of essays about, its task,” which was nothing less than “an approximation of the ideal of social life contained in the Gospels.” Social science was “the holiest sacrament open to men,” devoted to “laying the individualistic superstition” and ensuring that “we live, move, and have our being as members of one another.” In other words, the theses, kingdom of God is not reserved for thesis god, the beyond or the end of writing, time, but can be created in the here and printing centre now by social scientists and ministers working hand-in-hand together.
Although Niebuhr is my subject, I’m going to make a few little interjections about Obama at appropriate points. And I think that certainly one of the things that one could speculate on is the degree to which Obama has been influenced by the social gospel, as I think his pastor Jeremiah Wright very clearly was. There is a lot of evidence that he has been. For example, there was the famous speech that Obama gave in South Carolina, during the campaign, in theses, which he declared his desire to be an “instrument of God” – and declared, quote, “I am confident that we can create a kingdom right here on Earth.” And it was a capitalized ‘k,’ – I assume he did not mean that he was going to institute the political institution of the monarchy. So definitely, echoes of the social gospel were there. So Niebuhr initially bought into this. He bought into the social gospel movement. It fit with his upbringing.
It fit with his reformist inclinations. But being Niebuhr, as you’ll see, he soon became impatient with this kind of talk. Thesis God? He became uneasy with the progressive movement. He found it and the social gospel to be utterly naive about human nature, about the intractability of human nature, and inadequate to the task of explaining the nature of power relations as they existed in the real world. Sin was not just a word that we use to describe bad institutions that can be corrected. Sin, he thought, was something much deeper, an intrinsic part of the human condition, something that social reform was powerless to do much, if anything, about. And – I just had to throw this in for E.J. Theses Writing? – in dedication, 1939 he says, “Liberalism is little more than faith in man, exemplifying that perversion of the will, that betrayal of divine trust, which is called sin.” Of course he was a liberal through and theses through, so he was critiquing his own beliefs, his own system. What was arguably his most important book came out in usc theatre, 1932, with the revealing title Moral Man and Immoral Society . Nineteen thirty-two, needless to theses writing, say, is the depths of the Depression, so it’s a propitious moment to publish a rather hard-hitting book, which this was.
Niebuhr turned the social gospelers’ view on its head or on its feet – whichever Marxian analogy you like – and argued that in fact there was a disjuncture between the morality of individuals and college the morality of groups. And the theses writing, latter – the casebooks critical e essay, morality of groups – that morality was generally inferior to the morality of individuals. Theses? I’ll explain that in a moment. This was, he thought, a fixed condition, a fixed dynamic of human life. Individuals could, once in narrative essays about peer, a while, in rare instances, transcend their self-interest for the sake of a larger good. But groups of individuals, especially groups like nations, never could. So in fact, groups made individuals worse rather than better because the work of collectives was invariably governed by a logic of self-interest. So Niebuhr rejected the progressives’ belief in the plasticity or semi-plasticity of human nature. He thought sin was a better explanation. He liked to say that sin was the one element in the Christian creed that was empirically verifiable. (Laughter.) And he also took aim – and theses writing I think this is more radical than people appreciate – he took aim at contemporary m new, the very concept of socialization, which for theses, the progressives was so central.
John Dewey was a frequent target – in usc theatre supplement essay, Moral Man and Immoral Society he just goes after him every chance he gets. John Dewey argued that “The lost individual will re-find inner wholeness … by subduing himself to the forces of theses, organization at experience, work in externals.” You can tell that’s John Dewey because you could read it over and over writing again and it’s sort of like processing jelly, but you get the college essay experience, idea. (Laughter.) Niebuhr thought almost the opposite was true. Theses? As I said before, men have little enough goodness in themselves and socialization makes them worse because the reason for being, for all social groups, is to pursue the shared self-interest of the printing camden, members. So that self-interest is triumphant. He dismissed as sentimentality the progressive hope that the wages of theses writing, individual sin could be overcome by thesis intelligent reform and that there we could transform into a loving fellowship of like-minded comrades holding hands beside the theses, campfire. Instead, the usc theatre supplement, pursuit of good ends in theses writing, the arenas of national and international politics had to essay experience, take full account of the theses, un-loveliness of critical e essay, human nature, and the un-loveliness of theses, power. The implications for Christians who wanted to do good in the world were fairly stark in narrative peer pressure, his view. They had to be willing to get their hands dirty – very dirty, for existing social relations were held together by theses writing coercion and only counter-coercion could change them. Social change was brought about not by persuasion, diplomacy, pedagogy, intelligence or sweetness, but by about pressure – to use a term that he uses repeatedly in the book – “emotionally potent oversimplifications.” Emotionally potent oversimplifications – these are the things that galvanize groups to effective action. You see why I say this is theses, a rather depressing outlook – (laughs) – and it doesn’t get any better. A quotation: “Our contemporary culture fails to realize the power, extent and persistence of group egoism in human relations.” So the god, idea of solidarity – the campfire – is an writing, illusion.
Quote: “Society is a perpetual state of war between different self-interested groups.” Jesus Christ, meet Thomas Hobbes. Quote: “The only way a society can maintain itself is by the coercion of dominant groups who go on to invent romantic and moral interpretations of the usc theatre supplement essay, facts, and theses the peace lasts only as long as the underdogs are kept down. Then when they are able to centre camden, successfully challenge and theses writing coerce a new peace, they impose another set of romantic and experience moral interpretations of the facts.” So only power can counter power in theses writing, his view – and narrative about peer power, as Henry Adams said, is theses, poison. It’s a formulation that doesn’t – (laughs) – that doesn’t lead to an attractive conclusion.
His conclusion was that the exercise of power was always morally dangerous, but also always morally necessary. You had to act in the world. Contemporary Critical Forster M New? You couldn’t take the option of opting out. Hence, the need for a dualism in writing, morals, since – and I quote again – “The selfishness of resume perfection, human communities must be regarded as an theses writing, inevitability and can only be countered by competing assertions of interests.” So that’s James Madison – (laughs) – along with Hobbes. But in none of this is perfection, there a release from the writing, moral requirements of Christianity. I’ll come back to casebooks critical, that. This rather stark view extends very much to the nation-state. And this was a response on writing, his part to peer pressure, the social gospel, to the progressive movement and to a rather long strain in American ideas – progressive ideas – about solidarity. Edward Bellamy’s famous movement was built around a philosophy, a kind of socialist-fascist meld that he called nationalism.
So on the reform – I won’t necessarily call it the left; I’m not sure what to writing, call it – but on the progressive side of things, nationalism was not a bad thing. But to Niebuhr it was. Niebuhr wrote an article in 1916 in The Atlantic called “The Nation’s Crime Against the essay, Individual,” a nice, subtle title. And the idea here was, and theses writing this is before American entry into the first world war, which he strongly supported, that the nation cheats the soldier because it takes his loyalty, his willingness to narrative about peer pressure, die and sacrifice, for its own purposes without being able to hallow that sacrifice. Theses? Or as he put it, the nation “claims a life of eternal significance for ends that have no eternal value.” Or as he expressed the same idea some 16 years later in Moral Man and Immoral Society , “Patriotism transmutes individual unselfishness into national egoism.” It is “the unselfishness of the individuals [that] makes for printing centre street, the selfishness of nations,” which “is why the hope of solving the larger social problems of mankind, merely by extending the social sympathies of individuals, is so vain.” So much for empathy. But there’s an theses writing, interesting twist here; it is that all of this rejection of the social gospel, affirmation of original sin and college experience so on, did not mean that he gave up on social reform. And Niebuhr was a man of the left and he remained a man of the left always. Writing? Maybe not enough left to suit some people, but he certainly was never a conservative.
And he believed Christians were obligated to work actively for progressive social causes, for the realization of pressure, justice and righteousness, but they had to do this in a way that, as he characteristically put it, abandoned their illusions, not least in the way they thought about theses writing themselves. The pursuit of thesis centre camden, social justice would involve them in acts of sin and acts of imperfection. Even the most surgical action, one might say, involves collateral damage. But the Christian faith, just as inexorably, called its adherents to a life of perfect righteousness, a calling that would seem to give no quarter to dirty hands. So we’re left with the feeling that Niebuhr is calling Christians to the impossible and, in a sense, he is. He insists original sin is true. Theses? He insists that its probative value is confirmed every day.
Yet he insists at dedication god, the same time that human beings are splendidly endowed by their Creator, still capable of acts of nobility and theses generosity or truth, still able to advance the cause of social improvement. All of these things he insisted are true at usc theatre supplement, the same time and all have an writing, equivalent claim. So he’s correcting the social gospel. Resume Perfection? He’s pushing against the social gospel, which he sees as making many errors, but he’s not abandoning it entirely. These ideas would continue to develop. In 1938, he was invited to give the Gifford Lectures at St. Theses Writing? Andrews University, very prestigious lectures in natural theology. And these were later published as what is arguably his magnum opus, a book called The Nature and Destiny of Man , about which David Brooks once said, as I recall, “If you write a book with a title like that, you really feel like you have nothing else left to say.” (Laughter.) And that appeared in 1943. It’s interesting how productive Niebuhr was right through the resume perfection, second world war. And this book is really a grand tour of the entire intellectual history of the West and ultimately, I think, it’s really a book about the idea of theses writing, progress itself and about the printing street, question of whether human history can be meaningful.
I want to stress that last point. One of Niebuhr’s great antagonists was Henry Ford. He hated Henry Ford, loathed him for his treatment of his workers. And actually his hatred for Henry Ford was a very formative influence in his life. But Henry Ford had one of the theses, great sayings about history: that history is “one damn thing after another.” I think that’s a legitimate way of understanding history, that it has no intrinsic dynamic or meaning. God? But Niebuhr wanted to struggle with that, of theses writing, course. And as a thinking Christian he had to see some meaning in history. Christians understand history as meaningful, although sometimes the meaning is in history and sometimes it’s outside of camden, history and writing one can’t know in advance which is operating. So it’s another one of these hazardous but necessary operations.
What he felt had happened, however, in modern times, was that there was a secularized idea of progress that saw an immanent order, or as he called it, “an immanent logos,” that was no longer related to dedication, a transcendent meaning, but was inherent in history itself. And this idea of progress was something that had emerged out of Christianity, that was in some sense an outgrowth of Christianity’s worldview and writing ethos, but that had threatened to thesis printing centre, negate Christianity. It’s a view that is built on biblical language, built on biblical insights, but an theses writing, idea that became transformed by two modern innovations. First, there was the thesis camden, elimination of the notion that grace, meaning the theses, supernatural intervention of about peer, divine power to theses, give meaning to history, was necessary. And second, the thinkers who laid the foundation of modernity – and this I think is really where you get to resume, the heart of Niebuhr – failed to see that the dynamism of history was a double-edged thing. These thinkers assumed that all development means the advancement of the good, but in so assuming, they failed to recognize – and theses writing this I think he sees as characteristic of all modernity – that, and I quote, “every heightened potency of human existence may also represent a possibility of evil.” So in essays peer, other words, as our capacity grows, so does our power to do evil – intentionally or unintentionally. Everything that has its being within history is involved, on every level, in contradicting the eternal. And so the tendency is, as he says, to complete the system of meaning falsely in a way that makes either the individual or the group the center of the system. Writing? And then Niebuhr goes on and says, “It’s not possible for any philosophy to escape this error … but it is possible to have a philosophy, or at least a theology, grounded in faith, which understands the error will be committed and camden that it is analogous to all these presumptions of history which defy the majesty of writing, God.” So he sees progress as a factor of history, a facet of thesis printing centre street, history.
He sees that it’s right to conceive of history dynamically. He takes a generous view of history’s possibilities, but also warns that, as he puts it, “History cannot move forward towards increasing order without developing possibilities of chaos by the very potencies which have enhanced order.” In other words, we’re never out writing, of the woods. That’s my redaction there. Casebooks Contemporary Critical? And the danger only increases as we progress. Man’s capacity for evil advances with his progress towards the good. Hence, the theses writing, greater the essay, progress, the greater the need for vigilance, the writing, greater the need for some metaphysical check on human pride. The image I like to use to describe this is of a tightrope, one that is college, always going higher and higher and, as you know, with a tightrope, you have to theses writing, keep moving forward. Usc Theatre? You can’t stop moving. But you’re moving along this tightrope towards ever-greater dangers, along with the ever-greater achievements.
And that I think is the vision that he’s operating with. I was going to say a little bit about The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness , but I think I’m running out of time. So let me move on to the theses, book that has really gotten attention in the last 10 years, The Irony of American History , published in 1952. And he takes these same insights and focuses them upon a consideration of America’s role in the world. Published in thesis street, 1952, at the height of the Cold War, this was an interesting and perhaps surprising book. It was a stinging attack on communism and at theses writing, the same time a stinging attack on America, on the moral complacency of America, a warning against the moral failings that would make America vulnerable. That’s Niebuhr – typically, as always, fighting on two fronts at once. Nobody can top Niebuhr for peer, his anticommunism, but he also believed the United States resembled its antagonists more than it cared to imagine. And much of the book is devoted to making that case. He criticizes the communists for their philosophical materialism, but then points out theses, that Americans are guilty of the same thing in practice.
Here’s a statement that I think rings just as true today as in resume, 1952: “Despite the constant emphasis upon the ‘dignity of man’ in our own liberal culture, its predominant naturalistic bias frequently results in views of human nature in which the dignity of man is not very clear.” And this tendency towards materialism was not even the greatest of theses writing, America’s dangers. Even more perilous, he thought, was one of contemporary critical forster m new, our principal points of pride, the writing, entrenched idea that America has a providential mission in god, the world and our nation’s rendered uniquely virtuous and innocent by writing the blessings of casebooks contemporary critical forster m new, that history. And he goes through a discussion of this, locating the beginnings of theses, it in the Calvinist Puritan tradition, and then the Jeffersonian tradition, which saw America’s as nature’s nation, free from the encumbrances of the old world. It was the place of the centre camden, new man, of the theses writing, democratic future. America was, so to speak, the land of the thesis printing centre street, great reset button, presumably labeled in the correct manner. Writing? (Laughs.) Even Abraham Lincoln, who was not a dewy-eyed fellow, called America “the last best hope of mankind,” words that certainly, if nothing else, convey a kind of cosmic significance to American history.
Niebuhr didn’t reject these things completely; he didn’t see them as having no basis. He did not reject the casebooks critical e essay m new, greatness of America, but he insisted that the American belief that America had turned its back on history and made a new beginning for humankind was naive and dangerous, laying America open to the sins of spiritual pride. It was a source of strength that turned into a source of weakness. Theses Writing? And that is what he meant by the irony of dedication thesis god, American history, the tendency of American civilization to allow decent motives and noble intentions to blind it to the sins and errors to which it’s prone and thereby let its virtue become the source of its vice. It was an irony because it was unintended, inadvertent, unconscious and a consequence of good intentions, rather than doing evil for writing, the sake of a larger good, which he called tragedy, not irony. If that was all he was saying, then he would just sound like another typical critic of American civilization, but he said something more. He said America had to act in the world and do so effectively.
It had no choice but to do so. In the same way that the sinful imperfect Christian is required to act in the world and resume get his or her hands dirty in working for theses, the cause of good, so a morally imperfect America was obliged to employ its power in the world. Now, opting out was not an option, or rather it was an option that was just as perilous as the alternatives it would avoid. And let me just read you a couple of college essay, passages that illustrate this, and writing then I’ll stop: “Our culture knows little of the use and abuse of power; but we have to casebooks, use power in global terms. Our idealists are divided between those who would renounce the responsibilities of power for the sake of preserving the purity of our soul and those who are ready to theses writing, cover every ambiguity of good and evil in our actions by the frantic insistence that any measure taken in a good cause must be unequivocally virtuous.” Fairly timely words, I think. Needless to say, he rejects both of perfection, these options and theses writing continues this way: “We take, and must continue to take, morally hazardous actions to preserve our civilization.
We must exercise our power. Resume Perfection? But we ought neither to believe that a nation is capable of perfect disinterestedness in its exercise, nor become complacent about particular degrees of interest and passion which corrupt the justice by which the exercise of power is legitimated.” And I will stop there. CROMARTIE: No, that’s great. Theses? We’ll just keep it rolling. Everybody here knows E.J. Dionne. I know you’ve spoken on Niebuhr a lot and we’re delighted to have you respond to Bill. Thank you. DIONNE: Thank you, Mike. I was thinking that maybe Barbara would explain it as some peculiar part of my brain, but it actually makes me happy to talk about usc theatre essay Reinhold Niebuhr – (laughter) – and to do some research on him. I ran across how Robert McAfee Brown described Niebuhr as a pessimistic optimist.
And I think that’s exactly what he is, unless you want to see him as an optimistic pessimist. Theses Writing? But I think there is this very deep element of optimism that comes out of that pessimism, which I want to get into. Before I say anything, I just want to dedication, thank Mike for running these things for theses, 10 years. We’ll probably say this later, but I’ve been coming to casebooks e essay forster m new, these things from the beginning, and who’d have thunk that having sessions with journalists on religion would work like this. Now, Mike had the absolutely brilliant idea of holding these sessions in rather nice places. (Laughter.) But for me it’s not only been the theses, meetings, but also all the friends I have met through this.
He actually – in this time it’s not easy – he actually created community out of resume, this 10 years of work. Theses Writing? So I thank him and about pressure the Pew Charitable Trusts. (Applause.) And I also want to say it’s a great honor to be with Bill McClay. Writing? One of my very favorite essays on the general subject of religion in politics is casebooks critical m new, a piece Bill wrote in 2003 called “Two Concepts of Secularism,” which I commend to writing, everyone. And he wrote a great essay right after 9/11 called “The Continuing Irony of American History” in First Things . And I suggest this to anybody who wants to see more of thesis god, Bill’s thoughts on this. It’s a very interesting read in writing, the wake – all these years later. Just to pick up two quick points that Bill made and then I just want to say a few things. He did note that Barack Obama called Reinhold Niebuhr a philosopher rather than a theologian, and I can’t help but point out camden street, that President Bush referred to Jesus as his favorite philosopher. And you may recall that Alan Keyes took George Bush to task by saying, “Jesus isn’t a philosopher; Jesus is the Word.” And I was thinking that would be a great Cromartie session: “Jesus: A Philosopher or the Word?” So I hope Mike gets refunded. Theses Writing? And it’s not just because he finally gave me one of those nice rooms on the water this year. (Laughter.) And I’m really glad that Bill did point out usc theatre supplement essay, that Niebuhr got all this attention in Time magazine.
Can you think of theses writing, a talk show that would book Reinhold Niebuhr now? I was thinking about that. “Tell us, Reinhold, what do you mean by the irony of American history?” “Well, Larry, as I was saying the other day to Abraham Heschel and Paul Tillich …” It just wouldn’t happen. And I think – (laughter) – it suggests a certain hole in our discussion of this. Colbert would have him on; absolutely, absolutely. And I was reminded of the omnipresence of Reinhold Niebuhr when I picked up one of my favorite thriller writers Philip Kerr – I highly recommend him. His hero is a perfect Niebuhrian character. College Essay? He is a German detective in Nazi Germany. He’s anti-Nazi.
I’m pleased to theses writing, say that in one of his books he says that he voted for the social democrats. Usc Theatre Supplement Essay? And he’s trying to operate in Nazi Germany to theses writing, do as little damage and as much good as he can without actually going to essays peer, the slammer. And I opened my Philip Kerr and there right at the beginning is the serenity prayer of Reinhold Niebuhr. Theses? So we were destined to perfection, have this discussion. In 1987, so 22 years ago, the late Father Richard Neuhaus organized a conference on Reinhold Niebuhr. It was funded – you will be surprised – by the Pew Charitable Trusts. It is written that the Pew Trusts will always be with us. And Father Neuhaus said a very interesting thing in writing, introducing the volume about experience Niebuhr. He said, “In recent years,” – this is back in ’87 – “there has been something of writing, a Niebuhr renaissance.
It has been led in large parts by those who are or are suspected of being, as though it were a sin, neoconservative.” And then he adds – and this part I very much agree with – “Attempting to capture Niebuhr for any partisan agenda, however, would be a great disservice both to Niebuhr and to what he can help us do today.” And I think it says something about Niebuhr that this new Niebuhr revival, which I think we are seeing right now, is centre camden, not being led primarily by neoconservatives, but actually by writing liberals and certain dissident conservatives like our friend David Brooks. I want to just talk a little bit about the political character of Niebuhr’s thought without violating what Father Neuhaus said. I do think in the end he is unmistakably, or if you have the other view, irredeemably, a liberal in the end. I wouldn’t use the word “irredeemably,” but it is something worth talking about resume because it’s very much a question of how his view of original sin fits in with a liberal worldview. How do you sort of get at what being a Niebuhrian is? My original example was going to be about a baseball player, but in deference to our resident hockey star Clare Duffy, I decided to use a hockey player instead. A Niebuhrian hockey player tries to win the game, but does not assume victory renders him superior to his opponent and writing would admit that he may have won unfairly when he high-sticked Clare Duffy and got away with it. That’s a Niebuhrian hockey player.
A Niebuhrian wagering in essays about peer pressure, Vegas plays the odds intelligently and tries to win, but always admits that perhaps luck or God’s grace, not his system, is why he won. A Niebuhrian will get into a fistfight if it’s absolutely necessary, but would be acutely conscious of the pain his blows are inflicting on his opponent and know that the very fact the fight is happening is proof of the fallen nature of both himself and the person he is fighting. (Laughter.) And a proper Niebuhrian will have a sense of humor about all of these things, understanding the profound ironies involved in trying to writing, act effectively in the world and trying to resume, act morally at the same time. And that’s why I love Reinhold Niebuhr. I went back to the canonical text, which is David Brooks’ famous interview with Barack Obama, and I just think it’s worth to theses writing, recalling. Narrative Essays About Pressure? It was actually just a short statement by Obama, but it’s worth quoting to theses writing, provide a context for about peer, the headline that Mike put on our discussion.
David asked, “Have you ever read Reinhold Niebuhr?” Obama replied, “I love him. He’s one of my favorite philosophers.” And David asked what Obama took take away from Niebuhr. And here’s what Obama actually said. “I take away the compelling idea that there’s serious evil in the world, and theses writing hardship and pain. And we should be humble and modest in our belief that we can eliminate those things. But we shouldn’t use that as an perfection, excuse for cynicism and theses writing inaction. I take away the sense we have to make these efforts knowing they are hard, and not swinging from naive idealism to bitter realism.” That is actually a pretty good description of Reinhold Niebuhr. And whether Barack Obama, the politician, was pandering to David Brooks’ well-known love for Niebuhr or whether he was reflecting something deep in him, it sounded pretty deep and resume perfection I think it’s actually not a bad description of the way Obama views the world. Theses Writing? In the discussion I’d love to have a friendly argument with Bill about whether he’s more social gospel or more Niebuhrian.
I think he’s actually more Niebuhrian. There are elements of usc theatre, social gospel in the way Obama preaches, but I think his content is more Niebuhrian. Niebuhr – and this is probably why I like him – is much more a “both/and” guy. He’s a “yes, but” guy. His favorite words are “paradox” and “irony.” He is writing, a 1940s liberal and that’s why there is the big debate between liberals and neocons because a lot of neocons say they are 1940s liberals. I think Niebuhr, later in life, suggested that he did not take the same path as some of his neoconservative friends, particularly with his very early support for the civil rights movement – although a lot of them supported the civil rights movement – but also with his strong opposition to the Vietnam War. But that’s just a piece of history that we can talk about. What I like about him is that he believes what he believes passionately, but with a sense of essay experience, humility. I got some Niebuhr in Francis Collins’ presentation today. Why are there Niebuhr revivals?
Niebuhr is the person we turn to theses writing, for balance. We turn to him when things get out of usc theatre essay, hand. He is writing, a critic of the resume perfection, left’s utopianism and he’s a critic of the right’s tendency to deify our own country. His critique of original sin I think applies neatly at different times to both the right and the left in our politics. I think he has what you might call a dialectical relationship with the left.
And I think Bill was absolutely right to point out kind of three important episodes. He reacted against the social gospel not because he opposed the economic or social programs of the social gospel but because he had a different understanding of human nature. He thought liberals had too optimistic a view of human nature. His next big political turn was in the late 1930s, when he broke with his pacifist friends. The Christian Century , as you know, is still around, but he broke with The Christian Century and formed another magazine called Christianity and Crisis to writing, argue that we needed to go to war against Hitler and Nazism. And then he made his mark again in college essay, politics, with a liberal anticommunism that made him one of the founders of Americans for Democratic Action with Arthur Schlesinger Jr. And I’m going to cite Schlesinger before I close. Niebuhr never stopped being a liberal, but he was a liberal critic. I want to use myself as simply a specimen of why people at different points get engaged with Niebuhr. I think I’m fairly typical of people who will fall in love with Niebuhr, if he would permit that.
I’m not even sure he would. (Laughter.) I read The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness , which is the first Niebuhr I read, in the early-to-mid-’70s. Theses Writing? I read it as someone who broadly shared – still shares – the left’s views on economic justice and social reform, but I was impatient with a certain utopianism I saw on the left, which I thought was destructive. And I was also impatient with some parts of the left that seemed not to about, believe in the disciplines and limits placed upon our aspirations by the need to persuade majorities and to writing, build consensus in democratic societies. I was and still am turned off by self-righteous moralism disguised as morality.
Mike Novak is college essay, someone who’s written very well on that over the years and writing I think that tendency to be moralistic rather than moral afflicts the right, the center, the left and even parts of the self-satisfied center. Usc Theatre Supplement? And so I realized quickly after reading that book that Niebuhr was my guy, again preaching that you could combine passion and humility. I see two major reasons for the revival of interest in writing, Niebuhr among liberals. Casebooks Contemporary Critical Forster? One, I think some of the criticism by theses writing Christian moderates and critical e essay forster liberals of what we would see as a hyper-politicized Christian right square very much with some of Niebuhr’s criticism of a certain style of Christianity, a kind of revivalism that he was critical of in his own time. Theses? Niebuhr enjoined the dedication god, believer to understand that “the worst corruption is a corrupt religion.” We need a sense of modesty about the virtue, wisdom and power available to us and a sense of theses, contrition about the dedication god, common human frailties and foibles which lie at the foundation of both the enemy’s demonry and our vanities.
Americans, Niebuhr argued, were never safe against writing the temptation of claiming God too simply as the peer, sanctifier of whatever we most fervently desire. Theses Writing? One great Niebuhrian quote should hang over all seminars. Resume? Niebuhr once said that “we must always seek the truth in our opponents’ error and the error in our own truth.” And that is also classic Niebuhr. I think the paradox is that – and my friend Bill Galston really called this to my attention – one of the paradoxes is that Niebuhr encourages us to doubt and the kind of doubt that Niebuhr encourages is the kind of writing, doubt that faith ought to god, encourage. If faith is defined solely as a demand that everyone assent, without reservation, to a long and writing particular list of propositions, that’s an odd idea. But I think this is an essay, inadequate understanding of the Christian and Jewish traditions, which always call us to a form of moral doubt that, as Bill Galston has said, calls upon us to question our motivations and writing pretensions to special virtue. Niebuhr said, “No virtuous act is quite as virtuous from the standpoint of our friend or foe as it is from our standpoint.” He argued that some of the greatest perils to democracy arise from the fanaticism of moral idealists who are not conscious of the corruption of college essay experience, self-interest.
And in his assertion, which might usefully have guided us during our debate over the war in Iraq, Niebuhr warned, “A nation with an theses, inordinate degree of political power is doubly tempted to exceed the experience, bounds of historical possibilities, if it is theses writing, informed by an idealism which does not understand the limits of man’s wisdom and thesis printing centre volition.” David Brooks and I did a session on Niebuhr recently, and one point that emerged clearly is theses writing, that it is not surprising that Niebuhr really came to essay, popularity in a period when he was writing about Nazism and Stalinism, which were ideologies that justified despotic pretensions in the name of creating new human beings and theses writing perfect societies. Niebuhr had a strong sense of human nature as a constant. He was very skeptical of projects designed to narrative peer pressure, create a new humanity and was very aware of theses, how terrible these projects could become. This is religion’s essentially moderating role, which is far removed from ideology and from many claims that religion can provide a detailed textbook for creating the perfect society here on Earth. Even the religious left’s talk of our obligation to build the casebooks contemporary e essay forster m new, kingdom of writing, God’s justice on earth emphasizes a constant act of essay experience, creation – building – not a final outcome that human beings can achieve on theses, our own.
It’s very important to understand that Niebuhr imported Saint Augustine into liberalism. And a friend of thesis, many of ours, Jean Elshtain, captured this very well. She wrote – and this is a totally Niebuhrian thought on Jean’s part – that if Augustine is “a thorn in the side of those who would cure the universe once and for writing, all, he similarly torments critics who disdain any project of human community or justice or possibility.” “Wisdom,” Jean says, “comes from experiencing fully the ambivalence and ambiguity that is the human condition.” When David and I recently did the session on Niebuhr, at one point, I blurted out college essay experience, that maybe we were talking about the marriage of Madison, Lincoln and theses Niebuhr. And then I looked up and I said, wait a minute. That is polygamy. (Laughter.) And I don’t know what Niebuhr would think of that. But one of casebooks critical m new, Niebuhr’s – and I think Bill alluded to this – one of Niebuhr’s favorite public statements by theses writing any politician is casebooks contemporary m new, Lincoln’s second inaugural address. And you all remember the theses, key passage in Lincoln’s second inaugural, when he said: “Both sides read the same Bible, and pray to the same God; and each invokes his aid against dedication the other. It may seem strange that any man should dare to ask a just God’s assistance in writing, wringing their bread from the sweat of other men’s faces; but let us judge not that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered; that of neither has been answered fully.”
Niebuhr said that this passage puts the relationship of our moral commitments in history to our religious reservations about the partiality of our own commitments more precisely than any statement or theologian has put them. Think about it. If anybody could have claimed that he was on thesis, the right side of history or even that he was on God’s side, it was Abraham Lincoln fighting slavery during the Civil War. Yet, Lincoln himself refused in this extreme instance to presume an identification of his will with God’s will. And I think that Lincoln demonstrated as clearly as any statesman, which is why he is theses writing, a Niebuhrian figure, that it is possible to undertake great tasks in politics with firmness, commitment, principle and courage and still not pretend to casebooks critical forster, absolute certainty about one’s course, one’s intentions or the purity of writing, one’s motives. And I should note that I have learned much about this point from Congressman David Price of North Carolina, who is a divinity school grad and has written very powerfully about the relationship between Lincoln’s thought and narrative Niebuhr’s. So I just want to do two quick things and then close with one Niebuhrian thought. Writing? And I want to thank Bill because I know he’s very fond of the college essay experience, same passage I’m going to read to close out my remarks, and I’m grateful that he didn’t read it, so I could use it.
I’d like to call attention to two essays on Niebuhr that I think remain very important, and they show the reach Reinhold Niebuhr had – and continues to have – across philosophical lines. Mike Novak, back in 1972, wrote a great essay for Commentary called “Needing Niebuhr Again,” in which he drew on two Niebuhrian thoughts that I think are particularly revealing. Niebuhr said that “realism means particularly one thing, that you establish the common good not purely by unselfishness but by theses the restraint of selfishness.” That sounds an thesis printing street, awful lot like James Madison. In The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness , Niebuhr said famously: “Man’s capacity for justice makes democracy possible; but man’s inclination to injustice makes democracy necessary.” One of the reasons Mike liked him – Mike then was still a liberal, but in writing, transit over to the conservative side – is because Novak was very critical of what he saw as a new-class kind of privileged liberal. And he thought that Niebuhr called the bluff of those folks. Mike wrote: “Pure intentions, high goals and unblemished radicalism of mind did not absolve men of the essay, ambiguous consequences of what they estimate to be their most morally radiant actions. Theses? Political life does not follow the supplement, form of a morality play. It is tragic, and that is theses, a Niebuhrian view.” The other essay that’s worth looking up is one Arthur Schlesinger wrote, a beautiful piece in The New York Times magazine in 2005, an essay in essay experience, which I think Schlesinger successfully claims Niebuhr back for theses, the liberals. Remember that Schlesinger and Niebuhr founded Americans for Democratic Action together, and were great political allies throughout their lives. Schlesinger used some of Niebuhr’s criticisms of the pretensions of American power as a critique of the Iraq war, and spoke of how liberals profited from an awareness of thesis centre, original sin that Niebuhr taught them.
This is Schlesinger: “The notion of sinful man was uncomfortable for my generation. We had been brought up to theses, believe in human innocence and even in perfection, human perfectibility. This was less a liberal delusion than an expression of an all-American DNA. Theses? Andrew Carnegie had articulated the national faith when, after acclaiming the rise of man from lower to higher forms, he declared: ‘Nor is there any conceivable end to his march to perfection.’ In 1939, Charles E. Merriam of the University of Chicago, dean of American political scientists, wrote in The New Democracy and college essay experience the New Despotism : ‘There is a constant trend in human affairs toward the perfectibility of theses, mankind. This was plainly stated at the time of the French Revolution and has been reasserted ever since that time, and with increasing plausibility.’ Human ignorance and unjust institutions remained the only obstacles to a more perfect world.” This is Schlesinger again: “If proper education of individuals and proper reform of institutions did their job, such obstacles would be removed. For the essays pressure, heart of man was OK.”
Yet Schlesinger said that this notion became absurd for liberals when they confronted the theses writing, evils of both Nazism and Stalinism. Schlesinger notes Isaiah Berlin’s famous declaration that the 20th century was “the most terrible century in Western history.” And this is Schlesinger: “The belief in human perfectibility had not prepared us for Hitler and Stalin. Thesis Printing Street? The death camps and the gulags proved that men were capable of infinite depravity. Writing? The heart of man is obviously not OK. Niebuhr’s analysis of human nature and history came as a vast illumination. His argument had the double merit of accounting for usc theatre supplement essay, Hitler and Stalin and for the necessity of standing up to them.” And I think that is at the heart of The Irony of American History . I’ll close there and we can get into a debate about Obama and Niebuhr, if we want, later on.
But I just want to close with this thought. I’ve always said that the reason I like this optimistic pessimism or pessimistic optimism is I’ve always said to myself that I think I’m a psychological optimist because I am an intellectual pessimist. I am not shocked when people do bad things. I’m actually amazed at theses writing, how well people do under the circumstances, so perhaps it’s worth noting Gene Debs’ great line that there should be another beatitude: Blessed are they who expect nothing for they shall not be disappointed. But I think a Niebuhrian view of the narrative essays, world insists that you can hold on to hope, that good Obama word, even with a realistic view of the capacity of human beings to make mistakes, and even, at times, to perform great acts of evil. It is possible, as Jesse Jackson likes to say, to keep hope alive. So this is my concluding prayer, really from Reinhold Niebuhr. He wrote in The Irony of American History : “Nothing that is worth doing can be achieved in our lifetime; therefore we must be saved by hope.
Nothing which is true or beautiful or good makes complete sense in any immediate context of history; therefore we must be saved by theses writing faith. Dedication? Nothing we do, however virtuous, can be accomplished alone; therefore, we are saved by love. No virtuous act is quite as virtuous from the standpoint of our friend or foe as it is from our standpoint. Therefore we must be saved by the final form of love, which is forgiveness.” I hope you will forgive in that spirit any flaws in this presentation. (Laughter.) And now you can understand why I love Reinhold Niebuhr and why he fills me with happiness.
Thank you very much. CROMARTIE: Well, I didn’t know whether it was the topic of Reinhold Niebuhr or the fact that you had a lavaliere neck mic on, E.J. I’ve never seen you preach so much like that. That was great. Thank you. And thank you, Bill. David, you’re up first.
DAVID VAN BIEMA, TIME : This is both for Professor McClay and theses also for E.J. Casebooks Contemporary Critical? And so E.J. Theses? remembers it’s for him, I’m going to pervert one of camden, his metaphors by writing saying that waterboarding is the usc theatre, ultimate form of high-sticking. And I don’t know much about Niebuhr. And the answer to this may be so obvious as to not make it enlightening, but if I understand you correctly and theses he believed in the necessity of acting, and narrative essays getting one’s hands dirty and writing exerting power, while at the same time believing that inevitably there would be problems with pride and contemporary critical e essay forster m new that the theses, state was particularly apt to fall into the sin of delusion of special virtue, where would he come down in the torture debate? MCCLAY: Part of thesis god, what I was getting to in this overlong talk that I’ve prepared was the list of things that I think are wrong with Niebuhr, or are inadequate, and one of them may address this.
And I actually think of E.J.’s example, the guy pummeling somebody but doing it with a guilty conscience as he’s beating the crap out of him. It’s awfully hard to theses, tell whether a leader is acting in a Niebuhrian way or just in an unscrupulous way. You know, a lot of dedication thesis god, it has to do with an inner disposition that’s not visible to us. And that’s a problem, especially in political life where you have to deal with external standards and theses writing principles that, particularly in a democratic society, ought to essays, be open to writing, general scrutiny. So a great example of this is – and I get this all the time from people on all sides because I’m a great admirer of Niebuhr and contemporary critical e essay m new I’m happy about this revival – but when it comes to more general issues of theses writing, war. For obvious reasons pacifists don’t like Niebuhr. I don’t even need to explain that.
But, I mean, they see the essay, doctrine of theses, “realism” as just a kind of resume perfection, wild card that allows you to do whatever you want in the name of realism. But equally vehement about theses Niebuhr are some of the people who defend just-war theory. Printing Camden Street? Their argument is, look, we have a whole set of criteria that often are hard to nail down in particular instances, but at least as principles they are worth observing and worth trying to follow as a way of theses, taming and legitimizing warfare in a civilized world. And in their view Niebuhr chucks all that, and says, well, you are going to get your hands dirty, bad things have to printing centre camden street, happen, but you’ve got to exercise power and innocents have to die, and eggs have to be broken to theses writing, make omelets. He would never say that in dedication god, that way, of course. But you get my point, that there is some way in which what he writes can be very powerful in dealing with this way that “power is poison,” in Henry Adams’ terms – that it’s just inescapable. I’m not sure Obama – see, I’m mistaking this too – has quite come to writing, terms with that, at least in his rhetoric. But that’s where I think the real test will come. But back to this issue of torture and war. I think that the problem with Niebuhr is he doesn’t give you clear standards by which to make judgments and have it legitimated in the public arena.
CROMARTIE: He emphasizes ambiguity while at the same time saying, use the power. DIONNE: I can’t prove this, although I do have a quotation that I think suggests it. I think if you look back at some of the printing centre camden, things Niebuhr said about the Vietnam War, they suggest that he would have opposed waterboarding. I think he would have ended up on theses writing, the side of those who said, we must fight the terrorists but we can’t use every method and that those methods demean us and hurt us. And my support for that – again, we can’t know for certain – are the very last words of resume, The Irony of American History . Theses Writing? He says: “For if we should perish, the ruthlessness of the foe would be only the thesis god, secondary cause of the disaster. The primary cause would be that the strength of a giant nation was directed by eyes too blind to see all the hazards of the struggle; and the blindness would be induced not by some accident of nature or history but by hatred and vainglory.” If you want to make a case against theses writing waterboarding, that’s a pretty good text to cite. MCCLAY: I was just going to say, since we’re going to play this “what would Reinhold say” game, I want to go in dedication, with all four limbs. I think that, certainly, if you were updating The Irony of American History , there would be a discussion of the ways in which the jihadists have elements of truth in their critique of American culture.
Astonishing as it may sound, I think he would raise that issue. I don’t think there’s any doubt about it. ROSS DOUTHAT, THE NEW YORK TIMES : Just to theses, bounce one alternative possibility, especially off you E.J.: I wonder what you think of the idea that maybe what Niebuhr would say is that the waterboarding of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed in 2003 is the kind of forgivable excess that you expect from governments, but that the torture memos of 2005 are the kind of thing that shouldn’t be forgiven. And I don’t know. What do you think about that kind of distinction, the sort of institutionalization versus the sort of crisis mentality, getting your hands dirty with an individual case? DIONNE: First of all, Bill is fundamentally right.
The “what would Niebuhr say and do” debate is pretty tough to carry out. DOUTHAT: And all the questions are going to – (inaudible) DIONNE: And so, that’s fair enough. I could imagine Niebuhr saying: “I understand in the heat of the thesis printing street, days and the few weeks after 9/11 why the people in power erred on the side of keeping us safe and they may have done things they shouldn’t do.” I still find it hard – again, we can debate this. I still think he would have ended up on writing, the critical side because what’s so fascinating about Niebuhr is the neocons have always sort of liked him, as Father Neuhaus suggests, because he always talked about the legitimacy of using American power in the world. And there were moments when the people on the left were seen as always declaring that American power in the world, the resume perfection, use of American power, is theses writing, wrong and illegitimate. So if you are someone who believes that American power can be used morally, then, yes, Reinhold Niebuhr is your friend.
But, he was also always very wary of jingoism, of our tendency not to look at our own flaws, the narrative about pressure, danger of theses, overreach, the danger of doing things that were immoral in a moral cause. And those are two sides of Niebuhr, and in some ways, you can say it’s an ambiguity, but I think fundamentally it actually holds together; you know, a shorthand is: American power can be used morally but it should be used with fear and trembling and we have to essay, be very careful about theses how we use it. I don’t know. Would Bill disagree with that summary? MCCLAY: Yes. What I would say is, one of the fundamental building blocks of the argument in The Irony of American History is that Americans are utterly bedazzled by this notion of essay, innocence, desire for innocence. And I don’t know what he would say about this, but I think he might react to the current kind of orgy of interest in this subject that has to come up on theses writing, every occasion. And I’m not criticizing you for bringing it up, and experience there has been a lot of this, I think, in the early months of this administration, this pushing the reset button, this desire to kind of scapegoat and exorcise the past.
This is contrary to the spirit of theses writing, Niebuhr. There’s no basis in Niebuhr for thinking that America was ever innocent, that any administration is innocent or that there’s any reset button that any administration can ever push to critical e essay, make itself innocent. So that doesn’t answer the specific question about this one issue, but I think it’s reasonable to deduce from theses his work – given that I don’t know what he’d say – but it’s reasonable to deduce that he might think that the street, emphasis on whether sending John Yoo and Jay Bybee to prison is going to atone for our national sins, over a war that began as a very broadly popular undertaking but later became a great burden to the national psyche, is a morally misplaced emphasis. Whether that’s an appropriate deduction – that’s a different question. I think they’re connected. MICHAEL GERSON, THE WASHINGTON POST : I’ll change the theses writing, subject. I think I played this role before in this kind of setting.
But let me maybe defend the social gospel – GERSON: – at least properly understood, against the Niebuhrians, and ask your opinion on critical m new, one point. There seems to be a difference between Niebuhr as corrective and Niebuhr as guide, to me. It seems like you wouldn’t necessarily want, historically, a nation of Niebuhrs. You look at the way social progress took place in America. Theses? It was often true believers, patriots who believed we were a new order for the ages, or William Lloyd Garrison who believed in usc theatre, absolute social equality between blacks and whites when no one else did, for purely religious reasons, or William Jennings Bryan, who had this kind of theses, fundamentalist social gospel because he believed in it absolutely. You know, true believers in this context.
Clearly, there are risks and these were often eccentric people with kind of perfection, odd views, easy to make fun of. But it seems like the history of American justice, social inclusion was propelled by believers, not by Niebuhrians. And I guess, in theses writing, the sense that I would want a Niebuhrian to narrative essays about, do the navigation in my car, but he doesn’t provide the fuel to get us there. Theses Writing? The fuel is a belief in dedication thesis, justice and truth in theses, American history. So I’m wondering how you combine that kind of respect for Niebuhr as corrective with a recognition that that has not been the motivating principle of either the founding of our country or the progress of justice? MCCLAY: Well, I think that there’s a big difference between that and the kind of reform impulse growing out of 19th-century evangelicalism, which was oriented toward social reform but also had a strong emphasis on conversion. And, certainly, its supernatural face was part of a reform of the individual. And there’s a way in which the social gospel moves against that notion of individual conversion and individual accountability towards simply seeing the Christian faith as a kind of mythic version of what we, through greater and great advances in social science, know about the way that social structures form the individual psyche.
So I think – GERSON: If I could, Bill, you’re missing the question: religiously, the more motivated moral idealism of American politics rather than just the social gospel. GERSON: It’s hard to regard William Jennings Bryan, who had a fundamentalist theology, as evidence of the social gospel, but he was, certainly, probably politically more influential of any of the advocates of the social gospel in changing the definition of the Democratic Party and doing all sorts of other things. Casebooks Contemporary Critical M New? Maybe it might not be the right word, but I guess I just wanted your reaction to the point that it’s been important in and of itself, and theses that Niebuhr can’t replace or explain that. DIONNE: Now I see what you mean. Let me just say – Bill, do you want to – DIONNE: What I want to say, first of all, is bless you for defending the social gospelers, because I have affection for them too, and in particular for usc theatre supplement, their critique of the society that surrounded them.
But I think you shortchange Niebuhr in theses, terms of his own passion for justice. College Experience? And by the way, you’re completely right about Bryan, who was an extraordinary progressive. Theses? We forget how everybody sees him in light of the Scopes trial and forgets that he rejected Darwinism because he hated social Darwinism and how Darwin was used to justify radical inequality. So I identify with all that. But I think you’re shortchanging Niebuhr in terms of his concern for justice. Thesis Printing Camden? Richard Fox talks about theses writing how well into the 1950s Niebuhr could be very passionate in his critique of how capitalism actually works.
In 1954, he wrote that capitalism had again become too complacent. We haven’t, for instance, solved the economic problem short of war preparations. Perfection? There was a passion in him for theses writing, justice. His critique of the social gospelers was not against their mission. And he certainly did not lack for a willingness to fight for labor, or for Social Security, or for all kinds of corrections to a system of unfettered capitalism. I think he was critical of social gospelers on two grounds. One, he thought they had too optimistic a view of human nature and thought too much about essay salvation through social action. They forgot about sin along the theses, way.
And that in turn led to sort of a politics that didn’t work. He was not against the original motives of the social gospelers. I think Obama shares the social gospelers’ goals, but with a kind of Niebuhrian correction. Perfection? You know, in that famous speech at theses, Sojourners, he talked a lot about social injustice, but then, he also talked about perfection individual accountability and responsibilities. He said when a gang member “shoots indiscriminately into theses writing, a crowd … there’s a hole in that young man’s heart, a hole that the government alone cannot fix.”
Contraception could reduce teen pregnancy rates, he said, but he also talked about faith and guidance, which “help fortify a young woman’s sense of self, a young man’s sense of responsibility, and essay a sense of writing, reverence that all young people should have for the act of sexual intimacy.” In other words, I think that Obama accepts some of the Niebuhrian critique of the social gospel but, still, like Niebuhr, believes in thesis god, the social gospel’s core purposes. CROMARTIE: Quick comment? Although, I must say we’ve got two people in theses, and these guys are so rich with their Niebuhrian illustration. MCCLAY: I would only say that one of the things that Niebuhr insisted on, and it was another source of his criticism of the social gospel because it was so completely subservient to the idea of the nation, was the idea that an emphasis upon the collectivity over resume the individual could easily lend support to a kind of quasi-totalitarianism. And he says explicitly in his later book The Self and the Dramas of History that you have to have some source of value standing above the values inherent in writing, history in order for experience, those values to have validity. And even though he was himself very much of a theological liberal, he worried that the social gospel dispensed unwisely with the entire supernatural element of faith, which not only was necessary as a driving force for reform, but kept that balance, serving as a corrective to the tendency of all social aggregates to writing, tyrannize the individual. LAUREN GREEN, FOX NEWS: I’ve not studied Niebuhr, so please forgive my ignorance if I say something that is so obvious that you’ll laugh or something. About? But it seems to me that Niebuhr has this incredible understanding of the paradigm of the original sin, the fall, that we live in theses, a broken world; but also of thesis god, this narrative of redemption that there is definitely hope out there, this understanding that there are two prodigal sons, not just one. You know, we see the sins of the one that went away and squandered his wealth, but we fail sometimes to see the sins of the self-righteous older brother. One of the things that is obvious is that his understanding of morality appeared in the context of the time: communism, the Nazis.
What would he view as the evil today? What would his position be on the economic crisis? But also, is his effect on policy quantifiable? Did he have access to presidents like a Billy Graham did? Is there any quantifiable effect of him on American policy in any kind of theses, administration? MCCLAY: On the last part, I don’t think so. Actually – an interesting little side point – he and Arthur Schlesinger were very good friends for a long time, but Schlesinger had a very hard time persuading Niebuhr to support Kennedy. Niebuhr finally did, but with some reluctance. He was no fan of the family. He hated, he just absolutely loathed and distrusted Bobby. And the father, Joseph Kennedy, of course was awful, in Niebuhr’s view.
JFK was OK, by comparison, but the thing he really held against JFK – and resume this is theses, all amply documented in correspondence – were his sexual dalliances – CROMARTIE: He knew about them? MCCLAY: Oh, yes. Casebooks Critical? Quite a few people knew about them, people who were around politics at that time. Yes, absolutely. And Niebuhr was very, very concerned not only theses writing about the sorts of risks that this would entail in terms of experience, blackmail and national security, which he was very savvy about, but also what it said about the character of the man. So he was not close to Kennedy, who he saw as a somewhat reckless figure from time to writing, time during his brief administration. DIONNE: Niebuhr, however, despite that, was very important in supporting Kennedy against anti-Catholicism. Experience? Shaun Casey writes about this in his new book, The Making of a Catholic President . Not all liberal Protestants were comfortable with having a Catholic president, and within liberal Protestantism, Niebuhr was passionately opposed to bigotry against Catholics, and theses he played a very important role there.
So despite his doubts, he was there. DIONNE: I think, when you think about essays pressure his impact on policy over the whole period – his work in the labor movement, his support for the civil rights movement and all the work around Americans for Democratic Action ¬- he was engaged in all of the core social reform movements of the ’30s, ’40s and ’50s. And he was an activist – you know, he started life as an activist pastor in a poor neighborhood. He wasn’t a community organizer, but he almost was. So, I think it’s just hard to get into our heads the notion of this very serious theologian as a celebrity. He really was a celebrity in that period, of a certain kind. So I don’t know how much he went in theses, and out of the White House. Casebooks E Essay Forster M New? He might not have even particularly wanted to do that, but I think he had a real impact on the direction of writing, American politics as a New Dealer and a Fair Dealer.
MCCLAY: Well, one area in contemporary critical e essay forster m new, which I think you can document influence is in the way that the doctrine of containment came to be formulated. Because containment was really a sort of writing, Niebuhrian halfway between a kind of appeasement, on thesis, the one hand, and theses what John Foster Dulles called “rollback,” on the other hand. Dedication God? It was an answer to Douglas McArthur’s famous statement, “There is no substitute for victory.” You know, it was this notion that containing – which is actually a very Lincoln-esque strategy – containing the expansion of theses, communism, not rolling it back but containing it, would eventually lead to casebooks e essay forster, the destruction, the internal unraveling and destruction of the writing, system. Containment is a very difficult doctrine because it forswears those kind of printing centre, big victories and upbeat parades that wars generally have been about. George Kennan, who arguably played a major role in the formulation of the doctrine, was directly influenced by Niebuhr, knew Niebuhr, read Niebuhr. And I don’t think there’s any doubt that something of the Niebuhrian mood influenced Kennan in that long telegram and “Mr. X” article and these other documents that ended up becoming formative to theses, containment – the way those policies and perspectives became formulated. So that’s a big influence. GREEN: But the other part about the great evil – what would he see as the great evil today? MCCLAY: That I just don’t know. He’d be very concerned about biotechnology, I suspect.
He already was. In The Irony of American History there are already passages about it. So I think he’d be very concerned about that. NAOMI SCHAEFER RILEY, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL : I’ll try to be quick. Writing about perfection religion for theses writing, The Wall Street Journal , I always look for openings to e essay m new, talk about economics. So I wanted to theses writing, press you, E.J., and you, Bill, a little more on his views on economics. It was interesting to me that from the resume, quote you read from Obama, he seemed right away to want to talk about writing Niebuhr’s view of economics, and I think a lot of us tend to think about his views of foreign policy as the resume perfection, most formative ones. And you seem to say that he was on board with the social gospelers as far as their view of economics went.
And, if you can clarify that, that would be great. And then, I guess the second half of that question is, if he saw institutions as so inherently sinful, even more so than individuals, I wonder what he thought about the potential for institutions to solve economic problems like poverty as opposed to individuals sort of bringing themselves out of it. MCCLAY: I think his instincts were socialist. He supported Norman Thomas on theses, the Socialist Party ticket in essay, 1932, and his doing so was actually a moderate position compared with what some of writing, his friends were doing. Essay? There were a lot of people, intellectuals, supporting the Communist Party that year. However, I do think you can deduce from theses writing Niebuhr some support for usc theatre, free market principles, simply because really, by the time he writes The Irony of American History , he’s completely sold on the structure and theses dynamics of the U.S. Constitution, on the sort of usc theatre supplement, Madisonian idea – or Montesquieu, really – that it’s important to divide and theses disperse power as much as possible. But he’s clearly sold on all of that. I think economics is one area in which he could be a little formulaic and weak and just kind of usc theatre supplement essay, go with the journalism of the day rather than thinking and reading deeply into it, and thinking independently.
I think you can deduce free market principles, or at least mixed-capitalist, mixed-economy kinds of theses, principles from his view of politics. Casebooks Contemporary? But I think it would be anachronistic to go too far with that. In terms of writing, his political commitments, he cordially disliked businessmen. He disliked Eisenhower and thesis god Eisenhower’s support for the business community. He was much more of an Adlai Stevenson kind of guy. DIONNE: A quick concrete answer that parallels this. Writing? He was either a liberal or a social democrat. This is from Richard Fox’s biography. Fox says: “To remember Niebuhr is to remember the union movement in its heyday.
For most of dedication thesis, his life, the word ‘justice,’ a term constantly on his lips, meant justice for workers, especially industrial workers. Only at the very end of writing, his life did ‘justice’ come to dedication, mean racial justice to the same degree that it meant industrial justice.” Although he was still earlier than most in supporting civil rights. “When Niebuhr tried to give concrete content to theses writing, his notion of justice, he instinctively thought about equalizing standards of living, reducing job insecurity and enacting social insurance schemes. He was irreversibly shaped by his encounter with Henry Ford in printing centre camden, open shop, Detroit, in the 1920s.” So I think he would have had differences with the Wall Street Journal editorial page on these questions. (Laughter.) CARL CANNON, POLITICS DAILY : I was interested in what other presidents thought of Niebuhr. Bill mentioned Jimmy Carter. Three presidents have mentioned Reinhold Niebuhr.
Lyndon Johnson gave him a Presidential Medal of Freedom. Bill Clinton gave a Presidential Medal of Freedom to Joseph Rauh and mentioned that he worked for Niebuhr. But Jimmy Carter spoke about Reinhold Niebuhr on theses writing, three separate occasions. I’ll go through it real quick because I want to ask each of you a question, what the implications are. One was in May of 1978. Carter was talking to camden, the Los Angeles Bar Association and he said, “As a governor and as a president” – and theses this made me think that he was thinking about Niebuhr even when he was governor – he said that he’d learned that “as Reinhold Niebuhr said, it is the sad duty of politics to establish justice in a sinful world.” In March 1978, he said, “From the experience of the urban renewal program of the 1950s, we learned to be skeptical about thesis printing camden what Reinhold Niebuhr called ‘the doctrine of salvation through bricks’ – the idea that we can bulldoze away our urban problems.” That was a bit of a straw man. Niebuhr probably was talking about building our way, not bulldozing, but still. And then, in June, same year, he actually quoted and named Moral Man in Immoral Society , and Carter went on this riff, and he said that Niebuhr “pointed out the writing, difference between a society and people. The expectations and demands on a person are a much higher standard.
A person should have as our goal” – ungrammatical was his, not mine – “complete agape love.” The sitting president. He just went on this riff. “The most we can expect from peer pressure a society is to institute simple justice.” So my question for theses, Bill is, what does this tell us about perfection a president who embraces Niebuhr in this way and keeps coming back to him? And then, I would ask you, E.J., as a Niebuhrian: Should we reconsider Carter now that we’ve established his Niebuhrian credentials? Carter was Mike Gerson’s candidate in 1976, it should be pointed out. CROMARTIE: Carl, what was your source? I thought you were going to bring out a PowerPoint or something like that. CANNON: No.
Trust me on those quotes. CROMARTIE: Okay. You were just quoting. (Laughter.) CANNON: From the theses writing, public papers of the president. CROMARTIE: You brought them with you?
MCCLAY: I think those are fairly anodyne observations by Carter that have Reinhold Niebuhr’s name tacked onto the end of them. The thing about bricks, I can’t even really quite imagine Niebuhr saying that. But he wrote so much that it’s quite possible he did. I think Carter may have at some point been a serious student of Niebuhr. I just don’t know. But there’s a kind of Niebuhr line that you can embrace which is to experience, say, well, you can’t expect the theses, same things of institutions that you do of individuals. True, but that seems fairly obvious. Perfection? You don’t really need all that heavy theological artillery to theses, make that point. And the belief that one should have a sense of humility about oneself as a leader – I don’t know whether this came before or after he identified himself as born-again, which scandalized the press corps. Such referencing of Niebuhr was a way of redeeming his reputation as a man of some education and essay experience breeding. I don’t want to be too harsh about it.
But if you look at theses, Carter’s presidency, I think, in fact, many of the criticisms that Niebuhr makes of the peer pressure, children of light – that they have a kind of conviction about their virtuousness and theses writing the virtuousness of their cause, and that by being virtuous and showing their virtue they will sway the opinions of others – this just doesn’t work in Niebuhr’s view. God? The biblical passage – DIONNE: The children of theses, darkness are wiser in this world than the college experience, children of light. MCCLAY: In this generation. Yes. DIONNE: Yes.
In this generation. MCCLAY: And it comes from the writing, parable of the dishonest steward in the Bible, which is one of the most perplexing things in the entire New Testament. I never have known what it means. But I think Carter, in practice, didn’t show an critical forster m new, ability to exercise the kind of writing, shrewdness and deviousness even that Niebuhr thought an effective leader needed to show. He hadn’t really taken in all of usc theatre essay, Moral Man and Immoral Society . By the writing, way, as we were talking I did think of something else in Niebuhr: that he was a tremendous influence on Martin Luther King. DIONNE: Yes. I was going to say that.
That’s really important. MCCLAY: Because if you look back – I believe it’s the camden street, last chapter of Moral Man and Immoral Society – there’s a discussion of non-violent resistance that’s a blueprint for writing, what King does, and King evidently read it and was very influenced by it. King is not an experience, example of theses writing, a political leader, but an example of a social leader, a movement leader. DIONNE: And I just wanted to underscore too, that if you talk about somebody’s influence – “by their fruits shall ye know them” – King did a lot of his academic work on Niebuhr. Richard Fox says Niebuhr didn’t see race as early as he saw the college experience, injustice of labor, but he was pretty early in understanding how important racial equality was. And in theses writing, terms of Jimmy Carter: Jimmy Carter was, and is, an intellectually serious believer and he’s an intellectually serious believer of a certain age. And if you were, like Carter, an evangelical but not a fundamentalist, someone who was a moderate or a liberal, you could not help but encounter Niebuhr and take him seriously. You can debate, as Bill suggested, exactly how he applied Niebuhr. But I don’t think Jimmy Carter lost in 1980 because he sort of loved Reinhold Niebuhr.
I don’t think it changes our view of him. I think we knew that he was a thoughtful Christian. He lost because of stagflation and the hostage crisis and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. And I don’t know what one can draw from his love for Niebuhr out of those things. I don’t mean to be glib about it.
I just think what you said proves what I think we already knew about Carter, and thesis printing centre camden a good side of Carter that a lot of people liked even if they disagreed with him. AMY SULLIVAN, TIME : Professor McClay, you warned us at the beginning that Niebuhr often wrote as a counterpuncher – speaking in reaction to other people. And it seems like that’s particularly true, at least in the way you outlined his criticism of theses writing, religious liberals and particularly the social gospel. You could be excused for coming away from that thinking that he wasn’t that different and that he believed Christians still should be engaged in efforts to usc theatre supplement, make the world a better place and progress in social causes. Theses? They just shouldn’t be surprised if bad things happen and their hands got dirty. But there must be more to it than that. And I wondered if one or both of you could talk just a little bit about what his affirmative theology was, or his sense of how religious people or institutions should operate? MCCLAY: Well, I’m afraid this is casebooks critical forster m new, going to sound like I’m rehashing what I said but maybe I didn’t say it well enough. I think that Niebuhr wanted to theses writing, stress – and yes, he is counterpunching when he does this – that there is no resolution to perfection, the problems of politics in theses, this life. You can ameliorate suffering here and there, and you are obliged to try to do so.
But the notion that history is somehow moving towards some sort of omega point where frictionless social relations will come into being, where the self-realization of individuals is about, going to occur in an unimpeded way, that it’s possible to writing, imagine that the interests of different individuals and different groups are not going to clash, and dedication clash in a way that’s more or less permanent in character, that those interests may shift around in complexion but will not clash – that’s an illusion. MCCLAY: Yes. I don’t believe in theses, being concise. They pay me by the word. Dedication Thesis? But you know, I’m trying to unpack what anti-utopian means in this context. It doesn’t just mean having moderate expectations. It doesn’t mean that perfection can only be approached asymptotically, and is not achievable for us here below. Theses? For Niebuhr, it is something much more disturbing. It’s the notion that the more we progress, the more we put ourselves in danger.
That’s a very scary but very powerful principle. Casebooks M New? And I think that’s very different from the kind of progressive view that the social gospelers, by and large, took. Writing? But there’s an argument to perfection, be made that he oversimplifies people like Walter Rauschenbusch, who are not quite as blithe and naive as he makes them out to writing, be. And John Dewey even. SULLIVAN: I guess my question, which I may not have made clear, is dedication, what do Christians then do with that? That may be the view, but then, how should they proceed?
DIONNE: See, I think that he assumed that Christians – it was a deep assumption reflected in the way he lived his life and theses the way he was a pastor – that Christians would be, should be engaged in social action. Thesis Printing Camden? When you were a minister in a poor parish in Detroit – a place you love – at a time of union organizing, low wages and all the struggles going on. It was built into theses, the cake, if you were his kind of Christian, that you would be engaged in dedication thesis god, social action. What he was about was trying to theses writing, think through not only essay what was the most effective form of theses writing, social action, but also how should one think about dedication that social action as a Christian. He came to believe – he started out theses, as a socialist, and still maintained some of the socialist aspirations – nonetheless he came to see utopianism as both theoretically flawed and also as ineffectual in politics. Larry O’Brien, who was an aide to Kennedy and usc theatre supplement a Democratic National Committee chairman, had a great book title for writing, his memoirs. The book title was No Final Victories . And I think that’s an excellent view of democratic – small ‘d’ – politics.
I suppose, for that matter, capital ‘d’ too. There are no final victories in democratic politics because we are imperfect. The world is imperfect. All political systems are imperfect, so you have to just keep fighting. And you shouldn’t give up because you don’t win a final victory. It’s a philosophy of constant improvement and accepting that setbacks happen along the way.
And he would have said this in a more profound way than I just said it, but I think that’s what it comes down to. And, at least to me, that is probably the most rational way to approach democratic politics. MCCLAY: Can I say one other thing? I think I’m getting a better feel for what you’re really asking. Critical E Essay Forster M New? And I think it bears on theses, Mike Gerson’s question and point, which I didn’t initially understand either. Dedication? Niebuhr lived in a time when you could count on Christian culture as a propulsive force, when your real task was how to channel that, how to correct it, how to keep it from its worst excesses and make it more self-aware and self-critical.
This is one of the problems about reviving Niebuhr – the fact that his time isn’t the one we live in now. Today, an intelligent person is writing, faced with the thesis, question: “Why should I be a Christian rather than nothing? Why should I take a Christian view of writing, politics rather than a strictly secular view? What does the Christian modifier contribute to usc theatre supplement, all of this?” And I think Mike’s point about the problem of religion being a corrective rather than being an engine bears on this too. These are questions that Niebuhr didn’t really have to face. DAN GILGOFF, U.S. NEWS WORLD REPORT : It struck me that so far, a lot of the conversation about writing Niebuhr has centered on his enduring, or perhaps not-so-enduring, influence on American politics and on policymakers both current and past. And I’m wondering if you could talk a little bit about whether that influence is discernable at all in American Christianity today, given that that was the supplement essay, realm in which he was operating. And also, I know you both do a lot more in terms of examining politics and theologians’ influence on it besides Niebuhr. Theses? Looking at college experience, Obama, his public statements, the degree to which he invokes the Bible, or religion, or father, or morality, do you see any other specific figures besides Niebuhr and traditions like the social gospel shining through his words? And I don’t know if you’d go so far as to say actions.
I mean, I think that’s more difficult to analyze, but if you could speak to writing, that point too, beyond Niebuhr. MCCLAY: Well, let me make one observation to start with, and I think E.J. Street? would be better on Obama than I am. One thing that’s curious about all of this, and I think it tells you something about the times we’re living in too, is theses writing, that – I think I mentioned this in passing – if you venture into the seminaries, what you will find is critical m new, that Niebuhr is writing, almost universally held in dedication thesis god, low esteem. And I think among many of the brightest young theologians I know, and some who are still graduate students, there are some who see him as completely irrelevant. CROMARTIE: Is it because they don’t like the theses, ambiguity?
MCCLAY: I think they don’t like the narrative essays about peer pressure, ambiguity, and, in some ways, they don’t see him as being bold enough. Writing? He’s tailored too much for a secularist worldview. Stanley Hauerwas is – CROMARTIE: A theologian at Duke University. MCCLAY: – is, in some ways, far more influential. And Stanley Hauerwas – to talk about a counterpuncher – he has pretty much made a career out of eviscerating Reinhold Niebuhr at every turn, including in his own Gifford lectures. Casebooks Contemporary Critical Forster? So what’s odd is that people in the position of David Brooks and E.J. and others – I suspect E.J. Writing? has a little more contact with the academy than David does – they’re the ones who are interested in Niebuhr. And people like me. I’m a historian. Pressure? I’m not even in a theological world. But the theologians, I think they see him as a back number.
Now, what that means, I don’t know. People like Hauerwas have a much more – to use the word these theologians would use – “prophetic” engagement with the culture and with politics. One way of translating “prophetic” means without any sort of acknowledgement of the sort of half-measures and compromises and acquiescence that you need to make to be politically effective. These theologians are much more interested in people who make very bold statements. And in that sense, ambiguity is theses writing, indeed part of the complaint. CROMARTIE: Let me just ask, Bill, before E.J. responds: Professor Putnam, if you could tell us your perception of what Niebuhr is, say, in thesis, Cambridge, Mass. Writing? Or at least, if you know, in the divinity school or in the political science world in which you work. MCCLAY: Well, there is a Reinhold Niebuhr chair at Union Theological Seminary, where he taught.
And the guy who occupies it – DIONNE: He’s a great guy. Gary Dorrien. MCCLAY: Yes. He’s a big critic of critical e essay m new, Niebuhr. DIONNE: He’s an theses writing, affectionate critic of Niebuhr. CROMARTIE: Professor Putnam, you don’t have to answer the question, but I was just thinking, as we are talking about Niebuhr in the academy, what you might want to tell us. ROBERT PUTNAM, HARVARD UNIVERSITY: This is what will cause you to withdraw the invitation to usc theatre supplement, me to speak here even tomorrow because actually, I have relatively little contact with the divinity school at Harvard and theses almost no contact with theologians. It’s not a matter of critical, principle. Theses? (Laughter.) In my own field, political science, when I was growing up, which was actually a long time ago in the ’60s, Niebuhr was a major figure actually. And essentially along the lines of what’s been discussed here, in this kind of tragic realism kind of sense.
So, probably, most political scientists of college experience, my generation know a little bit about Niebuhr. But I frankly doubt if contemporary political scientists know much about theses writing him. And maybe they should, I think, from usc theatre supplement a political-science point of view, not from a theological point of view. This recent Niebuhr revival is actually quite interesting because I do think it reflects a little bit of what’s happening religiously, but mostly what’s happening sociologically, in America. I think this notion is writing, partly the Lincoln tolerance part and partly the unintended consequences part: Don’t start pushing grand plans and distant ideals because you’re almost certain to get it wrong.
That part, along with the hope part. I don’t know if that fits theologically or not now, but I think I see it as a little bit of the critical m new, ethos of writing, our times. But actually I don’t have any reason to essay experience, disagree with the theses writing, account that was offered about Niebuhr’s standing among academic or non-academic theologians. DIONNE: Can I have a different view than – CROMARTIE: I know you do, but I want – DIONNE: It’s overlapping but different. DIONNE: Bill, you may not completely disagree with this. It seems to me that Niebuhr went out of fashion somewhere in essay, the 1960s and that was partly a product of the anti-war movement, which saw him as more of a realist. Theses Writing? And, you know, there was a rebellion against realism. He wasn’t left-wing enough. And also, when you think back to some of the theological trends in the late ’60s and ’70s, the death of narrative essays about, God movement, the theology of theses writing, hope, the theology of liberation – I would love to know what Niebuhr would have made of narrative essays about peer pressure, liberation theology; what he would have agreed with, what he would have critiqued. I think that the theses, journalistic and college essay political comeback of Niebuhr has some parallels now in the academy. For example, Harvey Cox was one of my old teachers at Harvard Divinity School, and he was to Niebuhr’s left.
And he had a very interesting little letter in The New York Times after Arthur Schlesinger wrote his piece that I think was probably friendlier to Niebuhr than Harvey would have been circa 1969 or 1970. I want to ask Cox about this. I think it reflects Niebuhr’s resurrection – a good theme for a Christian theologian – and the new engagement with Niebuhr that’s going on now. Bill is absolutely right about Hauerwas. Hauerwas, by the way, played a big role in theses, the symposium about Niebuhr I quoted earlier. So I don’t dispute much of what Bill said, but I think that for a variety of reasons, some of them having to do with the zeitgeist, there is a kind of rediscovery of Niebuhr. There are probably some neo-Niebuhrian theologians being born right now. MCCLAY: Just one quick thing. One of the narrative pressure, appeals of theses writing, Hauerwas, and casebooks contemporary critical e essay forster I think one of the concerns – this is a Putnam-esque theme, that’s why I’m bringing it up – Niebuhr really was in his heyday in the ’30s through the ’50s.
Living in those years, it is not surprising that individualism and theses what might be called the sort of defense of the integrity of the individual over against printing collectivities and groups of any kind became one of his greatest themes. That is not, it seems to me, so large a concern now. I think there’s a lot more concern with, if I may coin the phrasing, bowling alone with anomie. Writing? To take it to college experience, a theological level, one sees a lot of concern, particularly among the young, that our churches are not organizations in theses writing, which people really are experiencing community, being bound together. And I think there is a lot more interest, particularly among the younger people, with finding a more vibrant and supplement essay vital form of community than Niebuhr really has to theses, offer, because Niebuhr is very guarded. He offers a very low level of social trust, Niebuhr.
He’s always looking out for the ways the individual can be captured and co-opted by groups, and trying to maintain that individual’s independence. DIONNE: Ten seconds – just 10 quick seconds on that. There’s a debate over whether the supplement essay, Niebuhr of theses writing, Moral Man and Immoral Society , which is decidedly against resume perfection the collective – but remember, he’s writing in a moment when Hitler and Stalin are rising – whether that emphasis is quite as strong in some of the later work. And I’d argue that there is theses writing, a greater concern for thesis, community in the Niebuhr of the theses, ’40s and ’50s than there was in narrative about peer pressure, that particular book. PUTNAM: People around the table have also observed that Niebuhr is primarily a counterpuncher. The culture and theology against which he was counterpunching then is just very different from the kind of theology and society in which it would be useful to have counterpunching now. Theses Writing? That’s my view, and I guess that’s close to what you were just saying. DIONNE: He is more than a counterpuncher. (Laughter.) MCCLAY: And I agree with that, too. LYNN SWEET, C HICAGO SUN-TIMES : My question is experience, aimed at you, professor: How did the writing, Holocaust influence Niebuhr?
As you said – or as E.J. might have said – he was in his heyday during this period, and I know he certainly was a supporter of the usc theatre supplement essay, state of Israel and all that, but you know, you often don’t get these great figures who are working real-time with one of the writing, great issues of the world happening. So I’m just wondering, how did the Holocaust influence him as it was unfolding, as he was on duty? MCCLAY: You mean during the’40s? Well, I don’t know. I can’t answer for thesis centre, that. I think it’s not a theme that figures all that prominently in his work, but I think – and this is sort of a cliche, but I think it’s true – that it was really after the ’67 and ’73 wars that the Holocaust as a theme becomes much more prominent in theses writing, American Jewish consciousness and in American public life. So there are a lot of people who we might have expected to give more attention to it who didn’t. But that doesn’t answer, and I really can’t answer the point about how he saw the Holocaust.
I mean, he was very aware of issues like the firebombing of printing centre camden street, Dresden and strategic bombing in general and the use of nuclear weapons and the moral calculus involved in writing, those things. DIONNE: He was a very, very strong opponent of thesis centre camden street, anti-Semitism, a very early person in inter-religious dialogue, and theses one of the reasons he broke with his pacifist friends is because he believed Nazism was evil. And his whole critique of Nazism was rooted in resume, the idea that it was demonic in general, but in particular, demonic in theses writing, its treatment of the Jews. So I don’t know what he was. I just don’t know the answer to the question of what he said as we learned about the Holocaust. Essays About Peer Pressure? But everything in his history – all of his associations with people like Abraham Heschel and lots of other Jewish leaders, and theses his writing about Nazis, says this was all very important to him. I don’t have in front of me more detail than that. But it mattered to him.
It mattered to usc theatre supplement, him enormously. CROMARTIE: How close was he to Dietrich Bonhoeffer? Were they close at all? DIONNE: I don’t know if they knew each other. They may well have. MCCLAY: Someone asked me about writing that yesterday. I’m going to look it up actually. I have Fox’s biography so I’m going to look it up. I think they met when Bonhoeffer came to America, but I don’t think – CROMARTIE: It was brief. It was brief.
CROMARTIE: We’re moving the Niebuhr library books back and thesis forth. Writing? (Laughter.) MCCLAY: Can I say something? This doesn’t only, necessarily, relate to Jews, but he has always had a strong cadre of supporters in the academy, described in a term variously attributed to Morton White and Perry Miller and others as “atheists for Niebuhr.” He had a remarkably ecumenical outlook, aside from his rather dismissive view of evangelicals like Billy Graham or Billy Sunday. But he had very good relations with Jews, both religious and secular. There’s a story about the essay experience, Niebuhr family place in a little town called Heath, near Stockbridge in western Massachusetts, where they spent a lot of time.
And Niebuhr’s daughter, Elizabeth Sifton, has written a book about the serenity prayer, which also talks a lot about this little town. Felix Frankfurter came out there once and theses writing went to resume, a service that Niebuhr conducted where he preached, and as he was leaving, he shook Niebuhr’s hand and said, “Thank you for preaching such a wonderful sermon that really warmed the heart of a believing unbeliever.” And Niebuhr, without missing a beat, said, “Thank you, that means so much to me, an unbelieving believer.” So he had a great degree of comfort with people of non-Christian, particularly secular outlook. DIONNE: Just to answer the question from Fox’s biography: Niebuhr actually wrote a piece for The Nation called “Jews after the War.” And Fox notes that one of his major reasons for theses writing, favoring intervention was his concern with what Hitler was doing to the Jews. By the early ’30s, he grasped that Hitler was bent on the cultural annihilation of the Jews. From that time on, he was a firm, though sometimes qualified, backer of the Zionist cause. Critical? So it was a big part of him. FRED BARNES, THE WEEKLY STANDARD : What was Niebuhr’s objection to theses, Billy Graham? MCCLAY: I think it was part of resume, this sort of critique that people like Will Herberg made of writing, American religion in the ’50s: that it was too culturally complacent, too adapted to American life. I mean, Billy Graham was, in a sense, the quintessence of the emphasis on individual conversion and usc theatre nothing else, at least in Niebuhr’s view. And let me quickly add that this was not at all fair to Billy Graham. Theses? In fact, Billy Graham was remarkable in the area of civil rights, for example, and supplement did things that went beyond a lot of what Niebuhr did.
But that was Niebuhr’s view. Theses Writing? And it’s true that Graham didn’t challenge social structures. College Essay Experience? He became cozy with presidents, saw himself as a kind of counselor to them, which was something that Niebuhr thought was perhaps inappropriate and certainly not anything that he ever sought to do. CROMARTIE: Actually let me add quickly, if I could here, that Graham tried to meet with Niebuhr in New York because Niebuhr was very critical of Graham’s New York crusade. And because of that criticism, Graham tried to meet with Niebuhr and Niebuhr refused to meet with him. DIONNE: Mike Gerson will like this. This is from Fox’s book: “Niebuhr found himself pushed to theses, a defense of the same liberal social gospel he had been repudiating for decades by Graham.
It might have lacked ‘realism,’ he said, but it was ‘infinitely more realistic than the narrative peer pressure, pietistic individualism which it replaced and which Graham was resurrecting.’ Graham was certainly better, Niebuhr urged, than the popular religious therapists who dispensed with a God of judgment altogether,” but Fox quotes Niebuhr – this is about Graham – “‘Evangelism has a blandness which befits the Eisenhower era.'” ADRIAN WOOLRIDGE, THE ECONOMIST : I’m going to ask two questions. One is about Niebuhr’s influence outside the United States. We have a very American-centric view of things. I wonder if he had much influence in Britain or Europe? And the second is about this other character who seems to have suffered the writing, same fate as a lot of resume perfection, people in the politburo when they fell out of favor, sort of being written completely out of history – Jeremiah Wright. I wondered what sort of influence Niebuhr had on Jeremiah Wright, if anything? MCCLAY: Oh yeah, I wouldn’t know about the second one. I mean, my sense of writing, Jeremiah Wright is that he’s much more influenced by James Cone and by black liberation theology, although I’m sure he had some contact.
You don’t associate a whole lot of ambiguity with Reverend Wright, but – (laughter) – I really don’t know that much about narrative essays peer him other than the Cone influence. CROMARTIE: What about British influence? MCCLAY: Well, Niebuhr was part of this transatlantic group of liberal anticommunists, membership in which ended up being part of what counts for a decline in his reputation, too. Writing? People like Fox, who were new-left types, found him too much of a prop to the status quo, too anticommunist for their taste. But he was part of the Congress for Cultural Freedom crowd, and wrote for printing camden, Encounter magazine occasionally, and well you get the picture. Theses Writing? So he was part of that world and was read all over Europe, not just in Great Britain. And there’s a bit of a revival of Niebuhr going on in the U.K. now.
There’s a British scholar named Martin Halliwell at printing centre camden, Leicester who’s written a very good book on Niebuhr that’s well worth reading. CROMARTIE: Is it a biography or an explication of him? MCCLAY: It’s more of an theses writing, explication. It has biographical elements. WOOLRIDGE: Is it more than 700 pages?
DIONNE: You know, I think that’s right. Thesis Centre Street? I agree with what Bill said in terms of the transatlantic influence of his liberal anticommunism and his view of foreign policy. Writing? He very much influenced Hans Morgenthau, who had a lot of influence over there. On Jeremiah Wright, I did an interview with Obama in casebooks contemporary critical, that period for theses, a piece I wrote for The New Republic . Obama had a very interesting observation on Wright, where Obama made a distinction between King and Wright. Usc Theatre Supplement? He noted that in his early stage King had the combination that was all about – publicly, especially – reconciliation, but that King was angrier toward the end of his life, particularly about the Vietnam War, and that Wright came along in theses, that late stage and was much more influenced by the period of disillusionment at the end of the civil rights years than by the spirit of hope at the beginning of the civil rights years.
And so my hunch is that, just as Bill said, Wright clearly was influenced by centre James Cone and his black liberation theology, which was part of all those post-liberal theological developments in theses writing, divinity schools that led to printing, more radical forms of writing, theology. But I bet you – I’m sure Wright had to have some contact with the ideas of Niebuhr. Supplement? He was in the United Church of Christ which, you know, had a lot in theses writing, common with Niebuhr at one point. CROMARTIE: Well, he may well have introduced President Obama to Niebuhr’s work, one would think. DIONNE: That’s an interesting question. MCCLAY: Well, you know who did read Niebuhr was Malcolm X, who clearly is usc theatre, a major influence on Jeremiah Wright. I mean – the whole “chickens coming home to roost” trope – that’s a Malcolm phrase from his famous description of the theses, Kennedy assassination. DAN HARRIS, ABC NEWS: The second part of the experience, question about beyond Niebuhr, who are the theologians, religious figures, religious traditions that you see, you know, embodied in some of Obama’s rhetoric or perhaps beyond that, if you’re daring enough to writing, read it into his actual policies. Just to narrative essays, kind of get beyond Niebuhr while still on the subject of theses writing, Obama.
DIONNE: I have tried to figure out who has influenced him. If you read the Sojourners speech, he’s clearly spent some time, or somebody has, looking at the whole debate around John Rawls: What are the obligations of the contemporary critical e essay forster, religious person in the public square in making arguments that are accessible to those who do not share the same religious commitments? With the theses, public reason debate, he seems familiar with that, so that’s one set of influences on him. I think the formative influences, both rhetorically and to some degree substantively, are all the traditions of perfection, civil rights Christianity. And, you know, clearly there are a lot of echoes of King – and not only King’s rhetoric but also his theology, in the way he speaks.
And in some ways, what I see in Obama is an effort to go back to civil rights Christianity as part of his way of reformulating a sort of progressive gospel – to make a link between that and Niebuhr, which is quite a natural link since King himself was influenced by Niebuhr in a lot of his language. Theses? But beyond that, I don’t know. I’d be very curious. It’s a good question. CROMARTIE: Bill, you have anything to add to that? MCCLAY: Well I’m sure you’re right about that and this is just something I don’t know enough about.
But I’ve read The Audacity of Hope and the other autobiographical book and I don’t think his rhetoric has the resume, kind of yeastiness of a lot of the ’60s-era civil rights people who were really coming right out of the black Baptist church. You know that book by David Chappell, A Stone of Hope ? This is a terrific exposition of the ways in which the civil rights movement was a religious movement. He may overemphasize it a little, but I think it’s a corrective worth making. And you know, someone like Fannie Lou Hamer – who admittedly is theses, hardly typical – everything she says sounds like it comes out of the Bible or out of a black sermon. And Obama is much more of narrative essays peer, a guy who went to prep school, who went to theses writing, elite colleges and universities and wants to kind of draw on that religious language and imagery, but I just don’t know that it steers him. DIONNE: A book that I think is really important in understanding King is Jonathan Rieder’s The Word of the Lord is essay, Upon Me , and theses the subtitle is The Righteous Performance of Martin Luther King Jr. And what Jonathan’s book points out is that King had many different rhetorical styles used at different moments and with different audiences. Thesis God? And I think it’s a really good account of King taken whole.
There’s a lot of use of King for particular purposes and writing people quote the more-conciliatory King when they want to, they quote the supplement essay, more-angry King when they want to. And Jonathan argues, you’ve got to writing, take him whole with all of contemporary e essay forster m new, these parts, and theses it’s a very interesting take on King, I think. MICHAEL GERSON, THE WASHINGTON POST : Follow-up on college, that question to maybe return it to Niebuhr a little bit. You know, he points to Lincoln as the example of theses, Niebuhrian rhetoric in American history. If you look at narrative essays about peer, the history of American rhetoric, Niebuhrian rhetoric is theses writing, pretty rare. Essay? I mean, during World War II, Franklin Roosevelt didn’t use it – he used The Children of theses, Light and the Children of Darkness . Dedication Thesis God? During the Cold War, John Kennedy didn’t use that language; he actually used much more morally charged language. And a lot of King’s rhetoric, whatever his influences by Niebuhr, were certainly more in the social justice tradition. You know, the kingdom of God on Earth. But I think there’s a misinterpretation of Lincoln in a lot of ways. I think the subtext of the second inaugural address is the evil of theses, slavery, not some kind of paradox or irony in that circumstance.
There’s a certain humility in essays about peer pressure, its application, but this sin of slavery affected both North and theses South – they were both complicit in it. But I think it’s a misunderstanding of Lincoln in a lot of ways to say that this represents a Niebuhrian viewpoint, filled with irony and paradox; there’s none there. But what does it say that when people need to motivate in dedication thesis god, American history – if you’re Franklin Roosevelt and theses you’re engaged in the long twilight struggle, that you don’t use Niebuhrian language – that it isn’t even a rhetorical option in American history? You call people to grand purposes and moral missions and resume American exceptionalism and a lot of other things – and how did Niebuhr himself kind of deal with that notion? DIONNE: Just on Lincoln: I don’t think there’s any ambiguity in Niebuhr’s view about writing slavery. The paradox and irony around and about slavery – the printing centre, paradox and irony are that even though you are engaged in theses, a just struggle against slavery, you may nonetheless be inveigled in its evils, as you suggest. The struggles of war create sin on both sides even though the core sin of slavery is at the heart of it. So I don’t think he is usc theatre essay, ironic about slavery itself and I was not asserting that and would not assert that.
GERSON: And I guess my point was not necessarily to assert that. Theses? I think, actually, if you look at narrative essays peer pressure, Lincoln’s rhetoric and actions on these issues, it was a fairly extreme course that he took in these situations, insisting essentially on certain views at the cost of the Union and, you know, the writing, cost of hundreds of thousands of lives on moral principle. That had a terrible cost, which he realized. Printing Street? But he was willing to do those things. But just on the broader point, about the kind of moral clarity in rhetoric. Theses? I mean, how would he diagnose that? Is it just that Americans are ignorant, that they need to be motivated by moral clarity, but the reality is the moral ambiguity? I’m just curious about the level of rhetoric.
MCCLAY: I think it’s worth pointing out that at the time that he gave the thesis centre, second inaugural, there was no doubt about who was going to theses writing, win and college that it was going to theses, happen very soon. So, while I do think it is printing camden street, a tremendously magnanimous speech, it’s the magnanimity of the theses writing, victor. And that’s important to resume, note, but the other thing is that there is theses writing, a different task that the rhetorician is called upon to play in that instance, in calling the nation to a task that has yet to be performed – to resume, heal, to reconcile. Particularly in the case of this particular war, the point is theses writing, not just to crush the South; it’s to bring the South back into the Union, into this sort of e essay, family that they had thought to writing, extricate themselves from, for whatever reason. So the strategy that they use, the Niebuhrian part, I think, comes in e essay m new, – maybe E.J. Theses? already said this – in not saying well, we’ve defeated the bad guys and now we’re going to be a morally better nation because we’ve defeated the bad guys. What he says is, that this is a national sin for which we all bear some responsibility; it is a mark upon all of is, and maybe this war came because of the need to expiate the usc theatre, sin of theses writing, slavery, and if it has to thesis printing centre, go on theses, and on and on, the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether. So he’s – GERSON: Maybe I shouldn’t have mentioned Lincoln, because, you know, that’s a different debate.
GERSON: The point is the essays pressure, difference between Niebuhr’s diagnosis of the moral conflicts of the Cold War or World War II. Maybe one of the writing, reasons, to just put it bluntly, that Niebuhr’s influence waned in the aftermath of that is that he was talking about the ironies of American history just at the point that America was on the verge of some of the greatest moral achievements in human history. It wasn’t as though these were deeply conflicted circumstances; liberating death camps was a pretty good thing. Americans were pretty confident about our moral role in the world in the aftermath of narrative essays about pressure, World War II because it had been a very good one. Writing? The Cold War was conducted with a language of critical e essay forster, moral certainty – DIONNE: Can we go back and forth on this?
Because I think the very notion of containment, as opposed to rollback, was in fact full of Niebuhrian ambiguity. In other words, I think what’s important is that Niebuhr was unambiguous about the morality of the struggle. And it’s good, actually, that you brought up Lincoln, because Niebuhr, just so we get him on theses writing, the record correctly, said that Lincoln’s brooding sense of charity was derived from supplement essay a religious awareness of another dimension of meaning than that of immediate political conflict. This combination – a moral resoluteness – about the immediate issues with a religious awareness of another dimension of meaning and judgment must be regarded as almost a perfect model of the theses writing, difficult but not impossible task of college, remaining loyal and responsible toward the moral treasures of a free civilization on the one hand, while yet having some religious vantage point over the struggle on the other. Niebuhr was at theses, his high tide in narrative essays peer pressure, the ’40s and ’50s because he believed in theses writing, the struggle against the Nazis, the liberation of death camps and anticommunism. But he was not a jingoist. He did not believe America was automatically moral or always right. And the very idea that he was in favor of containment as opposed to rollback says that we can behave in the world in a way that is responsible in dedication god, confronting communism but does not carry all the risks that rollback would entail.
I think possibly – and we would probably both have to theses writing, look this up and then we could debate the text – I do think some of Kennedy’s rhetoric had some of that in it. The very notion of a long twilight struggle is quite different from what you say in the middle of a war – for example, what FDR would say in the middle of the war. Printing Centre Camden? Kennedy’s speech in favor of disarmament at American University in 1963, I think, has some Niebuhrian elements. And then Obama going to Europe and saying, we Americans have sometimes been arrogant, but you Europeans have engaged in a kind of anti-Americanism that’s dangerous. Theses? That struck me – now, maybe I was looking for it – but that struck me as a very Niebuhrian sort of balance. I thought it was a good thing to say. Centre Street? Others didn’t think it was a good thing to say. But I thought that sounded like somebody who, whether he was influenced directly by Niebuhr or not, clearly was carrying that message. JOHN SINIFF, USA TODAY : Last night there were a few of us who were having a discussion about the office of faith-based initiatives, or whatever it has become under President Obama, and theses I realized that at the end we came to this unsatisfactory, very Niebuhrian conclusion as to what he’s trying to do to with this office. Thesis God? And I wondered, E.J., if you see anything Niebuhrian in the re-casting of the office – because ultimately I think four or five of us at the table couldn’t quite figure out what he’s trying to do.
Maybe that’s the purpose. You know, the worst thing is to kill it off, and the second-worst thing is theses, what he’s doing in resume perfection, letting it sit there and fester. DIONNE: As far as I can tell Niebuhr has no direct influence or indirect influence on Obama’s thinking on writing, the White House Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships. (Laughter.) God knows what Niebuhr would think of this, and he does, but we don’t know. (Laughter.) I think what Obama is trying to do is walk a line between not wanting to overturn it and thinking there is pressure, good work done here; and in fact, partnerships between government and faith-based groups pre-date President Bush. I think that it distorts the debate on both sides if liberals say, this is theses, a Bush creation and we’re against m new it. Well, it wasn’t a Bush creation; he pushed it in certain directions, he did certain things, you know, and that can distort the conservative view as well. And I think Obama is trying to writing, figure out, “How can I be true to things I say or believe about church-state separation and religious liberty and still keep this thing going?” So I think they’re still struggling toward resolving that, and he’s clearly kicked down the road the hardest question, which is the religious hiring issue, and casebooks contemporary e essay he’s clearly tried to fudge that for theses, a while, and my impression is that he’s going to fudge it for a while longer. I think he’s going to have to confront it, but the shrewd thing I think he did – shrewd because I thought he did the right thing – was to resume, say we don’t want this whole effort to get blown up immediately in a debate over this hiring issue when we know there is quite a lot of common ground on these partnerships. Bill Clinton had some of the first faith-based offices at the Department of Housing and Urban Development and other parts of the administration. So what Obama’s doing is not that far out of line with what a number of Democrats have done, and certainly Clinton before him. And so I think they’re still figuring it out, is the short answer.
CROMARTIE: You have anything to theses, add to that, Bill? MCCLAY: I agree about the continuity with Clinton. You know, Charitable Choice came in during the Clinton administration, with welfare reform, with the idea that you can’t discriminate against a faith-based organization in awarding government contracts for the provision of social welfare. You can’t discriminate against them simply because of their religious identity. Dedication? This goes to the point that Amy Sullivan, Fred Barnes and others have brought up, or maybe it was in our conversation on theses, the side: that we live in a very different world. I mean, at narrative essays about pressure, one time in theses, the past correctives seemed to have been needed to protect the secular, to keep the religious realm from overwhelming the casebooks contemporary critical forster m new, secular. Now, it seems to me both Democratic and Republican administrations have seen the need to push back the writing, other way, to some extent. Printing Centre? Whether Obama will sustain that or not, I don’t know. But I agree with E.J.; this has lasted for theses, a while, even if it hasn’t always been so effective. CROMARTIE: Well, on that note of heated agreement – (Laughter.) CROMARTIE: – raging moderation and heated agreement, you are allowed to continue these conversations, I promise you.
There will be another reception out casebooks contemporary e essay forster m new, there where we were last night, so bring all your copies of Niebuhr and we’ll continue the conversation. Join me in writing, thanking both these gentlemen for their time. This transcript has been edited for supplement essay, clarity, accuracy, spelling and grammar. Religious Belief and National Belonging in writing, Central and printing centre Eastern Europe. Video: Israel's Religiously Divided Society. Where the Public Stands on Religious Liberty vs.
Nondiscrimination. American and theses Israeli Jews: Twin Portraits From Pew Research Center Surveys. Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in dedication thesis, the US middle class? Try our income calculator. Fact Tank 09/28/2017. Views about whether whites benefit from societal advantages split sharply along racial and partisan lines.
Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in the US middle class? Try our income calculator. Internet Tech 11/11/2016. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is theses, a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world.
It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts.
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A Blog for the Microsoft Certified Professional(MCP) By Georgeo Pulikkathara A Blog for the Microsoft Certified Professional(MCP) By Georgeo Pulikkathara. For those of writing, you who don’t know me, I’m the usc theatre supplement essay new owner of the Microsoft Certified Professional Program here at Microsoft. I’m happy to announce today that we’re launching some very cool new benefits for Microsoft Certified Professionals community worldwide. These benefits are designed to writing help the MCP community get the usc theatre supplement recognition, respect, and rewards that all MCPs deserve for being Microsoft Certified Professionals. This is part of what we internally at Microsoft had code named MCP 2008. Today we’ve launched our new Phase 1 Benefits.
MCP 2008 Phase 1 includes the following benefits below for all MCPs. As long as you have MCP ID you can login today with your windows login account at https://mcp.microsoft.com/mcp and begin accessing these benefits right away. Certificate Manager – MCPs will be able to download their high resolution new generation Microsoft certifications in both XPS and PDF file formats. While traditional welcome kits take up to 4-6 weeks for delivery worldwide, MCPs who earn the new generation of certifications will be able to download their certificates online within 72 hours of achieving their new certifications. We’re going to slowly start adding other older certifications back in, but we decided to first reward the theses folks who are taking the essays peer pressure time to keep their certifications current and up to date. We’re working to writing add the MCSE, MCSA, and casebooks contemporary critical e essay, MCSD certificates as downloadable certificates that you can download and theses writing, print yourselves. About. Logo Manager – MCPs will enjoy continued access to their logo library of Microsoft certification logos. Writing. Certification logos downloaded for use for their resumes, websites and essay, business communications. Transcript Manager - Enhanced transcripts to match the theses look and feel of the new generation certificates, and will be made available in both XPS and PDF file formats.
Community Profiles – MCPs worldwide will get to build and resume, maintain their personal landing page on the Microsoft.com website to help drive community interaction as well as improve discoverability of the MCP worldwide community of 2.1 million members . Writing. MCPs will be able to decide who can access their community profile in usc theatre supplement, the online Membership Directory: worldwide public, MCP peers, or Microsoft only. I know the pages look boring and theses writing, plain. That’s okay, because our MCPs are colorful and full of character…sometimes they’re real characters like Trika. Casebooks Critical E Essay Forster. Member Directory search – There are some truly amazing MCPs out there worldwide. In order to find other MCPs near you , the Member Directory Search will enable you to find folks such as, Wayne Anderson, who is an MCSE. Writing. MCPs will be able to locate their peers worldwide within a city, state or country for purposes of professional networking, MCP mentoring, and MCP community involvement.
Internal Knowledge Base Access – Folks, this is the benefit that I’m most excited about. It’s time we started treating our MCP community as part of the usc theatre supplement essay Microsoft family and start providing you folks some important access and theses writing, benefits. Yeah, I can almost hear you thinking, “What’s the big difference? You can already search at http://support.microsoft.com and find the dedication thesis god necessary information.” Well, as a certified professional, MCPs will have privileged access to the highly coveted Microsoft internal partner level knowledge base that include exclusive technical information that is not available to the general public. Theses Writing. Say you got Bill and Ted working in IT support for a bank. Their boss, Steve, comes in and says, hey, my scanner that used to college essay experience work with Windows XP doesn’t work anymore in Vista. Can you fix this? So Bill goes and searches on theses, http://support.microsoft.com and narrative about, finds out writing, that the driver isn’t available, and comes back and says, “Hey Steve, the god driver isn’t available…stupid Microsoft”. Ted, who’s is an MCP, goes and searches the theses internal knowledge base at https://mcp.microsoft.com/mcp and finds out that a driver was submitted, but it didn’t pass certification, and it was causing the system to crash.
The Vista team has filed an open bug on the driver that their working to resolve. He also find out that the essay experience dev team is working with the hardware vendor on a driver that will be available in writing, the next thirty days. It also provides other partner level information that is not available on the public knowledge base site. Ted comes back and tells this his manager, Steve. Perfection. Steve now views Ted as knowing something that others couldn’t have told him. Writing. Because Ted is an MCP, he gets the inside track on important technical issues that will make him and other MCPs more valuable to their peers and employers worldwide. Benefits like the supplement internal knowledge base access will give our MCP community the theses writing leg up in coming across more knowledgeable and competent, and resume perfection, providing a real value in hiring an MCP. I’d like to talk to everyone more about what we’re doing for our MCP community. So on October 31 st , please join me, Trika Harms zum Spreckel, and Bill Wall(Director of Certification Strategy), on a Live Meeting Webcast to MCPs worldwide as we outline and discuss the cool new MCP benefits that are being made available to Microsoft Certified Professionals worldwide on Phase 1. Live Meeting Registration links are provided below. George, MCSE Windows NT 4/2000.
Georgeo X. Pulikkathara, MCSE | mcp community marketing manager| microsoft corporation | [email protected] | office: (425) 707-6912 | windows mobile: (425) 749-2878 | https://mcp.microsoft.com/mcp | blog: http://blogs.msdn.com/mcp. Writing. Thanks for the 3 R#8217;s! It is much appreciated from us certified kool-aid drinkers! On a side note, are there any plans to upgrade the certification planner? Seriously, it is in resume perfection, need of a cosmetic makeover. I know, I know. William(Bill) Wall is our man for that. He#8217;s the director of Certification Strategy here at theses writing Microsoft Learning. He#8217;s going to be on the Live Webcast on October 31st.
I recommend you attend and we should have you ask that question to m new Bill. George Pulikkathara over at Microsoft (the guy who owns the Microsoft Certified Professional program)#8230; Hello, this just in. new things in theses writing, MCP benefits are now available online. Great! In addition to the Community. Currently I am studying for the certification for .NET (Exam 70-536).
Is stil this the correct path for the best .Net certification? or should I orient my study for 2008? Can someone help me? 70-536 gives you credit towards MCTS .NET Framework 2.0. When you#8217;re saying 2008, i#8217;m assuming you mean an MCPD for Visual Studio 2008 which includes .NET 4.0. Is that correct? After looking at the MCP Member site, yes, all the supplement new functions are what the MCP are looking for. But#8230;Just want to ask, it is possible that, when we download the theses transcript in the pdf format, microsoft can sign the thesis pdf so that the employer / HR Staff will know that this is a offical transcript?? Maybe#8230;it is not required for somebody. But for those sending the resume through emails, it could be helpful, Right? #128578; sorry my poor English. The person who earned the SBSC credential for his or her firm is also a MCP. And did you know that MCP#39;s.
The person who earned the theses writing SBSC credential for his or her firm is also a MCP. And did you know that MCP#39;s.
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Thesis Writing Guide pdf 8 Кб
edith stein essays An evolution which was sensed in advance by some, wanted and worked for by few, and one which surprised most people entirely, has torn women out of the theses writing, well enclosed realm of the home and out of a matter-of-course kind of life and has suddenly plunged them into the most manifold alien situations and undreamt of problems. Thesis Centre Street. We have been thrown into the river, and we must swim. But when our strength threatens to give out, we try to reach at least the writing, shore for safety. We would like to think through the centre camden, question of whether we should go on; and if we should go on, what we should do so that we will not drown. We would like to scrutinize the direction of the current by taking into theses writing account, one against the other, its strength and our own powers and possibilities of movement. It would now be feasible to thesis god take under consideration the following. We are trying to writing attain insight into the innermost recesses of our being; we see that it is essay experience not a completed being but rather a being in the state of becoming, and we are trying to achieve clarity relative to that process. Theses. Our being, our becoming, does not remain enclosed within its own confines; but rather in extending itself, fulfills itself.
However, all of our being and centre street becoming and acting in time is ordered from eternity, has a meaning for eternity, and only becomes clear to us if and theses insofar as we put it in the light of eternity. Can we speak in general terms of the soul of woman? Every human soul is narrative peer pressure unique, no one soul is the same as any other. How can we then speak of the soul in general? But speculation concerning the soul usually considers the soul of the human being in general, not this one or that one. It establishes universal traits and writing laws; and, even when, as in Differential Psychology, it aims at differences, it is usc theatre supplement essay general types which it depicts rather than individual ones: the soul of the child, of the theses, adolescent, of the adult, the soul of the worker, the artist, etc.; so it is with the soul of supplement man and theses of woman. And to those who have reflected on the potentiality of usc theatre science, the understanding of the individual appears ever more problematic than that of the general species. But even if we intend to disregard individualities, is there then one type of woman?
Is there something in common to be discovered in writing, the prototype of woman as seen in Schiller's Glocke or Chamisso's Frauenliebe und-leben, and in the images which Zola, Strindberg and Wedekind paint for us? Can the complete multiplicity which we meet with in life be reduced to a single unity, and can this unity be distinguished from man's soul? This is not the college essay experience, place to provide philosophical proof that there is something in writing, the range of the existent which we can denote as species, woman's soul, and that there is a specific cognitive function which is able to perceive it. Therefore, it will perhaps be more intelligible if we do not begin by outlining this general image of the species but rather sketch a series of types as different as possible one from the other, and then attempt to college essay discover if we can find a general species in them. Since it is through poetry that the soul is most adequately described, I shall now analyze types taken from writing literary works to which I ascribe a particular symbolic value. Take for example the character Ingunn Steinfinnstochter from Sigrid Undset's Olaf Audunssohn.
The novel leads us into a far remote past and into a distant country, a completely alien civilization. Ingunn grows up free and unshackled in a medieval Nordic manor. She has been betrothed since childhood to Olaf, who is practically her foster brother. She roams freely with him and his comrades; she has no regulated activity, no exterior or interior discipline of the will. Contemporary Critical E Essay Forster M New. The children look to each other for support because they have no other. Cravings awaken in them when they are fifteen and sixteen years old; they succumb to temptation at the first opportunity. From that time on, Ingunn's entire life is theses writing one of insatiable longing. She and Olaf consider themselves insolubly bound to each other according to ecclesiastical law. But the family opposes the marriage, and they become separated for years.
The life of the young man is filled with battles, various experiences, and aspirations in distant lands. The girl seeks compensation for her lost happiness in dreams; at times, crises of hysteria compel her to halt all exterior activity. She yields to a seducer although she yearns only for Olaf. However, realization of her fall breaks into centre street this somber psychic existence like a supernatural light; and she rouses herself with astounding strength and severs the sinful relationship. Olaf, returned home, is unwilling to theses writing break the sacred bond which unites them simply because of her confessed guilt. He takes her as wife to his manor and rears her illegitimate son as his heir. But the desired happiness does not come as yet. Ingunn is depressed through the consciousness of her guilt, and resume she gives birth to one dead child after another. Writing. But the more she considers herself to be a source of misfortune for perfection her husband, the more she clings to him; and the more vehemently does she crave further proofs of his love. And although she wastes away in this life, consuming his strength as well, Olaf yields as he has always yielded to her.
For years she endures uncomplainingly her ill health; she silently accepts it as expiation. Olaf realizes only at the immediate end that the soul of Ingunn possesses something other than the somber, animal-like dependence. He realizes that it possesses a divine spark which lacked only support and a conception of theses writing a higher world; this world had not attained sufficient clarity to college be of influence on her life. All too literally he has complied with the word of the Apostle: Husbands must love their wives as they love their own bodies (Eph. 5:28).
And because of this, two lives have been ruined. As in other works of Sigrid Undset, the two worlds, or actually prehistoric worlds, stand in firm opposition: the writing, gloomy, instinctive world of primordial chaos, and usc theatre essay that of God's spirit hovering over creation. The soul of Ingunn, this child of nature, is like land untouched by the plough. There are potent seeds of germinating power therein, and life in them is stirred into tremulous motion through the ray of light which comes from the other side of the writing, clouds. Narrative Peer Pressure. But it would be necessary that the theses writing, gross clods be cultivated in order for the light to penetrate to the seeds. Ibsen's Nora is no child of nature; she has grown up rather in the milieu of modern culture. Her mind is alert even if it is just as little trained methodically as is her will. She was the darling doll of her father, and essay now she is theses writing her husband's darling doll just as her children are her dolls. With cutting criticism, she says this herself when her eyes have been opened.
The spoiled child is faced with decisions for which she is in no way prepared. Her husband becomes severely ill, and essays means are lacking for the trip which can save him. She cannot ask her father for help because he is also ill. So she endorses a note herself with his name as co-signer. Writing. Her conscience is essay experience not troubled by this—actually, she is proud of the deed to which her husband owes his convalescence. She hides her action from the scrupulous lawyer, knowing well that he would not sanction it. But when the creditor is driven to extremes by his own need and threatens exposure, it is not fear of her husband's censure which causes her despairing decision to flee. Theses. She both fears and hopes that now the miracle will occur—her husband will take her guilt upon himself in his great love.
But it happens quite differently. College Experience. Robert Helmer has only condemnation for theses his wife; he considers that she is casebooks contemporary critical no longer worthy of raising his children. Theses. Nora recognizes herself and him for what they are in the disillusionment of this moment, that the hollowness of their life together does not deserve the printing centre camden, name of marriage. And when the danger of theses writing social scandal is removed, when he graciously would like to forgive everything and re-establish their life again, she cannot accept his pardon. She knows that before she is able to try again to usc theatre supplement essay be wife and mother, she must first become a person. Certainly, Robert Helmer would also have to develop from the social figure into a human being in order that their joint life might become a marriage. In Goethe's Iphigenie, a bizarre decree tore Iphigenie in early youth from the writing, circle of her beloved family and led her to a strange, barbarian people. The hand of the gods delivered her from certain death for holy service in centre camden, the quiet of the temple. The mysterious priestess is honored like a saint. But she is unhappy here.
She yearns always for return to her home. She firmly declines the writing, king's courtship in order not to cut herself off from this return. The country has had a custom whose force has been formally rescinded by her exertions; now, in accordance with this old custom, she must as punishment sacrifice two strangers who have just been found on the shore. They are Greeks, one of them her brother. Her longing to see one of her own once again is fulfilled. But he is college essay experience defiled by matricide, agonized by remorse to the point of madness. He is destined for death at writing her hand.
The old curse of her house, from which she appeared until now to be free, threatens to be fulfilled in her also. Faced with the choice whether to save her brother, his friend, and herself through lies and deceit or to casebooks contemporary critical abandon all of them to ruin, she first believes that she must choose the theses writing, lesser evil. But her pure soul is not able to bear untruthfulness and breach of trust; she defends herself against these as does a healthy nature against germs of fatal disease. Trusting in the veracity of the gods and the nobility of the king, she reveals her plan of printing centre flight to theses writing him and receives as reward the about pressure, lives of those endangered and her return home. Theses Writing. Her brother is already healed through her prayer.
Now she will carry joy and reconciliation with the usc theatre essay, gods into the ancient noble house. Before we proceed to look for theses a common species in all three different types of women, it might be useful to discuss briefly the god, relation of these types to reality. Are we not dealing here with pure creatures of poetic imagination? With what right, then, are we able to use them to gain insight into theses real psychic existence? For a solution of this difficulty, we will first try to clarify what the dedication thesis god, poetic spirit has intended to convey in each of these types. Hardly anyone could conceive of Sigrid Undset's work as I'art pour l'art. Theses. Her creativity is reckless confession. Indeed, one has the impression that she is compelled to express that which presses upon casebooks her as brutal reality. And I believe that whoever gazes into life as sincerely and soberly as she did will not be able to deny that the types she represents are real, even if they are chosen with a certain bias.
There is obviously a method in this one-sidedness: she wishes to theses writing emphasize the animal-instinct to better reveal the inadequacies of a mendacious idealism or an exaggerated intellectualism in dealing with earthy reality. The figure of Nora was created by contemporary e essay forster, a man who wishes to adopt entirely the theses writing, woman's perspective, a man who has made the cause of woman and the feminist movement his own. His heroine is essay chosen from this point of theses view—but she is usc theatre supplement essay precisely chosen and depicted with keenest analysis; she is not invented arbitrarily nor constructed rationalistically. The strength and consequence of writing her thought and action may be surprising in contrast to what has previously transpired; she may be unusual, yet her action is not an improbable or a completely impossible one. The classical lineaments, the simple grandeur and exalted simplicity of Goethe's most noble female character may appear at first glance to the modern person as most nearly removed from reality. And idealism is certainly under consideration here; but again, this is no construction of fantasy but rather an idealized image which is envisioned, experienced, and empathized from life itself. From his inner depths and free of all biased perspective, the great artist has presented in almost sculptural form a vision which embraces both reine Menschlichkeit and Ewig-Weibliches. And we are gripped, as only total purity and eternal truth can grip us.
So much for the reality of these types. Do these three women have anything in common? They come from different worlds in the writings themselves; also, they are the creation of very different writers. No traditional discipline shaped the soul of Ingunn, a child of supplement essay nature; Nora, the doll of The Doll's House, inhibited by artificial social conventions, asserts nevertheless her healthy instinct to writing cast off these fetters in order to take her life into critical e essay m new her own hands and refashion it freely. Iphigenie, the priestess in the sacred temple, has surpassed nature through union with the godhead and theses has entered into supernatural clarity. These three women share one common characteristic: a longing to give love and to receive love, and in this respect a yearning to be raised above a narrow, day-to-day existence into the realm of a higher being. Ingunn's dream is to live at Olaf's side in a manor and to have many children. In her torpor, she is critical unable to imagine any other pattern of existence and consciously to theses choose another. And when the exterior union with her spouse finally comes as the only fulfillment, it is the physical side of the casebooks contemporary e essay, relationship to which she clings with all her life energy. In so doing, she does not find the longed-for happiness; but she knows no other way to find it or even to look for it, and she remains with what she does have.
Nora's real life, concealed behind her doll's existence of which she is at first scarcely aware, consists in writing, waiting for the miraculous, which is nothing else but the end of her puppet existence, the breaking forth of great love which will reveal the true being of her spouse and of herself. And as there is no response from her husband, as she becomes aware that nothing exists behind his mask of social convention, she is determined to make the effort alone to break through to her true being, to its very core. With Iphigenie, it is no longer a question of the narrative, breakthrough to true being; she has already achieved true being, in having reached the highest level of human perfection; she has only to put it to the test and to allow it to have its effect. She longs that the level of being she has reached will serve as an theses writing, instrument of that redeeming love which is her true destiny. Do these examples suitably illustrate the essence of supplement essay woman's soul? We could, of course, provide here just as many types of women as you like; however, I believe, just as long as they are types of women, we will always find fundamentally the compulsion to become what the soul should be, the drive to allow the latent humanity, set in her precisely in its individual stamp, to ripen to the greatest possible perfect development. Theses. The deepest feminine yearning is to achieve a loving union which, in its development, validates this maturation and simultaneously stimulates and furthers the critical m new, desire for perfection in others; this yearning can express itself in the most diverse forms, and some of these forms may appear distorted, even degenerate.
As we shall show, such yearning is an essential aspect of the eternal destiny of woman. Theses Writing. It is not simply a human longing but is specifically feminine and opposed to the specifically masculine nature. Man's essential desires reveal themselves in action, work, and objective achievements. He is less concerned with problems of being, whether his own or of others. Certainly being and doing cannot be wholly separated. The human soul is not a complete, static, unchanging, monolithic existence. It is being in the state of becoming and in the process of becoming; the god, soul must bring to fruition those predispositions with which it was endowed when coming into the world; however, it can develop them only through activation. Thus woman can achieve perfect development of her personality only by activating her spiritual powers. So do men, even without envisaging it as a goal, work in the same way when they endeavor to perform anything objectively. In both instances the structure of the soul is fundamentally the writing, same.
The soul is housed in a body on usc theatre essay, whose vigor and theses writing health its own vigor and health depend—even if not exclusively nor simply. On the other hand, the body receives its nature as body—life, motion, form, gestalt, and spiritual significance—through the soul. The world of the essay experience, spirit is founded on sensuousness which is spiritual as much as physical: the intellect, knowing its activity to be rational, reveals a world; the will intervenes creatively and theses writing formatively in this world; the emotion receives this world inwardly and puts it to the test. But the extent and relationship of these powers vary from one individual to another, and particularly from man to woman. I would also like to believe that even the relationship of soul and body is not completely similar in man and woman; with woman, the soul's union with the body is naturally more intimately emphasized. Perfection. (I would like to underline the theses writing, term naturally, for there is—as I have at centre camden street one time intimated—the possibility of an extensive emancipation of the soul from the body, which now, oddly enough, seems to be more easily accomplished normally in theses writing, the case of woman.) Woman's soul is present and lives more intensely in all parts of the body, and centre street it is inwardly affected by that which happens to the body; whereas, with men, the body has more pronouncedly the character of an instrument which serves them in their work and which is theses accompanied by a certain detachment. This is closely related to the vocation of motherhood. The task of assimilating in oneself a living being which is evolving and growing, of containing and nourishing it, signifies a definite end in itself. Narrative Essays Peer Pressure. Moreover, the mysterious process of the writing, formation of a new creature in the maternal organism represents such an dedication, intimate unity of the physical and theses spiritual that one is usc theatre essay well able to understand that this unity imposes itself on the entire nature of woman. But a certain danger is involved here. If the theses writing, correct, natural order is to exist between soul and body (i.e., the order as it corresponds to unfallen nature), then the necessary nourishment, care, and exercise must be provided for the healthy organism's smooth function. As soon as more physical satisfaction is given to the body, and it corresponds to its corrupted nature to demand more, then it results in a decline of spiritual existence.
Instead of controlling and spiritualizing the body, the soul is controlled by it; and the body loses accordingly in its character as a human body. The more intimate the relationship of the soul and body is, just so will the danger of the about, spiritual decline be greater. (On the other hand, certainly, there is theses also the greater possibility here that the printing centre street, soul will spiritualize the body.) Now, after considering the relationship of theses soul and body, let us turn to the interrelationship of the spiritual faculties. Dedication God. We see that they are in a state of interdependence—one cannot exist without the other. Intellectual cognition of reality is the necessary point of departure for emotional response.
The incitements of the emotions are the mainsprings of the will; on the other hand, the writing, concern of the will is to regulate intellectual activity and emotional life. Narrative About Peer Pressure. But the writing, faculties are in no manner equally dispensed and developed. Man's endeavor is exerted to be effective in cognitive and creative action. The strength of woman lies in the emotional life. This is in accord with her attitude toward personal being itself. For the soul perceives its own being in thesis printing centre camden, the stirrings of the emotions. Writing. Through the resume, emotions, it comes to know what it is and how it is; it also grasps through them the relationship of another being to itself, and then, consequently, the significance of the inherent value of exterior things; of unfamiliar people and impersonal things. The emotions, the essential organ for comprehension of the existent in its totality and in writing, its peculiarity, occupy the center of her being. They condition that struggle to develop herself to a wholeness and to help others to a corresponding development, which we have found earlier to be characteristic of woman's soul.
Therein, she is better protected by nature against a one-sided activation and e essay forster development of her faculties than man is. On the other hand, she is less qualified for outstanding achievements in an objective field, achievements which are always purchased by a one-sided concentration of all spiritual faculties; and writing this characteristic struggle for development also exposes her more intensely to the danger of fragmentation. Usc Theatre Supplement Essay. Then, too, the one-sidedness, to which by nature she inclines, is particularly dangerous: unilateral emotional development. We have attributed much importance to emotion in the total organismus of spiritual being. It has an writing, essential cognitive function: it is the central pivot by thesis, which reception of the existent is transmuted into personal opinion and theses action.
But it cannot execute its function without the cooperation of intellect and will, nor can it attain cognitive performance without the preparation of the intellect. Intellect is the light which illuminates its path, and essay without this light, emotion changes back and forth. Theses. In fact, if emotion prevails over the intellect, it is able to obscure the light and distort the picture of the entire world just as of individual things and events and drive the will into erroneous practice. Emotional stirrings need the control of reason and the direction of the will. The will does not reach any absolute power for invoking or suppressing emotional reactions, but it does adhere to its freedom to permit or to restrict the development of mounting agitations. Where discipline of mind and will are lacking, emotional life becomes a compulsion without secure direction. And because it always needs some stimulation for its activity, it becomes addicted to sensuality, lacking the guidance of the higher spiritual faculties.
Thus given the intimate union of body and soul, it results in the decline of college experience spiritual life to that of the sensuous-animalistic one. Consequently, only writing, if its faculties are correspondingly trained will the feminine soul be able to mature to that state conformable to its true nature. Peer. The concrete feminine types which we have cited represent to us not only theses, diverse natural predispositions but also diverse formative levels of the soul of woman. We have seen in Ingunn a woman's soul which was nearly like unformed matter but which still permitted intuitions of its capacities. Another, Nora, through the influences of chance and social conventions, had found a certain formation but not that proper to her. And, finally, Iphigenie was like a perfect creation of the master hand of God. This presents us with the casebooks e essay forster m new, task of investigating what the theses, formative powers are through which woman's soul can be led to the nature for which it is intended and can be protected from the degeneration with which it is threatened. II. Woman's Formation.
The particular spiritual disposition of which we have been speaking is the substance which must be formed: the basic faculties which exist originally are unique in degree and in kind to each human soul. It is not inanimate material which must be entirely developed or formed in an exterior way, as is clay by the artist's hand or stone by the weather's elemental forces; it is rather a living formative root which possesses within itself the driving power (inner form) toward development in casebooks contemporary e essay, a particular direction; the seed must grow and ripen into the perfect gestalt, perfect creation. Thus envisaged, formation of the spirit is a developmental process similar to that of the plant. However, the plant's organic growth and theses writing development do not come about wholly from usc theatre supplement within: there are also exterior influences which work together to determine its formation, such as climate, soil, etc.; just so, in the soul's formation, exterior factors as well as interior ones, play a role. We have seen that the soul can be developed only through activation of its faculties; and the faculties depend on material to be activated (and, indeed, on material which is suitable to them): the theses, senses, through impressions which they receive and process, the intellect through mental performance, the usc theatre supplement essay, will through achievements which are characteristic to it, the emotions through the variety of feelings, moods, and attitudes. Definite motives which place the faculties into motion are needed for all of this.
Simple contact with other people and with one's surroundings is often sufficient to stimulate certain responses. Ordinary daily existence conditions the formation of the spirit. However, instruction and guidance are needed for theses other responses, especially those involving the resume, higher faculties. Allowance should be made for writing spontaneity as well as planned work and instruction. Formation requires the creation of educational subject matters which will place duties before intellect and will, stir the emotions, and fulfill the soul. But here we enter into the realm of values- -the good, the beautiful, the noble, the thesis centre, sacred—the specific values which are unique to each soul and to its individual quality. Cognitive work and achievements of the will are free actions; so, too, surrender to writing or rejection of original, involuntary, self-governing emotional stimulations is a matter of essays about pressure freedom.
Thus, the human being awakened to freedom is not simply delivered to exterior formative influences; but, on the contrary, he can yield himself to them or reject them as he searches for or avoids possible formative influences. And so, individual free activity is also a factor in spiritual formation. All of the exterior educational factors—everyday existence, planned as well as free, self-developmental work—are bound in their efficacy to the first factor, the natural predisposition; they cannot endow the person with qualities which are not in him by nature. All human education can only provide subject matter and theses writing render it palatable; it can lead the usc theatre, way and theses writing demonstrate in order to stimulate activity, but it cannot force acceptance or imitation. Nature sets the limits of personal formative work. Nature and the subject's freedom of will impose limits on spiritual formation. But there is one Educator for whom these limits do not exist: God, who has given nature, can transform it in a manner which turns it from its natural course of development (just as He can intervene by His miracles in printing camden, the normal course of theses external natural occurrences).
And even though He has excluded also a mechanically necessary rule of the human will by His gift of freedom, He can bring the will's interior inclination toward a decision to execute that which is god presented to writing it. Thus we have attained a certain insight into the nature of education: the process of shaping the natural spiritual predisposition. In customary usage, the term education also signifies the result of these processes— the gestalt which the perfection, soul assumes thereby, perhaps also the soul thus formed, and even the spiritual matters which it receives. In trying to formulate a proper educational program for women, the stress is often laid on questions of method. Whoever is theses writing concerned with the spiritual formation of woman must first of all be aware of the material with which he is dealing, that is, the predisposition of the human being whom he is camden supposed to educate.
He must especially understand the unique quality of feminine spirituality and writing the individual nature of his pupils. He must also be aware of earlier influences, such as home environment, which have already affected and still affect his students. He must know whether they are in harmony or not with his own aims and purposes or whether, if they are not, an effort should be made to eliminate them. The educator must be fully conscious of the objectives he has set for himself and for others, which, of course, depend on his total vision of the world. And there must be a continued effort to differentiate between goals common to all human beings, the educational goals which are specifically feminine, and individual goals. These cannot be set up arbitrarily but are determined by God Himself. Holy Scripture counsels us on the destiny of the human being in general and that of woman in particular. Church tradition and the teachings of the faith help us to interpret this scriptural teaching. The parable of the talents refers to the unique gift given to each individual; the Apostle's word describes the multiplicity of gifts afforded in the Mystical Body of Christ.
The individual must discover his own unique gift. God has given each human being a threefold destiny: to narrative essays pressure grow into the likeness of God through the development of theses writing his faculties, to procreate descendants, and to hold dominion over the earth. In addition, it is promised that a life of faith and personal union with the centre camden, Redeemer will be rewarded by eternal contemplation of God. These destinies, natural and supernatural, are identical for both man and woman. Theses Writing. But in the realm of duties, differences determined by sex exist. Lordship over the earth is the primary occupation of man: for this, the woman is placed at his side as helpmate. The primary calling of woman is the procreation and raising of children; for this, the man is given to casebooks contemporary critical her as protector. Thus it is writing suitable that the same gifts occur in both, but in different proportions and relation. In the case of the man, gifts for struggle, conquest, and dominion are especially necessary: bodily force for taking possession of that exterior to god him, intellect for a cognitive type of penetration of the world, the powers of theses writing will and action for supplement essay works of creative nature. With the woman there are capabilities of caring, protecting, and writing promoting that which is becoming and growing.
She has the thesis god, gift thereby to live in an intimately bound physical compass and to collect her forces in silence; on theses, the other hand, she is created to endure pain, to adapt and abnegate herself. She is usc theatre essay psychically directed to the concrete, the individual, and the personal: she has the ability to grasp the theses writing, concrete in its individuality and to adapt herself to it, and she has the longing to help this peculiarity to its development. An equipment equal to god the man's is included in writing, the adaptive ability, as well as the possibility of performing the same work as he does, either in common with him or in his place. In the Old Testament, those testimonies from the Fall on, i.e., those which reckon with fallen nature, marriage and maternity are presented with a certain exclusiveness as the destiny of dedication thesis god woman. Theses Writing. These are even the means for fulfilling her supernatural goal: she is to bear children and raise them in printing camden, faith in the Redeemer so that one day she will behold her salvation in theses writing, them. (This interpretation is also voiced from time to time in the Pauline epistles.) Next to this, the New Testament places the ideal of virginity. Casebooks E Essay M New. In place of the marriage bond, there is offered the most intimate, personal communion with the Savior, the development of all faculties in theses writing, His service, and spiritual maternity—i.e., the winning of narrative peer souls and their formation for God. Theses. One should not interpret this differentiation of vocation as if in one case it were only the natural goal being considered, and, in the other case, only the contemporary critical forster m new, supernatural one. The woman who fulfills her natural destiny as wife and mother also has her duties for God's kingdom—initially, the propagation of human beings destined for this kingdom, but then, also works for the salvation of souls; only for her, this lies first within the family circle. On the other hand, even in the life which is wholly consecrated to God, there is also need for the development of natural forces, except that now they can be more exclusively dedicated to problems pertaining to the kingdom of theses writing God and can thereby even benefit for a wider circle of people.
These works for peer pressure God's kingdom are not foreign to feminine nature but, on the contrary, are its highest fulfillment and also the theses, highest conceivable enhancement of the human being. This is thesis true as long as the action of personal relationship is born out of love for God and neighbor, works through love of God and neighbor, and leads to love of God and neighbor. Thus the education of the Christian woman has a dual goal: to lead her to theses writing that which makes her capable of either fulfilling her duties as wife and mother in the natural and supernatural sense or of consecrating all her powers to the kingdom of God in a God- dedicated virginity. (Marriage and the religious life should not be set up as alternatives. Signs indicate that our time needs people who will lead a God dedicated life in the world; this is certainly not to say, however, that conventual life is outmoded.) What can we do to aim towards this goal? We have already indicated that woman was created for this purpose; in fallen nature, however, there are drives working at perfection the same time in opposition to it.
So it will be a question of supplying the educational subject matters which are necessary and writing conducive to the soul's pure development and qualified to impede unwholesome drives. And these matters must be presented in contemporary critical m new, the manner which facilitates their reception in accordance with potentiality. The emotions have been seen as the center of woman's soul. For that reason, emotional formation will have to theses writing be centrally placed in woman's formation. Emotion exists in sentiments such as joy and sorrow, moods such as cheerfulness and gloom, attitudes such as enthusiasm and dedication indignation, and dispositions such as love and theses writing hate. Such emotional responses demonstrate the conflict of the individual with the world and supplement essay also with himself. It is only the person who is deeply involved with life whose emotions are stirred. Theses Writing. Whoever is aiming to arouse emotion must bring it into printing contact with something which will hasten this involvement.
Above all, these are human destinies and human actions as history and literature present them to the young—naturally, this will be contemporary events as well. Theses Writing. It is beauty in all its ramifications and the rest of the aesthetic categories. It is truth which prompts the searching human spirit into endless pursuit. It is essay everything which works in this world with the mysterious force and pull of another world. Writing. The subjects which are especially affective in emotional training are religion, history, German, and possibly other languages if the student succeeds in overcoming the external linguistic difficulties and is able to penetrate to the spiritual content. But, generally speaking, it is not enough only to stir the emotions. An evaluating factor exists in perfection, all emotional response.
What the emotions have grasped are viewed as being either positively or negatively significant, either for the concerned individual himself or, independent of him, viewed in the significance of the object in itself. It is thereby possible for the emotional responses themselves to theses be judged as being right or wrong, appropriate or inappropriate. God. It is a matter of awakening joyful emotion for authentic beauty and writing goodness and thesis centre camden street disgust for that which is base and vulgar. It is writing important to guide the young person to perceive beauty and goodness, but this is not sufficient. Often the child is first awakened to the value of things by thesis printing centre, his awareness of the adult's responses— above all, that of the teacher—enthusiasm inspires enthusiasm. The guidance of attitudes is simultaneously a method of theses training the casebooks critical e essay, ability to discriminate. Theses. One cannot introduce him only to the good and the beautiful: life will also bring him into contact with ugliness, and by then the child should have already learned to differentiate between the positive and the negative, the noble and the base, and to learn to adapt himself in suitable ways. The most efficacious method thereto is to experience environmental attitudes.
The attitude of the developing individual towards the world depends greatly on god, environmental influences which are both arbitrary and theses instinctive. And thus it is of extraordinary significance that the experience, child's education be placed in the hands of theses people who themselves have received proper emotional formation. However, this most essential, even indispensable, method of emotional formation through value judgments is accompanied by a certain danger as well: feelings and perfection emotional attitudes are contagious; they are easily picked up by one person from another. These attitudes are, indeed, but pure predispositions in writing, the affected soul. In the first place, the mind is not open to casebooks contemporary critical forster the values presented; and writing these sentiments, moreover, are neither momentarily or generally vital. A real education is thus not attained because illusion is assumed as reality. Hence there is need for education relevant to the authenticity of essay sentiments, the differentiation of theses appearance from reality both in centre street, the environment and in one's own soul. Theses Writing. This is not possible without sufficient intellectual training. Intellect and emotion must cooperate in a particular way in order to transmute the purely emotional attitudes into one cognizant of values. Printing Camden. (It is not our concern here to demonstrate this method of cooperation.) Whoever knows exactly why something is theses good or beautiful will not simply assume the essay, attitudes of another. And then the exercise of this intellectual critique develops the ability to theses writing distinguish between spiritual truth and essays about pressure falsehood.
Emotional reactions invoke action. The authentic art lover will gladly sacrifice comfort for the sake of artistic enjoyment. Those who truly love their neighbor will not be unsympathetic and apathetic to their neighbor's need. Words should inspire action; otherwise, words are mere rhetoric camouflaging nothingness, concealing merely empty or illusory feelings and opinions. In earlier decades, the subjects which trained the theses writing, emotions constituted the principal aim of the resume, education of young women. Such formation corresponded to feminine nature. But there was a neglect of the indispensable complement, the practical training and activation of the intellect. Theses. This kind of education produced a type of woman who lives on illusion, a woman who either denies realistic duties or surrenders herself helplessly to fluctuating sentiments and moods, who constantly seeks excitement. Such a woman is but weakly formed for life and resume does not effect productive works.
The modern school seeks to theses remedy such deficiencies. It has introduced more subjects designed to college essay experience train the mind—mathematics, natural sciences, and the classics. Theses. In order that the thematic content be grasped by the intellect, mere memorization is de-emphasized and spontaneity is encouraged. By such means, both intellect and will are trained and prepared for their proper tasks. Modern education also stresses community life and practical participation in it by such means as school clubs, walking tours, celebrations, and team activities. Such activities certainly contain fruitful seeds, despite the many children's diseases which always endanger radical innovations. The great danger is that the reform may not take sufficiently into account the unique nature of woman and essays about the type of education it needs, while being only too narrowly confined to the model of writing educational institutions for males. The changing demands of practical life make this danger obvious. Formerly it was a matter of course that a girl's education would form her to be a spouse, a mother, or a nun. For centuries, hardly any other feminine vocation was known. Girls were expected to be initiated into domestic activity and religious practices either in family or convent life, and thereby prepared for their later vocation.
The nineteenth-century Industrial Revolution revolutionized average domestic life so that it ceased to be a realm sufficient to engage all of woman's potentialities. Casebooks Contemporary E Essay Forster. At the same time, the diminishing life of faith excluded convent life as a serious consideration for most people. In passive natures, this climate has led to an immersion into an overly sensual life or empty dreams and flirtations. Writing. In strongly active natures, there has resulted a turning away from the house towards professional activity. So the feminist movement came into being. Vocations other than domestic had been exercised for centuries almost exclusively by printing, men.
It was natural, therefore, that these vocations assumed a masculine stamp and that training for them was adapted to the masculine nature. The radical feminist movement demanded that all professions and writing branches of education be open to women. In the face of severe opposition, the contemporary e essay m new, movement was able to theses advance only very gradually until, almost suddenly, it obtained nearly all its demands after the revolution. In the beginning of the movement, the women who entered into professional life were predominantly those whose individual aptitude and inclination went in this direction; and they were able, comparatively speaking, to acclimate themselves easily. The economic crisis of recent years has forced against their will many women into professional life. Various conflicts have thus emerged, but valuable experiences have also been made. And we have reached the point where we may ask questions which, according to narrative essays about right reason, should have been cleared up before the movement began. Theses. Are there specifically feminine professions? What are they?
Do women require education different from that given to men? If so, how should such education be organized? Let us now summarize briefly these various approaches to the education of printing street women which we have been discussing. The nature and destiny of woman require an education which can inspire works of effective love. Thus, emotional training is the most important factor required in the formation of theses woman; however, such authentic formation is related to printing centre camden intellectual clarity and energy as well as to practical competence. This education forms a proper disposition of the soul in accordance with objective values, and it enables a practical execution of this disposition. To place supernatural values above all earthly ones complies with an objective hierarchy of values. The initiation of this attitude presents as well an analogy with the future vocation of forming human beings for theses the kingdom of God.
That is why the essence of all feminine education (as of education in general) must be religious education, one which can forcefully convey the truths of the faith in a manner which appeals to the emotions and inspires actions. Such formation is designed to dedication thesis exercise simultaneously the practical activities by the life of faith. The individual will be concerned with these activities through his entire life: the development of the life of theses writing faith and of prayer with the Church through the liturgy, as well as with creating a new personal relationship to the Lord, especially through an understanding of the narrative about peer pressure, Holy Eucharist and theses a truly Eucharistic life. Of course, such religious education can only be imparted by dedication thesis, those personalities who are themselves filled with the spirit of faith and whose lives are fashioned by it. Along with this religious education, there should go an awareness and response to humanity. Subjects which can contribute to such awareness are history, literature, biology, psychology, and pedagogy; of course, these subjects should be presented in theses writing, a simplified form to meet the student's potential. But such instruction will be fruitful only with proper guidance and if opportunities are provided to apply it to practical life. Necessary for intellectual development are the predominantly formal educational subjects—mathematics, the thesis printing, natural sciences, linguistics, and grammar. But they should not be overstressed at the expense of the student's capacity or the more essential elements of feminine education.
Instructional methods should be free and flexible in theses, order to take into account not only the specifically gifted but also to provide opportunity for all to narrative about pressure study theoretical subjects and cultivate technical and artistic talents. The individual's later choice of theses a profession must be kept in mind. Obviously, in doing all this, the teachers themselves must be thoroughly trained in e essay, their respective fields. And, of course, for women to be shaped in accordance with their authentic nature and destiny, they must be educated by authentic women. But even the best teachers and the best methods cannot necessarily guarantee success since human powers are limited. However, formal education is only one part of the integral educational process. Formal education must reckon with the capacities of the student and with the writing, outside influences to which the thesis centre street, student is subjected; but it has neither the possibility to identify all these factors nor to deal effectively with them. Moreover, formal education ends long before the total educational process is writing completed. The instructor may even consider the education successful if the pupil has been prepared to continue her education independently in the initiated direction.
But the circumstances of supplement essay daily life often intervene and theses make it possible for the purely natural drives to usc theatre prevail. Uncertainty permeates the whole process of human education, and the educator tends to remain modest in calculating his own contribution to the results. Yet he must not yield to skepticism or despair. Theses. The educator should be convinced that his efforts are important, even though he cannot always measure the results of his efforts, even though sometimes he can never be aware of them at thesis printing street all. He must never forget that, above all, the primary and most essential Educator is not the human being but God Himself. Theses Writing. He gives nature as He does life's circumstances under which it comes to development; He also has the power to transform nature from within and to dedication thesis intervene with His works where human powers fail. If religious education succeeds in breaking down resistance to divine instruction, then one can be certain about everything else.
We should also be convinced that, in the divine economy of salvation, no sincere effort remains fruitless even when human eyes can perceive nothing but failures. III. Feminine Vocation s. What formation does woman's soul yearn for? The question is related to another: To what occupations does woman's nature call her?
It is not our concern here to compile statistical data to demonstrate the vocations in which contemporary woman is engaged. Theses. (She is engaged in nearly all of them.) Rather, our intent is to discover woman's genuine inclinations. In doing so, statistics are of little help. Essay. A presentation of numbers involved in particular vocations does grade the inclinations and talents concerned; even so, it can inform only clumsily regarding the success of the writing, various activities. Even less could it show how woman adjusts to the occupation, and, on the other hand, how she may transform it. We must here limit ourselves to usc theatre that which nature and destiny demand in true feminine vocations. But it is necessary to cite concrete examples. Therefore, we shall attempt to show how woman can function in marriage, in religious life, and in various professions in conformity with her nature.
According to Genesis, woman was placed by man's side so that he would not be alone but would have a helpmate who suits him; she will primarily fulfill her vocation as spouse in making his concerns her own. Normally, we understand his concerns to mean his profession. Theses. The woman's participation in her husband's profession can be performed in various ways. In the first place, it will be her duty to shape their home life so that it does not hinder, but rather furthers, his professional work. If his work is in the home, she must see to it that disturbances are kept as far away from him as possible; if his work is away from the casebooks contemporary critical forster m new, home, she must be sure that the home affords appropriate relaxation and recovery when he returns to it. There can be immediate participation in the performance of direct help; indeed, this happens frequently in modern marriages between people of writing similar or related professional training, or at essay experience least with those of congenial interests. In former times this was the theses, case to a large extent, generally in country life but also frequently in business enterprise (especially in those on thesis printing centre, a small scale), in doctor's households, and also very prominently in those of Protestant pastors. Man's concerns, however, does not only refer to the purely objective content of his work but also to the procurement of his family's livelihood—the battle for existence. In this respect, the wife primarily acts as helpmate in prudent housekeeping; moreover, this is not only a private economic duty in these times but also a very important national one.
But possibly more nowadays than in former times, both husband and wife will work. Therein arises the difficult problem of the double vocation: there is writing danger that her work outside of the home will so take over that finally it can make it impossible for her to be the perfection, heart of the family and the soul of the home, which must always remain her essential duty. But the woman who suits man as helpmate does not only participate in his work; she complements him, counteracting the dangers of theses his specifically masculine nature. It is her business to ensure to the best of her ability that he is not totally absorbed in his professional work, that he does not permit his humanity to become stunted, and that he does not neglect his family duties as father. She will be better able to usc theatre supplement do so the more she herself is writing mature as a personality; and it is vital here that she does not lose herself in association with her husband but, on printing centre camden street, the contrary, cultivates her own gifts and powers. Her mission as mother relates closely to theses her mission as spouse, only here she must primarily care for the children and supplement essay bring them to development.
She must guide and then gradually withdraw to attain, in face of the mature human being, the role of a companion. This demands, on the one hand, an even more refined gift of sympathy because it is necessary to comprehend the dispositions and faculties of which the young people themselves are as yet unaware; she has to feel her way towards that which wishes to become, but which as yet does not exist. On the other hand, the possibility of influence is greater. The youthful soul is still in the formative stage and declares itself more easily and openly because it does not offer resistance to extraneous influences. However, all this increases the mother's responsibility. In order to theses writing develop to the highest level the humanity specific to husband and children, woman requires the attitude of thesis printing centre selfless service.
She cannot consider others as her property nor as means for her own purposes; on the contrary, she must consider others as gifts entrusted to her, and she can only do so when she also sees them as God's creatures towards whom she has a holy duty to fulfill. Surely, the development of their God-given nature is a holy task. Of even higher degree is their spiritual development, and we have seen that it is woman's supernatural vocation to enkindle, in the hearts of husband and children, the theses, sparks of love for God or, once enkindled, to fan them into greater brightness. This will come about only casebooks critical, if she considers and writing prepares herself as God's instrument. How this can be will be considered at a later time. It would not be difficult to mention women in college essay, the most diverse professions who have achieved excellence, but this would not prove that their occupations were specifically feminine ones. Not every woman is a pure embodiment of theses feminine nature. Individualities are not simply variations of feminine nature but are often approximations of masculine nature and qualify, thereby, for usc theatre essay an occupation not regarded as specifically feminine. If the care and development of human life and humanity are women's specific duty, so the specifically feminine vocations will be those in which such efforts are possible outside of marriage as well. I do not wish to enter here into the question of domestic service because here it is not a question of specifically feminine work, and in many respects it produces tasks other than those which the woman of the house must fulfill.
It is more important to clarify the significance of occupations outside of the household, occupations which were denied women for some time and have only become available for women gradually through the struggles of the feminist movement. The medical profession has turned out to be a rich area of genuine feminine activity, particularly that of the medical practitioner, gynecologist and pediatrician. There have been severe objections to the admission of women into this profession: a young lady may encounter many things in her medical studies which would otherwise be kept away from writing her; a serious objection has been that the studies make extraordinary demands of bodily strength and nervous energy, and professional practice even more. Indeed, professional practice requires a particular physical and spiritual constitution, as well as the resume perfection, professional zeal necessary for the assumption of the difficulties unique to that profession. Theses Writing. Such misgivings are dispelled when these stipulations are respected. Of course, one will always be grateful to encounter the untroubled, innocent beauty which moves us, and college experience which is completely unaware of the seamy side of human nature. Today it is hardly possible, but in former times how many women who were so protected in their innocence until marriage were suddenly robbed of all their ideals, in the cruelest manner, in marriage itself!
In this respect, could one not say that the theses, matter-of-fact and objective, scientific approach is still one of the about, most accepted methods, if not the absolutely best one, to become acquainted with natural data? Since most women are obliged to come to grips with these data, should not individual women who have the calling and opportunity make all sacrifices in order to fulfill this calling and stand by their sisters' side? Experience indicates that this has happened in writing, large degree. It is gratifying to ascertain that after any initial distrust, women generally prefer treatment by a woman doctor rather than by a man. I believe that this is conditioned not only by the patient's modesty but even more so by the specifically feminine manner of empathy which has beneficial effects. The human being, especially the invalid, needs sympathy in his total condition. Printing Camden. The widespread method of modern specialization does not satisfy this need in treating a limb or organ while disregarding the theses writing, rest of the narrative essays about pressure, person, even though the theses, specific treatment is pertinent. (Also, in many cases, specialization is not the best method because most illnesses are illnesses of the total human being even if they are manifested in only one organ; the patient needs treatment in his individual peculiarity as a whole organism.) Counteracting this abstract procedure, the specifically feminine attitude is oriented towards the concrete and whole person. The woman doctor has only to exercise courage in following her natural inspiration and liberating herself whenever necessary from methods learned and practiced according to rule. (Of course, it must not be denied that it often happens as well with masculine specialists, although not generally— in earlier times the thesis, house doctor typified this total approach.) It is not only a question of summoning up the patience to listen to much which is absolutely irrelevant to the subject. The intent must be to understand correctly the whole human situation, the spiritual need which is often greater than the theses, corporal one, and perhaps to thesis printing intervene helpfully not only by medical means but also as a mother or a sister. So conceived, the medical profession is a truly charitable one and belongs together with other social professions.
These professions have been developed for the most part only in recent years, and they are specifically feminine vocations as rightfully as the housewife's. In all such vocations, it is a matter of actions which are truly maternal in writing, the care of a large family: parishioners, the poor or sick of a rural parish or of a municipal precinct, the narrative about pressure, inmates of theses writing a prison, endangered or neglected youth. There is always the potentiality, and basically the necessity, of understanding and helping the whole person whether one initially encounters these human beings to care for them in bodily sickness or to assist them financially, or to give them legal counsel. Demands here on resume perfection, the power of love are even greater than in one's own family: the natural bond is lacking, the number of people in need is greater, and preponderantly there are people who repel rather than attract by their disposition and frame of mind. In this type of work more than others, it will be shown that normal psychic power does not suffice in carrying out the tasks noted above. It must be sustained by theses, Christ's power and love. And where it is so supported it will never stop at narrative essays about mere attendance to natural humanity; but, on the contrary, it will always aim at the same time towards the supernatural goal of winning these human beings for God. 1. These are two citations from Goethe: reine Menschlichkeit, i.e., pure humanity, and writing Ewig-Weibliches, i.e., the eternal feminine. (Tr.'s note) 2. This Thomistic concept (inner form) connotes the essence of being. (Tr.'s note) 3. See the essay The Separate Vocations of Man and Woman According to casebooks critical forster m new Nature and Grace, (Eds.' note)
4. This sentence is an theses, allusion to the economic crisis and the emergency ordinances of the 1930s, which were of decisive significance for the total German educational system. See the essay on emergency and education in the forthcoming pedagogical volume of Edith Steins Werke. Thesis Street. (Eds.' note) Taken from the works of Edith Stein as published by ICS Publications in the book The Collected Works of Edith Stein, Volume Two Essays on Woman, 1987.