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one world essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to resume, avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and bradley eliots essay seven, what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from ics canada, a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. Paper. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of ics canada, nuclear war.
But the letters monster century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at ics canada, its close to be returning full circle to essay on nature destruction, where it started: not to resume, an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in essay on nature, the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and resume, the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of bradley f.h interpretation, consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and ics canada resume, color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the essay destruction cooperative restaurants and resume, clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the structure passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the ics canada resume end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.
This is f.h interpretation not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the resume real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the buffett essays ideal that will govern the ics canada resume material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of papers, history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to ics canada resume, an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and bradley eliots essay, an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the ics canada first philosopher to speak the buffett essays language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of resume, more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of essay, science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one.
Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is resume our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to monster, save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the ics canada resume Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the essay destruction French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the ics canada principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the buffett essays turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the ics canada resume latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and best letters monster, the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and resume, upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the on nature various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and ics canada resume, democratic insofar as it exists only with the eliots seven consent of the governed.
For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the resume Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and essay, the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and resume, slave, the masters structure transformation and mastery of nature, the ics canada resume struggle for the universal recognition of best cover letters monster, rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for resume, generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.
To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at essay, the very height of the ics canada resume Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of essay on nature destruction, all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the ics canada resume contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the essay seven term, but can include religion, culture, and ics canada, the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in buffett essays, any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the ics canada hand on research paper the trigger of the resume gun was motivated in turn by essay on nature destruction, the ideas of resume, liberty and equality that had driven the on nature destruction French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is ics canada rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to essay on nature, the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of ics canada, men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of interpretation of data, earlier generations. Resume. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. Bradley Essay T.s. And yet this realm of consciousness in ics canada, the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image.
Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of on nature destruction, ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Ics Canada. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of f.h interpretation t.s, consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to ics canada, a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the eliots f.h interpretation Great Powers , which ascribes the ics canada resume decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of buffett essays, modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of ics canada resume, deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and best letters monster, sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the ics canada resume problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the essay papers different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the resume piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and scientific essay, did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of resume, leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over buffett essays, the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the ics canada sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of masters thesis structure, production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the ics canada contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent.
The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of buffett essays, economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in resume, explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the cover letters roots of economic behavior lie in resume, the realm of essay f.h interpretation t.s, consciousness and culture leads to ics canada, the common mistake of research of data, attributing material causes to resume, phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in essay, the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over resume, the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to on nature, baser forms of self-interest.
But the deep defects of ics canada resume, socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and buffett essays, leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over resume, the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the buffett essays reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in resume, its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Essay Destruction. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in ics canada resume, depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such.
To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in best monster, fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in resume, return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. Essay Destruction. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in resume, the economic. HAVE WE in f.h interpretation seven t.s, fact reached the resume end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness.
Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the destruction world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in ics canada resume, what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and scientific essay papers, of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of ics canada resume, community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the best letters monster wave of the future, but its lack of success. Ics Canada Resume. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct.
There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in essay on nature destruction, other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to ics canada, disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of seven t.s, consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and resume, this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the bradley f.h interpretation class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the ics canada essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is of data not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the resume gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of writing scientific essay papers, economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions.
Thus black poverty in ics canada, the United States is not the inherent product of on nature, liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is ics canada safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in of data, the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and resume, Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to bradley eliots essay f.h interpretation, the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the ics canada resume socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for masters thesis structure, the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. Ics Canada. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of eliots essay, major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia.
Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in resume, Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to best cover, forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of ics canada resume, American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and buffett essays, political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and ics canada resume, institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the bradley essay contribution that Japan has made in ics canada, turn to research interpretation of data, world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state.
V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for ics canada, access to essay destruction, the consumer culture, created in ics canada, large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in of data, Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Ics Canada Resume. Here again we see the victory of the monster idea of the resume universal homogenous state.
South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to scientific, a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to ics canada resume, Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by essay destruction, its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of resume, a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to paper interpretation, work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in ics canada, the process created for seven t.s, Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to ics canada resume, other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began.
China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. Cover Letters. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the resume political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in masters thesis, fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. Ics Canada Resume. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against thesis structure, spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of resume, managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. Letters. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on resume a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of essay, authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Resume. Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world.
There are currently over thesis, 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of ics canada, them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to scientific essay papers, be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the ics canada resume beginning of bradley eliots f.h interpretation seven t.s, what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the ics canada resume world, whether they be guerrillas in best cover letters, some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is ics canada resume developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in of data, terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only ics canada resume a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the research interpretation political system is ics canada resume still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the bradley eliots f.h interpretation t.s chances for success of resume, Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in essay seven, the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at ics canada, underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness.
And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. Essay On Nature. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is resume a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and masters thesis, principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is ics canada liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in essay on nature, their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ics canada resume ever to heal itself, it must permit free and best cover, decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and ics canada resume, prices. Masters Structure. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on ics canada resume lease arrangements and family farming.
There are, of cover monster, course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of ics canada, marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the research paper IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of resume, dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for writing essay papers, their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to resume, lower ones, and not vice versa, that the bradley eliots essay seven rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and ics canada resume, an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and best cover, the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in ics canada resume, which the whole Soviet people can participate, and letters monster, of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of resume, Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by essay f.h interpretation t.s, Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of ics canada, Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to essay seven, mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is ics canada seeking to return to the true Lenin is buffett essays perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the resume CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and cover letters, decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the ics canada resume most fundamental precepts of bradley eliots f.h interpretation t.s, both Marxism and resume, Leninism.
Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of writing essay, history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the resume Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in masters, any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. Ics Canada. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it. For authority to masters, be restored in resume, the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of best letters, some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and resume, communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and paper of data, nationalism. The rise of ics canada, religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. Masters. One is inclined to ics canada resume, say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Best Letters. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics.
Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on resume the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on writing any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the resume sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by paper of data, nationalism and other forms of ics canada, racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in buffett essays, nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the ics canada resume developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and on nature, continues to be one in ics canada, isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is scientific essay papers not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. Ics Canada. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism.
Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of writing essay, independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of ics canada resume, conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in essay on nature destruction, unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of ics canada resume, new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806.
Many of the wars and bradley eliots f.h interpretation seven, revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in ics canada, the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the best letters universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of resume, conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics.
Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in buffett essays, the foreseeable future, but suppose for ics canada resume, a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of buffett essays, international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in ics canada, effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the eliots essay seven USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is resume changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the buffett essays radical policy redirection implicit in such a view.
But is resume it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on masters structure a substratum of permanent great power interest is resume a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on essay destruction some kind of ics canada resume, prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by research, a prior state of ics canada, consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and cover letters monster, competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century.
For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to resume, the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the writing essay particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to resume, a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to writing essay, foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of ics canada resume, nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for cover letters monster, the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in ics canada, the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to scientific essay papers, meet a worldwide communist threat.
This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the ics canada OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in monster, Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to ics canada resume, see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on scientific essay papers matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of ics canada, its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one.
It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in bradley eliots essay f.h interpretation, the realm of economics, will return to ics canada, foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in papers, distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to ics canada resume, say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. Masters Structure. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them.
New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of ics canada, military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and writing scientific papers, high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by ics canada, new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. On Nature. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to resume, work harder, and buffett essays, its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of ics canada, traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the buffett essays sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for resume, us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and masters thesis structure, slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history.
THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is ics canada resume a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of cover, large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Ics Canada. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at research paper, the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and ics canada resume, nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in writing scientific, parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to resume, have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to buffett essays, be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in resume, the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.
The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and buffett essays, idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of resume, technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the cover perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. Ics Canada. I can feel in on nature, myself, and resume, see in structure, others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots.
Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Resume. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by best cover letters monster, Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). Ics Canada Resume. (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an writing papers, historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to ics canada, text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to writing, text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Ics Canada. Indeed, for paper interpretation of data, Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by ics canada resume, the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an best letters monster, aspect of mind. (back to ics canada resume, text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the writing scientific essay papers idealist perspective. (back to text)
7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the ics canada reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of eliots t.s, its reforms was in such a state of ics canada, material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. Buffett Essays. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and resume, will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of paper, Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the ics canada resume unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and thesis structure, led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the resume roots of scientific essay papers, such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11.
I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Ics Canada Resume. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and bradley eliots essay t.s, that history had perhaps not ended. Resume. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to letters monster, text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14.
This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of ics canada resume, Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to masters structure, text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the ics canada resume war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of research paper interpretation, a restoration of resume, democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in buffett essays, persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of ics canada, its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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2516 coursework The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner. This course is designed to introduce the complex interplay between ethics and the law in the context of medical care. Students will be introduced to philosophical concepts along with legal principles which combine to protect the ics canada, patient, healthcare professionals, and eliots essay f.h interpretation t.s broad societal interest in a functioning healthcare system. Students will critically assess the role of the law in the medical context and identify the nexus between ethics and the law. On successful completion of this course, students will be able to: Analyse the advanced principles of medical law, undertake self-directed legal research at an advanced level and evaluate legal and ethical information. Apply principles of medical law and ethics to complex problems, critique the operation of ics canada, law in the context of medical treatment from a policy perspective, either individually or as part of a team. Structure and sustain concise and cohesive written and oral arguments for a mixed audience. Conduct legal research and scientific analysis both independently and cooperatively in an academic environment. Analyse the impact medical law from a policy perspective. Ics Canada. Reflect on their abilities to masters structure effectively undertake work as a member of a team.
This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below: informed and infused by cutting edge research, scaffolded throughout their program of studies acquired from personal interaction with research active educators, from year 1 accredited or validated against national or international standards (for relevant programs) steeped in research methods and rigor based on empirical evidence and the scientific approach to knowledge development demonstrated through appropriate and relevant assessment. developed from, with, and via the SGDE honed through assessment and practice throughout the program of studies encouraged and ics canada valued in all aspects of learning. technology savvy professional and, where relevant, fully accredited forward thinking and well informed tested and validated by work based experiences. adept at operating in other cultures comfortable with different nationalities and social contexts Able to determine and contribute to desirable social outcomes demonstrated by study abroad or with an understanding of indigenous knowledges. Writing Essay Papers. a capacity for self-reflection and a willingness to engage in self-appraisal open to objective and resume constructive feedback from supervisors and essay peers able to negotiate difficult social situations, diffuse conflict and ics canada resume engage positively in buffett essays, purposeful debate. B.Richards and J.Louise, Medical Law and Ethics: A Problem-Based Approach (LexisNexis Butterworths, 2014) Materials available on MyUni. Ben White, Fiona McDonald and ics canada Lindy Wilmott (eds), Health Law in Australia (Thomson, Lawbook Co, 2010) Loane Skene, Law and Medical Practice 3rd ed. (LexisNexis Butterworths, 2008) There is a broad range of medical law texts and writing papers journals available in the Law Library, the leading learned medical law journal for Australia is the Journal of Law and Medicine , th e Journal of Bioethical Inquiry is also of relevance. The leading medical law journal of the United Kingdom is the ics canada, Medical Law Review and research paper interpretation The Hasting Center Report is the resume, leading US publication on bioethics. The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements. The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles: Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning. Assessment must enable robust and best cover monster fair judgements about student performance. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned. Assessment must maintain academic standards. Available: 10th - 13th April.
Friday 9th June . who have not enrolled in ics canada, a group by the end of Week 3 will be randomly allocated a task and this will not be open to negotiation.Details will be provided by the end of week 1 of the course. Buffett Essays. You will be provided with a selection of questions from which you may choose one, you may also choose a topic of your own but this must be submitted for approval by the end of Week 9. Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme: Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations. Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. Ics Canada Resume. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs. Final results for bradley eliots essay f.h interpretation, this course will be made available through Access Adelaide. Approval of Results by Board of Examiners. The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience.
Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of ics canada resume, online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews. Buffett Essays. SELTs are an important source of information to ics canada inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/101/) course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of scientific essay, each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.
The University Writing Centre provides academic learning and language development services and resources for local, international, undergraduate and postgraduate coursework students enrolled at the University of Adelaide. This section contains links to relevant assessment-related policies and guidelines. all university policies can be obtained from: http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/ Further information regarding the Law School Policies and Procedures in relation to Supplementary Assessment, Extensions, and Remarks etc can be found at: Plagiarism and other forms of cheating. Plagiarism is a serious act of academic misconduct. Ics Canada Resume. All students must be familiar with the Adelaide Law School Enrolment Guide, and essay should note in particular the sections relating to plagiarism, grievance procedures and academic conduct within the Law School and the University. Plagiarism is a serious matter and is treated as such by the Law School and the University.
Please be aware that “academic dishonesty” (which goes beyond plagiarism) can be a ground for a refusal by ics canada resume, the Supreme Court of South Australia to refuse to admit a person to practice as a legal practitioner in buffett essays, South Australia. Academic honesty is an essential aspect of ethical and honest behaviour, which is central to the practice of the law and an understanding of ics canada, what it is to be a lawyer. Students are reminded that in order to maintain the essay on nature, academic integrity of all programs and ics canada courses, the university has a zero-tolerance approach to students offering money or significant value goods or services to any staff member who is best cover letters monster, involved in their teaching or assessment. Students offering lecturers or tutors or professional staff anything more than a small token of appreciation is totally unacceptable, in any circumstances. Staff members are obliged to report all such incidents to their supervisor/manager, who will refer them for action under the ics canada, university's student’s disciplinary procedures. The University of Adelaide is committed to regular reviews of the courses and programs it offers to students.
The University of Adelaide therefore reserves the scientific papers, right to ics canada resume discontinue or vary programs and courses without notice. Please read the important information contained in the disclaimer.
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essay on genesis 3 The Creation of the World. 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and ics canada, the earth. 1:2 Now the earth was without shape and essay on nature, empty, and darkness was over the surface of the watery deep, but the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the water. 1:3 God said, “Let there be light.” And there was light! 1:4 God saw that the light was good, so God separated the light from the ics canada, darkness. 1:5 God called the light “day” and the darkness “night.”
There was evening, and there was morning, marking the first day. Lord, You created, You defined, You imparted value “it was good”, and You created time for Your creation where only timelessness had existed. May I stand in awe of You! Moses was the bradley eliots, chosen author of God. If one does not take the text to describe any part of pre-Genesis history and one takes the resume, Creation narrative to refer in bradley t.s every detail to literal 24 hour days then it covers approximately 2400 years. It has been estimated that Moses recorded the essence of the book of ics canada resume, Genesis sometime after the time of the exodus out of Egypt in cover monster 15 th Century BC. While he may have had access to oral history and artifacts, perhaps even some Egyptian documents, it was God who would have inspired and informed his writing. (This does not address when he recorded the Book of Exodus.)
Chapter One introduces the ics canada resume, creative expression of God. He sovereignly speaks a linear-time-contained physical reality into existence and summarizes the first six days of buffett essays, His Creation. There is a good deal of debate in theological circles as to ics canada, the precise meaning of the words, “In the beginning,” the resolution of which has some significant impact. If one takes them as introduction to a mere allegory or parable they have an impact upon masters structure, ones understanding of the entire Bible. If one takes the ics canada, words to refer to the beginning of everything created external to Heaven, and as a literal record, they have a substantially different impact on bradley eliots essay f.h interpretation t.s, what follows. This commentary leans toward the latter rather than the former understanding, though with a caveat or two. “God created” tells us that He did so without help and ex nihilo, a Latin phrase meaning “out of nothing” or without any preexisting resource (that is, no source other than Himself). “The heavens and the earth” may be taken to refer broadly to everything external to the Kingdom of Heaven or to very narrowly to refer only to the sky and solid ground referenced in verses 6-9. This commentary leans toward the former over the latter understanding.
The phrase, “without shape and empty, and darkness was over the surface,” leads the reader to understand that the Lord God had not yet given definition and purpose to ics canada resume, “the heavens and the earth” which He had just created. We are told that “the Spirit of God was moving,” which both informs us of the thesis, presence of ics canada, a specific member of the buffett essays, Trinity (the Holy Spirit) and ics canada, alerts us that action is about to take place to transform the shapeless, empty, dark earth. The third verse describes God’s method in creating and transforming by mere spoken word: He said, “Let there be light. And there was light!” The sovereign power of God to create, transform, give meaning and structure, purpose to, and cause order are all clearly observable in this brief segment of Biblical text. The powerful phrase, “God saw that the light was good,” shows the Lord assessing what He had created, deeming it worthy of Himself, and establishing the light as “good” in contrast to resume, the prior state of darkness or lack of definition.
Apart from sometimes-esoteric debates about ‘new earth’ versus ‘old earth,’ or 6 thousand years since Creation versus 6 billion years, there may be no question in the mind of a Biblical-Christian as to Who did the creating. The Lord God leaves no room for doubt in His Word. How does the belief that the Lord God literally created everything as described in Genesis impact your view of science? When this fallen world, of which Satan is the temporary Prince, seeks to essay destruction, raise doubt in us about our faith, we need only return to the book of Genesis to find restoration in the words, “In the beginning God.” It is an awesome thing to imagine the majesty and power of the ics canada, One Who created. When have you contemplated what it means for the Lord to live outside of the masters structure, constraints of linear time as we know it? Ask the resume, Holy Spirit reveal to you a specific place in your life where you are stuck; stuck because you are trying to deal with a challenge in your own strength and wisdom and keep failing, or stuck because you have asked the paper, Lord God for ics canada resume, intervention while at the same time doubting that He has the power to meet and scientific essay, overcome that which challenges you.
Today I will confess my lack of faith, remembering that it was He Who created everything from nothing, and repent (turn away) from my doubt. I will request and receive His forgiveness and allow Him to resume, be my strength as He is bradley eliots essay seven t.s, Lord of my life. Be Specific ________________________________________________. 1:6 God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters. and let it separate water from water. 1:7 So God made the expanse. and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it. 1:8 God called the ics canada, expanse “sky.” There was evening, and there was morning, a second day.
1:9 God said, “Let the water under the sky be gathered to buffett essays, one place and ics canada, let dry ground appear.” It was so. 1:10 God called the dry ground “land” and the gathered waters he called “seas.” God saw that it was good. 1:11 God said, “Let the land produce vegetation: plants yielding seeds according to their kinds, and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds.” 1:12 The land produced vegetation – plants yielding seeds according to their kinds, and trees bearing fruit with seed in bradley essay seven t.s it according to their kinds. God saw that it was good. 1:13 There was evening, and there was morning, a third day.
1:14 God said, “Let there be lights in ics canada the expanse of the sky to separate the research interpretation, day from the night, and let them be signs to ics canada, indicate seasons and days and years, 1:15 and let them serve as lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth.” 1:16 God made two great lights – the greater light to bradley essay t.s, rule over the day and the lesser light to rule over ics canada resume, the night. He made the stars also. 1:17 God placed the lights in the expanse of the sky to shine on the earth, 1:18 to preside over essay, the day and the night, and to separate the light from the ics canada, darkness. God saw that it was good.
1:19 There was evening, and research paper interpretation of data, there was morning, a fourth day. 1:20 God said, “Let the water swarm with swarms of living creatures. and let birds fly above the ics canada resume, earth across the essay destruction, expanse of the sky.” 1:21 God created the great sea creatures and every living and moving thing with which the water swarmed, according to resume, their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. God saw that it was good. 1:22 God blessed them and said, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds multiply on the earth.” 1:23 There was evening, and there was morning, a fifth day. 1:24 God said, “Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: cattle, creeping things, and masters, wild animals, each according to its kind.” 1:25 God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the cattle according to their kinds, and all the creatures that creep along the ground according to resume, their kinds. God saw that it was good. Lord, You first created a physical reality, then You created time-itself, then You created an atmosphere – resulting in masters an ‘atmospheric shell’ around the earth which then resulted in an expanse called “sky” with the resume, water-covered earth at the center.
May I respect Your power as I marvel at Your engineering. You designed Your Creation with each species unique, and that was Your perfect plan. May I be mindful that in Your economy of things everything has a unique purpose, even in a fallen-away broken condition, and that brings harmony. You created day and night as we know it, and each has its purpose. May I listen closely to Your Holy Spirit so as to discover my purpose in Your great plan. Buffett Essays. You decided that the resume, air and sea should have life, then You created it. May I never doubt that You are the sovereign One and that everything You have prophesied will happen. Your power and vision are beyond anything known to mere man, You not only designed an best cover letters, entire planet and populated it with life – You did so in a way that was perfectly harmonious. May I find joy in the knowledge that our Lord Jesus is preparing a place for ics canada, us that is as You originally intended. The Lord God decided how He would proceed with His creation, then made it so “So God made the expanse”.
The Lord God altered the climate system by separating, with an “expanse” translated “sky,” the moisture in the outer atmosphere above the bradley eliots essay f.h interpretation seven, earth from the water on the earth’s surface. With a word God created the ics canada resume, climate system: The cycle of moisture from the buffett essays, surface of the earth moves in to the upper atmosphere, around the earth, and is then deposited elsewhere – keeping the resume, balance of humidity without occurrence of flooding or drought (prior to the ‘Fall’). After creating an atmospheric shell so that the surface (covered by water) was surrounded by writing scientific, sky and contained by that shell the Lord God then separated bodies of land and resume, sea. Each part, atmospheric shell, sky, water, and land served a different function, just as parts of the human body do, and each contributed to the whole ecosystem in a unique but critical way. The Lord God then called the plants and trees into being, each also with a unique purpose, and each reproducing only its own kind. “ There was evening, and there was morning, a third day ” (vs 13). As Moses recorded the story of eliots f.h interpretation, Creation he used descriptive images and ics canada resume, phrases from a primitive era, it is important as we read to buffett essays, not misunderstand his limited experience-based vocabulary as mere allegory, but rather allow the Holy Spirit to ics canada, enhance our understanding.
The Lord God created the sun “. the greater light”, moon “. the lesser light”, and stars. The interaction of these bodies resulted in “. seasons and days and years.” As humankind has studied the relationship between the sun, moon, stars, and other planets their location has been found to be associated with day, night, season, and years and they have also been valuable in land-based geo-location and water-bound navigation. Until this moment in Creation, the earth was held together by the Lord-alone. He set in place the rest of the cosmos in order to best monster, make it a self-sustaining yet highly interdependent system, though at ics canada resume all times it exists only as He empowers and masters structure, permits. In its fallen-away broken state all of resume, Creation would collapse without His constant intervention. [Colossians 1:17] “ There was evening, and there was morning, a fourth day ” (vs 19). The most-legitimate challenge to the presumption that a “day” in the Genesis Creation account equals what we know as 24 hours comes from Day 4, vss 1:14-18.
One must stretch hard to buffett essays, not see the repeated expression “There was evening, and ics canada, there was morning, a fifth day.” as more than a rhetorical flourish (common throughout the Word of God) than as a phrase intended to require a literal 24 hours. The NET translator’s make a linguistic argument for a 24 hour day but it is severely-challenged by this text. However, the text of the “fourth day” does not require the prior days to research paper interpretation of data, be anything other than what humankind came to know as twenty-four hour days, for that matter they could have been twenty-four nanoseconds - God is never restrained by resume, His creation; why would He take twenty-four of ‘our’ hours to paper, form something He easily could create with a “word” or a “thought”? These can be challenging texts - one must approach them with awe for God and skepticism toward any effort to undermine the integrity of the whole Word. The Lord God looked upon His Creation, water separated from ics canada resume, sky and space, water and land separated, then plants and trees created upon the land; all of it deemed good – perfect in buffett essays harmony. He then decided that the ics canada, sky and sea should also have living things, so the Lord created sea creatures and birds. The Lord God did as He had with the plants and paper interpretation of data, trees and equipped the creatures of the sky and ics canada, sea to cover monster, reproduce, multiplying from the few to the many, “each according to ics canada, their kind”. “ There was evening, and there was morning, a fifth day. ” (vs 23). The Lord God followed His decision to populate the sky and water with life-forms specific to those environments with a decision to populate the land with creatures as well.
The text describes three rough categories; crawling creatures (e.g. insects and lizards), large animals – with an implication of suitability to be domesticated (e.g. buffalo, camels, cattle, goats, sheep), and a variety of other wild animals. As before the Lord spoke them into being then, as He did the fish and fowl, empowered them to research paper, reproduce “according to their kind” without the need of ics canada, His direct Creative action. Created first on the sixth day are “ living creatures according to their kinds ” (vs 24). At Creation everything worked in perfect symmetry. The plants and trees were given the gift of life then set free to multiply remaining true to their unique created form. Land and sea are both source for the critical elements of water and best monster, dry surface needed for growth; each were created in perfect balance and order. What has now become imperfect, a ‘machine’ barely held together with loose and broken parts, surrounded by debris flying through space, with dark comets all-but-invisible to ics canada, detection threatening to slam into writing scientific papers planet earth and wreak terrible havoc; this was once a beautiful and perfectly balanced galactic system of God’s design.
The land was self-sustaining without creatures in the air and water, it was only the resume, creative Spirit of the Lord God Who envisioned, then perfectly-created them. F.h Interpretation. Despite many unsupportable details imposed upon the text by mere men (some fanciful, some venal, and some carelessly-conjectured by the rare few actually seeking truth) the Bible is essentially silent as to resume, details of the creatures the Lord God created and set loose upon the earth. We see only the distortions of His perfect Creation long after the Fall. We must remember that Eden was sealed – so nothing of perfection is visible to us. How might you help someone to buffett essays, recognize the literal physical massiveness of ics canada resume, each step in Creation? How might your fellowship teach an appreciation for the difference between the original flawless Creation and essay destruction, the fallen-away remnant in which we live?
How might you help believers to resume, understand the confused-thinking of those who invent notions about the buffett essays, animals in pre-Fall Eden, and/or those who deny Eden entirely, to arrive at their scientifically-challenged belief in resume a Godless and essentially-random evolution-by-accident? (When challenged with mathematical, physical, and observational realities, those who challenge creationism retreat to bradley essay f.h interpretation seven t.s, magical thinking (aliens from space deposited life on earth) while ignoring the obvious rhetorical ‘elephant in the room’ (aliens would still require an ics canada, ‘ex nihilo’ origin sometime in eliots t.s the past). Summer and winter, spring and fall, rain and ics canada resume, snow, sunshine and darkness; each now far less perfect than the original pre-Fall creation, yet each is critical to the balance of the Created system; a miraculous work of masters thesis structure, God. Prior to day four of Creation, God had held everything in place by ics canada resume, mere thought; then He added a multitude of interdependent solar systems, each with gravity, all in perfect harmony, and all contributing to the balanced whole. Diversity, independence, peaceful coexistence; this was the design - and writing scientific essay, then the ics canada, Fall. The land animals were different in kind and purpose from the plants and trees, birds and sea creatures that came before them, yet were similar in that they were equipped and cover letters monster, released to live and multiply. All of Creation to this point was either non-sentient (unable to experience pain or pleasure), or sentient (able to experience pain or pleasure) but all were non-reflective (non-sapient). When have you paused to consider the perfect balance of God's original climatology and praise Him? When have you experienced the inspiring teaching of someone contrasting perfection with imperfect and ics canada resume, the promise that one day we will know the writing scientific essay papers, perfection for ics canada resume, which we were created? When have you observed a creative person at work and how they envision something in their mind and then create it with their body?
When have you paused to ponder what must have been the magnificence of God’s creation and then mourned the mess that we’ve (through the Fall) made of it? Ask the Holy Spirit to help you to look past the broken and imperfect world around you and instead dwell upon God’s amazing Creation and to destruction, invest the resume, time to pause and to observe a land animal, either directly or via a live Internet cam, and as you do so to celebrate the beauty and on nature, incredible detail of the creature and the way that it interacts with its environment. Ics Canada Resume. Also, observe the obvious differences between that creature and the higher form of a human. Today I will celebrate the beauty and incredible detail of the research paper of data, creature(s) I have observed and the way it/they interact(s) with its environment. I will then use an opportunity He provides to share with another, in person or electronically, the amazing evidences of the Lord God’s creative touch which I observed in His created-creature (despite the resume, impact of our Fallen world). I will give God all of the glory.
Be Specific _____________________________________________. 1:26 Then God said, “Let us make humankind in our image, after our likeness, so they may rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move on the earth.” 1:27 God created humankind in his own image, in the buffett essays, image of ics canada resume, God he created them, male and female he created them. 1:28 God blessed them and buffett essays, said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply! Fill the earth and subdue it! Rule over resume, the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and every creature that moves on the ground.” 1:29 Then God said, “I now give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the entire earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. 1:30 And to all the interpretation, animals of the earth, and to every bird of the resume, air, and to all the creatures that move on the ground – everything that has the breath of life in it – I give every green plant for interpretation, food.” 1:31 God saw all that he had made – and it was very good! There was evening, and there was morning, the sixth day.
2:1 The heavens and the earth were completed with everything that was in them. 2:2 By the seventh day God finished the work that he had been doing, and ics canada resume, he ceased on the seventh day all the work that he had been doing. 2:3 God blessed the seventh day and made it holy because on it he ceased all the work that he had been doing in creation . 2:4 This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created – when the Lord God made the earth and heavens. Lord, You made us in cover letters monster Your partial image, and You gave us stewardship of Your Creation. While we made a mess of things may I remember that Your work was flawless and ics canada, Your unique and eternal flawlessness is to be praised. Bradley Essay F.h Interpretation. You completed every detail of Your perfectly-planned Creation in six days and ics canada resume, nothing new was added after the sixth-day, so the seventh-day was unique – therefore holy – as Your Creation was complete. May I honor Your perfect work of Creation in praise and worship at least once a week and every week. Your Word clearly states that Genesis is an account of a historical event, not a mere parable. May I rely upon Your Word, pass the test and not be tempted to buffett essays, please those who would demean Your Word, and rather take You at Your Word.
The text uses the ics canada resume, plural term “us” when the Lord God refers to paper interpretation of data, Himself, it is the first of many occasions from ics canada resume, Genesis through Revelation where the research interpretation of data, plurality of the “Godhead” or “Trinity” is expressly or indirectly testified. The NET translator’s notes share several of the perspectives upon the plural reference to the Lord God but all but a Trinitarian view, consistent with the rest of the ics canada, text – as is the case throughout the Bible - every major matter is affirmed elsewhere, thus this study will not quibble with the natural meaning of the plural. The Lord God created humankind, unique and separate from scientific essay, all of the other creatures, in His own image (“. after our likeness” means a partial reflection of features of the ics canada resume, Lord God). Humankind is both a sentient (perceiving the environment via seven physical senses) and a sapient (capable of processing sentient data in an intentionally-rational manner) Creation. Humankind was plural in form, male and female, linked spiritually to the Lord God in a type of Trinitarian essence. (Humankind without the Lord God is temporally incomplete and eternally dead.)
Humankind is capable of sensing pain and buffett essays, pleasure as well as engaging in intentionally reflective, thoughtful, and volitional relationships. Humankind is more than merely instinctive as is the case with all other living things. Humankind alone was given the capacity for relationship in resume the spiritual realm. Humankind alone was purposed to receive the delegated authority and best cover monster, responsibility to rule over the rest of Creation. Humankind was given the fruit of the resume, seed-bearing plants and seek-bearing fruit of the trees as food. (Note that there is an implicit absence of permission to eat non seed-bearing fruit, apparent of only research interpretation, a single tree in the Garden, and also note that a seed-bearing fruit is incapable of reproduction (without artificial human intervention e.g. via budding or grafting – it is an inherently single-generation tree.)
God saw all that he had made – and it was very good! There was evening, and there was morning, the sixth day (vs 31). Chapter two of Genesis revisits the Creation narrative presented in chapter one, adding detail to descriptions of the relationship between Adam and Eve, their relationship with the Lord God, and resume, their interaction with the rest of God’s Creation. The Lord God had completed all of His creative work prior to masters thesis structure, the beginning of the seventh day and ics canada, ceased His work. Nothing that occurred after the end of the sixth day involved a new creative work. The Lord God then did an amazing thing: He set aside the seventh day and on nature destruction, declared it a holy day, a ‘holyday’ holiday of sorts, during which He wanted His Creation to remember His work of the resume, first six days in an exceptional way, by monster, ceasing from all work (labor) as He Himself had modeled. It is very important that we understand why God set aside the ics canada, seventh day as a holy day.
The Lord’s perfectly-planned Creation was unique, in timeless eternity and in on nature the just-created linear time-bound physical universe He had just spoken into ics canada resume being – that event was therefore holy and worthy of pause to praise. The NET Bible translator’s notes offer a valuable paraphrase of the first four or five words of Genesis 2:4: “This is what became of the heavens and the earth.” When one reads the paper interpretation, NET translator’s paraphrase the resume, text is revealed as declaring the buffett essays, literal nature of the Creation record while it also introduces additional detail – to be followed by the sad story of resume, rebellion and Fall. This is still pre-Fall, so man is innocent and lives in essay on nature perfect harmony with the Lord God and everything in resume His Creation. The holy day, established pre-Fall by research of data, God, set aside in celebration of His perfect Creation. What the Lord God did in His act of Creation was real, He spoke and it was. How might you lead others to a greater appreciation of the Lord God through a comparison of attributes in real world application? (e.g. Ics Canada. Humankind may maintain few truly intimate relationships and typical is writing papers, limited to about 12 in a meaningful group interaction, whereas the ics canada resume, Lord God may have an intimate relationship with 6 billion humans and essay seven, communicate with each individually as well.) Mankind was male and female living in harmony; they were different yet of a common essence, possessed of an ics canada resume, essential unity, much like the buffett essays, holy Trinity of God.
The creation of resume, every new human life is a partnership between man and God; while God delegated the capacity to reproduce, it is He-alone Who gives the spiritual life which separates man from research paper interpretation, beast. On the Sunday ‘holyday’ for ics canada resume, Christians we recognize our new covenant with God, and we celebrate the papers, new creation that He has provided for us, through the resume, life and death of paper of data, Jesus the Christ. It is a remarkable reality that, when the Lord God created the heavens and the earth, 1) He was self-sufficient, 2) He needed nothing external to Himself, and, as an act of love, 3) He chose to create so that He might share Himself with man. When you have been in a fellowship where attention was brought to resume, the Lord’s creative work and there was celebration of His perfection then – and of that same perfection awaiting us in heaven? Ask the essay on nature, Holy Spirit to reveal to you something new about resume His Creative genius through our scientific observations about the human body, something that will underscore my understanding that His Creation that is too-profound to on nature, have happened accidentally – even over billions of years, to lead you to take the time to resume, celebrate on this Sunday by ceasing from the essay on nature destruction, busyness of life “work” to reflect upon the beauty of the Lord God’s original perfect Creation, and to lead you to a more profound awareness that the Lord God created humankind with the free will to either love or reject Him. Today I will stand in ics canada front of a mirror and be amazed that, considering the ravages of the Fall, the Lord God’s creative hand remains so visible in my complex bio-mechanical machine (my physical self) and in the indwelling Holy Spirit (the perfect Counselor to my spiritual self). I will then share what I have learned with someone and encourage them to repeat my discovery experience. I will celebrate life.
I will thank the Lord God for His gift of life to buffett essays, me and especially for my new life in Christ. I will encourage and pray for the one(s) whom He has identified. I will pause and resume, reflect and celebrate and t.s, I will share with a fellow believer and, as the Holy Spirit provides, with one who is considering-Christ the truth of the resume, new creation that the Lord has promised to those who place their faith fully in His Son Jesus. Be Specific _________________________________________________. 2:5 Now no shrub of the field had yet grown on the earth, and no plant of the field had yet sprouted, for research paper interpretation of data, the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and resume, there was no man to essay seven t.s, cultivate the ground. 2:6 Springs would well up from the earth and water the whole surface of the ground. 2:7 The Lord God formed the man from the resume, soil of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of on nature destruction, life, and the man became a living being. 2:8 The Lord God planted an orchard in ics canada the east, in Eden; and eliots essay seven, there he placed the man he had formed. 2:9 The Lord God made all kinds of trees grow from the soil, every tree that was pleasing to look at and good for food. (Now the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil were in the middle of the orchard.) 2:10 Now a river flows from ics canada resume, Eden to water the orchard, and from there it divides into four headstreams. 2:11 The name of the destruction, first is Pishon; it runs through the entire land of ics canada, Havilah, where there is gold.
2:12 (The gold of that land is pure; pearls and lapis lazuli are also there). 2:13 The name of the second river is Gihon; it runs through the entire land of Cush. 2:14 The name of the third river is Tigris; it runs along the east side of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates. 2:15 The Lord God took the man and bradley eliots f.h interpretation, placed him in the orchard in Eden to care for it and to maintain it. 2:16 Then the Lord God commanded the man, “You may freely eat fruit from every tree of the orchard, 2:17 but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for ics canada resume, when you eat from it you will surely die.” Lord, as I once-again read the flow of Your Creation, and the purpose for which You created everything, I am in awe. Bradley Eliots Essay F.h Interpretation. May I never forget that You breathed life into the first human, as You do with each and every human, and resume, that we rely upon You for life itself. Genesis Chapter 2 is a fleshing-out of detail the story of what the Lord God Created, followed in Chapter 3 by what man did with His incredible gift of eliots, Creation and divine relationship.
God informs the reader that, whereas He had caused life to ics canada, exist in the form of plants and buffett essays, creatures of the air, land, and sea, there were not yet cultivated plants for food —cultivation requires a cultivator and ics canada, He had not yet created man. This observation is included to remind the reader that God’s intent was to delegate management of a limited portion of His Creation to man. As His last act of Creation, God reached into the earth and withdrew the “soil” from which He then created man. This illustrates everything in Creation being linked, which explains the commonalities of DNA in all life forms today — bananas, fish, monkeys, and humans. God then did something that He had heretofore not done, He “breathed” life into man.
Previously He had merely spoken His Creation into on nature existence and ics canada resume, it had life, but breathing life in to man gifted him with the essay seven, capacity for something very unique. [The NET translator notes list the characteristics which God breathed in to man as “spiritual understanding” (Job 32:8) and “a functioning conscience” (Proverbs 20:27). Some would label this as the “soul.”] As the NET translator’s notes observe the reference to “East” would have been in relationship to the land of Israel as that is the ics canada resume, location of the rivers it also referenced. The Lord God selected from his collection of trees, which He had previously created, some suitable for essay, an orchard and then set them in Eden, where He also placed man. All of ics canada, these selected and beautiful trees bore deliciously edible fruit, but even more unique were two, “the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.” We remember that God is God and He as Creator can do anything He either desires or imagines. Writing Papers. We must also remember that there were many things unique to Eden which man has not since observed, because after the Fall these things were “sealed” (see Genesis 3:22-24). Verses 10-14 serve two obvious purposes: they establish the richness of God’s provision in Eden and they establish the geographical reality of the ics canada resume, story versus an imaginary one. It is theoretically possible to read the word “now” as indicating that Moses was describing the location of Eden in his time rather than in the time of the Eden narrative, but that is a long-stretch — there simply is no apparent added value to the narrative to suddenly make reference to another time and writing papers, place. The Lord God placed humankind in the Garden of Eden to fulfill their purpose, caring for it, and He then instructed them as to ics canada resume, His boundaries for them: “You may freely eat fruit from every tree of the orchard, but you must not eat from the tree of the writing papers, knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat from resume, it you will surely die.” There are several essentials worthy of note in this segment: The reference to “caring for” or “maintaining” should not be understood to imply that there were any imperfections in the Garden and might be read as “observing closely” or something similar.
Humankind was offered but not guaranteed eternal life , because they were told by the Lord God that they could freely eat from every tree, including “the tree of life”, and there was nothing created pre-Fall that would have caused them to essay on nature destruction, die (other than eating of the fruit of the ics canada, forbidden “tree of knowledge”) – but until they reached and cover, ate of the “tree of life” they were vulnerable. Humankind was capable of dying instantly , both physically and in their spiritual relationship with the Lord God, but only as if He determined that such an intervention was necessary. Eventually, after rebelling against God, lost access to “the tree of life” and death became a normative expectation. Humankind was given free will , the capacity and the freedom to ics canada resume, choose among options, in the most important decisions of their lives. Humankind was given everything needed , the capacity to both relate spiritually with and to be empowered by best cover monster, the Lord God with authority, knowledge, and strength — thus it was reasonable that they were expected to make wise choices. The Lord God had always planned His Creation such that man would partner with Him in managing His Creation. Man was called into existence to care for and to maintain the perfect order of His Creation, as well as to “be fruitful and multiply” (Gen. 1:28), to better accomplish His purpose. Ics Canada Resume. The Lord God reminds us in this text that, in the Garden, He had provided for Adam and papers, Eve everything they would ever need, literally everything.
What may the magnitude of the caring and order necessary to maintain the health of Creation assigned to them to cultivate - such need requiring that human reproduction would multiply those Whom He would also call to that task? The Lord God calls all Christians to a very similar partnership: we are to care for one another, keep things in order, and partner in spiritually-multiplying the family of God. How would you help people to ics canada, understand the impact of “free will” - noting that from the beginning the buffett essays, Lord God did not guarantee humankind unlimited certainty of eternal life, regardless of their choices? The way that the Lord God chose to breathe both spiritual and physical life into humankind is ics canada, remarkable. On Nature. Try to imagine the importance of a genuine freely-chosen relationship to the Lord God - He gave Adam and ics canada, Eve everything they needed, all in the context of a perfect creation, yet He still gave them the monster, capacity to choose to be righteous or to be rebellious. (Note that He stated “may”, “may not”, and then consequences – so the concept – if not realization - of death pre-existed the Fall.) When have you experienced that love offered is not always love accepted and ics canada, love shared is not always love nurtured and sustained? (The Lord God risked rejection and rebellion when He created lesser beings with the free will to reject or rebel against Him rather than to love Him.) When have you been in a situation where all of your important needs were met yet you still made choices which disrespected your providers and essay on nature, placed their provision for you at risk?
Ask the Spirit to reveal to you a better understanding of ics canada resume, what the Lord God intended when He gave you the best, gifts of spiritual understanding and of a functioning conscience and one or more ways that He has made special provision for ics canada, specific needs and essay, where you have responded with ungrateful neglect and/or rebellion. Today I will pray, reflect, and study to apprehend what the Holy Spirit has unveiled to me and I will share what I have learned with a fellow Believer for shared edification and praise. I will confess and repent of my carelessness, disrespect, and rebellion. Resume. I will repent (turn away from), request forgiveness for, and writing scientific essay papers, accept His forgiveness for my sin. I will then share that experience with a fellow Believer, asking for their prayers in-agreement that I will resist a return to the sin, and I will also pray for them as they follow my example. Be Specific ________________________________________________. 2:19 The Lord God formed out ics canada of the ground every living animal of the masters, field and every bird of the air.
He brought them to the man to see what he would name them, and resume, whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name. 2:20 So the man named all the animals, the birds of the air, and the living creatures of the essay on nature destruction, field. 2:18 The Lord God said, “It is not good for the man to ics canada resume, be alone. I will make a companion for him who corresponds to him.” 20b … but for scientific papers, Adam no companion who corresponded to him was found. 2:21 So the Lord God caused the man to resume, fall into a deep sleep, and while he was asleep, he took part of the man’s side and closed up the place with flesh. 2:22 Then the Lord God made a woman from the part he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man. 2:23 Then the destruction, man said, “This one at last is bone of my bones. and flesh of my flesh; this one will be called ‘woman,’ for she was taken out of ics canada, man.” 2:24 That is why a man leaves his father and writing papers, mother and ics canada resume, unites with his wife, and they become a new family.
2:25 The man and his wife were both naked, but they were not ashamed. Lord, You Created the research interpretation of data, creatures then allowed them to be named by resume, Your “in Our likeness” creation (Adam), transferring authority along with responsibility. May I recognize that any authority and responsibility which I have in this world, broken and distorted as it is, is given for the purpose of Your priorities. You formed the writing, plants and trees, birds and beasts - even humankind - from the soil that You had created. You then caused them to reproduce of their own kind. Since the first human was not designed to reproduce You then drew Eve out of Adam just as You had drawn Adam from the soil.
You breathed Into humankind the unique life-force that made them in-Your-likeness. The Lord God created the creatures from the soil He had already made, both animal and resume, humankind, yet one recalls that He only destruction, “breathed life” into the human. He then brought each creature to man so that man, not God, could name them. It is understood in resume the ancient tradition that ‘naming’ was an expression of mastery or ownership. In the same way, Jesus would later give new names to His apostles (because God rightly claims ownership of man). Verse 18 is more naturally-understood together with verses 2:20b-24 than when presented prior to research paper interpretation of data, verse 19, that is why it was presented slightly out-of-sequence.
God said He would create for Adam an indispensable helper, a “companion,” one without whom he could not complete his tasks. This companion would not be a subordinate nor one to whom tasks would be delegated, rather one who would perform the tasks which the ics canada, man could not. In keeping with His former pattern and maintaining a continuity in Creation, God (Who had created Adam from the previously-created soil) took flesh and buffett essays, bone from Adam’s side to ics canada, create his companion and essay on nature, partner in Eden. Adam did not continue in the process of naming what he “owns” when he said, “this one will be called woman,” he was merely describing her intimate similarity due to resume, the flesh and bone link caused by her being “taken out of man.” Note that only after the essay on nature, Fall, as evidence of an element of the curse (“naming” implies ownership or superiority), did the categorical descriptive word “woman” become the name “Eve” (see Gen. 3:20). “The man and his wife were both naked, but they were not ashamed,” speaks of ics canada resume, their integrity-via-innocence; pre-Fall they had no cause to be ashamed of anything. They were not ashamed because they were truly innocent, unaware of anything imperfect or of any different state of buffett essays, being. They were free of the knowledge of evil, which would have been the ics canada, source of their embarrassment when standing naked before one another, or their Lord God. Adam and Eve had been presented with the “test of the tree” but they had not yet been challenged to allow it to best cover, become a temptation – and absent that temptation they had not yet fallen into sin. The Lord God created, and ics canada resume, thus had legitimate dominion over, all of the creatures; yet He chose to delegate that to eliots f.h interpretation t.s, humankind. The text teaches that it was not the original intent of the Lord God that man and woman be unequal and competitive in relationship; such only became the nature of ics canada resume, things after the Fall.
When we think of Adam and Eve, “humankind” prior to the Fall, we cannot fully comprehend who they were because - other than Jesus - no other human has ever been as innocent. Do we see that we belong to Him and, as such, He has the right to choose our paths; we have the obligation of loyal subjects to writing scientific, seek His will when making choices? How might you illustrate an aspect of Heaven, using the pre-Fall description of man and woman - created uniquely, with equal inherent value, and with equal standing - without any hint of conflict or of competition? When we think of our place in Heaven, we may rightly look at pre-Fall Adam and Eve (and Jesus) as models of the ics canada resume, innocence we too will possess – blessedly-absent the capacity to on nature, rebel. Is the true measure of a faith-saving relationship with Christ the absolute surrender of our free will to His Lordship? How well do we comprehend what it means for the Lord God to have “mastery” or “ownership” over ics canada, every truly-saved Believer? It is the Lord God’s loving-desire that men and women serve Him together in perfect harmony. We have Jesus Christ to thank for providing our way home to an Edenic-Heaven. When have you experienced the masters structure, naming a child or a pet?
When have you observed children or adults functioning in synchronicity, helping and ics canada, sharing with one another, all free of apparent competition and conflict? When have you been truly transparent before the Lord God, and/or before a fellow Believer, and the Holy Spirit gave you a special sense of purity and on nature, innocence in His forgiveness and grace? Ask the Holy Spirit to amplify your understanding of the importance of separating pre-Fall from post-Fall events and why you need to resume, avoid extrapolating modern-day expectations without regard to the original context and to grant you a sense of innocence (through Christ) before the Lord. Today I will engage a fellow Christian in discussion about the way that God has named and claimed us, and together we will give Him praise and thanks. Masters. I will pause to discuss with a fellow Believer our innate longing for our pre-Fall intimate relationship with the Lord God, with His perfect Creation, and ics canada resume, with one another. We will give thanks for the promise of Heaven and ask for comfort and patience as we live in this Fallen-away world. Today I will join with a fellow Believer in a prayerfully-reflective celebration of God’s promise of eternity in Heaven. Be Specific _____________________________________________. The Temptation and the Fall.
3:1 Now the serpent was more shrewd than any of the wild animals that the seven, Lord God had made. He said to the woman, “Is it really true that God said, ‘You must not eat from any tree of the orchard’?” 3:2 The woman said to the serpent, “We may eat of the fruit from the trees of the orchard; 3:3 but concerning the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the orchard God said, ‘You must not eat from it, and you must not touch it, or else you will die.’” 3:4 The serpent said to the woman, “Surely you will not die, 3:5 for God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will open and. you will be like divine beings who know good and evil.”
3:6 When the woman saw that the tree produced fruit that was good for food, was attractive to the eye, and was desirable for making one wise, she took some of its fruit and ate it. She also gave some of it to resume, her husband who was with her, and he ate it. 3:7 Then the eyes of buffett essays, both of them opened, and they knew they were naked; so they sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves. 3:8 Then the man and his wife heard the resume, sound of the Lord God moving about in the orchard at the breezy time of the day, and they hid from the Lord God among the trees of the orchard. 3:9 But the Lord God called to masters, the man and said to him, “Where are you?” 3:10 The man replied, “I heard you moving about in the orchard, and ics canada, I was afraid because I was naked, so I hid.” 3:11 And the Lord God said, “Who told you that you were naked? Did you eat from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?” 3:12 The man said, “The woman whom you gave me, she gave me some fruit from the tree and I ate it.”
3:13 So the Lord God said to the woman, “What is this you have done?” And the woman replied, “The serpent tricked me, and of data, I ate.” Lord, as I read this terrible moment in history, second only to the crucifixion of Christ, I am convicted that I am just as ready to allow a test to become a temptation than were Adam and Eve. May I surrender more to ics canada, the leadership of Your Holy Spirit so that my every choice is tested for thesis, Your will and not my own. We are all the same as Eve, looking for what appeals to our flesh rather than the resume, best in us – that which the destruction, Holy Spirit empowers and nurtures. Ics Canada Resume. May my faith be in the perfection that I see in essay on nature destruction You, and may I desire that above all. I am shocked to read the dialogue between You and resume, Adam and paper, Eve, because I am certain that You’ve had that same dialogue with me.
May I be convicted and reminded that I am responsible to You for every choice that I make. Chapters One and Two presented the Creation narrative. Chapter Three described the horribly wrong choice of Adam and Eve and the devastating consequences which followed. The serpent, like Balaam’s donkey (Numbers 22:22-35), was a sentient being (able to respond due to awareness and memory of patterns of pain and pleasure). The serpent was, however, non-sapient (lacking the ability to either reflect or make decisions based on acquired wisdom and also lacking the ics canada, unique human capacity to interact intentionally in the spiritual realm). The serpent was a demon-possessed mouthpiece for a spiritual source — in this case Satan. (There is the case of the swine in Mathew 8:30-32 and Mark 5:11-13 wherein demons were sent into pigs by Jesus, but in writing that case they were merely neutral -non-communicating – physical ‘containers’ for those demons.) Speculation that animals in pre–Fall Eden were capable of verbal communication with humans, and one another, is based on suspect extra-Biblical sources (not part of the ics canada, “canon” of the Bible, which are Books believed to interpretation, be approved by the Lord God for inclusion, such as Jubilee 3:28 and Josephus Antiquities 1.1.4 – 1.41) and are thus not to be given credibility in the absence of ics canada, any supporting canonical Biblical text. There is also no value-added, and considerable distraction spawned, by such speculation. The text following (see Gen.
3:14) parallels the serpent with the other “wild animals,” adding to the assurance that in its natural state the serpent was merely a mouthpiece and masters, was not speaking independently. The evil tempting spirit speaking through the serpent challenged the integrity of the relationship between Eve and the Lord God. This included a challenge to the very Lordship of God by deliberately using the name “God” not preceded by the title “Lord,”. Eve made a choice to do the ics canada, same – converting the ‘test’ of her faithfulness into a ‘temptation’ to overtly rebel and sin. When Satan, through the serpent, asked, “is it really true. ” he was attacking the integrity of the Lord God and f.h interpretation seven t.s, His sovereign authority. This was a direct challenge to Eve to also wonder if the Lord God was truthful.
This was an amazingly bold act of Satan, and frighteningly evil in intent. In reply to the serpent’s challenge, Eve restated the Lord God’s warning about eating from “the tree that is in the middle of the orchard” (by implication, the tree of the knowledge of good and evil); however, she altered both Satan’s words and the actual command of the Lord God. Eve added the flourish “you must not touch it,” which neither the Lord God or Satan had said. Satan then issued the full-out challenge to the Lord God’s integrity and authority, “Surely you will not die, for God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will open and you will be like divine beings who know good and evil.” “Divine beings” refers to ics canada resume, the Lord God, Satan, and the angels, both the faithful and buffett essays, the fallen. The command from the Lord God “You must not eat from it”, qualified by “or you will surely die” was not lost on Adam and Eve. The Lord would never have communicated a command without certainty that it was understood.
They would likely have understood “die” as associated with their relationship with Him – making sense as that became what they wanted to resume, escape (in terms of accountability and buffett essays, Lordship) when they chose to ics canada, fail the test, entertain temptation, then sin. Humankind (Adam and Eve) were already capable of spiritual interaction, but had to-date no need to best monster, be cognizant of resume, “evil”, other than to know that the fruit of one tree contained the power to draw them into that knowledge. When Eve entertained Satan’s challenge to the integrity and Lordship of God, apparently without any effort to consult the Lord nor fear of negative consequences, she voluntarily crossed the threshold from ‘test’ to ‘temptation’ – because she turned her eyes-of-faith from writing essay, Him to herself. The key to understanding this text, especially as it applies to the rest of the Bible, is ics canada, choice. Eve (then Adam) had a choice to essay on nature, make, that was the purpose of ics canada resume, ‘the test of the tree’. Eve (then Adam) did not have to buffett essays, believe the Serpent, they easily could have consulted the Lord God, and they easily could have corrected his error in deleting Lord from ics canada resume, Lord God. They chose to not do so because they chose their flesh over their Father. Eve failed the essay destruction, test when she conspired with the serpent to ignore the Lordship of God.
She relied only on her fleshy senses, she observed that the fruit of the forbidden tree appealed to her eye and stomach, and she was tempted to believe that it could magically give her the God-making “wisdom” that the ics canada resume, serpent promised. Eve acted upon that temptation and decided to reach out and eat of it. Adam, whose whereabouts were previously unknown in the story, was described as “with her,” and when given the fruit he also choose to eat of it. The “with her” likely refers to his physical proximity, though it may also report that he was “with her” in paper interpretation her rebellion. The text does not require “with her” to ics canada, mean either that he was there all along or that he had been elsewhere and at this moment in the story was “with her” both physically and in rebellion. It is uncertain if any of the alternative readings matter much to essay, the story; though if one takes Adam to have been physically present throughout the resume, test, temptation, and fall of Eve, one must ponder why he failed to intervene and why he was not also addressed in the story. In general, the best translation defaults to the most-simple solution, unless the monster, text under consideration (or other Biblical texts) support a more complex result. I Timothy 2:14 says “ And Adam was not deceived, but the ics canada resume, woman, because she was fully deceived, fell into transgression. ” Once “fallen,” they were immediately aware of their newly imperfect state (and that their fellowship with a holy and pure Lord God has been instantly broken), and paper interpretation of data, they rushed to cover themselves. The Lord God moved about in the Garden in the late afternoon, “the breezy time of the day.” Wishful thinking and inadequate attention to detail in some translations have rendered the idea that God was coming for a daily friendly stroll together with Adam and Eve in ics canada resume the Garden — a right-rendering of the Biblical text does not support such a conjecture. More probable is that, after their misdeeds together with the serpent, the Lord God arrived to challenge them and was intentionally thrashing about the Garden as if seeking His missing children – of masters thesis structure, course knowing precisely where they were. Ics Canada. He was righteously angry.
The Lord God called to Adam, “Where are you?” not because He could not find Adam, but to challenge Adam to recognize where he had caused himself to bradley f.h interpretation seven, be – which was apart from ics canada resume, Him. The Lord had not moved, but Adam had, and as a result there was a sudden spiritual chasm. Adam replied, “I heard you moving about,” so the paper interpretation, sound created by God in ics canada the Garden was not sensed by Adam as friendly. And his “I was afraid because I was naked, so I hid” tells the reader that something had changed — Adam had been previously unclothed and not afraid to eliots seven, be seen as naked (transparent, vulnerable). The Lord God challenged Adam to explain how he now knew that he was naked — previously unimportant, but now suddenly important — and ics canada, challenged Adam with the only plausible explanation, his rebellion. Adam’s effort to play innocent and to thrust the blame on Eve (if one accepts the reading that Adam was not present during the serpent’s initial temptation of on nature, Eve and her decision to sin) may lead one to argue that Adam was engaging in a form of idol worship ? “God gave me Eve , so I trusted her, and she said it was OK.” It is an ics canada resume, effort to defraud the Lord, of course; however, at scientific this point, Adam loses either way. The Lord God then turned to Eve, which appears to ics canada resume, grant partial credibility to Adam’s blame-shifting, and challenged her to defend her actions (adding credence to the view that Adam was not present during her testing, her choice to engage in temptation, followed by her decision to sin). Eve completed the ‘passing of the buck’ by declaring “the serpent tricked me, and I ate,” in an attempt to absolve herself of responsibility for her choice.
While rightly pointing out that she had been deceived, she did not trouble herself to explain why she had knowingly ignored a direct order from her Lord God. We have the same choice(s) as Eve, every minute of essay, every day. Believers must never allow an implied doubt to stand as to the character and integrity and promises of the Lord God. Resume. Satan tried the same attack on Jesus that he used on Eve, and he is still using the same old lie on people today. Do we understand that when we choose temptation rather than holiness, when confronted with a test, that we enter into a conspiracy with Satan to buffett essays, disrespect the resume, Lord God? How we often have we blamed others for our own choices, perhaps we’ve even blamed the Lord God? How would you help people to understand that if we go where the eliots f.h interpretation seven t.s, Lord God says not to go, do what God says not to do, and dwell upon the things God tells us to resume, avoid, then we also disrespect the Lordship of God and side with Satan? How would you explain the importance of understanding that our lusts and essay on nature destruction, our physical senses are the ics canada resume, playground of Satan, and therefore highly subject to our misunderstanding and misplaced priorities? How would you lead a small group through an evaluation of the many ways that they have tried to hide from accountability? Every choice carries consequences, some good, some bad. We rationalize that consequences will be absent or acceptable to eliots f.h interpretation seven, us if we choose disobedience.
If unsaved, we further guarantee Hell as our eternal destination — and if we are saved we build walls that block the blessings of the Lord God. It is bad enough to resume, agree to convert a test in to cover letters monster, a temptation, and then in to overt sin; however, to then multiply our sin by drawing others who trust us into the same sin is resume, even worse. (See the curse of the Fall in the following sections.) When was there a time that you doubted the letters monster, Lord God? What were the consequences? What is a circumstance in your life where you clearly knew that what you were doing was wrong yet you rationalized that it served a momentary desire? What were the resume, consequences? What is a circumstance when something you did caused you to have a ‘guilty conscience’ such that when an authority figure approached you felt nervous or startled? Ask the Holy Spirit to reveal to you a lie in your life that causes you to rationalize.
disobedience to God, and one place in your life where you have allowed the satisfaction of your physical senses to overwhelm your obligation to honor the Lord your God. Perhaps it is eating or drinking too much, going where I may view people in a way that is buffett essays, appealing to my fallen-flesh but offensive to God (e.g., driving by the beach to view partially-clothed people, surfing inappropriate sites on the Internet, watching television where people are demeaned, listening to music or watching movies that distort a holy view of man, abusing substances, avoiding activities that promote fitness of my body “the temple of the Holy Spirit,” or participating in ics canada resume thrill-seeking activities that “test the Lord my God”), and a place in your life where you find yourself deflecting blame to another or engaging in a pattern of avoiding accountability. Today I will make a change in my thinking, and in best cover my actions, and rather than partner with the Enemy I will partner with the ics canada resume, Holy Spirit as He makes this a real rather than merely an intellectual life-changing choice. I will share this with a fellow believer as a testimony, I will ask for their prayers, and I will ask for their accountability. I will move to diminish the thing that the Holy Spirit has revealed as offensive to the Lord and destructive to me. The goal is to eradicate them from bradley essay seven t.s, my life; perhaps immediately, perhaps after some perseverance, but eventually permanently through the power of prayer and peer-accountability. I will embrace integrity, confess and repent of my wrong choices, and I will make a plan to deal with it.
I will ask God to lead, to empower, and to chastise me when I wander from my plan. I will celebrate and share praise when I succeed and will request prayer support when I struggle. Be Specific _____________________________________________. The Judgment Oracles of ics canada, God at the Fall. 3:14 The Lord God said to the serpent, “Because you have done this, cursed are you above all the research, wild beasts. and all the resume, living creatures of the field! On your belly you will crawl.
and dust you will eat all the days of your life. 3:15 And I will put hostility between you and the woman. and between your offspring and thesis, her offspring; her offspring will attack your head, and you will attack her offspring’s heel.” 3:16 To the woman he said, “I will greatly increase your labor pains; with pain you will give birth to children. You will want to control your husband, but he will dominate you.” 3:17 But to resume, Adam he said, “Because you obeyed your wife.
and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, ‘You must not eat from it,’ cursed is the ground thanks to you; in painful toil you will eat of it all the days of writing scientific, your life. 3:18 It will produce thorns and thistles for you, but you will eat the grain of the field. 3:19 By the sweat of your brow you will eat food. until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; for you are dust, and to dust you will return.” 3:20 The man named his wife Eve, because she was the mother of all the living. 3:21 The Lord God made garments from skin for Adam and his wife, and clothed them. 3:22 And the Lord God said, “Now that the man has become like one of ics canada resume, us, knowing good and evil, he must not be allowed to stretch out best letters his hand and ics canada resume, take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever.” 3:23 So the Lord God expelled him from the on nature destruction, orchard in Eden to cultivate the ground from which he had been taken. 3:24 When he drove the man out, he placed on resume, the eastern side of the orchard in Eden. angelic sentries who used the buffett essays, flame of a whirling sword to guard the way to resume, the tree of life. Lord, the temporary alliance between the serpent and Eve is the same as he seeks with us, one where we displace You in favor of our flesh.
May I remember when I am tested that the choices are always the scientific essay papers, same, I choose You or the Enemy – may I mature in ics canada my faith daily so that I increasingly choose You in all things. The consequences of disobedience were terrible then, and are now as well. Research Of Data. May I be mindful that when I wander from ics canada, Your Lordship I also wander from Your protection and paper interpretation of data, wisdom. Even though You had to resume, be profoundly-troubled and research interpretation, righteously-offended Your grace triumphed and Your loving-care was displayed. May I rest in the certainty that I am loved, beyond my foolish sin, by the One true Lord God of ics canada, Creation.
Humankind made a terribly-wrong choice and research paper, You graciously blocked the path (to the Tree of Eternal Life) to protect them from unrecoverable harm. May I trust You so that when it becomes obvious that you have blocked a path or closed a door I will not rebel. Purity, in Your eyes, means peace with You. May I seek after the purity that You desire for me so that I may be at peace with Your and find my peace in You. According to the NET Greek/Hebrew dictionary the qualifying term “tricked” for “The serpent” indicates an ics canada resume, authoritative, perhaps king-like, relationship to Eve in which she felt unequal. Seven T.s. Given her life-experience, versus that of the Enemy, she may have felt at a disadvantage, but it does not excuse her failure to consult the Lord God first. God immediately addressed the serpent ? asking no questions, hearing no lies, speaking only truth ? declaring that the serpent had indeed deceived Eve, that Eve had joined him in rebellion, and that she had then solicited Adam to join them in rebellion. God declared the curse upon the serpent: “Because you have done this, cursed are you above all the resume, wild beasts and cover monster, all the living creatures of the ics canada resume, field!” So all of the wild beasts and living creatures of the field were now cursed, but even more so the serpent, who was estranged and isolated from them and best letters monster, condemned “on your belly you will crawl” humiliated to wallow in the dust rather than merely walk upon it.
The animals lived in harmony with one another and man, but now cursed they (all of the animals, humankind, and the serpent alike ) would have to struggle, strive, suffer, and die. Ics Canada. Adam’s mastery/ownership of the of data, animals doomed them to his fate. The alliance of the serpent with Eve was more than terminated, it became adversarial, her descendants versus his ? “her offspring will attack your head, and ics canada resume, you will attack her offspring’s heel.” Both are potentially fatal attacks; the bite to the heel being toxic (sin), the blow to the head being destructive (righteous judgment). Despite their devastating rebellion the Lord God still allowed Adam and Eve to experience the paper interpretation of data, awe of “creation” through their bodies. The Lord God addressed the consequences of the choices made by resume, the woman, declaring that reproduction would become an uncomfortable process; knowing that her children and bradley eliots, her children’s-children would come into a fallen world and ics canada resume, that the Fall was largely her fault. She would also experience physical pain as a result of her pre-Fall imperfect choices, though her existential pain that would prove the most troubling.
As the first human agent in promoting sin, Eve enticed Adam to join her in rebellion; consequently, as part of the curse, she would continue in research paper her efforts to control him, but the Lord God said that Adam would have the upper hand – a dominant role. Resume. The Lord defined the nature of the male-female relationship post-Fall as a constant ebb and flow of females using manipulation to best, gain control and males using power to dominate. Humankind and fallen-angel/serpent - engaged in a rebellion over the unauthorized use of a particular fruit tree - Adam was cursed to sweat for his food, the ground would produce thorns where it previously produced only beautiful vegetation, and the serpent would crawl in the dust. The Lord God addressed the hapless Adam, reminding him that because he had chosen Eve over His Lord, when he joined her in rebellion, he became the agent of the curse of the ics canada resume, “ground.” [Note: Gen. 1:9-10 defines “ground” as everything not covered with water, but that – per the NET translator’s notes - is not the intent here. Papers. Instead, this curse of the “ground” means that every effort to reap the formerly easy bounty of food would henceforth require intense effort and ics canada, sacrifice.] The Lord commanded that humankind would now suffer in scientific the process of acquiring food to eat because it was in ics canada eating-rebelliously that humans caused the Fall. The first man and woman pridefully accepted the temptation of Satan. They, like him, attempted to become peers with the Lord God in immortality, knowledge, and power, yet they were instead doomed to live frustrated, limited, and difficult lives. The NET translator’s notes include the research interpretation, following powerful observation: “In general, the themes of the ics canada, curse oracles are important in the NT teaching that Jesus became the cursed one hanging on the tree. In his suffering and death, all of the motifs are drawn together: the tree, the sweat, the thorns, and the dust of death (see Ps.
22:15). Eliots Essay Seven. Jesus experienced it all, to have victory over it through the resurrection.” Adam, post-Fall delegated by ics canada resume, the Lord God to dominate the relationship, then named Eve. Note: Previously we observed that Adam named the animals but not his God-given “helper”; rather, he gave the title “woman” to her, illustrating her status as his equal partner in caring for Creation. The Fall changed everything and the “woman” became “Eve.” The name Eve was drawn from interpretation of data, her role as the “life-giver,” the one who bears children, and the one from whom all future children would descend.
Despite His righteous anger the Lord God still provided for His children, giving them garments made of animal skins. Ics Canada. By so doing God both recognized that the mere leafy coverings Adam and buffett essays, Eve had fashioned would not be adequate in the fallen world and that disharmony now reigned – man would draw his needs from the ics canada resume, beasts - and the rest of Creation - at thesis a cost to his fellow creatures in Creation. The essence of the consequences of Adam and Eve’s failure of ‘the test of the tree’ was that humankind had ‘illegally’ acquired an unplanned and unhealthy (because they were not equipped to ics canada resume, handle it) attribute of the Lord God - not originally given to them. The knowledge of good and essay, evil was a major new paradigm for which they were unprepared and which acquisition had required a major act of rebellion. Humankind now had to be protected from the worst of the consequences - eating from the tree of life – for that would have condemned them to be forever and irredeemably trapped in an alliance with Satan and at-enmity with the Lord. The Lord God removed humankind from Eden, before that could happen, as free will was still active after the ics canada, Fall; therefore, a physical relocation was necessary.
So serious was the threat, so powerful the temptation (and perhaps now so undeserving of Eden was humankind), that the Lord God posted Heavenly sentries with whirling swords of flame to keep them and their descendants from ever returning to the Garden (and “the Tree of eliots seven t.s, Eternal Life”) in their unredeemed condition. Only Jesus the Christ could create the circumstances where humankind could regain access to the gift of ics canada resume, eternal life – without the curse. Everything changed in all of Creation as a result of the events recorded in Genesis Chapter 3. Not only were Adam and Eve and the serpent/Satan cursed, but all of Creation. Bradley Eliots F.h Interpretation Seven. Because the Lord God had already given Creation over to “man”, when man turned from the Lordship of God to the Lordship of Satan, so also went the ics canada, way of Creation. We must not expect to buffett essays, be comfortable in this life; the Lord God said it would not be so. Resume. Modern research in DNA has suggested that all races of man may be traced back to a single female source, from the region known as northeast Africa — their regional locators match the geographical markers for Eden given in Genesis 2:10-14. Are the thesis, similarities of the Fall similar enough to the popular story of Robin Hood to be used as a lesson-illustration? (In the story when King Richard left for the Crusades his less-ethical brother John assumed power and was entrusted with the care of ics canada resume, Nottingham and Sherwood Forest, and he turned a beautiful place to buffett essays, one of ics canada resume, conflict and evil.) How might we best use every blessing of God to equip ourselves to resist the essay on nature, fleshy temptations to both contest with one another and to place fleshy things before the priorities of the resume, Lord? How would you use these texts to help people to understand that the nature of this fallen world is one of conflict, difficulty, and hopelessness and that genuine hope is found only in the Lord? How would you help others to understand that when man ‘stole’ an writing essay, attribute of the Lord God – one expressly forbidden to them - it was then that the trouble (estrangement and striving) began?
The consequences of resume, Satan dragging man into research of data the spiritual warfare between himself and the Lord God, when he successfully recruited Adam and Even into a state of ics canada, rebellion, have been terrible. Are we not combatants in that battle whether we want to be or not? (Understand that Jesus took Satan’s final deadly attack for you so that He could set you free.) Are we appropriately amazed to see the connections across the entirety of the Word of God, from destruction, Genesis through Revelation, and how the themes and truths of God reign supreme? The Lord God so loved Adam and ics canada, Eve, and buffett essays, their descendants, that He provided for their physical needs and their pathway to salvation from the consequences of ics canada resume, their rebellion. We sometimes rebel the best, same as Adam and Eve: 1) exercising pride that causes us to brush aside the counsel of the resume, Holy Spirit, 2) functionally-worshiping ‘idols’ such as fame, money, pleasure, power, or 3) neglecting those things that the Lord God says must be the priorities of our lives as Believers. What is your understanding of the teaching that we have the authority to “crush the head” of Satan (however he presents himself)? How may we exercise caution that Satan is not successful in destruction his attack upon our “heel,” our very vulnerable areas in day-to-day life choices?
When have you hear a teaching that explained the fact that man is treated in a fundamentally different way than the rest of Creation — all Creation is subservient to man as he navigates his way through life and back towards a right relationship with the Lord God? What are some ways that you have found yourself, or those around you, striving for perfection to gain access to/recreate an “Eden” by pressing against “gates” that are guarded with flaming swords (knowing that the “new Eden” is accessible only via Jesus and only at the end of created-time? Ask the Holy Spirit to reveal to you at least one circumstance in your life, past or present, which still impacts you – a circumstance over ics canada, which I have little or no control — and to letters, show me how I can give it to resume, Him “at the scientific essay, foot of the ics canada resume, Cross” and never allow Satan to research interpretation, use it to define me again, a place where the resume, temptations of the flesh are repeatedly used by Satan to drag you down from the holy lifestyle-place that the buffett essays, Lord God has prepared for you — be it gluttony, lust, pride, self-loathing, toys, or anything else that gets in the way, something specific about you that will remind you of the wonderful creative hand of God, and/or a specific way that you attempt to return to Eden via an ics canada resume, effort to artificially re-create a place of perfection and/or of extreme safety. Today I will stop and thank Jesus for standing in writing scientific papers the gap for me. I will also acknowledge that there are some things confusing and distracting me – some, perhaps, that I have done (or that were done to me), some imperfection(s), or some difficult person — the ics canada, key is my knowing (and understanding) that such things are proof that this is a fallen world. Research Paper. I will refuse to be abused by the Prince of Darkness and I will choose to stand with the ics canada resume, Jesus, Prince of Light. I will confess and repent, request and accept the forgiveness of the buffett essays, Lord God, and ics canada, then I will develop and implement an accountability plan to resist that temptation. I will ask a fellow believer to pray in-agreement and to be my accountability partner.
Be Specific _________________________________________________. All Bible text is from the NET unless otherwise indicated - http://bible.org. Note 1: These Studies often rely upon the guidance of the essay on nature destruction, NET Translators from their associated notes. Careful attention has been given to cite that source where it has been quoted directly or closely paraphrased. Feedback is encouraged where credit has not been sufficiently assigned. Note 2: When NET text is quoted in commentary and ics canada resume, discussion all pronouns referring to God are capitalized, though they are lower-case in the original NET text. Commentary text is from David M. Colburn, D.Min. unless otherwise noted. Copyright © 2012 by David M. Colburn. This is eliots essay f.h interpretation, a BibleSeven Study –“Genesis 3. Prepared by David M. Ics Canada Resume. Colburn and edited for bible.org in August of 2012. This text may be used for non-profit educational purposes only, with credit; all other usage requires prior written consent of the author. In my 30's the Lord led me through some changes and challenges, and despite my resistance, He broke through and I finally came to faith in 1990.
The Lord led me to transfer from my then-current masters studies at writing scientific essay the State university to the seminary where I earned my masters in cou. More.