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boreham essays Perhaps the most unrecognised writer within all of essay on to my dear, Christendom is the little known, but widely read, Frank William (F.W.) Boreham. Despite being unknown to most Australians he is aqa, still the best selling Australian author of all time with many of his books going into as many as 24 reprint editions! Today his books are collector#8217;s items selling for around $500 each, and even up to $1000. They are now mostly available from the U.K. and U.S.A. And little wonder. When introduced to an assembly of Presbyterian Pastors in Scotland in essay my dear husband, 1936, he was introduced with: “The man whose name is on all our lips, whose books are on our shelves and constitutional whose illustrations are in my dear and loving, all our sermons.” Frank Boreham wrote some 55 books and more than 3000 editorials for the Hobart Mercury and The Melbourne Age. He was a master story teller and showed better than any other Christian author that God could be relevant in ways never before considered. Among the as ict coursework aqa, classics of Christian-must-read literature, including Pilgrim#8217;s Progress , The Imitation of Christ , Practicing The Presence of on to my dear husband, God , Foxe#8217;s Book of Martyrs , The Chronicles of Narnia , is national application, now considered Boreham#8217;s #8220; A Bunch of Everlastings #8220;. People have literally died clutching that book to their chests as they drew some last moments of comfort from the on to husband, words Boreham had masterfully penned. Verbal-visual. I would rate this book as the one of the best books I have ever read. And Loving Husband. I now own several copies of this book which I selectively share with those enquire about my fascination with Boreham#8217;s writings.
If you want a copy of resume one, this book you#8217;ll have to look in antiquarian or second hand bookstores as it hasn#8217;t been published since the 1950s (it was first published around 1916). You should expect to pay up to $40 a copy (depending on the edition). But for essay on to my dear and loving husband some of Boreham#8217;s other, and now rarer, books you can expect to pay up to $500 and even up to $1000 for the rarest editions! Yet this former pastor of the Hobart Baptist Church is hardly known in his adopted countries of Australia and verbal-visual essay New Zealand. #8220;For as long as I can remember, Dr. F.W.Boreham was part of my life. I was first introduced to his books as a primary school student#8230;As a teenage preacher I used his books to gain ideas for sermons which- unbelievably today-were aimed at teenage audiences!#8221; Frank Boreham was born in essay on to my dear and loving husband, England in 1871. He was particularly blessed with amazing parents. His father seemed to essays, Frank to be the most inquisitive man on earth.
His mother seemed to him to husband, be not only the most beautiful woman on earth but also the best story-teller in the world. Frank inherited both these traits in as ict, generous proportions. His almost insatiable curiosity, his deep faith, and his warm manner were destined from on to and loving his childhood. His parents were committed church-goers and felt strongly enough about church integrity that they left their close-by Anglican church to attend a #8216;non-conformist#8217; church. Essay. When Frank was not much more than a baby he was taken in a pram for a walk in a nearby park. This is one of those few and curious occasions where something virtually inexplicable happened. An older #8220;gypsy#8221; woman came over to the infant in the pram and #8216;prophesied#8217; over him. #8220; Put a pen in his hand and he#8217;ll never want for essay my dear anything .#8221; She could have never have naturally known how understated he prediction would be! Frank had a delightful education in which he excelled.
By his own admission he was not particularly good at resume one, sport, and perhaps to compensate for on to husband this deficiency he read books. It was at this early stage of verbal-visual, his life that he was introduced to an institution in which he was to frequent in various locations throughout the rest of his life: the library . Each day after school he dropped into my dear and loving husband his small local library and devoured adventure books and biographies. Combined with his mother#8217;s broad literary knowledge and brief encounter with Charles Dickens, young Frank became an extremely well-read young man which laid a foundation of knowledge for style essay him from which he was later base many of the illustrations in his 55 books. “ Its sylvan valleys, bespangled with primroses and essay my dear and loving bluebells and violets, its fragrant hedgerows aglow with the hawthorn and the honeysuckle; its exquisite parks carpeted with an aqa, infinite variety of ferns and essay my dear and loving husband flowers; its verdant and undulating common…its magnificent forests; its romantic walks; its arching avenues; its giant rocks and dainty mosses… ” FW Boreham, Loose Leaves: From The Journal of my Voyage Round the World (Mosgiel: “Taieri Advocate” Office, 1902), 44. His fond memories of Tunbridge Wells and his ability to reflect upon his natural environment from essay analysis quite a young age, largely inspired by his father#8217;s contagious fascination with flora and essay my dear husband fauna, caused him to later write with great affection for the mountains of essay, New Zealand, the essay husband, bush of Australia and the lawns of analysis, English gardens. It was around this time that he became fascinated with his Grandfather to whom he was often sent by on to my dear and loving his parents and marvelled that these visits often caused the addition of a brother or sister to merit essay, his family.
His Grandfather was a deeply religious man. One day Frank walked into his Grandfather#8217;s lounge room and discovered him reading his Bible. Apparently he was reading it for pleasure. This left an indelible impression upon young Frank as he had never previously connected the words #8220;sacred#8221; and #8220;worship#8221; with the idea of essay on to my dear and loving husband, #8220;pleasure#8221;. He was to essay, ponder this for years to come. Frank raced through secondary school due to essay on to and loving husband, his unusual ability to learn quickly. By 14 he had essentially graduated High School and soon after acquired a good grip of most of the classics including the on bad, Greek language through doing night school at the local Mechanics Institute. (This later enabled him to complete a 4 year ministerial training program in just two years.) In his autobiography, My Pilgrimage , he implies that his formal education was stopped early due to essay on to and loving, his parents#8217; inability to further pay the necessary fees. This meant that Frank had to enter the workforce.
He became a clerk for foundations a brick manufacturer. This inadvertantly equipped him to be able to write quickly in short-hand (a skill he taught himself and mastered during a later 5 month hospital stint), a talent which he would use throughout the course of on to and loving husband, his life. This new job led to an amazingly understated turning point in his life. One day Frank was walking carelessly across some of the company#8217;s rail tracks and as ict aqa failed to see an oncoming rail carriage which hit him and dragged him underneath severing his foot and leaving him suffering and and loving incapacitated in hospital for 5 months with septicaemia and as an invalid for the rest of his life. Yet, in his life story he lightly glosses over this episode and never refers to his injury in merit essay, any of his books! After he recuperated he had to learn to essay and loving husband, walk with the aid of a walking stick. Returning to work on his first day back he set off on a cold day for his three mile trek to the Brickworks.
No sooner had he left through the family gate that his father heard his son crash on the icey pavement in pain. He had slipped and broken his damaged leg. Foundations American. (He would go on essay, to break this leg another three times throughout his life.) His father recognising that such a long walk to work was not going to be possible for his son arranged for coursework him to work in the city of essay my dear and loving husband, London after his recovery. “The impact of London upon my boyish spirit was the greatest sensation I have ever known. Style Essay. London took my breath away. It appalled me. I had never imagined such pushing, jostling multitudes.
I remember standing in the heart of the world’s metropolis, under the essay my dear and loving husband, very shadow of St Paul’s, and shivering in the thick of the national merit application, crowd at essay my dear, my own utter loneliness…” After Frank#8217;s recuperation, during months of dire illness as a result of his accident, he took up a position in London as a clerk when he was still a teen. He describes this as the loneliest time of his life. Partly to alleviate this loneliness he sought out a church to attend. National Application Essay. Prior to leaving Tunbridge Wells his pastor had written a letter to him. This had a profound affect on him. He kept that letter on on to and loving, his writing desk till the essay, day he died. Essay On To My Dear. It was not just the content of the letter that impressed (his pastor had urged Frank to accept Christ by subtlely pointing out that people are not Christians by virtue of church attendance, being good, or having Christian parents and that confirmation was the natural response of those who had experienced new birth through Christ) but it was also the medium which impressed Boreham. Resume Career. A letter as a pastoral tool.
When Boreham himself became a pastor he used this device to great affect in pastoring those in and loving, his charge. Frank came across several church groups in application essay, London which profoundly influenced him. He joined a non-conformist church, like his childhood one, but was drawn to on to my dear and loving husband, a group of street preachers who practiced several things his limited church experience had not exposed him to. This included the #8220;laying on of hands#8221; and water-baptism by full immersion for adults. It was around this time that Frank received Christ and therefore became a Christian. At the age of 17 he wrote to his Tunbridge Wells pastor and told him the good news.
He also searched the Scriptures to ascertain whether adult water baptism was Biblical. Foundations American Constitutional Government. Becoming convinced that it indeed was, he was baptised. He was also introduced to street preaching and seemed to excel at it. In fact, so good was he at it, that two life-changing things were soon to happen. By the and loving, time he was about 22 he became convinced that God had called him to the ministry. He resolved to prepare for this call. This was the sportsmanship, first profound thing. The second was like it. Exploring the possibility that his ministry might be on foreign soil he met with Hudson Taylor for afternoon tea to inverstigate going to China.
Hudson Taylor saw the limping Boreham and squashed the idea. Boreham resolved that if he couldn#8217;t go to my dear and loving husband, the Mission field he would commit his life and ministry to resume, helping those who could. Frank continued to gain prominence as a street preacher and on to my dear and loving husband caught the attention of Charles Spurgeon who invited him to constitutional, enrol in his Pastors Training College. Just two days after Spurgeon signed Boreham#8217;s application, the Prince of Preachers died. F.W. Boreham was the last student to recruited and on to and loving approved by Charles Spurgeon. Boreham thrived in Bible College. While serving in one of the Metropolitan Tabernacle#8217;s pioneer churches at Theydon Bois (just outside London) as a student preacher he became besotted with a young lady five years his junior. While he never made his feelings known to resume career, her, although he longed to kiss her during one romantic stroll (an impulse he didn#8217;t act on but rectified when she came to bid him farewell at the dock when he was leaving for New Zealand). Boreham#8217;s Bible College training was cut short for two reasons.
Firstly, he had already mastered most of the subjects taught in essay my dear, the final year (including Greek) and therefore was considered to resume career, have graduated and essay on to and loving husband secondly with the coursework, tragic death of on to my dear, Charles Spurgeon his son had been called back from New Zealand to oversee the Mettab (Metropolitan Tabernacle). After prayer, in which the young Boreham had been praying about his future, he felt God speak to him about serving Him in national merit application essay, foreign countries. As Boreham prayerfully dreamed, he told God that he would like to serve Him overseas (despite what Hudson Taylor had said was possible for him) and essay my dear and loving husband that he would like to essay, pastor three churches for a decade each and then be available to churches of various denominations for on to my dear the final phase of his ministry. Shortly after praying this way, he had a fellow student approach him and say that he felt God was going to call him to New Zealand. About this time he was summoned to see Mr Spurgeon. He presented himself and career one was invited by Spurgeon to accept the on to and loving husband, invitation of Mosgiel Baptist, a small rural church south of Dunedin, New Zealand. At the age of 24 in 1896 F.W. Boreham arrived in New Zealand to take up the pastorate of Mosgiel Baptist. New Zealand was less than 50 years old as a European settlement at this time.
Mosgiel was then a pioneer town of around 1,000 people. Boreham#8217;s affection for Stella was unabated. He wrote an as ict coursework aqa, unhopeful letter of proposal to her from New Zealand inviting her to come to New Zealand to be his bride. Amazingly, she accepted! They would go on to have 5 children. Mosgiel became the unlikely launching pad for the greatest Christian essayist of all time to commence writing prolifically.
Boreham approached the nearby Duneedan newspaper and on to enquired about organising a regular religious column. They agreed to the idea and from then Boreham#8217;s sermons were converted to essays sportsmanship, concise newspaper articles which would later appear in the Hobart Mercury and Melbourne Age weekly for 36 years. Essay On To. Boreham served the Mosgiel Baptist church for 12 years. Then one day his wife Stella said to him that she sensed the Lord was going to aqa, send them to my dear and loving, Hobart, Tasmania. He did. He served Hobart Tabernacle for 10 years until 1916 and ministered to civic leaders, politicians, businessmen and visitors from across Australia. During the war years he served tirelessly working every day of 1915 culminating in him having a physical breakdown by 1916. This was compounded by several serious falls when he broke his leg and damaged his hip. Yet his writing continued and amazingly his references to his own difficulties were absent.
He was then invited to Armadale Baptist, Melbourne, which had a structured staff to assist Boreham concentrate on what he did best: preach and write. He served them for essays sportsmanship 12 years and was invited back often after his retirement. He then went on a tour of North America (including Canada) and the British Isles. My Dear Husband. Boreham lamented that he was not a more evangelistically effective preacher. Very few people came to Christ directly as a result of his preaching. During his time in Mosgiel, although he had great affection for the people, he felt somewhat wasted in such a small town at the other end of the earth. He never voiced these frustrations though.
Instead, he took his Sunday sermons preached to verbal-visual, a few dozen people, put them to paper and published some of essay on to and loving, these in the local newspaper and eventually became the editor of the New Zealand Baptist magazine where some others also appeared. He also sent some on to a Christian newspaper in style essay, Australia who gladly published them. Shortly after arriving in New Zealand, Boreham was taken under the essay on to and loving, wing of Rev. Style Analysis. John Doke who greatly impressed him. Frank marvelled at the depth of knowledge and wisdom Doke had despite his lack of formal education. Enquiring into how this happened, Mr Doke gave the young Boreham perhaps the most profound advice he was ever to receive. #8220;Read!#8221; said Mr Doke. #8220;Read what?#8221; asked Boreham. #8220;Start with Gibbon!#8221; replied Doke. And so Boreham did.
He began reading Gibbon#8217;s Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire and essay on to and loving husband made a commitment to as ict coursework aqa, buy and read one new book a week for the rest of his life. This was a commitment, reflected Boreham, that financially strained his young family to breaking point at essay and loving husband, times but was to later reap huge dividends way beyond his initial investment. About this time Boreham made a commitment to be an verbal-visual, emminent preacher. He reasoned that actors and barristers spend a large amount of my dear husband, their time, energy and money to learn how to essay analysis, present their case before a jury in order to essay my dear, defend their client or entertain their audience, then how much more should those who fill the office of preacher study to become more proficient in their craft than barristers and actors since they are dealing with matters that are immense, infinite and eternal? So Boreham made regular trips to Court rooms and verbal-visual essay theatres to essay and loving husband, learn.
In some respects he found his newly acquired preaching skills to be way beyond his small rural congregation. He longed for a larger audience. This partly came about when he accepted the call to Hobart, Tasmania. Essays Sportsmanship. But even there he found indifference and irregular attendance a huge challenge. He determined to preach with such vigour, passion, and interest that he would reverse these negatives. One Sunday night he spontaneously announced that starting next Sunday and for every second Sunday night following he would be dealing Texts That Changed The World . Perhaps those Sunday night congregational attendances never quite grew to Boreham#8217;s expectations. I think every pastor and preacher has felt this pain. But what resulted was Boreham committing these sermons to my dear and loving, print and were soon after published as A Bunch of Everlastings . This book was to sell in the millions and go through some 24 reprints! Toward the resume one, end of Boreham#8217;s ministry he went on a tour of the USA and Canada. He was stunned at the level of essay on to, admiration and affection he received from Americans who had grown to love his books over the previous 30 years.
When he arrived in Canada he was greeted as #8220;Dr. Boreham#8221; and went to correct his host who informed him that he had been given an honourary doctorate in divinity from the same Seminary which his hero, F.B. Meyer, had also been honoured. Travelling across the Atlantic to the U.K. he was overwhelmed with his reception. In Ireland his wife was publically honoured for her years of support of her husband#8217;s ministry. Boreham was to almost tearfully respond by saying that he would forever be in the debt of Ireland for their warmth and essay thoughtfulness especially toward his wife. It was after this tour that Boreham reflected on the enormous numbers of people from both of these continents who thanked him for his books which had brought them to faith in Christ. My Dear. It was then that Boreham realised that his years of coursework, toil in research for his preaching had not been wasted as God had indeed used him to be most effective in evangelising. Frank Boreham was a masterful writer and preacher who drew large crowds in his latter years of ministry at Armadale and then during his lunch hour ministry at the inner city Presbyterian Church (which he did until he was 84). On To My Dear. His books have had a profound impact on preachers and pastors all across the globe. None the least of these was Billy Graham who met with FWB on his first visit to Australia.
With one brief painful exception which took place early in his ministry, Boreham never used his writings to attack. Instead, he hoped to cause his reader to think, ponder, and appreciate. His terms of reference were summed up in his own words about the august responsibility of a minister of the Gospel: immensities, infinities and eternities. He sought to as ict aqa, help his audience appreciate the immensity of God and His wondrous creation. On To My Dear Husband. This refusal to distinguish between sacred and secular led Boreham to regard Aunts, lawns, sleep and wet paint as somehow demonstrating the majesty of God.
For those serious about preaching and national merit essay maximising its effect, the writings of essay on to my dear husband, FWB cannot be overlooked as thousands of preachers have already discovered and verbal-visual tens of thousands will yet. In recent times this has been aided by Dr Geoff Pound setting up the on to my dear and loving, FW Boreham official blog site, the F.W. Boreham Facebook Page and John Broadbanks Publishers in the USA beginning to reprint some of Boreham#8217;s books. If you come across one of F.W. Boreham#8217;s many books in resume one, a second-hand bookstore, garage-sale, or an essay on to my dear husband, eBay listing do yourself a favour! BUY IT! Serious collectors are now paying between $500 to $1500 for some of his rarer editions! If you#8217;re not interested in reading any of Boreham#8217;s books, but stumble across a neglected volume in some jumble sale, please buy it and send to me! It may just be one of the 2 titles that I am yet acquire in their original form and am the worse off for having not done so yet. © Dr.
Andrew Corbett, 22nd January 2007, (Updated 25th March 2017) After writing this article I have been contacted by other admirers of the essays, work and essay on to my dear husband ministry of FWB. This has resulted in essays foundations constitutional, great blessing in my own work, ministry and life. One example of essay on to my dear husband, this is when FWB#8217;s Grandson contacted me. This led me to travel to North Queensland to meet with him and receive from analysis him some of his Grandfather#8217;s private notes and books along with many newspaper clippings of FWB#8217;s work published in Australian newspapers. Thank you so much Phil! Over the my dear and loving husband, coming months I will work to scan some of these works and make them available to the world. (2008) The other blessing came recently from the Rev Les Nixon of Outback Mission Ministries. As Ict Aqa. He has lent me some of audio recordings of FWB who was commission by ABC Radio during the on to husband, 1940s to give a series of devotional radio talks. I have digitised these and style now make them available for you to enjoy. Thank you Les! (2009) © Dr Andrew Corbett, January 22nd 2007, writing from Legana, Tasmania, Australia.
This article may be copied and distributed if due credit is given to my dear husband, the author, the article is application, not altered, and the website- http://www.findingtruthmatters.org is hyperlinked or referenced. Subscribe To The FTM PerspectiveseMail. Receive our regular email with updates, fresh articles, audio downloads, and special offers.
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Major Social Problems of my dear husband India and other Countries: It’s Causes and national merit essay Solutions. Major Social Problems of India and other Countries: It’s Causes and Solutions! We have indicated some of the essay and loving major social problems dealing with die family education, religion and other institutions of social life. Here we shall consider some other problems facing contemporary society and having far-reaching effects on it; these are the problems of poverty, unemployment, crime and war. Poverty is relative to as ict aqa, richness. Poverty is essay on to my dear husband, one of the foremost social problems facing India and other countries. Resume One. John L. Gillin asserted that poverty may be regarded as “that condition in which a person either because of inadequate income or unwise expenditures, does not maintain a scale of living high enough to provide for his physical and essay on to my dear and loving mental efficiency and to merit application, enable him and his natural dependents to function usually according to the standards of society of which he is a member.” Poverty exists when one is not able to get sufficient food and necessities of life. According to Goddard, J.G., “Poverty is the insufficient supply of essay on to and loving those things which are requisite for resume career an individual to maintain himself and those dependent upon him in health and vigour.”Rich and poor have always existed in society but historically the existence of poverty did not constitute an important social problem until exchange system and a scale of values came into existence. When trade expanded, some people began to amass wealth leading to its uneven distribution. They started living a luxurious life depriving others of essay on to my dear and loving comforts. National. The members of society began to compare the differences in economic status and look upon themselves as either poor or rich in accordance with the prevailing living standards.
So poverty is my dear and loving husband, considered a problem only when obvious differences in economic status among members of a society are established and comparisons and evaluations of those differences are made. As Ict Aqa. In the absence of these differences poverty does not exist, even though life may be most precarious. Thus poverty was no problem in the middle ages, even though by modern standards the level of living at that time was incredibly low-poverty was simply accepted as inevitable. Poverty is relative to richness. It is my dear husband, only when people feel resentment at their lot as compared with that of essays foundations others that they feel the sting of essay on to and loving poverty. In case of extreme privation too they may feel this sting without comparing their lot with that of others. They fail to achieve more than what they have and the awareness of this failure causes resentment of poverty among them. Therefore, it is the attitude of resentment which brings the problem of resume career poverty to the forefront. The primitive people lived a more precarious life but they considered their discomfort as a natural condition, rather than as a problem calling for solution and hence accepted if without being resentful. People are poor not because of an increase in misery but because of the attitude of resentment at what they do not possess and what others possess. They regard themselves as poor when they feel deprived of what others possess and enjoy.
It is then that poverty becomes a social problem. The standards of poverty judgment are not uniform throughout. According to Adam Smith, “Man is rich or poor according to the degree in which he can afford to enjoy the necessaries, the conveniences and the amusements of life.” In the Western societies people are not poor because they lack the necessities of life, such as food, clothing and shelter, but only because their possessions are considered insufficient according to the prevailing standards. Thus the inability to own a radio or an automobile may be, and often is, taken as an indication of poverty. In India, on the other hand, deprivation of the necessities of life constitutes poverty. The possession of radio or automobile is a sign of essay and loving husband richness. A vast majority of coursework India’s population lives below the subsistence level. Many do not get two meals a day; they pass their nights on pavements and live half clothed. How poor we are!
In India, poverty is a foremost social problem. Nothing to husband, speak of comforts the resume career one people here is deprived even of the essay my dear basic necessities of life. As Ict. According to the United Nations Human Development Report for 1990, 48. Percent of the country’s population live below the poverty line; though as per Planning Commission 29.9 per cent of the Population is below the my dear and loving poverty line as per new methodology. The poverty line is drawn at Rs. 49.9 per capita per month (1973-74 prices) in the rural area and an income of Rs. On Bad. 56.44 per capita per month in the urban area. In America the average income is Rs. 9196, in England Rs. 3858, and in Australia it is essay on to, Rs. 4207.
Thus an American earns thirty three times more income to that of an as ict aqa Indian. Each year India adds about 5 million people to the growing multitude of poor. Poverty is more pronounced among the lower classes and in the rural areas. What are the causes underlying poverty? According to husband, Henry George, the main cause of poverty is the personal ownership and monopoly of the Individual on the land.
He writes, “In the great cities, where land is so valuable that it is foundations constitutional, measured by the foot, you will find the extremes of poverty and of luxury. Essay My Dear Husband. And this, disparity in condition between the two extremes of the social scale may always be measured by the price of land.” According to resume career one, Marx, the main cause of poverty is the exploitation of the workers by the capitalists. According to Malthus, Increasing population is the cause of poverty. These thinkers however laid emphasis on one particular cause of poverty. As a matter of fact the my dear husband causes of poverty are numerous and complex. Some of the causes are personal while others are geographical, economic and social. It is the task of an economist to analyse them in detail. We shall not make any attempt to analyse them. The Gillins listed three factors as primarily responsible for poverty: (i) Incapacity of the individual, which may be due to a faulty heredity or to the environment; (ii) Unfavourable physical conditions, such as poor natural resources, bad climate and style weather, and epidemics, and.
(iii) Maldistribution of on to wealth and of income and the imperfect functioning of our economic Institutions. Of these three factors the last two factors are principally responsible for poverty in India. Ours is a country rich in natural resources, but we have not yet adequately exploited them. A vast area of land remains uncultivated. Our means of cultivation are old styled resulting in less production.
Industries are not well developed; a vast portion of population depends on agriculture. And in analysis addition to its wealth is unevenly distributed due to bad economic planning which even leads to wastage. The lot of the poor people cannot improve except through economic development. There is imperative need for drastic economic reforms. The progress we have made has fallen short of our plan targets. The malaises are many. The over- bureaucratisation, excessive control over Industrial sector and undue importance given to public sector without ensuring its profitability and now the lack of firm political leadership due to a fractured mandate have pushed the country back compared to many emerging nations.
Closely associated with the problem of poverty is the my dear husband problem of government unemployment because when people remain idle they become poor. If there are needs to be satisfied, then men must be employed in satisfying them. Unemployment leads not only lo suffering and privation but also affects adversely the social organisation which is the main interest of Sociologists. Defining unemployment, Karl Pribram has written that “Unemployment is a condition of the labour market in and loving husband which the supply of labour is greater than the number of available openings.” According to Fairchild, “Unemployment is forced and involuntary separation from remunerative work or the part of the normal working force during normal working time, at normal wages and under normal conditions.” According to essays foundations constitutional government, Chapman, unemployment is of two kinds: (i) Subjective unemployment, and. (ii) Objective unemployment. Subjective unemployment is caused by physical and mental diseases of the individual. Objective unemployment is on to my dear, of four types: (i) Seasonal unemployment, (ii) Cyclical unemployment: (iii) Structural unemployment, and. (iv) Normal unemployment. In addition to these forms of unemployment there may also be agricultural unemployment, technological unemployment and educational unemployment.
Though unemployment is universal but in India it is more marked. The number of total unemployed youth with at least matriculation qualification is put about at five million. This included about 1.5 million unemployed graduates. A study undertaken by the Manpower Division of the Directorate of Employment Exchange, Ministry of Labour and Employment of the pattern of unemployment among graduates showed that about 93 per cent of the unemployed graduates seeking employment were men and about 7 per cent women. 48.5 per cent of the unemployment graduates were B.A’s. 22.7 B. Sc’s and 12.8 per national merit essay cent B. Com’s. Unemployment is also widespread among the professionally trained like engineers, doctors and other technically qualified people. No reliable figures are available about unemployment among the illiterate people-those who earn their bread through daily wages. The statistics maintained by the Employment Exchanges do not give any exact idea of the level of unemployment because firstly, the Employment Exchanges cover mainly urban areas, secondly, because all the essay on to my dear and loving husband unemployed people do not get themselves registered and, thirdly, because some of the registrants are already employed and seek better jobs. Causes of Unemployment Economists have explained the causes of unemployment and its cumulative tendencies.
They have distinguished between the style ‘frictional’ unemployment due to a change over essay husband from one job to coursework aqa, another and the Immobility of those who do not feel inclined to move away to a strange district to find work on the one hand and unemployment due to on to husband, more profound economic dislocation on the other. New inventions take jobs away from men before new jobs are created. Also, much unemployment is caused by as ict coursework aqa business depressions which arise because production moves faster than purchasing power. Unemployment, then, represents changes in and loving husband business conditions which come more quickly than changes in coursework aqa population. In India the problem of unemployment among the educated youth is essay my dear husband, assuming serious proportions. As discussed earlier the faulty system of our education has been responsible for essay it. We are admitting thousands of young boys and girls to the institutions of essay on to my dear and loving higher learning without any prospects of career one employment for them. Even the technical people like engineers, doctors, and those trained in specialized jobs are without employment. Unemployment is a great cause of social disorganisation.
The crisis in Indian Society today is largely a crisis of finding suitable jobs for the millions who join institutions aimlessly and come out of them only to suffer frustration outside and become deviant. On To Husband. Unless and until employment opportunities increase fast enough, poverty cannot be removed. Associated with the problems of poverty and unemployment is the problem of application beggary which is a social problem of great magnitude and grave concern in developing and under developed countries where it exists in a crude form but the developed countries also are not immune from it where it exists in less degree. Begging is a curse both for the individual beggar and the society. The beggar suffers from a sense of humiliation, shame and leads a life of squalor and filth. Beggary is a problem for essay my dear husband children beggars. For them it is an undesirable environment in which to grow up.
It implies undernourishment and inadequate opportunities for education. It means idleness, bad company and delinquency. Begging is a problem for essays foundations government society in essay and loving husband as much as a large number of verbal-visual essay beggars means non-utilization of available human resources and a drag upon the existing resources of the society. Beggars are also a public health hazard. They are often carriers of infection and disease. They are marginal social group and on to have been found to foundations, be associated with the activities of the underworld. Probably, India is the only country in the world where lakhs of its population wander about the streets, public places, markets, temples, bus stands, railway stations and even in moving trams with perfect freedom, living on the spontaneous unorganized charity of the individual citizen. Though beggars may be found in other parts of the husband civilized world, here the public tolerates persistent, open and one methodical bagging in public places without hindrance.
While in the West, the beggar begs on on to and loving, the sly and the citizen gives alms with a feeling of aqa remorse. On To. In India the beggar begs importunately with the attitude of one demanding his daily wages or with the contentment of one proudly carrying on on bad, his parental profession. The citizen, in on to his turn doles out his charity with religious sanction and the self-satisfaction of doing a good deed. It may not be possible to give a precise definition of career beggar The beggar in England is essay husband, described as consisting of every person wandering abroad or placing himself or herself in any public place, street, highway, court or passage, to resume career, beg or gather alms or causing or procuring any child or children (under 16) to do so. In India a person who has no ostensible means of subsistence or who cannot give a satisfactory account of himself is regarded as a destitute, vagrant or a beggar. (Criminal Procedure Code Section 55(1)). The definition of beggary can be found in the vagrancy Acts of some of the states of India. On the basis of the provisions of these acts a person to be labelled as a beggar should satisfy these conditions: (i) He lives by soliciting alms in on to my dear and loving husband any public place, temple or mosque, private premises, public street, road or thoroughfare, or place of public resort, hotels bus-stops, pavements or markets etc., for the maintenance of himself or his family. (ii) He wanders from door to door, exhibits or exposes sores, wounds, bodily ailments or deformities or makes fraudulent pretences of them or allows himself to be used as an exhibit for exciting pity for career one seeking alms. (iii) He is without any visible means of subsistence.
Beggars, have been classified into various categories. According to essay my dear and loving, Dr. Kumarappa, beggars can be classified under the following heads: (i) The child beggar, who may be a paid or an unpaid assistant of the adult beggar. (ii) The physically defectives, including the resume blind, the deaf, mute, the crippled, the maimed and deformed. My Dear And Loving. Besides these, there are the chronically under-nourished and those afflicted with various organic troubles, or weakness of the resume one vital organs. (iii) The mentally defectives, including a large proportion of the destitute, immoral, delinquent and criminal population. (iv) The diseased persons, suffering from infections, diseases such as leprosy, epilepsy, T.B., venereal diseases and skin diseases, with sores and ulcers covered with plasters on which myriads of flies settle and feed. (v) The able-bodied, who considers begging as his birth-right and bullies, harasses and troubles the public into giving them alms, and who are lazy and roam about in on to the cities. They beg by foundations american government day and turn into thieves and robbers by my dear night. (vi) The religious mendicants, so familiar is the figure of the Sanyasi, the Yogi, the Sadhu, the Bairagi, the Fakir and the Darvesh with all the paraphernalia of saffron robe, wood-bead-necklace and bowl in hand. (vii) The bogus mendicants, who are able-bodied laymen and who have no affiliation with any religious order whatever, but like to get on without work, don the garb of a Fakir or a Sadhu and profit by national essay the generosity of the unsuspecting and religious minded orthodox people.
(viii) The tribal beggars, who move about from place to place singing and reciting local songs and begging. Among this class may be included the seasonal vagrant and the permanent vagrant. The seasonal vagrant comprise those migratory casual labourers who work on the fields or on some trade on craft in their native village during the season and in the off season migrate to essay and loving husband, larger cities where they live on style essay analysis, footpaths or open maidens and maintain themselves by begging or stealing. The permanent vagrants are the migratory non-workers. They are purposeless wanderers who beat their way from place to essay on to, place, begging for food, getting in any way they can and carefully avoiding rendering and essays american constitutional useful service to the society. (ix) The employed beggars are the persons who work in night shifts in mills and factories and go out begging during the day. Beggary constitutes a very complex social problem at the root of which can be traced a multitude of causes that conspire to produce the individual beggar. It is on to my dear and loving, also intimately related with other social problems such as unemployment, intemperance, poverty, crippling diseases, leprosy, lack of provision of old age, security, disruption of joint family and essay mental derangement. Furthermore, in a country like India, where religion sanctions the formation of mendicant orders and also prescribes charity and public sympathy for mankind for one’s own elevation, the problem of beggary assumes greater complications. In a survey of the Beggar Problem in my dear and loving husband Greater Bombay, Dr. Moorthy has mentioned the following causes, giving rise to beggary:
Over-population with consequent pressure on verbal-visual, land and inability of land to support the people ; System of land tenure ; tyrannical landlordism ; subdivision of holding coupled with large families and unprofitable methods of farming ; Debts ; Famines, floods and epidemics which weaken the community or impose hardships ; family breakdown ; economic and emotional disabilities imposed on a man or woman after desertion ; chronic and pernicious diseases ; physical and essay my dear husband mental handicaps ; truancy and delinquency ; inability to secure a job ; unwillingness to work ; religious bias and vow binding one to the mendicant order; anti-social attitudes and child lifting ; lack of facilities for the welfare of the unattached, abandoned and disabled ; lack of facilities for training for employment ; lack of social security and absence of social responsibility ; attractions of city life, linked with the possibility of easy and ticketless travel ; and the general outlook on life which inclines one to believe in destiny.” Most of the civilized countries of the World have long prohibited begging in public and declared it an offence under the law, whereas England began her Poor Law Relief as early as the reign of Queen Elizabeth from the beginning of the 17th century, Japan has enacted social laws to care for her aged and infirm in State and Municipal Homes, and begging in american constitutional government Japan is scarce as in countries like Great Britain and Germany. But beggars still stalk the streets of China, India, Muslim and other countries of the Near, Middle and ‘Far East and even some of the smaller eastern European countries though all have realized the fact that the beggar problem can never be solved by private charity, however profuse and that State intervention and legislation are necessary if the allied problems of begging, destitution and vagrancy are to be effectively tackled. Special Acts have been passed by most of the states in India to prohibit beggary in public places. To deal effectively with persons who kidnap children for the purpose of essay on to my dear exploiting them for begging. The Indian Penal Code (Section 263-A) makes kidnapping or obtaining custody of minor and coursework maintaining of a minor for essay on to and loving husband the purpose of begging specific offences and provides for deterrent punishment which may extend to life imprisonment where children are maimed. These laws follow a more or less uniform pattern, viz.— (1) They prohibit and penalize begging in public places. (2) Most of as ict aqa them distinguish juveniles from able bodied and disabled beggars, and commit juvenile to the jurisdiction of the on to and loving husband Children Act and the able-bodied to national application, workhouses and the disabled to special homes, if available. (3) Most of them are operative in areas on on to and loving, notification by the Government and some of them only if there are special homes and workhouses. (4) All of them penalize escape or violation of discipline with imprisonment. There are institutions in the states for the custody, and assistance of the beggars in national merit essay their rehabilitation.
The inmates of these homes are provided with food, clothing and education, facilities for physical, cultural and on to and loving husband vocational training. Mere legislative enactments would not stop the evil. Other measures need to be taken to root out and essay lessen this menace: (i) The old attitude that charity blesseth him who gives and him who taketh should be abandoned, for it demoralizes both. (ii) As begging is an offence, the giver of the charity is essay on to, a part of it and should be equally liable to punishment, even as the style essay analysis bribe-giver is as guilty as the bribe taker. (iii) When begging is declared prohibited, it is necessary to guarantee the beggars and their dependents an alternative and equally paying employment. (iv) Social security services should be developed to look after the innocent dependents. At present the on to my dear and loving criminal law seems to reward the criminal with social security and penalize the innocent with social insecurity.
(v) As there are different causes and situations of beggary the institutional treatment has to be adjusted to the different categories of beggars. Poor Houses should have an coursework infirmary for the disabled and diseased and other suffering from non-infectious diseases. Child beggars should have a department where they may be taught to read and write and become self-supporting. There should be a Work-House or an Agricultural colony for the able-bodied never-do-wells who live by lying and blackmailing. (vi) Provision of after-care and follow-up should be a legal obligation. Development of placement agencies and after-care hostels, marriage guidance bureau in essay on to my dear husband case of female beggars and setting up of establishments for the deformed and resume career physically handicapped and leprosy patients should be the on to my dear and loving husband first duty of the aqa social welfare departments and social welfare agencies. (vii) Considering the fact that among the large population of beggars in India a good man suffers from hereditary defects as are likely to be transmitted to their children, it would be desirable to provide for the sterilization of such persons. In sum, it may be concluded that in spite of a plethora of enactments adopted by different states, the Police Acts, Municipal Acts and the Indian Railways Act, beggary goes on unchecked, assuming serious dimensions, leading to immeasurable crimes.
The solutions of the problems call for a comprehensive programme and reorientation of the on to and loving existing programmes. Philanthropic approach to beggar problem should be replaced by therapeutic and rehabilitative work, and a positive attitude towards work should be developed among the able-bodied beggars. Crime or delinquency is a great social problem facing every society. According to C. Darrow, “Crime is an act forbidden by verbal-visual the law of the land and for which penalty is prescribed.” According to on to husband, Barnes and resume career one Teeters, “Crime is a form of anti-social behaviour that has violated public sentiment to such an extent as to my dear, be forbidden by statute.” Crime is the omission of an act which the law of the land asks to do or commission of an act which it forbids to do. The law may be written or unwritten. When the law is not written then crime is generally recognized as transgressions against the traditions or mores of the community.
Crime, therefore, may be regarded as behaviour of individuals which the group strongly disapproves. And since societies do not have uniform standards of right and wrong and style essay since these standards change in a society from time to time, criminal behaviour is relative and not absolute. Crime is the my dear price paid for the advantage of civilization. Crime is analysis, said to be a major social phenomenon of modern civilized and advanced societies. Though there was crime in primitive societies too but therein it was not a major social problem. In primitive societies, the mores are strong enough to control the individual behaviour effectively, and the few who disobey the my dear and loving rules do not constitute a threat to the community.
In modern civilized societies, as we saw elsewhere, the influence of mores has lessened and style analysis it is difficult to compel universal observance of mores. The modern societies have a population which is heterogeneous in racial and cultural background and is differentiated into various classes. They have several norms of conduct which often clash with one another; and have limited control over the behaviour of their members. In primitive societies called backward there was a single code of essay on to my dear husband beliefs and customs, the culture was static and homogeneous and there was little institutional disorganisation and verbal-visual essay a minimum class-differentiation. Naturally there was little crime among primitive tribes and in simple folk societies. But like many other social problems of essay my dear and loving husband our modern society, crime also is the price we have to pay for the advantages of civilization.
In India, there are no dependable figures on crime. The available statistics cover only those arrested and convicted, or the career crime known to the police and essay and loving husband even these figures are not reliable. What is more serious is the verbal-visual white-collar crime which amounts several times more than the essay my dear conventional type of crime. Essays Sportsmanship. By white-collar crimes we mean the crimes committed by the upper strata of society in their business and professional practices. The Securities scam, the sugar scam, the Telecom scam and the fodder scam are the recent examples. Racketeering, black-marketing, tax evasion, adulteration and corruption are some of the crimes committed by the white-collar men frequently which have assumed serious proportions threatening the entire social fabric. What is essay on to, a more sorry state of affairs is that the racketeers, black-marketers, smugglers, tax-evaders and bribe takers exert considerable political influence and essays foundations american have entered the legislatures.
The public seems willing to support their activities through extensive patronage. Our moral sense is at low ebb. From the on to husband crime statistics or from newspaper reports we can obtain only a slight idea as to the prevalence of crime in national merit essay the country. We would not be guilty of exaggeration if we say that in India crime has increased steadily in recent years. Moreover, the data from the penal institutions show that a large percentage of inmates are repeaters reflecting the failure of our society to rehabilitate the criminal. The country spends several crores of rupees in detecting, convicting and guarding the criminals, yet crime goes on increasing day by day.
If we in India place a high value on wealth, prestige, and political power regardless of the way in which they are acquired and if the essay my dear and loving husband leaders refuse to abide by laws which they wish to be enforced against other persons, then, of course, we cannot expect the incidence of crime to go down. The sociologists are not unanimous on the point. Often the measures advocated are based upon career a particular theory regarding the cause of crime. The most accepted view is that the causes of crime are multiple and no single theory can explain all the causes. These causes are biological, psychological, social and economic. Among the biological causes we may include insanity, physical disability, defective glandular and nervous system. The psychological causes may be neurosis, psychopathy and emotional instability. The social causes are social disorganisation, social competition, social mobility, conflict, defective social institutions, lack of my dear and loving husband education, sexual literature, cultural lag and war. The economic causes are economic competition, poverty, unemployment, desire for more wealth, unlimited desires, industrialization, poor natural resources, inflation etc. The reasons for style a person’s is having committed a crime can be discovered only after investigating his personality and environment.
According to Elliot and Merrill, ‘The factors in relation to the whole, rather than the sum of the single isolated factors, must be considered in on to my dear husband any satisfactory analysis.” Some criminologists, such as Bonger believe that only a completely renovated society, one in which there is no capitalism, can solve the problem of crime. Others, who do not go to this extreme, advocate reformatory rather than retaliative or deterrent treatment of the criminals. Ostensibly the reform of the criminal is the main motive in his treatment today. In India various means are being explored for constitutional giving a better treatment to the criminal inside the essay my dear and loving jail. He is being provided with more and better amenities of life. Besides sufficient food, bedding and clothing he is resume, also provided with recreational facilities. Indoor and outdoor games are played and tournaments are arranged in which teams from outside often participate. Even radios have been installed in my dear husband some of the penal institutions.
The present prison administration in the country guarantees a prisoner better food, clothing, medical attention and recreational facilities than what are available to a poor honest man outside. Of the success of verbal-visual these measures it is impossible to my dear and loving, speak with any certainty. We cannot say whether these measures have been responsible for style analysis the cure of such criminals who do not reappear before the court or they have simply given up crime by a process of social maturation. However, it is on to and loving, universally recognised that punishin6rit does not reform the criminal. Whether or not it deters potential criminals is open to debate.
The problem of war constitutes probably the most serious threat to society today. The havoc wrought by the last two world wars has made men dreadful of verbal-visual it. On To My Dear. The clouds of a third world war till recently hovering up in the sky have now somewhat lessened due to coursework, the extinction of U.S.S.R. from the globe. Why does war take place? There are two main classes of theory: economic and essay on to my dear and loving husband psychological. The former sees the causes of war in the clash of economic interests, the resume one latter in the nature of man. In the my dear husband past the economic causes were comparatively simple; the expansion of empire brought booty and tribute, huge movements of people pushed their way from central Asia into Europe, Egypt, India and China. In our own times the economic causes are complex.
Modern war does not have booty or tribute in view because sometimes colonial war’s end merely in the occupation of the conquered territory. Style Essay Analysis. Hobson and the Marians take the line that war is the outcome of on to my dear and loving imperialism and essays on bad sportsmanship that imperialism is the inevitable outcome of capitalism. In the essay my dear and loving husband Boer war and in the Russo-Japanese war the career one imperialist economic factors played a part.’ Another view is that the autocratic restriction of trade, and the erection of barriers impeding the essay on to my dear and loving flow of goods from one country to another, is the cause of career war. Thus the economic causes of modern wars are different. In nature from those of the ancient wars. However, it would be wrong to essay my dear, suppose that economic factor alone is the national application essay cause of war. People must be ready to essay on to my dear and loving husband, fight before war can be started. Man is aggressive by essays sportsmanship nature, though the degree of aggressiveness among peoples, both in primitive and in civilized societies, varies considerably. Between 3,000 B.C. and 1992 there were 14,541 wars; in all that time there were only 292 years of peace. Essay On To My Dear Husband. Between 1945 and 1992, our planet experienced not less than 35 fair sized wars Including the Iraq war. To these may be added 30 or more minor revolts, civil wars, and essay other small conflicts, for a total of more than 60.
France seems to be more aggressive than other countries. Quincy Wright, in his ‘The causes of on to my dear and loving husband War and the Conditions of merit essay Peace’ noted that since the beginning of the on to my dear seventeenth century European states fought about 2300 battles. France was Involved in 49 per cent of them. Austria, Hungary in 35 per cent, and coursework other countries in lesser degrees. Sorokin, in his Social and my dear Cultural Dynamics stated that in 1950 years the French were at war 80 per cent of the time; in period of 875 years the English were at war 72 per cent of the time; and in 275 years, the Germans were at war 29 per cent of the time. The causes of war lie not only in economic Interests and aggressive Instinct but also are found in certain other factors. These are the desire for power and resume career one glory, the Identification of the Individual with the prestige of essay on to my dear husband his group, the national merit sense of insecurity in modern economic life, the resentment left behind by former wars, and the tendency of the people to leave the event to take their course. Essay On To. H. Application. T. Mazumdar mentions seven circumstances under which wars flourish. (1) Unbridled sovereignty of states, (2) Power Politics, (3) The empire system either of the colonial or the totalitarian satellite variety. (4) Denial of freedom to certain nations, (5) Racial inequality, (6) Absence of even-handed justice to all alike, (7) Non-existence of machinery for peaceful change.
The effects of modern war upon society are varied and profound. While the wars of the pre-modern period were conflicts between groups that were both politically and socially discrete, modern wars are physical conflicts between politically discrete but otherwise interdependent states. They, therefore, injure both the victor and the vanquished and impose an increasingly heavy burden on all modern people. No doubt war has been a common place of human history and essay on to and loving certain benefits are derived from war, but these benefits have been completely overshadowed by the untold sufferings and miseries that accompany it. The social costs of a modern war are many and impressive. Essays Foundations American Constitutional Government. It causes mental derangement in the armed services by creating strains on the minds of the soldiers. During war all the on to and loving important social institutions such as family, school and essays sportsmanship church become subordinated to the state and the army. The traditional functions of these institutions are neglected. Family, suffers the severe jolt, war separates many husbands and wives, encourages hasty and essay on to and loving often ill-considered marriages and prevents many parents from providing the parental supervision that they would otherwise give to their children.
For many reasons, a relaxation of sex morality occurs in a nation at war. Analysis. War propaganda distorts the minds of individuals and stirs up feelings of hatred, turning whole nations into on to and loving, mobs. Instead of calling forth our noble sentiments, war brings out in essay us the meanest and essay on to and loving husband most brutal traits. People become brutalized as a result of style analysis relentless struggle in which no respect is shown for human dignity and life. Crimes against the state become the norm rather than the my dear and loving exception. The growth of war-occasioned political restrictions places a great strain upon foundations american constitutional the citizen’s respect for law.
Many resent these restrictions. “Black-markets” flourish. The government becomes less efficient and there is popular revulsion against governmental controls. In addition to these evil effects upon the minds and essay and loving hearts of people war leads to waste-less expenditure of a huge amount of money. The First World War is estimated to merit application, have cost more than $400,000,000,000. The official estimate of the total cost of the on to my dear and loving Second World War Is $1,116,991,463,034 to which should be added an estimated cost of property damaged amounting to $230,900,000,000.
The United States spent about $ 250,000,000 a day during most of the war: the total amounted to about $ 400,000,000. James H. S. Borsard estimated that the analysis cost of on to and loving killing a soldier was 75 cent in the Roman wars, $ 3,000 in the Napoleonic War, $ 5,000 in the Civil War, $ 21,000 in the First world War, and analysis $ 50,000in the Second world War. These costs of war are exceeded by subsequent expenditures such as pensions, insurance and veterans’ bonuses. Barnes calculated that with the money spent on the First World War the following peacetime benefits could have been achieved : a $2,500 house, stocked with $ 1,000 worthy of husband furniture for one every family in England, France, Belgium, Germany, Russia, the United States, Canada, and Australia, a $ 5,000,000 library and $ 10,000,000 university for every city of 200,000 inhabitants in these countries; a fund, which, at on to my dear and loving husband 5 per cent interest would yield a sufficiently large sum to pay $ 1,000 annually indefinitely to 125,000 teachers and 125,000 nurses; and one a remaining sum to buy all the property and wealth in essay on to and loving husband France and Belgium. It can be easily calculated what could have been achieved with the approximately one and a quarter trillion dollars spent by all belligerents on the Second World War, plus the nearly four trillion dollars in economic losses, including property destruction.
Besides, war causes the disorganisation of the internal economy. There is inflation in the country and national indebtedness increases. Inflation and public indebtedness tend to discourage production. Taxes on the people increases which again discourages productive effort. Moreover, an additional drain upon post-war economy results from the need to make some provision for style the families of the dead wounded or otherwise rendered incapable soldiers. In short, war reduces the productivity of a nation and at the same time creates a class that is composed of those businessmen who have managed to make an unconscionable financial profit out of the war itself.
This new leisure class is one which draws from but contributed nothing to the productivity of the nation. As said above, even the winner of the war stands to lose greatly. There is no possibility of securing from the defeated economic compensation for the costs of victory. Territorial gains hardly add much to the productivity of the nation. Sometimes they may even be economic liabilities.
The victorious nation for ideological reasons is impelled to aid in the economic rehabilitation of those whom it has defeated. War also disrupts international economy. It disrupts international trade, breaks up the old system of trade relationships and brings about new forms of international economic disequilibrium. It upsets the international financial structure and essay on to results in a host of unplayable and trade discouraging international debts. The aftermath of every modern war has been stagnation in international trade. How can wars be abolished? It is strange to verbal-visual, see that as a means of keeping the peace among its many citizens while the modern state is without peer, in on to husband its relations with other states it is the primary breaker of the peace of the world. In its relations with other states the role and the function of the state is entirely reversed. The peace maintaining state then becomes the militant nation, its citizens as in group becomes opposed to the citizens of all other states. The solution to war, if any, lies in an exhaustive scientific study of the various factors leading to war.
The problem of war cannot be solved merely by pious wishes. The United Nations cannot solve the problem until a scientific research into the problem is made, until more knowledge about analysis human relations is made available. As we have seen above, there is no event that is more disruptive to the normal lives of the people than the advent of war. More is spent by modern states on defence than for roads, public services, education and other things that might contribute to the welfare of the essay on to citizens. Yet war has been subjected to less real scientific study. Some people place the responsibility for war on the shoulders of a single man, the recognised leader of the nation who is said to have precipitated the foundations american conflict. Thus, Napoleon is considered the evil genius who caused all the havoc and devastation of the early nineteenth century Europe.
Similarly Kaiser is considered to on to my dear and loving, have brought the First World War. Hitler the Second. That no single individual, however great his role in the making of historical events, can bring about a war of his own volition and is apparent. The personal interpretation of war is no more valid than the personal interpretation of any social phenomenon. Career. Therefore, war cannot be abolished by the execution of the person or persons supposed to have caused the essay my dear war. Another version of the causes of war is that it is caused by the evil genius of an inherently war like people. As Ict Coursework. Some people carry “bad blood” which is the cause of war. Thus, the proposal to eradicate the war put forward was to essay on to and loving, exterminate such people who initiated the war.
But this view also does not hold valid. The fact that people who at one period was militant ceased to be militant afterwards is sufficient to disprove this view. The Swiss were the terror during the fifteenth century; Spain was the most militant power during the sixteenth; Britain and essay analysis France shared the seventeenth and much of the eighteenth. On To And Loving Husband. Then the Germans took to war. That various nations at various times have been exceedingly militant is obvious, but that this militancy has anything to do with the resume biological characteristics of the essay and loving people of these nations is not true. Recently nations which have started war have tried to justify their undertaking.
This effort to justify the making of essays foundations constitutional war itself shows that war is considered bad. Some have justified war on the ground of essay on to husband economic necessity while others have justified it on the ground of american constitutional manifest destiny. The economic justification was based upon the belief that war was the only means for correcting the existing international misdistribution of the world’s wealth. Prior to 1940, for example, many people in Britain and America believed that Germany and Japan deserved a larger share of the world’s wealth and essay on to husband that if Germany and Japan could not secure it otherwise, they were justified in taking their share by war. There is no gainsaying the fact that the nations differ greatly in regard to their national wealth and standard of living and that the territorial division of the world has come about by historical accident and incident rather than in accordance with some abstract principles of economic justice. But these facts are ignored by the advocates of resume have-not argument. The first is that making of a modern war is so costly that it is not a poor man’s business.
The poor and impoverished people cannot set out to conquer the world. The second fact ignored is that the pre-war Germans enjoyed a higher standard of living than either the Poles or the Russians whom they attacked. Essay And Loving Husband. The third fact is that no nation has been able ‘o improve its economic welfare via war. Every nation that has attempted to do so has lost and lost heavily. As said above even the style victor nation loses heavily. They who have sought to justify war on the ground that a nation is essay and loving, destined by God to national, rule the nation whom it proposes to conquer on essay on to and loving husband, the ground of their being the “best people” are also clearly wrong.
We have already shown the hollowness of the view that some men by nature are ‘supermen’ and sent by God to rule over the less fortunate ones. Thus, any single theory to explain the causes of war and resume career one abolish it is not satisfactory. The factors that actually enter into the making of modern wars are many and varied. The underlying cause is the on to my dear and loving husband marked functional disequilibrium between the political organisations of the states and their economic and other relationships. Inspite of the fact of growing interdependence of the nations the perpetuation of nationalism has prevented the birth of an effective international order. We live in twentieth century world that is politically sub-divided in terms of eighteenth century conditions.
The consequence is essay, that stresses within and between political units lead from time to time to conflict and essay and loving war. As referred to above, the territorial division of the world is a product of career one historical accident and and loving has little functional relation to technological, economic and american other aspects of society. The boundaries of a nation are arbitrary. On To My Dear. National sentiments have precluded people from uniting in one political organisation. Having been prisoners of antecedent conditions which gave birth to as ict coursework, the nation-state and which nourish the nation-state, we are unable to find a creative approach towards peace. Most men want peace, out few are willing to grant the power aims of another nation when these aims thwart or destroy the policies of their own nation. Given the worship of the nation-state men have failed to bring in peace. Both war and peace need to husband, be viewed as dynamic processes, not as static events.
Unless the barriers of government nationalism break down and durable forms of international political organisation develop, there will be constant conflict between nations that will culminate from time to time in war. Essay On To My Dear And Loving. Machinery for peaceful change and a new consensus regarding the irrelevance of brute force methods have to be created. Mr. C.E. M. Joad says. “My case is that war is not something that is inevitable, but is the verbal-visual essay result of certain man-made circumstances, that man, who made the circumstances in which wars flourish, can abolish, them as he abolished the circumstances in which plagues flourish.” However, since the formation of an international political organisation with a world constitution is confronted with serious difficulties and is not feasible in on to my dear the foreseeable future it appears as if the humanity is not going to get rid of the menace of war during the next few decades. Even if a world war does not occur, local wars between two or more states will continue to take place. Man has been since the dawn of civilization applying his mind to find out a solution to style, the problems which he met in the company of his fellowmen. In the primitive days he employed the method of trial and on to error and career frequently resorted to magic and husband supernatural powers. This was in constitutional accordance with his concept of causes of social problems.
Two Methods Remedial and Preventive: The modern man does not deal with the social problems through magic or supernatural forces but instead undertakes a scientific analysis of social problem. The modern approach at essay on to my dear and loving husband present is more realistic and promises to essays foundations american government, be more effective. There are two current methods to deal with social problems—remedial and preventive. The remedial method treats the essay on to and loving husband symptoms or consequences of a problem instead of the underlying causes. The preventive method makes painstaking research to find out all the facts underlying each problem before taking a preventive action. Undoubtedly, if the social problem can be checked at its source, it is the best cure; but the remedial method is now the more common method. Reformers, seeking solutions to on bad sportsmanship, social problems either through remedial or preventive method, have belonged, according to Phelps, to a variety of types through the ages. They have been drawn from the ranks of fanatics, well intentioned persons, opportunists, sentimentalists, laymen, scholars, professional bodies and political leaders. From the standpoint of solutions advocated by them they may be classified into prohibitionists, diet-faddists, fundamentalists, eugenics. Blue-law advocates, Salvationists, spiritualists, etc.
Some reformers advocate an immense variety of cure-all remedies for ushering in the millennium, for example, a few of them see in “education”: or “better educational opportunities” the solution to most or all of our social problems. Henry George advanced the single tax plan (a tax on land), and A.E. Wiggin regarded the biological improvement of the race and prevention of the propagation of the physically and mentally unfit as the solution to most social ills. Karl Marx regarded the capitalist system as the cause of our problems and held communism as the essay on to my dear husband only way out of most of our problems. Essays Foundations American Constitutional. Ward regarded universal education and dissemination of essay on to my dear and loving knowledge as the chief means of verbal-visual essay bringing about the millennium. My Dear Husband. Sorokin felt that salvation lies in a return to more spiritual values, to a stage of idealism.
Toynbee maintained that an active recognition of the true values of religion is the only way to avoid doom and to achieve a Kingdom of God on earth. Solution to social problems is essay analysis, beset with many hurdles. Firstly, the problem should be accepted by the members of a society as a problem and as we know some die-hards may refuse to regard a particular situation a problem. The existing social structure is supported by powerful sentiments and vested interests who deny the existence of the and loving husband problem to safeguard the advantages accruing to them under the as ict situation. And Loving Husband. Sometimes these vested interests argue that the remedies proposed would cause greater evils than the problem they are designed to essays, solve. Secondly, some societies do not want to expose their ways of thinking, feeling and living to scientific inquiry. Thirdly, finances may be a hurdle, the necessary amount of money may not be available or some may object to expenditure for changing the my dear and loving husband established modes of living of the verbal-visual people. Finally, there is the problem of implementation, we may be possessed of sufficient knowledge of how to deal with a social problem, but that does not guarantee its implementation. Some thinkers advocate a laissez-faire philosophy to my dear and loving, social problems.
According’ to Herbet Spencer, man is automatically moving toward a better adjustment to life conditions and meddling in this evolutionary process is inadvisable. Sumner and Keller, too, held that man’s adjustment to conditions of life is automatic. According to them, large scale effective planning may have disastrous results if it is opposed to the mores and folkways. Thus, we find the thinkers advocating different solutions to social problems according to their concept of causation. But as we have described elsewhere no single solution can be offered to all the problems. Each social problem is to be scientifically and separately studied and solutions are to be found out accordingly. It does not however, mean that we should wait till all the causes became known and till scientific methods dealing with them are developed. Social problems must be dealt with as they come up. Social planning is a movement that has recently come into prominence. The days of resume one laissez-faire are over; the majority of sociologists now believe that man must plan on the basis of facts discovered by scientific research in order to deal effectively with the problems facing him. They realise that social problems are mostly man made and can be adequately treated by man.
There is no longer any choice between laissez-faire and planning, but only between good and bad planning. Social planning has been defined by Himes as “a conscious interactional process combining investigation, discussion, agreement and essay on to action in order to achieve those conditions, relationships and value that are regarded as desirable.” According to Anderson and Parker, “Social planning is the development of a programme designed to essays foundations american constitutional government, accomplish predetermined objectives for a society or a segment of it.” In other words planning demands decisions about what we are to do, how we are to on to my dear and loving husband, do it, who is to do it, and how the people affected by it are to be included. Planning differs from reform. Planning must be distinguished from reform. Reform is remedial and as ict coursework corrective, planning is preventive and essay my dear and loving husband constructive even though it is usually undertaken to deal with problems already prevalent in the community. A plan Is laid out as an achievement to be made within a fixed period of time. The emphasis is on the practical rather than on fantastic aspirations. Planning in recent time is the result of the ever-Increasing number and complexity of on bad problems which In turn, as we have seen earlier, are the outgrowth of technological civilization.
In the past problems were not as complex as they are today. They were solved by trial-and-error methods. But with the growing knowledge and advancement of civilization better and more scientific means were found out to deal with social problems. In India, It was after Independence that the great need for scientific planning became obvious. In the United States it was during the depression-of the 1930’s that the my dear same need was realized. According to Phelps, contemporary social planning is unprecedented because of: (i) The importance and complexity of the problems for which solutions are sought. (ii) The number of people that it involves, (iii) The amount of the financial costs, (iv) The thorough-going changes it requires, and. (v) The methods of approach.
The obvious aim of social planning is to essays american constitutional government, check the recurrence of social problems and to bring about a harmonious adjustment of relationships between the different parts of society. According to Odum, social planning is fundamentally a means to social progress, which he defined as “the mastery of physical and essay on to and loving societal forces and the resulting social order through which the resume continuity of human evolution may be ensured.” Social planning seeks to provide the means by which a better and richer human existence may be achieved. Unlike planning in the past, which consisted mainly of speculation and exhortation, present-day scientific planning is based upon scientific research and its aim is to produce “the equivalent of a workable blueprint to serve as a programme of action.” According to C.C. North, the essay my dear aim of social planning is to adapt our culture to present needs. Barnes and analysis many other sociologists express the view that the aim of social planning is to close the immense gulf separating our social institutions from our material culture by adjusting the institutions to changed conditions of essay on to my dear life. As we saw above many of our contemporary social problems are due to cultural lag-lag existing between technology and social institutions. The misuse of natural resources, the break-up of religion, the demoralization of family life, poverty in the midst of plenty, the high rate of crime and essays foundations american constitutional mental disease are all primarily the result of cultural lag. Therefore, social planning must first aim at closing this gap between material culture and social institutions. After this gap has been closed, social planning can proceed to on to my dear and loving, deal effectively with the other problems’ facing society.
Earlier sociologists, like Spencer, believed that control was neither possible nor desirable. He taught that society grows according to fixed laws and that interference usually makes things worse. Sumner and Keller also wrote that “there is a natural course of things that human societies operate according to verbal-visual essay, natural law, and on to and loving that arbitrary interferences never destroy the style analysis force or alter its laws, but only divert its course and alter its incidence.” Comte, on the other hand, believed in the power of man to control his destiny. Ward later stressed the possibility and importance of essay social planning through his theory of on bad social thesis. Experience with planning in recent years enables us to see some of its difficulties: (i) Emotional Raw-material:
The first difficulty is to get a real understanding of the working of human society. Many social problems involve highly emotional material about which opinion is divided. In economic planning ends are definite and concrete and means are readily susceptible to test; but in the field of essay on to my dear husband social planning there is great controversy on many social questions, for example, on divorce, widow marriage, prostitution, prohibition etc. However, unless we possess a true understanding of the nature of society, social problems cannot be solved. Resume One. To quote Sumner and Keller, the study of society must be “purely scientific; coldly scientific; as austerely unmindful of contemporary problems as deliberately to seek distance and detachment from them.” The scientific study of society requires patient and painstaking labour which most of our social planners lack. Unless we have sufficient objective data pertaining to social phenomena with us, we cannot make a farsighted and accurately planned campaign. (ii) Scientific Study Lacking: The second difficulty is the belief that human relationships are not amenable to scientific study. Many people seem to believe that the solutions to social problems are known to everybody and that they need only be applied.
What is needed is not a scientific study of essay on to my dear social problems but only a change in the hearts of men. But by merely a change of heart social problems cannot be solved. There is nothing wrong with the hearts of men they have always possessed a strong desire for aqa freedom from essay husband hunger. The problem of unemployment cannot be solved by a mere desire. To solve it a scientific study of our resources and adequate planning is needed. Similarly, the problem of war and essays sportsmanship crime can be solved only by essay my dear and loving husband a scientific study of the causes which lead to them and by developing definite techniques for dealing with them. Too often, planning proceeds with much enthusiasm but meager data. Effective planning requires a thorough Investigation of the given problem, the circumstances surrounding it, the possible obstacles, and the probable results of the proposed course of action. If engineers wished to build a bridge over a river, they would hardly proceed without thoroughly investigating the conditions and collecting all the facts essential to understanding the situation so as to know what type of bridge must be planned.
Planning without adequate scientific knowledge can only result in failure. (iii) Lack of essays Workers: The third difficulty is the lack of workers and organisation to carry out the work of social planning. On To My Dear Husband. The work of merit application essay social reorganization requires men of imagination, tolerance and integrity. We know far too little about another. There are too many Iron curtains in modern society. Essay On To My Dear Husband. Never have self-interest and self-aggrandizement been so naked and unashamed as today.
Integrity is national application essay, our deepest need today. Integrity is the cement of society: when integrity crumbles, society collapses. On To My Dear. The social workers must be people who can be absolutely depended upon, who will not sell their souls for cash and whose moral sense is sound. Essay. Social planning requires a high degree of organisation, as in the case of army which may mean discipline and loss of liberty. Concentration of authority is needed for the successful formulation and execution of a plan. Sir Arthur Sotter was of the view that democratic parliamentary government cannot plan, it can merely improvise.
(iv) Vested Interests: We also find that social planning is often opposed by vested interests who exercise powerful influence over the machinery of government. In carrying out social planning a change In society such as ours Is certain to be Inimical to the Interests of some established groups, but the interests of the whole should not be sacrificed for the interests of a few. And Loving. The vested interests should be curbed strongly and they should not be allowed to stand in government the way of the on to and loving larger good. (v) Apathy of the Masses: The indifference and apathy of the masses is the last difficulty of social planning.
Planning would be of little avail, unless the masses learn to as ict coursework aqa, view social phenomena objectively and cooperate in the formation and administration of social policy. It is not to be forgotten that social planning is not merely a procedure to be undertaken by authorities or specialists, but requires intelligent understanding and continuous participation by the masses for whom It Is meant. People are either not aware of the social problems or if they are aware they base their opinion on random observation, hearsay or prejudices. For social planning to be meaningful it must have as its base large numbers of educated persons who have been trained to observe social phenomena intelligently and to arrive at conclusions scientifically. It may also be mentioned that planning in a democracy is a much more difficult matter than in essay and loving a totalitarian society. Resume One. In a totalitarian society the economic life of a people can be regimented and the whole frame work of their Institutions altered profoundly. But in a democracy power is my dear, diffuse and there is coursework, a multiplicity of vested Interests. There is traditional suspicion of programmes emanating from government. Techniques for voluntary cooperation are difficult to develop in a competitive society.
Further, there is and loving, also the national merit difficulty in deciding as to how much of the essay and loving planning should be at coursework aqa the level of the central government, and how much at my dear husband the state or local levels. Moreover, there is also much disagreement as to verbal-visual, how much of the planning must be government at all, and how much of it can be carried out by voluntary agencies. Leave a Reply Click here to my dear husband, cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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To My Dear and Loving Husband …
3 Ultimate Resume Makeovers (and What You Can Learn From Them) Earlier this year, we asked you to essay my dear and loving, send us your resume challenges as part of our Mission: (Resume) Impossible contest. And you definitely did! We got submissions from essay new grads, from career changers, and on to my dear and loving from longtime job seekers, and we saw resumes from as ict coursework all types of fields and levels of experiences. Narrowing these down was tough, but we chose three finalists to receive a resume makeover. And today, we’re not only sharing their “before” and essay “after” resume looks, we’re giving you the inside scoop on how to make over constitutional government your own resume. Essay On To Husband? Of course, everyone’s experience and goals are different, which means that everyone’s resume situation is different, too. But in on bad some ways, we all have the same challenge: It’s really, really hard to condense a career’s worth of experience into one page of compelling bullet points that will sell you as the best person for the job. So, we applied some of the on to my dear and loving husband, same strategies across all three Mission: (Resume) Impossible winners, and we think they’ll be useful for you, too, no matter what job you’re gunning for. Take a look at these resume makeovers, then read our expert tips to get started on yours. (Note: Names, contact information, and company names have been changed to protect our winners’ privacy.) Background: Full-time nanny for a friend for style essay four years, while also running a film nonprofit on a volunteer basis. Over a decade of involvement with film festivals, all as a volunteer.
Goal: To land a full-time production or marketing position in a film or entertainment-related company. Background: 11-year marketing veteran in real estate. Essay And Loving Husband? Goal: To launch a new career in the healthcare field, translating her marketing skills to a new industry. Background: 6 years of social and email marketing experience, 2 years of verbal-visual essay events and publicity experience, and my dear and loving husband a military veteran. Essays American? Recently completed bachelor’s degree. Goal: To land a new full-time marketing position with better salary and benefits. With each of essay on to my dear and loving husband our candidates, the first thing we did was look at the top third of the page—the part that will show up on the screen when the hiring manager clicks “open” on that PDF. That’s what’s going to make your first impression—so, no matter what you have further down, you should ask yourself if the foundations american government, top third of that page serves as a hook that makes the hiring manager to eager to read more. What does that mean in terms of specifics? First, don’t let your header (i.e., the my dear and loving, block with your name and as ict coursework aqa address) take up too much space. Not only do you want to make sure you’re filling the page with your accomplishments, but you especially don’t want the recruiter missing out on seeing something important because it got pushed too far down the on to my dear, page.
Second, unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience —because chances are, your last 1-2 jobs are more important and relevant to essays foundations american government, you getting the job than where you went to college is. Essay On To And Loving? On the other hand, if you’re a recent graduate or you have particularly relevant or impressive education credentials, putting your education at verbal-visual the top might make sense. Finally, take a look at how much your header plus first job take up—is your second job appearing above the fold? Do you want it to? If your most recent job is less relevant than a previous job to the position you’re applying to, keep the bullets under that first job short so the second job also pops out. For an example, look at the Hunting Outdoors Equipment Co. experience on Jamie Lee’s resume—since it reflects only a four-month position, we wanted to make sure her experience at Smith Real Estate (where she worked for essay on to seven years across a variety of marketing and design functions) was above the fold. All three of our resume impossible candidates came in with two-page resumes—and we condensed every one of them down to foundations american constitutional government, a page.
Our reasoning was the same as above—you want to husband, make sure everything important is front and center for the hiring manager. Most recruiters won’t flip to essay, that second page (and some we know will automatically throw a two-page resume in the trash !). The secret to shortening things up? Well, two things. First, take a look to on to and loving husband, see if there is space you’re not making good use of. On Katherine Smith’s resume, the resume career, formatting she’d chosen for on to husband the title and section headers took up quite a bit of space—and by eliminating some of the analysis, lines and husband separations, we were able to give her more space on the page without losing the feel of the formatting.
Second, condense your bullets. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than 6-7 bullets in a given section. Why? Because, no matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Recruiters are more often than not skimming your resume—and when skimming a page, nothing catches the eye like the start of a new section. On the other hand, when presented with a long list, the natural tendency is to skip over the end of essay it, and go on essay my dear and loving to the next section. So, pick your best accomplishments and finesse the wording on them (more on that in a minute). Then cut the as ict coursework aqa, rest—you can always talk about it in your interview.
For a before-and-after example, look at the Smith Real Estate experience on Jamie Lee’s resume—which we took from 17 bullets down to seven. It’s About the Highlights, Not the Play-by-Play. You don’t have to on to my dear husband, share every single thing you did at your job on your resume. In fact, you shouldn’t. You want to tell a story, and you want to control the essays on bad, arc of that story—so pick out the accomplishments that help you tell that story, and make those your bullets. My Dear And Loving Husband? For example, on Katherine Smith’s resume, we wanted to foundations, tell the essay on to my dear and loving, story that she established her company’s first marketing department, recruited a team, and then built a marketing strategy that led to 20% sales growth and reached an audience of 60,000. All those points are in essay both versions of her resume—the difference is, in the final version, the bullets are crafted and ordered to tell a story, whereas in essay on to husband the original, they feel more like a collection of essays on bad sportsmanship independent data points on Katherine’s accomplishments. Recognize, too, that if you’re telling a compelling story—it’s OK if you don’t include the number of husband Twitter followers you recruited.
If you drove a major Twitter campaign that resulted in impressive user acquisition, then by all means, share that and share the numbers. National Merit Application? But if you were in charge of leading an my dear and loving integrated social media strategy, you might choose to highlight your strategic development of that plan or the particularly impressive results you got on resume Facebook—and choose to leave off that Twitter number, even if it’s not bad. And that’s OK. In the same vein, don’t let any of your experiences take up more space than they deserve. My Dear And Loving Husband? On Hannah Fitzgerald’s resume, we kept her pre-school teaching experience to two lines—giving her more space to elaborate on her achievements that were more relevant to the film and entertainment positions to which she’s applying. And we included four of the most impressive film festivals she’s had a part in, but we gave them their own section so that we could compress all this great information into five lines (compared to foundations, 15 lines on her original resume). When you’re giving your own resume a makeover, the #1 key is to on to, put yourself in the shoes of a hiring manager. Is your resume clean, concise, and compelling? Does it send—loud and clear—the message that you’re the right person for the job? Look at your resume with a critical eye and with these factors in mind, and merit application you’re bound to get noticed. Photo of woman working on resume courtesy of Shutterstock . Melissa is essay and loving a Founder of The Muse.
Melissa was recently named to INC's 15 Women to Watch in Tech. She was an Executive Editor of The Harvard Crimson, where she graduated summa cum laude with a degree in on bad Physics. She was also a management consultant for McKinsey Company, where she learned the ins and on to and loving outs of the business world—and many, many airports. Life-goals include running a marathon and filling up all the analysis, extra pages in her passport. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
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Free Information Technology essays. The experienced growth in the use of digital networks has led to the need for the design of new communication networks with higher capacity. The telecom industry is essay on to, expected to continue to grow as demand increases for foundations constitutional, cable and on to my dear husband, high-speed internet in previously un-serviced locations and as local telephone companies upgrade their lines in response to increasing competitions. Broadband wireless sits at the confluence of two of the most remarkable growth stories of the telecommunications industry in essay recent years. Both wireless and broadband have on their own enjoyed rapid mass-market adoption. Wireless mobile services grew from 11 million subscribers worldwide in 1990 to more than 200 billion in 2014.
During the same period, the Internet grew from being a curious academic tool to having about on to a billion users. This staggering growth of the Internet is driving demand for higher-speed Internet-access services, leading to a parallel growth in sportsmanship broadband adoption. Essay On To My Dear And Loving? In less than a decade, broadband subscription worldwide has grown from virtually zero to over 200 million. Will combining the convenience of merit essay, wireless with the rich performance of broadband be the my dear and loving husband, next frontier for growth in the industry? Can such a combination be technically and essay, commercially viable? Can wireless deliver broadband applications and services that are of interest to on to my dear and loving husband, the end users? Many industry observers believe so. Before we delve into broadband wireless, let us review the state of broadband access today. Digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, which delivers broadband over coursework aqa, twisted-pair telephone wires, and my dear and loving, cable modem technology, which delivers over coaxial cable TV plant, are the predominant mass-market broadband access technologies today.
Both of these technologies typically provide up to a few megabits per second of data to each user, and style essay, continuing advances are making several tens of megabits per second possible. Since their initial deployment in essay on to and loving the late 1990s, these services have enjoyed considerable growth. Worldwide, this number is more than 200 million today and style, is projected to grow to more than 400 million by 2020. The availability of a wireless solution for broadband could potentially accelerate this growth. What are the applications that drive this growth?
Broadband users worldwide are finding that it dramatically changes how we share information, conduct business, and seek entertainment. Broadband access not only provides faster Web surfing and husband, quicker file downloads but also enables several multimedia applications, such as real-time audio and video streaming, multimedia conferencing, and interactive gaming. Essay? Broadband connections are also being used for voice telephony using voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology. More advanced broadband access systems, such as fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) and very high data rate digital subscriber loop (VDSL), enable such applications as entertainment-quality video, including high-definition TV (HDTV) and video on essay on to, demand (VoD). As the broadband market continues to verbal-visual essay, grow, several new applications are likely to emerge, and it is on to my dear husband, difficult to predict which ones will succeed in the future. So what is broadband wireless? Broadband wireless is about bringing the essays on bad sportsmanship, broadband experience to a wireless context, which offers users certain unique benefits and convenience. There are two fundamentally different types of broadband wireless services. The first type attempts to essay and loving husband, provide a set of services similar to that of the traditional fixed-line broadband but using wireless as the medium of transmission. This type, called fixed wireless broadband, can be thought of as a competitive alternative to DSL or cable modem. The second type of broadband wireless, called mobile broadband, offers the essay, additional functionality of portability, nomadicity, and mobility.
Mobile broadband attempts to essay my dear and loving, bring broadband applications to essay, new user experience scenarios and my dear, hence can offer the end user a very different value proposition. Coursework? WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microwave access) technology is designed to accommodate both fixed and mobile broadband applications. In this chapter, we provide a brief overview of broadband wireless. The objective is to on to and loving husband, present the background and context necessary for understanding WiMAX. 1.2 Evolution of Broadband Wireless. The history of broadband wireless as it relates to WiMAX can be traced back to the desire to find a competitive alternative to traditional wire line-access technologies.
Spurred by the deregulation of the constitutional, telecom industry and essay my dear and loving husband, the rapid growth of the Internet, several competitive carriers were motivated to find a wireless solution to bypass incumbent service providers. During the past decade or so, a number of wireless access systems have been developed, mostly by style essay analysis, start-up companies motivated by the disruptive potential of wireless. These systems varied widely in their performance capabilities, protocols, frequency spectrum used, applications supported, and a host of other parameters. Some systems were commercially deployed only to be decommissioned later. Successful deployments have so far been limited to a few niche applications and markets.
Clearly, broadband wireless has until now had a checkered record, in part because of the fragmentation of the industry due to the lack of a common standard. The emergence of WiMAX as an essay industry standard is expected to style essay analysis, change this situation. Given the wide variety of solutions developed and deployed for broadband wireless in essay on to my dear the past, a full historical survey of these is beyond the career, scope of this section. Instead, we provide a brief review of some of the broader patterns in this development. WiMAX technology has evolved through four stages, albeit not fully distinct or clearly sequential: 1. Narrowband wireless local-loop systems, 2. First-generation line-of-sight (LOS) broadband systems, 3. Second-generation non-line-of-sight (NLOS) broadband systems, and.
4. Standards-based broadband wireless systems. 1.2.1 Narrowband Wireless Local-Loop Systems. Naturally, the first application for which a wireless alternative was developed and deployed was voice telephony. These systems, called wireless local-loop (WLL), were quite successful in developing countries such as China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, and Russia, whose high demand for basic telephone services could not be served using existing infrastructure. In fact, WLL systems based on the digital-enhanced cordless telephony (DECT) and code division multiple access (CDMA) standards continue to be deployed in these markets. In markets in which a robust local-loop infrastructure already existed for voice telephony, WLL systems had to offer additional value to be competitive.
Following the commercialization of the essay, Internet in 1993, the demand for Internet-access services began to surge, and many saw providing high-speed Internet-access as a way for wireless systems to differentiate them. For example, in February 1997, ATT announced that it had developed a wireless access system for as ict, the 1,900MHz PCS (personal communications services) band that could deliver two voice lines and a 128kbps data connection to subscribers. Essay And Loving Husband? This system, developed under the code name ‘Project Angel,’ also had the style essay analysis, distinction of being one of the first commercial wireless systems to use adaptive antenna technology. Essay And Loving Husband? After field trials for a few years and a brief commercial offering, ATT discontinued the service in December 2001, citing cost run-ups and poor take-rate as reasons. During the same time, several small start-up companies focused solely on providing Internet-access services using wireless. National Merit Essay? These wireless Internet service provider (WISP) companies typically deployed systems in the license-exempt 900MHz and 2.4GHz bands. Most of these systems required antennas to be installed at the customer premises, either on rooftops or under the eaves of essay on to my dear and loving husband, their buildings. Deployments were limited mostly to select neighborhoods and national, small towns. These early systems typically offered speeds up to essay on to my dear husband, a few hundred kilobits per second. Later evolutions of license-exempt systems were able to provide higher speeds. 1.2.2 First-Generation Broadband Systems.
As DSL and cable modems began to be deployed, wireless systems had to evolve to support much higher speeds to be competitive. Systems began to be developed for coursework aqa, higher frequencies, such as the on to my dear and loving, 2.5GHz and 3.5GHz bands. Very high speed systems, called local multipoint distribution systems (LMDS), supporting up to essays american constitutional government, several hundreds of essay husband, megabits per second, were also developed in millimeter wave frequency bands, such as the 24GHz and 39GHz bands. LMDS based services were targeted at business users and in the late 1990s enjoyed rapid but short-lived success. Resume One? Problems obtaining access to essay and loving, rooftops for installing antennas, coupled with its shorter range capabilities, squashed its growth. In the late 1990s, one of the more important deployments of wireless broadband happened in the so-called multichannel multipoint distribution services (MMDS) band at 2.5GHz. The MMDS band was historically used to provide wireless cable broadcast video services, especially in rural areas where cable TV services were not available. The advent of satellite TV ruined the wireless cable business, and operators were looking for alternative ways to use this spectrum. A few operators began to career, offer one-way wireless Internet-access service, using telephone line as the return path.
In September 1998, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) relaxed the rules of the MMDS band in the United States to allow two-way communication services, sparking greater industry interest in the MMDS band. MCI WorldCom and Sprint each paid approximately $1 billion to my dear husband, purchase licenses to essay, use the MMDS spectrum, and essay on to and loving, several companies started developing high-speed fixed wireless solutions for on bad, this band. The first generation of these fixed broadband wireless solutions was deployed using the same towers that served wireless cable subscribers. These towers were typically several hundred feet tall and enabled LOS coverage to distances up to 35 miles, using high-power transmitters. First-generation MMDS systems required that subscribers install at their premises outdoor antennas high enough and essay on to my dear, pointed toward the tower for a clear LOS transmission path. Sprint and aqa, MCI launched two-way wireless broadband services using first-generation MMDS systems in a few markets in early 2000. The outdoor antenna and LOS requirements proved to be significant impediments. Besides, since a fairly large area was being served by on to, a single tower, the capacity of these systems was fairly limited.
Similar first-generation LOS systems were deployed internationally in the 3.5GHz band. 1.2.3 Second-Generation Broadband Systems. Second-generation broadband wireless systems were able to overcome the LOS issue and to provide more capacity. Aqa? This was done through the use of a cellular architecture and essay and loving, implementation of advanced-signal processing techniques to improve the link and system performance under multipath conditions. Several start-up companies developed advanced proprietary solutions that provided significant performance gains over first-generation systems. Most of these new systems could perform well under non-line-of-sight conditions, with customer-premise antennas typically mounted under the eaves or lower. Many solved the NLOS problem by using such techniques as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), code division multiple access (CDMA), and multiantenna processing. Some systems, such as those developed by style essay analysis, SOMA Networks and Navini Networks, demonstrated satisfactory link performance over a few miles to essay my dear husband, desktop subscriber terminals without the need for an antenna mounted outside. A few megabits per second throughput over cell ranges of a few miles had become possible with second generation fixed wireless broadband systems. 1.2.4 Emergence of Standards-Based Technology. In 1998, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formed a group called 802.16 to develop a standard for career, what was called a wireless metropolitan area network, or wireless MAN.
Originally, this group focused on developing solutions in the 10GHz to essay my dear husband, 66GHz band, with the primary application being delivering high-speed connections to businesses that could not obtain fiber. These systems, like LMDS, were conceived as being able to resume career one, tap into fiber rings and to essay on to my dear husband, distribute that bandwidth through a point-to-multipoint configuration to foundations american government, LOS businesses. The IEEE 802.16 group produced a standard that was approved in December 2001. This standard, Wireless MAN-SC, specified a physical layer that used single-carrier modulation techniques and a media access control (MAC) layer with a burst time division multiplexing (TDM) structure that supported both frequency division duplexing (FDD) and on to and loving, time division duplexing (TDD). After completing this standard, the group started work on sportsmanship, extending and on to and loving husband, modifying it to work in both licensed and license-exempt frequencies in the 2GHz to 11GHz range, which would enable NLOS deployments. This amendment, IEEE 802.16a, was completed in 2003, with OFDM schemes added as part of the physical layer for supporting deployment in multipath environments. By this time, OFDM had established itself as a method of choice for dealing with multipath for broadband and national merit essay, was already part of the revised IEEE 802.11 standards. Besides the OFDM physical layers, 802.16a also specified additional MAC-layer options, including support for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA).
Further revisions to 802.16a were made and completed in 2004. This revised standard, IEEE 802.16-2004, replaces 802.16, 802.16a, and 802.16c with a single standard, which has also been adopted as the basis for my dear husband, HIPERMAN (high-performance metropolitan area network) by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute). In 2003, the as ict coursework, 802.16 group began work on enhancements to the specifications to allow vehicular mobility applications. That revision, 802.16e, was completed in December 2005 and was published formally as IEEE 802.16e-2005. It specifies scalable OFDM for on to husband, the physical layer and makes further modifications to the MAC layer to accommodate high-speed mobility. As it turns out, the IEEE 802.16 specifications are a collection of application essay, standards with a very broad scope. In order to on to, accommodate the diverse needs of the industry, the standard incorporated a wide variety of options.
In order to develop interoperable solutions using the essays, 802.16 family of standards, the scope of the standard had to be reduced by establishing consensus on on to my dear and loving husband, what options of the standard to implement and on bad, test for interoperability. The IEEE developed the specifications but left to the industry the task of converting them into an interoperable standard that can be certified. The WiMAX Forum was formed to solve this problem and to essay, promote solutions based on the IEEE 802.16 standards. The WiMAX Forum was modeled along the lines of the Wi-Fi Alliance, which has had remarkable success in promoting and providing interoperability testing for products based on the IEEE 802.11 family of style essay, standards. The WiMAX Forum enjoys broad participation from the entire cross-section of the industry, including semiconductor companies, equipment manufacturers, system integrators, and essay my dear, service providers. The forum has begun interoperability testing and announced its first certified product based on IEEE 802.16-2004 for fixed applications in January 2006. Products based on essay analysis, IEEE 802.18e-2005 are expected to essay on to husband, be certified in early 2007. Many of the vendors that previously developed proprietary solutions have announced plans to migrate to fixed and/or mobile WiMAX. The arrival of WiMAX-certified products is a significant milestone in as ict aqa the history of broadband wireless. 1.3 WiMAX versus 3G and essay my dear and loving husband, Wi-Fi.
How does WiMAX compare with the existing and emerging capabilities of 3G and Wi-Fi? The throughput capabilities of national merit application essay, WiMAX depend on the channel bandwidth used. On To My Dear Husband? Unlike 3G systems, which have a fixed channel bandwidth, WiMAX defines a selectable channel bandwidth from 1.25MHz to 20MHz, which allows for a very flexible deployment. When deployed using the more likely 10MHz TDD (time division duplexing) channel, assuming a 3:1 downlink-to-uplink split and 2 ” 2 MIMO, WiMAX offers 46Mbps peak downlink throughput and application essay, 7Mbps uplink. The reliance of Wi-Fi and essay, WiMAX on OFDM modulation, as opposed to CDMA as in 3G, allows them to support very high peak rates. The need for spreading makes very high data rates more difficult in CDMA systems.
More important than peak data rate offered over an individual link is the average throughput and overall system capacity when deployed in a multicellular environment. From a capacity standpoint, the more pertinent measure of system performance is spectral efficiency. Essays On Bad Sportsmanship? The fact that WiMAX specifications accommodated multiple antennas right from the start gives it a boost in spectral efficiency. In 3G systems, on the other hand, multiple-antenna support is being added in on to my dear and loving the form of revisions. Further, the OFDM physical layer used by WiMAX is more amenable to merit essay, MIMO implementations than are CDMA systems from the standpoint of the required complexity for comparable gain. OFDM also makes it easier to exploit frequency diversity and multiuser diversity to improve capacity. My Dear Husband? Therefore, when compared to 3G, WiMAX offers higher peak data rates, greater flexibility, and higher average throughput and system capacity. Another advantage of aqa, WiMAX is essay on to and loving husband, its ability to efficiently support more symmetric links’useful for analysis, fixed applications, such as T1 replacement’and support for flexible and dynamic adjustment of the downlink-to-uplink data rate ratios. Typically, 3G systems have a fixed asymmetric data rate ratio between downlink and uplink. What about in terms of essay my dear and loving husband, supporting advanced IP applications, such as voice, video, and multimedia?
How do the technologies compare in terms of prioritizing traffic and controlling quality? The WiMAX media access control layer is coursework aqa, built from the ground up to support a variety of traffic mixes, including real-time and non-real-time constant bit rate and variable bit rate traffic, prioritized data, and best-effort data. Such 3G solutions as HSDPA and 1x EV-DO were also designed for a variety of QoS levels. Perhaps the essay, most important advantage for WiMAX may be the potential for lower cost owing to its lightweight IP architecture. Using an IP architecture simplifies the resume, core network’3G has a complex and separate core network for voice and data’and reduces the capital and operating expenses. On To My Dear And Loving Husband? IP also puts WiMAX on a performance/price curve that is more in line with general-purpose processors (Moore’s Law), thereby providing greater capital and operational efficiencies. IP also allows for easier integration with third-party application developers and makes convergence with other networks and applications easier. In terms of supporting roaming and high-speed vehicular mobility, WiMAX capabilities are somewhat unproven when compared to those of 3G. In 3G, mobility was an integral part of the design; WiMAX was designed as a fixed system, with mobility capabilities developed as an add-on feature. In summary, WiMAX occupies a somewhat middle ground between Wi-Fi and foundations constitutional government, 3G technologies when compared in the key dimensions of data rate, coverage, QoS, mobility, and price. Nowadays, life does not seem feasible without wireless networks in one or the other form.
Wireless is becoming the on to my dear and loving husband, leader in communication choices among users. In the current era life is converging towards the on bad sportsmanship, cable less environment where the last mile connectivity can be easily achievable without the need of physical connections. So the essay, field of wireless communication is continuously emerging one which is the demand for the transfer of data with high speed and with long coverage range. The claim for broadband mobile services continues to grow. Usually, high-speed broadband solutions are based on wired-access technologies such as digital subscriber line (DSL). National Application? This type of solution is not easy to deploy in remote rural areas, and furthermore it lacks support for terminal mobility.] Also the gradual development in the use of wireless networks has led to the requirement for my dear, the design of new modern communication networks with higher capacity and lower error rate. Merit Application? The telecommunication industry is also upgrading, with a requirement for a greater range of essay my dear and loving, services, such as video conferences, or applications with multimedia contents. The increased dependence on computer networking and the internetwork has resulted in a larger demand for connections to be allotted any time, any place, leading to a increase in the requirements for greater capacity and ultimate reliable broadband wireless communication systems.
For this issue, new technologies with high throughput with less requirement of bandwidth have been designed. As a matter of fact the requirements on bandwidth and spectrum availability are endless. As a result, the designers working in the domain of wireless communication has to face the merit, lots of difficulties to fulfill the requirement of bandwidth for the efficient and accurate transmission and and loving husband, reception. Moreover the problems of time varying nature of essays sportsmanship, channel such as fading and multipath put the limitation on the performance of high data rate with good quality of service. The demands for greater capacity, high reliability as well as accuracy are the essay my dear husband, prime requisites for the forth coming generations of the wireless networking systems such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX, etc. 1.5 Objective of essays, Thesis. How to deal with fading and on to my dear and loving, with interference is central aim to the design of wireless communication systems, and by taking the advantage of multi-path fading and improving the system capacity and bit rate of 4G modern wireless system will be the fundamental objective of this research work. The research work includes the performance analysis of following points: ‘ To study and to analysis the performance of forthcoming future generation wireless networking technique i.e. WiMAX as the upcoming 4G standard for meeting the requirements of last mile end to end wireless network with greater system capacity with improved bit error rate. ‘ To analyze the as ict aqa, features of antenna diversity techniques in essay on to my dear wireless communication for nullifying the limitations due to multipath fading by simulating the system in terms of system throughput and bit error rate under MATLAB based environment.
‘ To simulate the complete WiMAX system by implementing antenna diversity techniques and Alamouti coding in style essay it to fulfill the and loving, current demands of the modern wireless networks with the anticipation of improvement in bit error rate thereby increment in system reliability. 1.6 Organization of Thesis. This research work examines the modeling, simulation and comparative analysis of WiMAX system along with the implementation of various antenna diversity techniques in it built with MATLAB. The whole thesis is organized in 6 chapters. Chapter 1 deals the introduction of the broadband technology used in the WiMAX system. Chapter 2 deals the essays foundations, all related work by the previous researchers.
In this chapter we discuss the paper based on the previous work associated with the WiMAX system and found problem in on to my dear husband the WiMAX system. Chapter 3 deals the style, fundamentals of the WiMAX system. This chapter discusses the basics of the essay on to, WiMAX system for modeling purpose. Chapter 4 deals the technology used in the WiMAX system. In these chapter diversity techniques is conceptually discussed. Also discuss the antenna diversity too. Chapter 5 is essay, based on the chapter 3 to 4. In this chapter a simulink model is generated with the result to analyzed the WiMAX physical layer for antenna diversity. Chapter 6 is the conclusion and future work of the thesis. In this section, a brief review of essay my dear, literature on Performance of Antenna Diversity Techniques, Alamouti Coding Scheme, WiMAX Broadband Wireless Access Technology, Mobile WiMAX Technology, IEEE 802.16 Standards, Efficient Wireless Channels and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Technique are reported and discussed. 2.2 Related work.
Abdulrahman Yarali, Saifur Rahman  describes the overview of the forthcoming most promising wireless system WiMAX-Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. In this research paper the one, basic WiMAX introduction, comparison with the existing wireless systems, types of on to my dear and loving, IEEE standards as well as layered structure has been included. This paper presented a brief description of some of the major functions of merit application essay, a WiMAX network architecture currently being designed and specified in the network group. This paper is useful to analyze the basic architecture and supporting features of WiMAX for this research work. Mai Tran, George Zaggoulos, Andrew Nix and on to and loving, Angela Doufexi  describes the current demand of foundations american constitutional, wireless communication system is to achieve highest capacity with lowest requirement of essay and loving husband, bandwidth and improved error rate. The mobile WiMAX is the wonderful invention which is fulfilling the latest demand.
This research paper presents the theoretical aspect of the mobile WiMAX system whose remarkable features are scalable OFDM and Advanced antenna techniques such as MIMO. Each and every parameter which are required to build and to model the WiMAX system such as channel coding, sampling frequency, sampling period, symbol duration of OFDM, modulation scheme, etc. have been discussed in this paper which are the useful matters to develop a simulation model of this research work. Liangshan Ma, Dongyan Jia  analyses both the competitive and cooperative relationships between WiMAX, WLAN and 3G from various aspects such as technical standards, current status and future trends, etc. WiMAX and WLAN are two most emerging IEEE standards for providing efficient wireless networking whereas 3G is the most important mobile communication standard for foundations constitutional, providing highest speed along with maximum accuracy. This paper represents the SWOT analysis with respect to market trend between these three technologies. Essay On To My Dear And Loving? This paper will be helpful to understand the role of coursework aqa, one technique to cope up with other technologies. Abdulrahman Yarali Bwanga Mbula Ajay Tumula  identifies the cost effective, flexible 4th generation standard of IEEE i.e.
WiMAX system which is becoming the perfect solution to on to and loving husband, meet the current demands of the future wireless networks thereby providing the tough competition to the existing 3G standards. This paper includes the modeling of WiMAX layer by on bad, considering its physical layer as well as various parameters related to it which is the main utilization in this research work. The two variants of WiMAX system i.e. fixed WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d) and mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e) have been included in essay on to and loving husband the paper which helps to derive the characteristics of WiMAX system. From the aspect of WiMAX modeling, this paper is very useful in this research work. Sassan Ahmadi, Intel Corporation presents the thorough analysis of IEEE 802.16 architecture which is becoming the most popular 4G standard for the different mobile communication applications. The growing demand for mobile Internet and wireless multimedia applications has motivated the development of broadband wireless access technologies in recent years.
Mobile WiMAX has enabled convergence of mobile and fixed broadband networks through a common wide-area radio-access technology and flexible network architecture. Application Essay? The theoretical aspect of WiMAX architecture and parameters of this paper at essay and loving very minute level helps in essays on bad sportsmanship this research work to understand the whole WiMAX system. Hicham Yehia and Hany Kamal  discusses the effect of interference in the WiMAX network thereby analyzing the effect of the essay on to my dear, same on the capacity of the network. Due to imperfections at both the ends of the system i.e. at transmitter and at the receiver, the interference can occur which limits the system performance. At the transmitter due to inefficient filter response, spurious transmission can be encountered and at the receiver, due to insufficient selectivity, the interference will occur. Resume One? The paper checks the effects of this kind of and loving husband, interference in the WiMAX system which is the career, main reason behind the degradation in the network capacity. Raj Jain, Chakchai So-In, And Abdel-Karim Al Tamimi  basically deals with the analysis of one to one layer of the WiMAX network which is the very important issue from the view point of service providers and network developers. Essay My Dear And Loving Husband? The paper includes the system level modeling at style analysis various levels such as physical layer modeling, MAC layer modeling, interference level modeling, frequency level modeling, etc so as to and loving, analyze many system level parameters. National Merit? The readings and observations generated at the abstract level are the on to my dear, very useful outcomes for this research work. Nedeljko Cvejic and as ict coursework, Seppanen, Tapio  illustrate that for essay and loving, the efficient and essays foundations american constitutional government, fruitful wireless communication, the virtual channel i.e. radio channel of propagation should be modeled properly.
This paper estimates the efficiency of AWGN channel and Rayleigh channel under different scenarios. As per the nature of application, the type of on to my dear and loving, channel modeling should get selected. In this paper, the concentration is on the modern digital video compression technique i.e. mp3 system where during watermarking, the impairment due to noise in the transmission would be analyzed by essay analysis, modeling the channel as Rayleigh channel which is and loving husband, frequency selective channel not by as ict, AWGN channel. Essay On To My Dear And Loving Husband? This paper justifies the utility and use of channel modeling in this research. Daniele Lo Iacono, Marco Ronchi, Luigi Della Torre, and Fabio Osnato discuss that in application today’s world, the main goal of on to my dear and loving, any system is to achieve highest system capacity with lowest error rate which is not possible with single transmitter and single receiving antenna because it can’t overcome the effects of fading. Essays Foundations American Constitutional Government? For this particular reason, the current wireless communication trend is tilting towards the essay on to, multiple transmitter and multiple receiver antenna systems i.e. National Application? MIMO technology in which the effect of multipath fading can be strongly eliminated. This research paper is based on essay and loving husband, the same fundamental by resume one, considering the effect and application of MIMO technique with the my dear, implementation of OFDM in wireless communication system. The methodology and results derived from the experiment of MIMO and style essay, OFDM are very useful deductions for this research work. Onsy Abdel Alim, Hiba S. Essay On To And Loving? Abdallah and coursework aqa, Azza M. Essay My Dear Husband? Elaskary  discusses two main issues.
The first one presents models for simulating OFDM WiMAX system in Simulink including channel estimation and equalization subsystems in MATLAB functions. Next, the essay, effect of channel estimation error on essay on to my dear husband, the performance of MIMO VBLAST receivers in uncorrelated Rayleigh flat fading channels is investigated. National Merit? In the first part, WiMAX top level Simulink with all system details have been implemented for simulation purpose. In the essay my dear, second part, the performance of verbal-visual, MIMO VBLAST ZF receivers over uncorrelated Rayleigh flat fading channels in on to my dear and loving the presence of channel estimation error is investigated. This IEEE transaction is very much useful to derive the simulation model of the WiMAX system along with the national application essay, reference BER reading with MIMO implementation. Mohab Shalash, Tallal El Shabrawy and Waleed Diab  covers a thorough study of wideband frequency selective channels from the perspective of multi-carrier modulation system. Wideband communications systems suffer from frequency selective channels. Accordingly, 3G/4G systems have endorsed the concept of multi-carrier modulation such as OFDM and MC-CDMA, where the wideband channel is sub-divided into numerous subcarriers.
This research paper is useful to analyze the behavior of various wireless channels such as Rayleigh and Rician channel along with the basic parameters of it for modeling purpose. For 3G and my dear, 4G systems how the different channels and their parameters are affecting the style essay analysis, behavior of the whole system while modeling was the essay my dear and loving husband, true strength of sportsmanship, this paper for this research work point of view. Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Sabir Ghauri  discusses the model building of the WiMAX Physical layer using Simulink in MATLAB. This model is a useful tool for performance evaluation of the WiMAX standards 802.16e under the various parameters like carrier frequency, frequency bands, bandwidth, radio technology etc which have been mentioned. For this research work, this IEEE transaction will be the mile stone. This paper is useful to find the most valuable information regarding the modeling of the WiMAX physical layer with the various aspects of OFDM and MIMO.
For WIMAX System modeling, this research paper may come across the essay on to and loving husband, very minute detailing of each and every blocks of the WiMAX modeling along with the most precise readings. Vahid Tarokh, Nambi Seshadr and A. R. Calderbank  basically includes the characterization of wide band wireless channel for the future wireless technologies along with the feature of antenna diversity. National Application Essay? In this paper the most practical approach of husband, increasing the resume, capacity of the channel has been presented for essay my dear and loving husband, modern wireless communication systems with the introduction of antenna diversity and space time codes i.e. Alamouti coding. This paper provides the base for this research work regarding the essay, different antenna diversity techniques such as SIMO, MISO, MIMO along with the space time coding. Tao Jiang and Weidong Xiang  describes Multimedia Multicast and Broadcast service (MBS) over wireless links, such as mobile TV and IP radio broadcasting. As one of the most promising enabling technologies, mobile WiMAX can offer scalability in both radio access and network architecture, thus providing important flexibility in on to and loving husband terms of network services and deployment options.
This paper presents the overview of network architecture of OFDM based WiMAX system. Also the enhanced features such as antenna diversity, multiple modulation schemes, etc which can be a part of WiMAX system for improved network performance are the helpful contents for this research work. Kamran Etemad  discusses the brief of Mobile WiMAX technology with the layered architecture and evolution. Mobile WiMAX combines OFDMA and advanced MIMO schemes along with flexible bandwidth and fast link adaptation, creating a highly efficient air interface that exceeds the essay, capacity of on to husband, existing and evolving 3G radio access networks. This research paper is useful for the implementation of coursework, advanced antenna techniques and OFDMA in the physical layer of WiMAX to improve Quality of essay my dear husband, Service. Chengshan Xiao, Jingxian Wu, Sang-Yick Leong and Yahong Rosa Zheng  presents a new discrete-time channel model for MIMO systems over space-selective (or spatially correlated), time-selective (or time-varying), and frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels, which are referred to as triply selective Rayleigh fading channels.
MIMO is the current trends in the modern cellular system towards achieving high data rate with low error rate. This paper is helpful in deriving the performance analysis of MIMO system with Rayleigh channel for the research work. Here in this the discrete time channel model has been developed which evaluates the statistical properties of the system. Zakhia Abichar, Yanlin Peng and J. Morris Chang  includes the brief of WiMAX and its layered architecture i.e. Essays Sportsmanship? physical layer and MAC layer. The theoretical aspects presented in this chapter define the functioning as well features of MAC layer and essay and loving husband, Physical layer. The MAC layer of the WiMAX technology decides the quality of service and as ict, the algorithms related to error control while physical layer is responsible for data transfer with high capacity and low error rate. This paper is purely helpful for the theoretical survey of WiMAX system in the research work. H. Farhat, G. Grunfelder, A. Carcelen and G. El Zein  Illustrate that to improve data rates and to on to my dear and loving husband, enhance the quality of the system for the future generation wireless systems, the most prominent solution is antenna diversity techniques i.e. MIMO. The referred reference paper gives the design of MIMO channel sounder utilized for the WiMAX technology.
The basic illustrations given in this paper related to analysis, MIMO system design along with channel characteristic analysis are the useful estimates for this research work. Onsy Abdel Alim, Nemat Elboghdadly, Mahmoud M. Ashour, Azza M. Essay On To My Dear? Elaskary  has the objective of building a System level model for a WiMAX Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing based transceiver. OFDM technique theoretically saves the foundations american constitutional, bandwidth about 50%. Modeling irradiation noise as an external effect added to the Additive White Gaussian noise (AWGN). This paper represents the basic simulation model of WiMAX OFDM system which is the most important helpful aspect of the essay on to, paper in coursework aqa this research work. Mikko Majanen, Pekka H. J. Perala and Thomas Casey  describes that the demand for mobile internet access is continuing its growth at increasing speed. Essay On To And Loving Husband? New wireless access technologies compete with each other at the global market and it is still unsure which one will be the winner. One of the most promising ones is WiMAX which is foundations american constitutional, based on IEEE 802.16 air interface standard.
This paper includes the WiMAX simulation model along with the handover process. The paper is useful to analyze the three types of handover process i.e. hard handover, fast base station switching and macro diversity handover and their comparative analysis. Ibrahim A.Z. Qatawneh  represents the bit error rate performance comparison of AWGN channel and on to and loving, Rician fading channels by considering their application in multi carrier DE-APSK and single carrier DE-APSK system. Frequency flat Rayleigh fading is a typical channel model found in land mobile radio situations. This model is suitable for modeling urban areas that are characterized by career, many obstructions where a line of sight path does not exist between the transmitter and essay my dear and loving husband, receiver. In suburban areas a line of sight path may exist between the transmitter and receiver and this will give rise to Rician fading. The analysis of the aqa, channel comparison is the helpful conclusion for essay on to my dear and loving husband, this research work. Alireza Seyedi, Vasanth Gaddam, and Dagnachew Birru  represent performance analysis of OFDM UWB system with two antennas at the receiver side. Different antenna selection and style, combining methods, such as simple antenna selection, antenna selection per sub-carrier, equal gain combining and maximal ratio combining are considered.
This paper discusses the on to, simulation model, different antenna selection and combining techniques which are the important conclusions for as ict, this research work. Shigenobu Sasaki Hisakazu Kikuchi Jinkang ZHU  discussed the performance of system over essay my dear husband, the type of resume one, frequency non-selective Rayleigh fading scenario. Fading and interferences are the two phenomenons that make the problem domain of modern wireless communication system most challenging and interesting. This paper illustrates the implementation of the essay, diversity techniques for the significant reduction in Bit Error Rate performance over fading channel. The degradation of performance is over come by introducing the selection diversity and time diversity techniques.
This research paper is useful to introduce the time diversity technique i.e. Verbal-visual Essay? Reed-Solomon coding in physical layer modeling of WiMAX system for the remarkable reduction in system BER. Koon Hoo Teo, Zhifeng Tao, and essay my dear and loving husband, Jinyun Zhang  discussed the IEEE 802.16e Standards for Mobile WiMAX. Style Essay Analysis? This paper illustrates the implementation of frequency diversity technique for on to, the high speech mobile service perspective. Also the comparison of WiMAX standards with WLANs and cellular is mentioned. More specifically this paper focused on the exploitation of essays government, technology in Mobile WiMAX standards. This paper is useful for the modeling of WiMAX System using IEEE 802.16e standards. Rick S. Blum, Senior, Jack H. Winters and Nelson R. Sollenberger  discussed the benefits of transmitting the information through the multiple antennas over the fading channels.
It also describes that the mutual information of essay on to, a single, isolated, multiple transmit and foundations constitutional government, receive antenna array link is exploited by transmitting the maximum number of essay on to and loving husband, independent data streams for a flat fading channel with independent fading coefficients for government, each path. This paper is useful in this research works as it purely focused on great potential achieved by transmit and receive antenna arrays used in Multiple Input Multiple Output antenna system. FUNDAMENTAL OF WIMAX SYSTEM MODELING. FUNDAMENTAL OF WIMAX SYSTEM MODELING. WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access is the highly anticipated technology that aims to provide business and and loving husband, consumer wireless broadband services in form of Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). The technology has a target range of up to 31 miles and a target transmission rate exceeding 100 Mbps and is expected to challenge DSL and T1 lines (both expensive technologies to deploy and maintain) especially in emerging markets. The mobile WiMAX is the wonderful invention which is fulfilling the latest demand.
Through its high coverage and data rate characteristics, it fulfills the idea of complete network architecture thereby providing a flexible and cheap solution for the last-mile. The interoperability is a very critical issue, on which equipment cost and national, volume of sales will be based. Operators will not be bound to a sole equipment supplier, as the radio base stations will be able to interact with terminals produced by different suppliers. From the point of view of essay my dear husband, cost and essay, accuracy, the customer’s must get the benefit of supplier’s competition. WiMAX may be seen as the fourth generation (4G) of mobile systems as the convergence of cellular telephony, computing, Internet access, and potentially many multimedia applications become a real fact. WiMAX’s attributes open the technology to a wide variety of applications. And Loving? With its large range and high transmission rate, WiMAX can serve as a backbone for sportsmanship, 802.11 hotspots for connecting to the Internet. Alternatively, users can connect mobile devices such as laptops and handsets directly to WiMAX base stations without using 802.11 which can be very well observed from Figure 3.1. Developers project this configuration for the WiMAX mobile version, which will provide users broadband connectivity over large coverage areas compared with 802.11 hotspots’ moderate coverage. Mobile devices connected directly to WiMAX base stations likely will achieve a range of 5 to 6 miles, because mobility makes links vulnerable. Figure 3.1 WiMAX Senario.
The technology can also provide fast and cheap broadband access to essay my dear, markets that lack infrastructure (fiber optics or copper wire), such as rural areas and essays sportsmanship, unwired countries. Currently, several companies offer proprietary solutions for wireless broadband access, many of which are expensive because they use chipsets from adjacent technologies, such as 802.11. Manufacturers of essay on to and loving, these solutions use the physical layer and bypass the medium access control layer by designing a new one. Unlike these proprietary solutions, WiMAX’s standardized approach offers economies of scale to vendors of wireless broadband products, significantly reducing costs and making the resume career one, technology more accessible. On To And Loving Husband? Many companies that were offering proprietary solutions, however, have participated in the WiMAX forum and aqa, now offer WiMAX based solutions. WiMAX can be used in on to disaster recovery scenes where the wired networks have broken down. Similarly, WiMAX can be used as backup links for broken wired links. Additionally, WiMAX will represent a serious competitor to 3G cellular systems as high speed mobile data applications will be achieved with the 802.16e specification. The main operators have concentrated their interests and efforts on the future applications of this new technology. The WiMAX forum created in April 2002, is a no-profit organization that groups companies promoting the broadband access based on the wireless communication standard, point to multipoint IEEE 802.16 for Metropolitan Area Network. WiMAX forum activities aim to: ‘ support the standardization process of IEEE 802.16 for MAN.
‘ select and promote some of the WiMAX profiles defined in the 802.16. ‘ certificate the interoperability between WiMAX equipment of different suppliers. ‘ make WiMAX a universally accepted technology. 3.2 Relationship with other Wireless Technology. Wireless access to data networks is expected to on bad sportsmanship, be an area of rapid growth for essay husband, mobile communication systems. The huge uptake rate of mobile phone technologies, WLANs and the exponential growth that is experiencing the use of the internet have resulted in an increased demand for new methods to obtain high capacity wireless networks. Essay? WiMAX is expected to have an explosive growth, as well as the Wi-Fi, but compared with the Wi-Fi, WiMAX provides broadband connections in greater areas, measured in square kilometers, even with links not in line of sight. For these reasons WiMAX is a MAN, highlighting that ‘metropolitan’ is referred to the extension of the areas and not to the density of essay on to my dear husband, population.
But Wi-Fi and WiMAX are not competing technologies. While WiMAX can provide high capacity internet access to residences and business seats, Wi-Fi allows the essays, extension of such connections inside the essay and loving husband, corporate sites buildings. Figure-3.2 lay down the comparative platform among three modern wireless technologies i.e. WiMAX, WiFi and 3G cellular telephony. In any case, both WLAN and cellular mobile applications are being widely expanded to offer the verbal-visual, demanded wireless access. However, they experience several difficulties for reaching a complete mobile broadband access, bounded by my dear and loving, factors such as bandwidth, coverage area, and essays government, infrastructure costs. As shown in following Figure-3.2, Wi-Fi provides a high data rate, but only on a short range of distances and with a slow movement of the user. On the other hand, cellular offers larger ranges and vehicular mobility, but instead, it provides lower data rates, and requires high investments for my dear, its deployment. Search our thousands of foundations american constitutional government, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
Each of us is qualified to a high level in and loving husband our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in national your email box, in essay my dear husband as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Broadband/the WiMAX system . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/information-technology/broadbandthe-wimax-system/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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