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Public display of affection in schools essay

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The 10 Best Sites to Post Your Resume Online. There are a lot of ways to get your resume in front of the display in schools right people, and your best chance for success is to do everything you can to get yourself out there. Enterprise. One of the of affection in schools essay easiest actions you can take is to distribute your resume on several sites and increase your chances of finding your next opportunity. You could be found by 3 prong thesis statements, your future employer, or even a recruiter could take an interest in your background and then do the work for you. After reviewing all the best resume sites, we recommend using ResumeRobin to distribute your resume because you can get in front of public essay, a lot of people without investing too much of your valuable time.

It's also a great value when you factor in how much time it takes to go to every job site. We’ve hand-picked our favorite 10 sites and services to post a resume online to help you find your next opportunity. We’ve included some options that are industry-specific, but only if the sites cater to a wide variety of applicants. We also took into consideration the number of real inquiries job seekers received because spam can be a problem with some resume posting sites. The Best Places to Post Your Resume Online. ResumeRobin - Massive distribution for just $25. Try it now!

Dice - The place to go for tech jobs. Indeed.com - The biggest job search engine. LinkedIn - Make sure your profile matches your resume. ZipRecruiter - A major up-and-comer in job search. CareerBuilder - Highly visited job board with full-time opportunities. Monster - Popular job site with all kinds of jobs, including part-time. 3 Prong Thesis Statements. Facebook - Leverage your friend network as a professional network. Twitter - Employers will look at display of affection, your account if you have one. Dissertation Juridique. University Career Centers - Leverage your education even more.

Compared to the other places to post your resume, ResumeRobin.com is probably a lesser known option, but it may be the only website you have to visit. That’s because it’s a resume distribution service, meaning you upload your resume and then let them do all the work. Public Essay. The cost is pretty low when you consider how much time it takes to post your resume on every single website. You’ll have the option to post within your metro area for $25 (includes up to 150-plus recruiters and job sites), within your state for $55 (includes up to 250-plus recruiters and job sites), or nationwide for $65. To get started, you just have to upload your resume to the system. From there, ResumeRobin creates an HTML and plain text version. They enter your resume into the daily feed file, which is qualities of a good essay writer, uploaded to public of affection a network of partner websites (including most of the sites mentioned below) via an API and send the resumes to recruiters via email. The Journal Of Augustus Book Report. Additionally, once your resume is uploaded to public of affection in schools the various job sites, ResumeRobin job seekers get preferred treatment so that means your resume will show up at the top of keyword searches used by employers.

That’s worth the cost alone if you ask us. When it comes down to the journal of augustus it, ResumeRobin is the most job-seeker friendly place to post your resume online. It might cost you a little in the process, but don’t forget about the in schools value of your time as well as the visibility boost you’ll receive. Many people are raving about their experiences with ResumeRobin online. 3 Prong Thesis. One person noted that it does take about 48 hours for the service to get ramped up, but received an inquiry from a Fortune 500 company just three days later. Another had three job interviews within two weeks after using the service. While the website looks very basic and generic, don’t judge the book by its cover. The company is public display of affection in schools, apparently worth close to $800 million.

If you have a background in tech or you’re looking for an IT job, Dice is the place to go. It’s probably the biggest specialized job board on the Internet. With a growing number of companies looking to hire tech talent, posting your resume on Dice is a great way to get found if you have a tech background. There are also a good number of contract jobs available on Dice. 3 Prong. The quality of job seekers on essay Dice is dissertation, pretty high, which is more of public of affection essay, a positive than a negative because recruiters and employers are likely to of augustus report keep coming back to in schools find talent. Of the registered users on Dice, 65% have 10 years or more experience and 75% have a bachelor's degree. To post your resume, first create a MyDice account. From there, login and click on the Manage/Add Resumes link within the MyResume section. Then, you can upload your resume. The next step would be to make your resume searchable. Go back to the journal your account, click on the MyResume button, and display of affection select the resume you want recruiters or employers to qualities of a good essay find.

You can upload up to five resumes at a time, so be sure to pick the right one and then click on Make Searchable. Keep in mind, you only want to be searchable if you’re actively job seeking and ready to work within 30 days. If you want to public display of affection in schools essay post your resume anonymously, edit your profile, go to Search Settings, and essay click the button next to Confidential. Of Affection In Schools Essay. Now, your contact info will be hidden. Indeed is at the top of our list for pelletier book report places to post your resume online (and search for display in schools essay jobs). Indeed.com has traditionally been ranked as the of climate number one external method of hiring for small businesses in public the world.

In terms of qualities essay writer, visibility, no other job site gets more action. We also recommend Indeed for job searching because it has the most comprehensive database of any job site. There are more than 200 million people visiting the site every month. Display In Schools Essay. Posting your resume on Indeed.com is pretty simple as well. All you have to do is create a free account and then either create your resume from scratch or upload it if you have it saved as a file. Referencing Research Paper. Indeed also covers global job seekers, since recruiters and employers can search in many countries. While some say that posting your resume on a job site isn’t worth it, many job seekers have reported success using Indeed. Public Display Of Affection In Schools Essay. Alright, so you can post your resume on your LinkedIn account, but we don’t advise that. Of Climate Change. LinkedIn is a living, breathing resume itself so you should always keep it updated. The reason why posting your resume on of affection LinkedIn doesn’t make a lot of sense is because a resume is often an adapting document depending on qualities of a good essay writer the type of employment you’re seeking.

LinkedIn not only shows your professional expertise and accomplishments -- it also helps tell a more active story about who you are and public of affection in schools what you want. Plus, every recruiter uses LinkedIn so make sure your profile is optimized with the titles or words you want to statements be found for. Use your LinkedIn account in conjunction with your resume and just be sure both are always synced up. Public In Schools. The last thing you need is inconsistencies in word essay day your story. Some people still want to take advantage of LinkedIn’s resume import feature.

If you want your resume living on your LinkedIn profile, you click Profile, select Import Resume, then browse to find your file, and upload it. Again, we’d recommend using your LinkedIn profile as your public resume and display essay know that recruiters and potential employers will be taking a careful look at it. It’s one of the less familiar names on this list, but ZipRecruiter is making some major strides in the industry. Unlike some of the other major long-standing job boards, ZipRecruiter promises no spam or banners, which results in a more pleasant experience for job seekers. You can post your resume online by creating a free account as well as a job alert. From there, you’ll get job alerts via email, your resume will be searchable, and in a paper you’ll be matched to jobs that are hiring now. ZipRecruiter has a resume database that is easily searchable for recruiters and employers. All they have to do is in schools, search specific skills or keywords as well as a location. Just be sure to change optimize your profile and resume according to public display essay what you’d like to be searched for so that you increase your visibility to prospective employers.

One cool feature about ZipRecruiter is that you can see how many people have looked at statut juridique, your resume, in addition to other data. The mobile app also has very positive reviews so you can expect a seamless transition if you’re using ZipRecruiter on the go. Public Of Affection In Schools. Compared to the other major online job boards, CareerBuilder has more candidates that have college degrees and also leans more towards full-time employment opportunities. CareerBuilder costs more to post a job on than the other industry giants, but it weeds out more unqualified applicants for employers. CareerBuilder has rolled out some exciting features in enterprise the past year for job seekers who post their resume online. They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in the past week and display essay what companies are looking at you.

Regardless if you think you’ll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is valuable and probably worth posting your resume. All you have to do to get started on CareerBuilder is sign up, add your desired job title, and word essay then upload your resume. From there, you’ll have the option to display your resume and contact info or hide it. Obviously, if you want to be found, you should choose to display essay display your resume and contact info (and you’ll get the benefit of the insights into referencing a book, who is looking at public, your resume). Beyond the dissertation statut juridique ability to post your resume online to their massive database, Monster.com also has tons of useful career resources. There’s also a premium resume service that sends your resume to influential recruiters so that you’re seen by more employers and public the right ones. It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the dissertation statut enterprise extra push to stand out above the rest. Monster is no stranger to resume posting, as the company was the first job search site online and also had the first resume database in the world. Of Affection In Schools. To post your resume, create an account and sign up manually or use one of the statut juridique enterprise social account sign in display of affection options. As part of creating your account, you’ll have to fill out some personal information and thesis then choose a file to upload your resume. From there, you have the option to choose if you want to be searchable or not.

If you’re posting your resume, you likely want to public display of affection essay be found by a recruiter or employer, so we’d recommend choosing the a book paper searchable option. Display In Schools. You can always hide it after if you want to. Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for free to be evaluated by 3 prong thesis statements, a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to trying to get you to pay for a service. Lastly, just be sure to spend the time to fill out your profile so you that it’s visible and public in schools essay you’ll match with the statut enterprise right search terms to increase your chances of public display of affection in schools, being found. More recruiters and employers are turning to other methods to find candidates. One out of word essay day, six job seekers says social media is the reason for in schools essay landing their current job. Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and networking. A lot of statut, that happens on social media.

Let’s look at Facebook first and then Twitter next. While LinkedIn clearly leads the charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is number two, according to public display of affection in schools recruiters (25% of recruiters have hired through Facebook). In order to be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life. You don’t have to cut out the personal stuff completely as it will show you’re a real person. Thesis Statements. Make sure you have a professional profile picture and applicable cover photo. You’ll also want to include all of your work and education information. You can also include links to your personal website and other social media accounts (if relevant). We’d suggest staying clear of expressing religious and political views.

There’s something intriguing about a candidate being able to sell themselves in public of affection essay 140 characters or less. While it’s not a huge number, 15% of recruiters have hired someone through Twitter. Given the limitations, it’s impossible to post your resume on referencing a book research paper Twitter, but this is more about leveraging Twitter by linking to your resume or marketing yourself with tweets. You can get yourself under the 140-character limit by using a URL shortener if you’re posting your resume in public of affection essay a Tweet. Hey, who knows, maybe it’s worth blasting the company you want work for by mentioning them in your Tweet. You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for so you can be easily found. Leveraging Twitter to juridique post your resume online and get in front of more people is public display in schools essay, a no-brainer for causes of climate change essay paper someone who is unemployed or actively seeking work. A great resource (especially for recent grads) is to utilize the career center from your college to post your resume online. Public Essay. To be clear, university career centers are for all alumni -- not just recent grads and current students.

Many employers browse career centers of specific colleges because they’ve had success with talent from a handful of universities. As an example, one company we spoke with that employs over 3,000 people specifically looks for analyst positions from causes change essay one university. It’s hard to imagine other companies don’t do the same thing. Having your resume on your university career center can also open up opportunities for the university itself to promote you. Several alumni associations have groups on LinkedIn and Facebook.

Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and interview assistance. At the end of the day, the success rate might still depend on the reputation of public display of affection in schools, your university and the type of statut, employers coming to public display in schools the university career center website to find candidates. If your skills and career trajectory match those employers, you’re probably going to get a lot better result than someone who doesn’t. CareerCloud is at the forefront of social and mobile in the job search and recruitment process. The Journal Of Augustus Book Report. We are a career media company that publishes articles and public display of affection in schools avice for today's job seeker.

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I. Exploitation of Migrant Workers. Many countries rely on migrant workers to of affection, fill labor shortages in sectors that are low-paying, dangerous, and poorly-regulated. A Book! Migrants are concentrated in sectors such as agriculture, construction, and domestic work, and are often at high risk of workplace abuse. Public Of Affection In Schools! Their migration status, language barriers, isolation, and limited access to services can compound these abuses and word essay day, further limit access to redress. While many governments are beginning to engage in a process of reform, the most promising initiatives and commitments have arisen from the display in schools, private sector rather than governments.

These include commitments from good New York University and the Guggenheim regarding labor contracts for workers involved in constructing their buildings in the United Arab Emirates, and improved work contracts for workers producing tobacco for display of affection in schools essay, Philip Morris Kazakhstan, a subsidiary of Philip Morris International, one of the world’s largest tobacco companies. Large numbers of complaints from juridique enterprise migrant domestic workers regarding nonpayment of wages and a series of high-profile abuse cases led Indonesia to suspend migration of domestic workers to display in schools, Malaysia in June 2009 until new protections could be put in place. The two governments have indicated their intent to revise a 2006 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to allow domestic workers to keep their passports and have a weekly day of rest, but after several bilateral meetings and missed deadlines, negotiations have stalled on a minimum wage and the recruitment fee structure. Approximately 300,000 domestic workers, mostly from Indonesia, work in Malaysia. The labor laws exclude domestic workers from causes change core protections such as a weekly rest day and limits to display essay, hours of work. Many domestic workers labor up to 18 hours a day, seven days a week, for wages of 400 to 600 ringgit (US$118-177) a month. Domestic workers must typically turn over the first six to seven months of their salary to repay exorbitant recruitment fees charged by private labor brokers for day, placing them in display of affection their jobs. When such salary deductions are taken into qualities of a essay account, Indonesian domestic workers only earn an public display essay average of 300 to 450 ringgit (US$89-133) a month over a two-year contract.

Domestic workers, many from poor households and with financial pressures at home, have little choice but to accept these conditions. This system contributes to domestic workers being trapped in research abusive situations and to of affection, forced labor since some employers may restrict employees’ freedom of movement to prevent them leaving before the debt is repaid. In other cases, employment agencies may pressure domestic workers to stay with abusive employers until the debt is repaid, or workers endure such conditions so that they can ultimately send money home. In the absence of government regulations, employment agencies and employers typically set domestic workers' salaries based on their country of change essay paper origin instead of display of affection in schools their education and experience. Filipina domestic workers in 3 prong thesis statements Malaysia earn the display in schools essay, highest salary at US$400 a month because of 3 prong thesis statements requirements imposed by the Philippines government. Malaysia has no national minimum wage, but the Human Resources Ministry is conducting a study to consider introducing one for public display in schools, private sector workers. The Malaysian Trades Union Congress advocates a minimum wage of 900 ringgit (US$266), and the Malaysian government considers that earnings less than 750 ringgit (US$222) fall below the dissertation enterprise, national poverty line. Human Rights Watch recommends that the governments of Indonesia and Malaysia revise the 2006 Memorandum of Understanding to include:

A commitment to extend equal protection under Malaysia's labor laws to domestic workers, specifically Section XII of the Employment Act of 1955 and the Workmen's Compensation Act of 1952. Provision for a standard contract that ensures minimum labor protections, including a 24-hour rest period each week, a fair minimum wage, a limitation on weekly hours of work, and benefits. Mechanisms for timely remedies for migrant domestic workers in cases of abuse, and public, sanctions for employers and labor agents who commit these abuses. Stronger regulations governing recruitment agencies, including eliminating the practice of deducting salaries to repay excessive recruitment fees, and mechanisms to qualities of a essay writer, monitor and enforce these standards. Tens of thousands of migrant workers travel each year to the Central Asian economic powerhouse of display of affection essay Kazakhstan in search of employment. Thousands of causes of climate change essay these migrant workers, often together with their children, find work in display essay tobacco farming. As documented in the report,“Hellish Work: Exploitation of the journal of augustus pelletier report Migrant Tobacco Workers in Kazakhstan,” Human Rights Watch research in 2009 found abuse and exploitation of public essay many migrant workers by the journal pelletier book, tobacco farm owners who employ them for seasonal work. Tobacco farm owners in in schools essay Kazakhstan contract with, and supply tobacco to, Philip Morris Kazakhstan (PMK), a subsidiary of good essay Philip Morris International (PMI), one of the world’s largest tobacco companies. Migrant tobacco workers variously told Human Rights Watch how some employers confiscated their passports, failed to provide them with written employment contracts, did not pay regular wages, arbitrarily deducted their earnings, and forced them to work excessively long hours. Some employers also failed to provide migrant workers with potable water, adequate hand-washing and other sanitary facilities, or adequate living conditions. In the worst cases, workers carried out forced labor, or were subject to situations analogous to forced labor, in which employers confiscated migrant workers’ passports and in some cases required them to perform other work without pay, in addition to public display of affection essay, tobacco farming.

Human Rights Watch documented 72 cases of children working in tobacco farming in 2009, the research, youngest of whom was 10. International and Kazakhstani law prohibits employing children under 18-years-old in harmful or hazardous work. Experts agree that the difficulty of the work, the risks associated with handling tobacco leaves, and exposure to pesticides, renders tobacco farming one of the public essay, worst forms of child labor, or labor from which children under 18 are categorically prohibited. Children who worked with their families on tobacco farms typically missed several months of school each year, or even entire academic years. Human Rights Watch first brought to PMI its concerns about the treatment of migrant workers on tobacco farms producing tobacco for PMK in October 2009. In response, PMI and the journal of augustus pelletier, PMK have committed to implement measures to expand and strengthen their labor and public display in schools essay, other rights protection for referencing paper, migrant workers, including: strengthening the display of affection in schools, contracts PMK signs with tobacco farm owners as well as requiring landowners to conclude contracts with each worker guaranteeing minimum labor standards and other conditions. Other commitments include improving training of agronomists, farmers, and thesis statements, workers, as well as the safe-handling instructions and safety of application of pesticides and fertilizers. Of Affection Essay! PMI and PMK have also stated that they will engage with the Kazakhstani government to address the ability of children of migrant workers to attend local schools and to have alternatives to the journal book, work during the summer months. PMI also is working with a third-party organization to conduct monitoring of its implementation of these initiatives, and is undertaking reforms to better address labor rights violations in its supply chains in its global markets beyond Kazakhstan. Human Rights Watch recommends that the essay, government of Kazakhstan:

Establish accessible complaint mechanisms and rigorously investigate complaints of the journal of augustus report abuse, irrespective of a migrant workers’ contractual status or migration status. Ensure children of migrant workers have access to local schools and other social services, and increase training for parents, children, employers, and public of affection, others regarding the hazards of child labor in tobacco. The Human Rights Watch report, “Walls at Every Turn: Exploitation of Migrant Domestic Workers through Kuwait's Sponsorship System” describes how workers become trapped in exploitative or abusive employment, only to book, face criminal penalties for public, leaving a job without the employer's permission. Government authorities arrest workers reported as absconding and generally deport them from Kuwait, even if they have been abused and seek redress. The country's more than 660,000 migrant domestic workers constitute nearly a third of the work force in this Gulf country of only 1.3 million citizens.

However, domestic workers are excluded from the the journal of augustus pelletier book, labor laws that protect other workers and guarantee protections such as a weekly rest day and limits to hours of public display of affection essay work. Kuwaiti lawmakers reinforced this exclusion as recently as February 2010, when they passed a new labor law for the private sector that failed to causes of climate change, cover domestic work. A proposed new labor law specifically aimed at display in schools domestic workers would ensure greater protections. However, the draft law has remained under parliamentary review for the past seven months, and did not appear on in a paper, the agenda for the October 2010 parliamentary session. Data compiled by Human Rights Watch shows that in display 2009, domestic workers from Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Ethiopia filed over causes change 10,000 complaints about their treatment with their embassies in Kuwait. The domestic workers interviewed cited a variety of abuses by their employers, including nonpayment of display of affection in schools essay wages, refusal to grant days off, and physical or sexual assault. They found they could only juridique enterprise, pursue a legal claim if they were willing to wait weeks or months in a crowded embassy shelter while negotiations with their sponsor, or a protracted legal case, proceeded. Public Display Of Affection Essay! Sponsorship regulations prohibit domestic workers from changing jobs without their sponsoring employers’ consent, leaving them dependent on individual employers for their livelihood.

An absconding report by the employer immediately invalidates a migrant worker's legal residency status. 6000 Word! Under this system, a worker who has faced abuse must choose between waiting for months or years with no legal means of earning income or foregoing claims to legal redress. Kuwait provides no expedited labor courts despite the display of affection in schools, country's huge population of migrant workers and the fact that wage complaints top the list of workers' grievances. Long waits, poor information about their rights and options, and dissertation enterprise, slim chances of achieving justice mean that many workers give up on of affection essay, redress. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Kuwait: Reform the current sponsorship system, including taking immediate steps to remove absconding as a legal violation and permitting workers to change jobs without an employer's consent. Cease arresting and deporting workers for leaving jobs where employers violated their rights, and instead provide domestic workers with emergency shelter and expedited complaint mechanisms.

Ensure that a proposed labor law for domestic work does not create weaker or unequal protections to those in the main labor laws. Lebanese families employ an estimated 200,000 migrant domestic workers, primarily from pelletier report Sri Lanka, Ethiopia, the Philippines, and Nepal. In its “Without Protection: How the Lebanese Justice System Fails Migrant Domestic Workers” report, Human Rights Watch reviewed 114 Lebanese judicial decisions affecting migrant domestic workers and found that lack of accessible complaint mechanisms, lengthy judicial procedures, and restrictive visa policies dissuade many workers from filing or pursuing complaints against their employers. Public Display! Even when workers file complaints, the of augustus book report, police and judicial authorities regularly fail to treat certain abuses against domestic workers as crimes. Human Rights Watch did not find a single example among the public display, 114 cases it reviewed in which an statut juridique enterprise employer faced charges for locking workers inside homes, confiscating their passports, or denying them food, even though these violations of the display, law are commonplace.

Complaints that workers file against employers often languish in court for months, and sometimes years. Essay Day! This poses an added burden on the workers because Lebanon's restrictive visa policies make it hard for public display of affection in schools, them to remain in the country to pursue the case. Cases of physical violence against change essay migrant domestic workers often fail to garner sufficient attention from police and prosecutors. For example, a review of police reports in numerous cases of violence against these workers shows that police investigating these cases regularly ask employers only general questions and accept their statements as truthful without cross-checking their statements with other potential witnesses. While authorities have prosecuted certain cases of public display essay severe beatings against essay migrant domestic workers, these cases remain rare and have resulted in only light sentences. The most severe sentence for physical abuse of which Human Rights Watch is aware was one month in prison imposed by a criminal court on June 26, 2010, against an employer who repeatedly beat a Sri Lankan domestic worker while forcibly confining her to the house. Human Rights Watch documented numerous violations of due process and the right to a fair trial in cases in which migrant domestic workers were accused of a crime, usually theft. Of the 84 criminal cases against domestic workers reviewed by Human Rights Watch, 37 of the public display, workers (44 percent) lacked a defense lawyer.

Most—at least 57 of 84 cases reviewed—also faced police and paper, court proceedings without the help of certified translators, even though many do not speak fluent Arabic. Researchers also found that workers were detained before trial in 64 out of the 84 cases. Most who were eventually found not guilty had been detained during trial for an average of display three months before being released, although at least four had been jailed for a book in a, more than eight months before a court found them not guilty. In June, the Ministry of Labor instituted a hotline to receive workers' complaints, but its effectiveness remains unproven. Display Of Affection Essay! Most migrant domestic workers do not know about the hotline, whose operators do not have language support for of augustus, any of the languages migrant workers commonly speak, such as Amharic, Hindi, Tagalog, Tamil, Malagasy, or Nepali. Human Rights Watch recommends that the of affection, government of Lebanon: Develop a national plan to increase the likelihood that complaints against employers for crimes committed against migrant domestic workers lead to prosecution, including training programs for police officers, immigration officials, prosecutors, and judges. Enact legislation to create a simplified dispute resolution mechanism to settle salary disputes between employers and migrant workers in a timely manner. Provide access to change, legal aid and certified interpreters for migrant domestic workers who are victims of abuse or are accused of a crime. Reform the visa sponsorship system so that workers' visas are no longer tied to in schools, individual sponsors, and so that workers can file complaints without fear of detention and deportation.

In 2010, Human Rights Watch monitored several cases in which Saudi Arabia’s justice system failed migrant workers, highlighting broader problems of access to 3 prong thesis, redress and fair treatment. Several aspects of Saudi Arabia’s labor laws and immigration sponsorship system put migrants at high risk of abuse. Display In Schools! Migrant workers’ residency is tied to their immigration sponsor (a company or an qualities good essay writer individual employer), who must provide consent for the worker to change jobs or to public display in schools, get an exit visa from the Interior Ministry to leave the country. This system gives employers inordinate control over dissertation juridique enterprise workers and can trap them in abusive situations. Saudi Arabia has also failed to finalize reforms to the labor law to extend protections to the country’s approximately 1.5 million migrant domestic workers, who are currently excluded from basic guarantees such as a weekly day of rest or limits to hours of work. Several migrant domestic workers were only able to report complaints of grave physical abuse after returning to their home countries because complaint mechanisms in Saudi Arabia remained inaccessible. For example, in late August, Lahadapurage Daneris Ariyawathie, a domestic worker from Sri Lanka returned home and needed an operation to remove dozens of public of affection in schools nails and book report, metal objects she said her Saudi employers had hammered into public display in schools her body after she complained of being overworked. A Kenyan newspaper, The Nation, reported that in January, Saudi authorities summarily deported Fatma Athman, a domestic worker from Mombasa, a week after she suffered injuries she said resulted from her employer pushing her off a third-floor balcony. In the statements, past, Saudi authorities have been slow to investigate or prosecute abusers in public of affection similar cases. Qualities Of A Good Essay Writer! The criminal case against the employers of Keni binti Carda, an Indonesian domestic worker who says she was burned by her employers in September 2008 before they put her on a plane back home, was only investigated following international pressure and has been subject to protracted delays. Human Rights Watch also documented several cases in 2010 in which workers complaining of public of affection unpaid wages were unable to obtain redress and were effectively trapped in the journal pelletier book report the country once their residency permits expired.

In one example, Jadawel International, a Saudi company, failed to pay workers more than six months of salaries that they owed them. Managers told workers they were working toward a solution for paying the back salaries and renewing their residency permits, without which workers could not leave the of affection, compound for referencing, fear of of affection arrest, access medical treatment, or leave the country. Following Human Rights Watch communication with the company’s chairman, Jadawel renewed most residency permits, issued exit visas, and paid six months outstanding salaries in August, although workers stated on October 24, 2010, that salary payments were three months in arrears. Saudi Arabia’s labor courts are notoriously slow, often taking years to hear and decide a case, which can then be appealed, further delaying a final decision. Migrant workers on low incomes of a few hundred dollars a month, most of which they send home, cannot afford to wait that long. Migrant workers also lack the resources that companies have to essay day, hire lawyers to present their case. In other cases, migrant workers accused of crimes may face harsh penalties such as the of affection in schools, death sentence and dissertation juridique enterprise, several obstacles to a fair trial including limited access to lawyers and translators. Public Of Affection In Schools Essay! In a prominent case, Saudi Arabia's Supreme Court upheld the death penalty for Rizana Nafeek, a Sri Lankan domestic worker. Nafeek had been in Saudi Arabia for two weeks in May 2005 when her employers’ 4-month-old baby died in her care.

A recruitment agency in Sri Lanka had altered the birth date on her passport to suggest she was 23, but her birth certificate later confirmed she was 17 at the time. Though she was arrested in statut enterprise 2005, she did not have access to legal counsel until after a court in Dawadmi sentenced her to death in public essay 2007. As of November 2010, the the journal book, death sentence had not been carried out. Human Right Watch recommends that the government of Saudi Arabia: Create effective mechanisms to monitor migrant workers' working conditions, including accessible complaints mechanisms such as hotlines, and take steps to resolve labor disputes in a timely manner. Rigorously prosecute employers and employment agents who abuse migrant domestic workers and public display of affection in schools essay, ensure that migrants have access to competent translators and a lawyer during legal proceedings. Qualities Writer! Adopt comprehensive immigration and labor reforms so that workers do not require the consent of their first employer to transfer jobs or leave the country, and so that domestic workers receive equal protection under labor laws. Human Rights Watch's report, “From the Tiger to the Crocodile: Abuse of Migrant Workers in Thailand,” describes the widespread and display of affection in schools essay, severe human rights abuses that migrant workers—who originate from Burma, Cambodia, and Laos—face in Thailand, including torture in a book paper detention, extortion, sexual abuse, trafficking, forced labor, restrictions on public of affection in schools essay, organizing, violent retaliation against complainants, and even death. Statut Enterprise! Eighty percent of these migrant workers are from Burma, many of whom are fleeing ethnic and political conflict back home.

Local police and officials often ignore or fail to effectively investigate migrants’ complaints. National laws and policies and public in schools essay, provincial decrees prohibit migrants from establishing their own organizations, such as trade unions, and asserting their rights. Policy restrictions on statut enterprise, changing employers, moving outside designated areas, and convening meetings with more than a handful of persons leave migrants vulnerable to exploitation and ill-treatment. Migrants reported constant fear of detention and public display, extortion by police, who demand money or valuables from migrants in their custody in return for their release. It is not uncommon for a migrant to lose the equivalent of one to a book in a paper, several months pay in a single extortion incident. Human Rights Watch found that a number of public display of affection essay provinces continue to restrict migrants’ use of mobile phones and motorcycles, severely limit freedom of movement, prohibit migrant gatherings, and enforce nighttime curfews. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Thailand: Revoke laws and referencing a book research, national and public of affection in schools, provincial policies that bar migrants from forming labor unions, changing employers, organizing assemblies, and exercising their rights to freedom of juridique expression, association, and movement.

Establish an independent and impartial commission to investigate allegations of abuse by police and in schools essay, other authorities against migrants. Such a commission should be empowered to dissertation statut, subpoena, require presentation of evidence, and essay, recommend criminal and of climate change essay, civil charges against abusers. It should make reports public periodically. In 2010, New York University (NYU), the Guggenheim Foundation, and their government-owned partners announced new contractual safeguards for workers employed in building an NYU campus and a branch of the Guggenheim on Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi. As of November, Le Louvre Abu Dhabi, another major international construction project on Saadiyat Island, had not made any specific public commitments on labor standards for its workers. A May 2009 Human Rights Watch report, “The Island of Happiness: Exploitation of Migrant Workers on Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi,” documented how the UAE government and development authorities had failed to tackle worker abuse, including unlawful recruiting fees, unpaid wages, and a sponsorship system that gives employers inordinate power over workers. These contribute to a cycle of abuse that leaves migrant workers deeply indebted and often unable to leave their jobs. In repeat visits to the island in 2010, Human Rights Watch interviewed workers who, consistent with earlier findings, had paid exorbitant recruitment fees that took months or years to recover, and whose employers had confiscated their passports. In early 2010, NYU and its partner, the Executive Affairs Authority of Abu Dhabi, announced it would require all companies involved in in schools essay building and operating the NYU Abu Dhabi campus to research paper, reimburse workers for recruiting or other employment-related fees they are found to have paid. The new terms also bar companies from confiscating worker passports, and require them to public essay, provide 30 days annual leave, health insurance, and premium rates for overtime work, among other benefits. In September 2010, the Guggenheim and dissertation statut enterprise, its government-owned partner, the Tourism Development Investment Company (TDIC), said all companies involved in building and of affection in schools, operating the museum's Abu Dhabi branch would be required to provide workers with electronic wage payment, overtime provisions, annual leave, a weekly day off, and health insurance.

Companies would also have to give workers contracts in qualities writer local languages before they enter the UAE, and give them access to a complaints body at TDIC. Unlike NYU, the Guggenheim did not include explicit provisions to require companies to reimburse workers for display in schools, any recruitment or other employment-related fees, although it reaffirmed an employer's responsibility for such fees. Qualities Of A Essay Writer! Indebtedness for recruitment fees remains the primary factor that creates conditions of forced labor, with workers required to use their wages to public of affection essay, pay off the fees, and pressured into remaining in their jobs regardless of abusive conditions. Every single worker interviewed for the 2009 report, as well as all workers interviewed in 2010, had paid such fees before coming to work in the UAE. The new measures announced by NYU and the Guggenheim lack clear provisions for enforcement or for independent, third-party monitoring of employer compliance. Nor did they address workers’ rights to qualities of a essay writer, collective bargaining, strike, and have a fair minimum wage. They did not specify what penalties, if any, will be imposed on contractors that violate the terms. It is also unclear what legal recourse NYU Abu Dhabi or the Guggenheim have in the event of a breach by a contractor employing workers on its project, with which it will have no direct contractual relationship. Human Rights Watch calls upon NYU, the Guggenheim, the Louvre, and the government of the UAE to: Establish a mechanism to of affection, monitor labor practices within the of augustus book, operations of the public display in schools essay, new branch, as well as those of qualities of a any subcontractors and their affiliates (including those who provide construction and maintenance services).

This monitoring mechanism should oversee how migrant workers are hired and treated during their employment with the Abu Dhabi branches, as well as subcontractors and essay, affiliates. Penalize and terminate relationships with any contractors that continue to work with labor agencies or sub-agencies that charge workers fees and/ or mislead workers regarding conditions of employment upon arrival in the UAE. Create mechanisms that would encourage compliance by subcontractors (i.e. retain experienced and reputable labor and referencing a book in a research paper, construction lawyers and give them a mandate to ensure that all construction and maintenance related contracts require meaningful compliance with labor laws). Hundreds of thousands of children work on US farms, but are less protected than all other working children in display in schools the United States. The 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act specifically exempts farm worker youth from 3 prong statements minimum age and maximum hour requirements, exposing them to work at far younger ages, for far longer hours, and under more hazardous conditions than children in other jobs.

Federal protections that do exist are often not enforced, and state child labor laws vary in strength and enforcement. As a result, child farm workers, most of whom are Latino and include both domestic and public display in schools, international migrants, often work 12 to 14 hour days, and risk pesticide poisoning, heat illness, injuries, and qualities essay, lifelong disabilities. Many, especially migrant children, drop out of school; girls are sometimes sexually harassed. While federal legislation that would close the loophole and protect child farm workers remains pending, some government agencies have moved to improve conditions: the Department of Labor added more than 250 new field investigators since early 2009 and plans to add more; the in schools, Environmental Protection Agency has pledged to strengthen its assessment of pesticide health risks, and to propose amendments to federal worker protection standards by 2012. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of the qualities of a essay, United States: Via the US Congress should amend the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) to apply the same age and hour requirements to children working for hire in agriculture as already apply to all other working children. Public Of Affection Essay! Congress should also raise the minimum age for particularly hazardous work in agriculture to 18, in line with existing standards in all other industries. Via the US Department of Labor should increase agricultural workplace inspections targeting child labor and minimum wage violations and significantly increase civil money and criminal penalties within the limits allowed by law to causes essay paper, improve compliance.

It should also press for much-needed amendments to the list of jobs in display of affection agriculture that are deemed to be “particularly hazardous” for report, children. II. Public Essay! Abuse and Detention at Borders. Men, women, and children often risk their lives to cross borders and are frequently subject to abusive treatment while in grey areas: no-man’s lands between border checkpoints, on pelletier, the high seas, and at international zones of airports. Many countries have border control policies that are hostile, discriminatory, and flout international standards, particularly along frontiers at the margins of territories that often lie beyond the public display in schools essay, sight of referencing in a paper media and other witnesses. Governments—often in the form of border and coast guards—may fail to screen migrants to identify asylum seekers, trafficking victims, unaccompanied children, and other members of vulnerable groups, or subject them to violence, extortion, poor conditions in display detention, and refoulement (forced return to torture or persecution). As of November 2010, Egyptian border guards in 2010 had shot dead at least 28 migrants attempting to cross the Sinai border into Israel. Qualities Of A Good Writer! A government official said in March that security forces had “only” killed 4 percent of those attempting to display of affection in schools essay, cross in dissertation statut 2009. Egypt continues to detain refugees and migrants and public of affection, charge them with illegal entry before military courts that do not meet international fair trial standards. Many of those trying to cross into Israel at or near the the journal pelletier book report, Sinai border come from refugee-producing countries such as Eritrea and Sudan.

Israel's policy of forcibly returning to Egypt some of those who do make it across, without adequately considering possible asylum claims, also violates international law. Migrants and public of affection in schools, refugees who Israel forcibly returns to Egypt face arbitrary arrest and detention, unfair trials before military courts, and forcible deportation without the chance to make asylum claims. Egypt denied UNHCR access to dissertation juridique, detained refugees and public display of affection in schools essay, migrants, preventing them from making asylum claims. In January, Egyptian security officials arrested at least 25 Sudanese refugees and asylum seekers and detained many incommunicado for up to three months. Many are vulnerable to deportation even though they hold refugee documentation from the UNHCR. On January 25, Egyptian authorities returned Muhammad al-Haj, a recognized Sudanese refugee, to his home country, in violation of the prohibition of refoulement. Human Rights Watch recommends that the Egyptian government: Order border police to use lethal force only referencing a book in a, as a proportional and display in schools essay, necessary response to a threat to life, and conduct a thorough and impartial investigation into the killings of African migrants, make the qualities good essay, results public, and prosecute responsible border police officers and officials with oversight responsibility. Of Affection! Cease using military tribunals to try civilian migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers detained in referencing the Sinai.

Guarantee UNHCR access to all migrants who have international protection needs in official custody. Human Rights Watch recommends that the public display of affection in schools essay, Israeli government: Conduct no additional coordinated returns to Egypt of persons who cross the word day, Sinai border until: Israel institutes a system that ensures border-crossers the ability to present asylum claims, and Egypt credibly guarantees that it will respect returnees' rights under international human rights and public essay, refugee law and good writer, not to return them to countries where they could face persecution. Since May 2009, Italy has joined forces with Libya to patrol the in schools, waters from the coast of Libya to Italy’s Mediterranean territories, principally the island of of augustus pelletier Lampedusa. Libya in 2010 operated patrol boats provided by public of affection in schools essay, Italy with Italian personnel on board to interdict boat migrants on the high seas and in Libyan waters and return them summarily to Libya with no screening to identify refugees, the sick or injured, pregnant women, unaccompanied children, victims of trafficking, or victims of violence against women. All interdicted boat migrants are detained upon arrival in Libya in overcrowded and unsanitary conditions. Libya is not a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention and pelletier, has no asylum law or procedure.

In April, Libyan Foreign Secretary Moussa Koussa said his country “does not have any refugees but only illegal migrants who break the laws.” In July the government said that there were 3 million irregular migrants in display of affection essay Libya. A new law on “Illegal Migration” criminalizes trafficking of change essay paper migrants but does not mention protections for refugees. In June, Libya closed the display in schools, office of the of a essay, UN High Commissioner for public of affection in schools, Refugees (UNHCR) in Tripoli and expelled its representative. It later allowed the office nominally to reopen but only qualities good writer, with highly restricted permission to work on behalf of refugees and public of affection essay, asylum seekers whom it had registered prior to closing, and without access to newly detained migrants and asylum seekers. On June 28, a group of detained Eritrean migrants tried to of augustus pelletier, escape from a migrant detention center after Libyan officials allowed Eritrean embassy officials to public display essay, take their photos and forced them to complete forms raising fear of deportation. In response, Libyan authorities transported 245 Eritrean detainees from the Misrata detention on Libya’s northern coast to another detention center at al-Biraq, north of Sabha, in thesis an apparent attempt to deport them.

Some of these Eritreans were among those whom Italy had forcibly returned to Libya without giving them an opportunity to claim asylum. After an international outcry, Libya released this group but did not provide them with any support or protection. Public Of Affection! They remain in Libya. Human Rights Watch recommends that the Libyan government: Sign and ratify the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol and a book, establish asylum procedures in conformity with international refugee standards. Improve the deplorable conditions of detention in Libya, and prosecute officials responsible for abusing migrants in and out of detention.

Human Rights Watch recommends that EU institutions and member states: Refrain from concluding multilateral or bilateral readmission agreements with Libya until Libyan policies and practices with regard to migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers fully meet international standards. In Schools Essay! Pressure Italy to stop cooperating with Libya to forcibly return migrants—including apparent asylum seekers—to Libya where they are routinely subjected to inhuman and degrading treatment and where potential refugees are not effectively protected. Ensure that the EU external border control agency, Frontex, is not involved in activities that result in refoulement. On January 1, 2010, a readmission agreement between the European Union and Ukraine came into force that provides for of a good essay, the return of display of affection third-country nationals who enter the EU from Ukraine. Readmission agreements are a cornerstone of the EU’s so-called externalization strategy for asylum and migration, the core of which is to stop the flow of migrants and asylum seekers into the EU by shifting the burden and responsibility for migrants and in a research, refugees onto countries that neighbor the Union, in this case Ukraine. Ukraine has a dysfunctional asylum system, and from August 2009 through August 2010, no government body had the mandate to public of affection in schools, recognize or provide protection to refugees. Essay Writer! Ukraine is struggling to manage the backlog of of affection in schools claims that were not processed during that time. Not only has Ukraine been unable or unwilling to provide effective protection to refugees and asylum seekers, it has also subjected some migrants who returned from neighboring EU countries to torture and other inhuman and degrading treatment. Out of 161 interviews of refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers in Ukraine, Slovakia, and Hungary whom Human Rights Watch interviewed in June 2010, 48 said they had been returned from Slovakia or Hungary. Most of those 48 said they had asked for asylum upon arrival in those countries, but that their pleas had been ignored and they had been swiftly expelled.

These practices breach the right to seek asylum contained in the binding EU Charter of dissertation statut juridique Fundamental Rights. Both Slovakia and public display of affection in schools essay, Hungary also returned unaccompanied children to Ukraine in violation of their international obligations to protect them. Human Rights Watch recommends that Slovakia, Hungary, and other EU member states: Suspend the return of third-country nationals to Ukraine under the dissertation, EU-Ukraine readmission agreement or bilateral readmission agreements until Ukraine meets international standards with respect to public display essay, the human rights of returned migrants, particularly with regard to the practice of torture, inhuman or degrading treatment, and arbitrary detention and until Ukraine demonstrates willingness and the capacity to provide a fair hearing to asylum seekers and effective protection to refugees. Human Rights Watch recommends that Ukraine: Ensure that all migrant detainees in change state custody are treated in a humane and dignified manner and that their detention fully complies with Ukraine’s international obligations governing the administrative detention of migrants. Immediately investigate allegations of torture and in schools essay, abuse of migrants in State Border Guard Service custody, including at the time of apprehension and in all phases of detention and transfer. Ensure that border guards quickly forward all requests for asylum to of augustus, the regional migration service and discipline any personnel who obstruct access to asylum. In 2010, Greece was faced with 10,000 requests by other EU member states to return migrants and of affection, asylum seekers there under the Dublin II regulation, the instrument that assigns responsibility among EU states for examining asylum claims.

Dublin II generally holds that the country of first entry is responsible for qualities of a, examining the claim. Greece was the public essay, entry point for word essay day, about 75 percent of the public of affection in schools, 106,200 irregular migrants entering the EU in 2009; that percentage rose to 80 percent in the early months of 2010, according to The Economist . In September 2010, UNHCR described the situation for migrants and asylum seekers in Greece as a “humanitarian crisis.” Despite the government’s repeated commitments to overhaul its broken asylum system, restore appeal rights, ensure humane treatment for migrants, and police accountability for causes change paper, ill-treatment, it had made no progress in public any of of climate essay those areas by year’s end. A Presidential Decree containing modest reforms, including addressing a backlog of more than 46,000 cases, remained stalled partly because of the country’s budget crisis, while only 11 of 30,000 applicants (0.04 percent) were granted asylum at first instance in 2009. Migrants and asylum seekers continued to public, be detained in substandard conditions, with little or no assistance to unaccompanied migrant children and other vulnerable groups, many of causes of climate change whom live in of affection in schools destitution or on the streets, at risk of exploitation and trafficking. During an October visit, the UN special rapporteur on torture investigated ill-treatment of migrants, as well as the detention of asylum seekers, women, and children. On October 20, he called on in a research, the EU not to transfer asylum seekers to Greece under the Dublin II regulation. Human Rights Watch recommends that other EU member states: Suspend all Dublin II transfers to display of affection, Greece.

Human Rights Watch recommends that Greece: Invite UNHCR to qualities of a essay writer, take over its asylum system as long as it is incapable of doing so. Completely reform its asylum system to provide access to public in schools essay, the procedure for causes essay, all asylum seekers and fair and timely adjudication of claims. Improve conditions of detention in all places of migration detention to meet international standards. The Canary Islands government's decision to keep 200 unaccompanied migrant children in emergency shelters, which are not subject to normal care regulations, puts the children at risk and threatens their well-being. While some conditions have improved in recent years, the centers fail to comply with the Canary Islands government's minimum care standards for migrant children and have no occupancy limits. The approximately 100 children in the biggest and most secluded emergency center, La Esperanza, receive low-quality food, lack adequate heating, hot water, and blankets, and report exposure to public of affection in schools essay, frequent violence from other children. The emergency centers were established in 2006 as a temporary measure in response to 6000 word essay day, an unprecedented number of unaccompanied migrant children arriving on the islands.

Some conditions have improved since 2007, including access to education, training opportunities outside their residences, and more frequent monitoring visits. Other serious concerns also persist in emergency centers. These include the public display in schools, absence of a functioning mechanism to file confidential complaints, mixing of the journal of augustus younger children with older peers in one emergency center, insufficient access to the asylum procedure, absence of occupancy limits, and limited opportunities to become integrated in the community. In addition, the public in schools, substandard conditions at La Esperanza center threaten children's well-being. The Canary Islands government informed Human Rights Watch orally on June 15 that it plans to close down La Esperanza emergency center by December 2010 and move children to other centers, including the emergency centers at Tegueste and of augustus pelletier book, Arinaga. It has not committed to making those centers subject to its own established minimum standards of care. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of the public display, Canary Islands: Close La Esperanza emergency center as a matter of priority and the journal of augustus book, transfer all children to adequate care arrangements.

End the emergency regime as a whole and bring all centers for unaccompanied minors in line with Canary Islands minimum standards and display in schools essay, occupancy limits for the journal of augustus book report, centers accommodating unaccompanied migrant children. III. Inadequate Health Care for Migrants in Detention. We are sweating at night on the floor; we don’t know what illnesses we have, but we pass them back and forth…. Display Of Affection In Schools Essay! I asked the officer to go to the clinic, but he said, “You just need to wait for causes of climate change paper, deportation.” Especially when they know you are a foreigner, they don’t take you serious. —Jean Marie, 28, immigration detainee, Lusaka Central Prison, Zambia, October 3, 2009. Migrants frequently face barriers in accessing health care. Migrant populations in detention can be particularly vulnerable, as they are entirely reliant on the government to provide or facilitate their access to services.

Under international law, states have an obligation to ensure medical care for all prisoners at least equivalent to of affection, that available to causes essay paper, the general population; human rights law also requires that a core minimum of public of affection health care services be provided without discrimination on of climate change essay paper, the basis of display of affection citizenship or social origin. Yet despite these protections, prisoners in Zambia and Malawi are often held in the journal report life-threatening conditions. Human Rights Watch researchers have found that migrant detainees held in prisons—sometimes inappropriately or unnecessarily—also experience discrimination, and faced conditions or health care inferior to those provided to non-migrant prison populations. In August 2010, Human Rights Watch became aware of serious health and public of affection in schools essay, justice concerns in the cases of approximately 230 Ethiopian migrants imprisoned in enterprise Malawi. The migrants had recently been convicted of illegal entry and sentenced to various terms of imprisonment, with an average sentence of 10 months. Reports from these prisoners suggested that their trials were conducted in a language they were unable to understand, with no translation provided, raising concerns that the trials may not have met international fair trial standards.

While many, if not all, prisoners in Malawi face poor prison conditions, reports suggest those experienced by Ethiopian detainees in some Malawian prisons are significantly worse than the norm, and could have serious health implications. For example, in one prison some 85 non-Malawian inmates were housed in a small, smoke-filled kitchen, measuring 3.4 by 3.9 meters. Public Of Affection Essay! Some of the inmates were forced to stand for 16 hours a day while the cell was locked: one or more were forced to crouch in the chimney. Qualities Of A Essay Writer! Inmates reported respiratory ailments and symptoms consistent with malnutrition-related disorders, but often could not report serious health problems because they did not speak the officers’ language. Human Rights Watch has recommended that the government of Malawi: Improve conditions of detention and in particular overcrowding in display Malawi’s prisons, ensuring that non-Malawian prisoners are held under conditions of detention equivalent to dissertation statut, Malawian prisoners. Provide migrant detainees with a designated interpreter through whom they can request medical assistance and display of affection essay, through whom they may make complaints to prison authorities empowered to address prison conditions. In Zambia, immigration detainees—including administrative detainees held pending deportation—are frequently held in prisons, made to await deportation without due process, and mixed with convicted and pre-trial criminal prisoners. Human Rights Watch, the in a research paper, Prisons Care and Counselling Association (PRISCCA), and the AIDS and public of affection, Rights Alliance for of a writer, Southern Africa (ARASA) interviewed immigration detainees in display in schools Zambian prisons and found that only 38 percent of those interviewed had ever seen a magistrate or judge, compared with 97 percent of non-immigration detainees.

Many who were detained appeared to have reasonable claims to legal status. Immigration detainees are routinely told to pay for their own deportation and are held until they pay. Being held behind bars can have life-threatening consequences for all inmates, including immigration detainees. 6000 Word Essay Day! Overcrowding, malnutrition, rampant infectious disease, grossly inadequate medical care, and routine violence at display of affection the hands of prison officers and fellow inmates make Zambian prisons death traps for inmates of all nationalities. In 2010, the Zambia Prisons Service employed only 14 health staff—including one physician—to serve its 16,666 prisoners. Tuberculosis (TB) rates in Zambia’s prisons are more than ten times those in the general population, and dissertation juridique enterprise, HIV rates almost double. Public Display In Schools! Yet despite being held under the same unhealthy conditions as Zambian inmates, immigration detainees interviewed by Human Rights Watch, PRISCCA, and ARASA had been tested for both TB and HIV in referencing in a research detention at even lower rates than their Zambian counterparts; six percent of immigration detainees had been tested for TB compared to 23 percent of all detainees, and 21 percent of immigration detainees had been tested for HIV compared with 57 percent of in schools all detainees. Such a disparity is attributable to a combination of discrimination against immigration detainees in accessing care, and the fact that immigration detainees, on average, spend less time in the journal of augustus pelletier book detention than convicted detainees. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Zambia:

Boost prison-based health services to include HIV and TB testing and treatment, and ensure accessibility of such services to immigration detainees on equal terms. Amend the Immigration Act to require that any administrative detention for the purposes of deportation be explained on a case-by-case basis and display, shown to be proportionate and causes, necessary, and include specific limits on the duration of administrative detention for the purposes of deportation. Ensure that each immigration detainee receives a hearing in a timely manner and is able to request asylum. IV. Discriminatory Treatment of Migrants. France launched a highly-publicized campaign against Roma from display essay Eastern European in late July 2010, moving to forcibly evict Roma (and French travelers “gens du voyage”) living in unauthorized camps and to return migrant Roma (who are mostly EU citizens) to their countries of origin. By the end of August, 128 of the camps had been destroyed, and by mid-September, over one thousand Roma from Romania and Bulgaria had been removed from France, the essay day, majority through “assisted voluntary returns” involving cash inducements and threat of deportation. There is evidence that the government specifically targeted camps occupied by migrant Roma from Eastern Europe with a view to organizing expulsions, and concerns remain that evictions were carried out without appropriate safeguards. At time of display writing, a government-sponsored immigration reform bill, already passed by the lower chamber of parliament, is under examination in the French senate. The draft law weakens migrants’ rights and contains provisions that widen the grounds for expelling EU citizens to include abuse of France’s welfare system, profiting from begging by others, and “abusive” occupation of 6000 day land.

The last-minute introduction of the latter provisions and political rhetoric around their introduction strongly suggested they were aimed at Roma from Eastern Europe. The European Commission applied pressure on France in of affection essay September for essay day, failing to implement correctly a 2004 EU directive on in schools, freedom of movement for EU citizens, which contains protections against summary and mass expulsions, neither of which appear to have been respected in the case of the expulsions of Roma to Romania and Bulgaria. While a positive move, the commission’s actions did not take France to task for discrimination against Roma, although it has said it will continue to dissertation statut, monitor France’s compliance with its human rights obligations in this area. The commission’s actions prompted France to indicate it will take steps to remedy the shortcomings in of affection essay national legislation. The immigration reform currently being debated also includes limiting the essay day, rights of appeal of of affection in schools essay migrants held in thesis deportation detention, and withdrawing acquired citizenship from persons convicted of killing a public official, such as law enforcement officers, firefighters and judges. Human Rights Watch recommends that the French government:

Ensure all camp evictions are conducted lawfully and in compliance with international standards on evictions, including with necessary safeguards, such as appropriate advance notice, compensation for lost or damaged belongings, and alternative accommodation. Conduct an independent review of its “voluntary assisted return” program and the policy of expulsion of migrant Roma. Ensure that any expulsion measures are based on individual review and do not discriminate on the grounds of ethnicity or nationality. Withdraw problematic provisions of the immigration reform bill, including those targeting Roma, weakening the rights of migrants in detention, and withdrawing citizenship from naturalized French convicted of certain crimes. Racist and xenophobic violence, including against migrants, remains a serious problem, with the government not only slow to acknowledge the problem and adopt appropriate legal and policy responses, but exacerbating a climate of intolerance with anti-immigrant and anti-Roma discourse.

The plight of public in schools seasonal agricultural migrant workers was laid bare in statut juridique enterprise January 2010, when 11 African seasonal migrant workers were seriously injured in drive-by shootings and there were mob attacks over a three-day period in Rosarno, Calabria, in south Italy. Every winter, thousands of seasonal migrant workers go to Rosarno to harvest citrus fruits. Most are hired without legal employment contracts, and work in conditions that are often exploitative, involving low pay, failure to pay, and abusive treatment. Following two drive-by shootings of African migrant workers on the same day, migrants organized protests, some of which resulted in violence and criminal damage of property. In the most serious episode attributed to migrants, a woman and her children were forced out of their car, the display essay, woman was hit in the face with a rock, and the journal of augustus book report, the car set ablaze. More shootings and mob beatings targeting migrants followed, there were two attempts to run over migrants (including with a bulldozer), and an arson attack on a house occupied by migrants. In addition to the 11 seriously injured migrants, at least 10 other migrants, 10 law enforcement officers, and 14 local residents required first aid treatment.

Over one thousand migrants left the town after the violence, most of in schools essay them evacuated by law enforcement personnel. To date, three Italians have been convicted of violence against migrants during the Rosarno unrest, although none of qualities essay writer those responsible for the targeted shootings or mob attacks have been brought to justice. Five African migrants were convicted and sentenced in late January in expedited trials for incidents during the riot after the first two drive-by shootings. Anti-migrant discourse has become a staple of public display of affection in schools essay Italian politics, with elected officials making statements linking migrants to crime. This has exacerbated an the journal of augustus pelletier report existing climate of hostility, prompted in part by public display of affection essay, several high profile murders and rapes attributed to 6000 word day, foreigners. Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said in January 2010 that fewer foreigners in display Italy “means fewer people to swell the paper, ranks of criminals,” while the mayor of Milan said in May 2010 that “illegal immigrants who don’t have regular work usually commit crimes.” Elected officials at the local and national level have engaged in derogatory rhetoric about Roma (many of of affection in schools essay whom are Italian citizens) and Romanians, blaming them for crime and urban blight. Human Rights Watch recommends that the qualities, Italian government: Ensure existing criminal provisions that provide for public display in schools essay, penalty enhancement in racially-motivated crimes are utilized and fully implemented. Ensure that attacks on migrants, Roma, and 6000, other ethnic minorities are promptly investigated by law enforcement and public essay, those responsible are brought to justice.

Condemn forcefully and consistently all racist and xenophobic statements, especially by the journal pelletier book report, public and elected officials, and make clear that racist discourse has no place in Italian society. Since 2005, up to 3 million Zimbabweans have fled political persecution and economic collapse in their country and sought refuge and economic opportunities in neighboring South Africa. In 2008 and 2009, 261,000 claimed asylum, overwhelming an asylum system which already faced a backlog of just over 100,000 cases. Responding to international calls to grant Zimbabweans in South Africa temporary special protection, South African authorities in April 2009 announced a “special dispensation” policy under which Zimbabweans would receive special permission to remain and work in South Africa. While the policy was never implemented, South Africa stopped deporting Zimbabweans that same month, ending a practice that had seen over an estimated half-a-million Zimbabweans forced back to their country since early 2007. On September 2, 2010, due to perceived improvements in the situation in Zimbabwe, South African authorities announced an end to the special dispensation policy, and confirmed deportations would resume on January 1, 2011. However, the display of affection in schools, September 2 decision allows Zimbabweans (asylum seekers, the undocumented, and those with fraudulent South African identity papers) currently working, studying, or operating a business in South Africa to regularize their status by December 31, 2010.

To qualify, applicants must hold a Zimbabwean passport, which they can obtain from Zimbabwean authorities in South Africa, and referencing a book paper, prove they have been in the country since at least May 31, 2010. Human Rights Watch and other organizations have voiced concern that four months is insufficient time to ensure that all Zimbabweans wishing to apply can do so, and that those who miss the deadline will be caught up in South Africa’s likely resumption of mass deportations of Zimbabweans in early 2011. Impact on public display, Asylum System and Genuine Refugees. Human Rights Watch is also concerned that lack of additional resources for the asylum system and inadequate safeguards against police abuses means resumed deportations of Zimbabweans will lead to more violations of asylum seekers’ rights. Once deportations have resumed, Zimbabweans will have only two options to lawfully enter and remain in of climate South Africa: apply for asylum, or apply for a temporary residence permit under the Immigration Rules’ work, study, and of affection in schools, business provisions. Word Day! The majority who wish to display in schools, enter or remain in South Africa will be unable to apply for the journal of augustus pelletier, such a residency permit due to a combination of permit fees, lack of public display of affection in schools skills, lack of Zimbabwean identity documents, and lack of sponsorship by South African employers or educational institutions.

For most Zimbabweans, the only way to remain legally in South Africa will be to juridique, claim asylum, which guarantees them a right to in schools, remain in qualities of a good the country until the claim has been resolved. In 2011, therefore, there is likely to be a significant rise in Zimbabwean asylum applications. In Schools! South Africa’s asylum system—already buckling under the strain of hundreds of thousands of in a research paper Zimbabweans’ claims and public in schools essay, tens of thousands of causes of climate paper claims by other nationalities—will be under further pressure. As documented in in schools our June 2008 report, “Neighbors in a book paper Need,” this will almost certainly lead to even less access to the asylum system, resulting in police arrests, prolonged detention, unlawful deportation of genuine refugees, and in schools, a drop in the quality and timeliness of decisions for asylum seekers in genuine need of international protection. Recommendations to the South African government: Extend the deadline for Zimbabweans to register in South Africa until at least June 1, 2011, to ensure that those wishing to apply have enough time to do so; support the Zimbabwean authorities in South Africa to rapidly issue passports to a book research, all Zimbabweans wishing to register. In light of the likely dramatic increase in Zimbabwean asylum applications following resumed deportations, take all necessary steps to ensure that anyone wishing to claim asylum in South Africa can easily lodge their claim and is guaranteed protection from police arrest, detention, and deportation. Federal reforms to the laws that regulate which migrants may enter and remain in the US mostly stalled in 2010. Public Display! Instead, constituent states considered problematic immigration laws.

An Arizona law, SB 1070, authorized police to interrogate anyone who they reasonably suspect to be undocumented. Human Rights Watch opposed SB 1070, concerned that it would lead to qualities of a good essay writer, racial profiling. In July a federal court enjoined enforcement of the most controversial sections of SB 1070, including the “reasonable suspicion” interrogations. The court’s decision is under appeal. October 2010 marked one year since the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency (ICE) published a report calling for replacing the current punitive approach to detaining immigrants with a “civil detention model.” The agency has been working on programmatic steps to public of affection in schools essay, achieve that goal. In 2010, it took the dissertation statut enterprise, positive step of establishing a computerized detainee locator system, enabling attorneys, government officials, and family members to public, locate an immigrant held in one of around 300 detention facilities throughout the country. However, several other key reforms that Human Rights Watch has called for based on its research are stalled or need additional effort by the journal of augustus pelletier book, the agency. Public Display In Schools Essay! Aspects of of climate change essay paper immigration detention procedures needing prompt reform include:

While the ICE detainee locator system is an important first step, much more needs to be done to ensure that ICE uses its detention facilities only as necessary. Public Display Of Affection! In 2009, ICE held between 380,000 and 442,000 people in 3 prong thesis statements approximately 300 facilities, at an annual cost of US$1.7 billion. These people are not imprisoned as punishment for criminal offenses, but rather are detained for civil immigration violations. Many are deprived of their liberty for months, and even years. Treatment of Detainees with Mental Disabilities.

Immigrants with mental disabilities are often unjustifiably detained for years, sometimes indefinitely. They also must undergo deportation hearings without the right to a government-appointed attorney, which means approximately 60 percent go through court hearings without a lawyer. Human Rights Watch has documented numerous cases in which people with mental disabilities were prevented from making claims against public essay deportation—including claims of US citizenship—because they were unable to represent themselves. Some people interviewed by Human Rights Watch did not know their own names, were delusional, could not tell the time, or did not know that deportation meant removal from the United States. Sexual Violence against Female Detainees. Human Rights Watch has compiled documented incidents and referencing in a research paper, allegations of sexual assault, abuse, and harassment in immigration detention since the formation of ICE in 2003. In one such incident, five women detained at the Port Isabel Service Processing Center in Texas were assaulted by a guard in 2008 when he entered each of their rooms in the detention center infirmary where they were patients. He ordered them to undress and touched intimate parts of their bodies.

While ICE has taken some steps to address the problem of sexual assault, including proposing new requirements for how detention facilities must prevent and respond to sexual abuse, the agency should act swiftly to improve oversight of the entire detention system and ensure accountability. On February 22, ICE wrote to Human Rights Watch, announcing the display of affection essay, agency's intention to “minimize the number of detainee transfers to the greatest extent possible.” This important commitment came after Human Rights Watch raised serious concerns about ICE's policy of transferring large numbers of immigrant detainees to facilities far from where they lived. The transfers impede and sometimes completely bar detainees from accessing an attorney and thesis, interfere with detainees' ability to present key witnesses and evidence in immigration court. Sometimes transfers completely alter the law applied to their deportation or asylum case, for example, the act of sending a detainee from one jurisdiction to another can determine whether she may ask an immigration judge to public in schools essay, allow her to remain in the United States. In light of the report, 1.6 million detainee transfers recorded between 1997 and 2006, and data from 2008 that show that a majority of detainees were transferred two or more times, ICE’s statement of in schools intention is a positive step.

However, it needs to make specific changes to its internal policies to address this serious problem. Human Rights Watch recommends that the US government: Ensure that immigrants are not detained unnecessarily, with particular attention to preventing the detention of persons with mental disabilities without justification, and statut juridique, provide appointed counsel for non-citizens with mental disabilities in immigration proceedings. Establish legally enforceable standards to govern conditions of detention, including access to medical care; reform policies to public display essay, limit the dissertation statut enterprise, transfer of detainees away from counsel and family; and public of affection essay, improve accountability and oversight mechanisms in the detention system to prevent and respond to abuses. Statements! Reform federal immigration law to ensure that all migrants’ human rights are protected even while their presence in the United States is strictly regulated. In Cote d'Ivoire, as elsewhere in West Africa, women and girls are trafficked from Nigeria for forced prostitution. Most appear to come from Delta and public of affection in schools essay, Edo states in Nigeria and are lured into migrating with promises of 6000 gainful employment in public in schools essay West Africa or Europe. Instead, they are forced to pay off an exorbitant debt through prostitution, with threats of harm by women overseeing the brothels should they fail to do so.

The problem appears to dissertation statut juridique, be rising, with the public, Nigerian embassy repatriating scores of victims this year alone. Cote d’Ivoire has failed to ratify the UN Trafficking Protocol and likewise has no domestic legislation against thesis statements trafficking, resulting in serious legislative deficiencies to tackle the problem. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Cote d’Ivoire: Sign and ratify the UN Trafficking Protocol, and public display of affection, pass a domestic anti-trafficking law that provides a framework for combating trafficking, including trafficking for the purpose of prostitution, in accordance with international standards. Conduct a thorough and comprehensive national investigation into the trafficking of West African women and girls for the purposes of prostitution, in order to determine the the journal of augustus pelletier book report, scale of the problem, the main trafficking routes, and the conditions and threats under which the display in schools, women and girls live. Under the current domestic legal framework, arrest and prosecute those engaged in thesis recruiting children for prostitution and display in schools essay, those who force women and girls into prostitution. More than two million migrant domestic workers are employed in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait and are at high risk of abuse and exploitation due to gaps in labor laws and restrictive immigration practices. Qualities Essay Writer! The combination of deceptive recruitment practices in of affection in schools home countries, indebtedness due to placement fees, confinement to the workplace upon employment, withholding of passports, and abuses summarized earlier in referencing a book research paper this report, can contribute to situations of forced labor, trafficking, and public display of affection, slavery-like conditions. In May 2010, the Nepalese embassy in in a research Riyadh confirmed several cases in display which Kuwaiti employers hired Nepalese domestic workers, illegally transported them to Saudi Arabia against their will, and forced them to work for day, Saudi families. The Saudi families typically paid the Kuwaitis fees for trafficking the of affection in schools essay, workers, and when finished employing them, often abandoned them at the Nepalese embassy to avoid paying fines for illegal hiring. Although many of the Nepalese women arriving at the embassy appeared to have suffered abuse, including sexual abuse, diplomats said that Saudi authorities, while typically facilitating repatriation of these domestic workers, did not provide them with specialized services or investigate the Saudi employers who illegally employed or abused them.

Saudi Arabia passed an essay day anti-trafficking law in July 2009. The law prohibits all forms of trafficking, and includes specific provisions addressing migrant workers, including prohibiting sale of work permits, receiving commissions in return for employment, and display, stiffer penalties if the crime was committed across national borders. The Kuwaiti parliament is considering a draft of an anti-trafficking law, first proposed in change July 2008, that would also punish trafficking across borders. Human Rights Watch recommends that the governments of Kuwait and public display of affection in schools essay, Saudi Arabia: Cooperate to prevent, monitor, and of augustus book report, prosecute cases of cross-border trafficking of migrants. Institute and enforce comprehensive legal frameworks to combat human trafficking, including implementation of Saudi Arabia’s anti-trafficking law, adoption of such a law by Kuwait, and in schools essay, reforms to labor and immigration laws. Word Essay! Provide specialized services to victims of trafficking including appropriate health and counseling services. In Senegal, at least 50,000 young boys live in public of affection in schools conditions that amount to a modern form of slavery. They generally come from 3 prong statements small villages and are sent by parents to cities around Senegal to study the Quran. However, many of the men who operate these residential schools offer little education and instead force the boys to beg for up to in schools essay, ten hours a day.

The boys must return a daily demanded sum or face severe physical abuse. While the boys suffer from malnutrition and 6000 word, frequent diseases, many of the teachers live in relative affluence. Many boys are trafficked internally within Senegal or from neighboring Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, the Gambia, Mali, and public display of affection in schools essay, Mauritania. In 2005, Senegal passed a law that criminalized trafficking and forcing another person to beg for financial gain; in September 2010, one month after President Abdoulaye Wade announced a ban on all forms of change essay begging, the country applied the law for the first time, arresting and prosecuting nine men who were exploiting young boys under their de facto guardianship through forced begging. It was considered a landmark case by local and international organizations working on the issue, and the number of boys on the streets in Dakar clearly reduced given the legitimate threat of prosecution.

However, only a month later President Wade reversed course and announced that the ban on in schools essay, begging would no longer be applied—and the number of boys forced to beg on the street appeared to return to its previous ubiquity. As of 6000 word essay October 2010, Guinea-Bissau, the neighboring country that sends the greatest number of these young boys to Senegal, had no law against trafficking. However, a draft law that would bring the country's legislation in line with international obligations is set to of affection in schools, appear before the essay, National Assembly in early 2011. Border officials, children's rights workers, and police said the public display in schools essay, law was essential to stem the flood of boys who are taken across the border each year to be exploited in Senegal. Guinea-Bissau’s National Assembly should act quickly to pass a law criminalizing human trafficking.

The draft law, which the Assembly recently placed on its agenda for referencing research, its October-November session, would empower police, judicial officials, and civil society to of affection essay, improve protection of the country’s children, thousands of whom are trafficked from Guinea-Bissau to Senegal and other countries each year. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Senegal: Resume prosecutions of those who traffic and abuse boys through forced begging. In particular, undertake proactive police work to a book in a paper, target the most exploitative teachers, and extend the state's crackdown on public of affection essay, forced begging to other cities in Senegal. Causes Essay! Strengthen and expand the mechanisms in public display of affection place to temporarily house, clothe, and feed boys recovered from abusive Quranic schools, and to return them to their families. Establish minimum standards in Quranic schools that protect a child's right to education, health, and change paper, physical and mental development, and require all such schools to be registered and periodically inspected by state officials to ensure they conform to such standards. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Guinea-Bissau: Immediately enact the draft legislation that criminalizes child trafficking, and enforce its provisions through the arrest and prosecution of individuals who traffic boys to Senegal under the guise of religious education. Increase the capacity of civil and border police units, particularly in the Bafata and Gabu regions, to deter child trafficking and display of affection, other illegal cross-border movements of children. Nisha Varia, senior researcher in the women’s rights division, coordinated the qualities good essay, compilation and publication of display of affection in schools essay this report. Of Augustus Pelletier Report! The contents are based on the field research and public display in schools essay, writing of several Human Rights Watch staff: Jane Buchanan, Zama Coursen-Neff, Corinne Dufka, Bill Frelick, Nadim Houry, Megan McLemore, Sarah Mehta, Heba Morayef, Priyanka Motaparthy, Samer Muscati, Alison Parker, Meghan Rhoad, Phil Robertson, Rebecca Shaeffer, Gerry Simpson, Judith Sunderland, Katherine Todrys, Simone Troller, Nisha Varia, Matt Wells, and Christoph Wilcke.

The findings on Zambia are based on joint field research by Human Rights Watch and Nyaradzo Chari-Imbayago of the AIDS and Rights Alliance for word, Southern Africa, Chris Mumba of the of affection essay, Treatment Advocacy and pelletier book, Literacy Campaign, and public display in schools, Godfrey Malembeka of the Prisons Care and Counselling Association. Janet Walsh, deputy director in thesis the women’s rights division, Bill Frelick, director of the display, refugee program, and Danielle Haas in qualities good essay writer the program office reviewed the of affection in schools, report. Clive Baldwin, Aisling Reidy, and James Ross, all from the legal and policy office, provided legal review. Daniela Ramirez provided editing and production assistance, and Grace Choi and Fitzroy Hepkins provided production assistance. Human Rights Watch Reports on Migrants in of climate 2010. Human Rights Watch, From the Tiger to the Crocodile: Abuse of Migrant Workers in of affection in schools essay Thailand , February 23, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/02/23/tiger-crocodile-0.

Human Rights Watch, “Off the Backs of the Children”: Forced Begging and Other Abuses against Talibes in Senegal , April 15, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/04/15/backs-children-0. Human Rights Watch,Prisons Care and Counselling Association, AIDS and Rights Alliance for Southern Africa, and paper, Human Rights Watch, Unjust and Unhealthy: HIV, TB, and Abuse in Zambian Prisons , April 27, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/04/27/unjust-and-unhealthy-0. Human Rights Watch, Slow Reform: Protection of public essay Migrant Domestic Workers in Asia and the Middle East , April 28, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/04/28/slow-reform-0. Human Rights Watch, Eternal Emergency: No End to the journal of augustus, Unaccompanied Migrant Children’s Institutionalization in Canary Islands Emergency Centers , June 22, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/node/90993. Human Rights Watch, “Tough, Fair, and Practical”: A Human Rights Framework for Immigration Reform in the United States , July 9, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/07/09/tough-fair-and-practical-0. Human Rights Watch, “Hellish Work”: Exploitation of Migrant Tobacco Workers in Kazakhstan , July 14, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/07/14/hellish-work-0. Human Rights Watch, Deportation by Default: Mental Disability, Unfair Hearings, and display of affection in schools, Indefinite Detention in the US Immigration System , July, 26 2010, Human Rights Watch, Without Protection: How the Lebanese Justice System Fails Migrant Domestic Workers , September 16, 2010, Human Rights Watch, Walls at Every Turn: Exploitation of Migrant Domestic Workers Through Kuwait's Sponsorship System , October 6, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/10/06/walls-every-turn-0. Human Rights Watch, Ukraine: Buffeted in the Borderland: The Treatment of Asylum Seekers and Migrants in Ukraine (forthcoming December 2010). Other Human Rights Watch Materials on Migrants in 2010.

“Human Rights Watch Interviews with African Migrants Seriously Injured in Individual Attacks,” Human Rights Watch interviews, February 4, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to qualities good, The Honorable Prime Minister, Mr. Abhisit Vejjajiva, “ Open Letter of Concern for public display, the Safety and 6000 word, Security Of Migrant Workers in Thailand,” February 16, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/02/16/open-letter-concern-safety-and-security-migrant-workers-thailand. “Thailand: Migrant Workers Face Killings, Extortion, Labor Rights Abuses,” Human Rights Watch news release, February 23, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to the Lebanese government voicing concern over migrant and refugee arbitrary detentions, February 24, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to the Government of Greece on Reform of the Asylum and Immigration System, April 28, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/04/28/letter-mr-michalis-chryssochoidis-ministry-citizen-protection-greece. “Kuwait: Deliver Promised Rights Reform,” Human Rights Watch news release, May 12, 2010, “US/Mexico: Investigate Border Killings,” Human Rights Watch news release, June 11, 2010, “US/Mexico: Investigate Border Killings,” Human Rights Watch news release, June 11, 2010, “Libya: Do Not Deport Eritreans,” Human Rights Watch news release, July 2, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to The Honorable Prime Minister, Mr. Abhisit Vejjajiva, “Open Letter Requesting Investigation of public of affection in schools Claims Migrants Deported from Thailand Facing Human Rights Abuses by DKBA,” July 19, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch, to Mr.

Michalis Chryssochoidis, Minister of Citizen Protection, “ Open Letter to the Government of Greece on Reform of the Asylum and Immigration System,” July 28, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to H.E. Dr. Khalid al-Karaki, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Education, “ Undocumented Migrant Children’s Right to Education, Human Rights Watch Letter to the journal of augustus book report, Jordanian Minister of Education,” September 9, 2010. Letter from public essay Human Rights Watch to the Governments of Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka, “Prevent Abuses Against Migrant Domestic Workers, Human Rights Watch Letter to the Governments of Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka,” November 23, 2010, “Greece: End Inhumane Detention Conditions for Migrants,” Human Rights Watch news release, December 6, 2010 , http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/12/06/greece-end-inhumane-detention-conditions-migrants. Global: Flawed Policies Expose Migrants to in a, Abuse.

Iran: Afghan Children Recruited to Fight in Syria. Jordan: Syrian Refugees Being Summarily Deported. Syria: First Atrocities Trials Held in Europe. Saudi Arabia: Domestic Worker Brutalized. UN Human Rights Council Confronts Venezuela. Witness to Carnage in Burma’s Rakhine State. Burma: Military Commits Crimes Against Humanity.

Burma: Satellite Imagery Shows Mass Destruction. Burma: Targeted Sanctions, Arms Embargo Needed. Crimes against Humanity by Burmese Security Forces Against the Rohingya Muslim Population in Northern Rakhine State since August 25, 2017. Human Rights Watch defends the rights of people in 90 countries worldwide, spotlighting abuses and bringing perpetrators to justice.

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2012 GCSE / IGCSE / A Level Art Exam Paper: Help, Ideas #038; Interpretation. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. The GCSE, IGCSE and A Level Art exam paper contain topics which must be used to stimulate ideas for a portfolio of artwork. In Schools. For some students, a set starting point makes life easier; for others, it throws up a mental block: a paralysing fear that they will not be able to produce anything original, or – worse –that they will be forced to 3 prong statements draw/paint/photograph/design/sculpt something that is horrendously boring and which doesn’t interests them at public display in schools essay all. What follows is a list of of climate, thoughts, ideas and responses to the 2012 GCSE and A Level Art exam topics from a range of different examination boards.

They are intended to spur creative thought and to aid the of affection in schools essay, brainstorming process. It is worth remembering, before you begin, that no topic is word essay day, inherently boring and that even the most mundane can result in display beautiful work. Causes Change Essay. What matters is not the thing or even the essay, idea, but the way it is interpreted; the way you respond to referencing paper it, what it means to you and whether it wriggles inside and kicks at your soul. It is important to remember that the best art topics are those which: Are significant and display in schools important to your life in some way You know about or have first-hand experience of You have access to statements quality first-hand source material. Public Display In Schools Essay. It should also be noted that ideas on good this list are provided as an aid to the brainstorming process. Public Display Of Affection Essay. They may or may not be appropriate for you, depending on 3 prong thesis your circumstance. Selection and exploration of public display, ideas should occur only in conjunction with advice from your teacher.

Some artist model ideas have been included with the lists below. Of Climate Essay. For additional ideas, please look through our Pinterest Boards. Encounters, Experiences and Meetings. A beautiful image from a Year 12 (Level 2) NCEA Printmaking folio (sourced from the NZQA website): This beautiful mixed media image could be the display essay, result of an A Level Art exam theme such as #8216;encounter with nature#8217;. The meeting between mother and child / adoption / birth; The clashing of those who despise each other; Friends in a bustling and crowded restaurant; SEX and other forbidden encounters in pelletier a teenage world; The shields we put up in our brains: the of affection essay, filter between ourselves and those we meet; The joining (or meeting) of statements, two halves; Meetings between strangers…The million people we pass on in schools a daily basis, but never connect with; Drunken encounters; Encounters with god; Online encounters and causes of climate essay paper the changing social landscape of the world; The clashing of cultures; Meeting someone who has suffered a great loss; Shameful encounters / those you regret; A meeting room, filled with business people who go about their daily lives in a trance; A boisterous meeting between children; A birthday party; Meeting at public in schools essay a skateboard park; Reunion at an airport; Meeting for the last time; A life-changing moment; Focus on change paper the senses (an event experienced through sight / audio etc); Something that made you cry; A deja vu experience; Remembering an experience a long time ago: the passing of time / generations; The meeting of display of affection in schools essay, truth and lies; The meeting of fiction and reality; Encountering animals: the a book in a research paper, interaction between human and animal kind and our influence upon public display, them (for good or bad); Meeting your childhood self or yourself fifty years in the future; The meeting of land and sea; Physical meetings between two things: the boundaries and edges, perhaps at a cellular level (plunging into / stabbing / tearing apart); The meeting of theory and practicality; How our own biases, backgrounds and modify/influence every experience we have: the influence of the mind; Truly seeing yourself as you really are; Conception; The aftermath of a meeting that never happened; Meeting temptation: the battle of wills; The meeting of technology and nature; Ancient man meeting the modern world: the conflict between genes and referencing research the modern environment; Terrorist encounter (see image below). More exceptional Year 12 (Level 2) NCEA Printmaking work, sourced from the in schools essay, NZQA website: Terrorist encounters: This striking Year 12 folio offers inspiration for the A Level Art exam topic #8216;Encounters, Experiences and Meetings#8217;. A young child holding the hand of their mother; Bad influences (combinations of 3 prong, friends) and peer pressure; A family unit, in alliance against the world; The butterfly effect (how a combination of actions / behaviours leads from one thing to another until every tiny moment in a life is display of affection essay, interwoven with all the moments that came before); Political alliances; How ‘good’ people can complete horrific acts when lead on by the referencing research, wrong situation and the wrong company; Still life combinations: salt and pepper, sweet and sour, fish chips, apple and cinnamon; peanut butter and public display jam; the literal combination of ingredients used to make a meal; Unpleasant combinations we would rather not be reminded of: chocolate and obesity; that cute lamb and the juicy steak; The legal binding (combination) of lovers: marriage / civil unions; Combination of genes: Darwin’s theory of evolution – how traits are passed on etc; A study of two people (or animals), or people who care about each other; A person and something that they use to embellish their identity (i.e. fast car, makeup, fashion accessories, label clothing, iPhones); You and the one thing that defines you; Twins; Siblings; Mismatched couples; Unfortunate combinations: drugs and celebrities; childbirth and pain; cats and water; sugar and tooth decay; Discipline and dissertation statut enterprise being cruel to be kind; Combinations of public display in schools essay, exercises / sets / routines; Mixing of light (light streaming through coloured glass windows etc); Lock combinations; Combinations of numbers – gambling, addiction; An uneasy alliance: a dog about to break its chain; Things that depend on referencing research paper each other for survival: a plant growing in dirt trapped in a hole in the rocks; tiny creatures that live in on the fur / skin of others – ticks on display in schools essay cows / hair lice / germs; Vaccinations and the alliance of statut enterprise, ‘good’ germs fighting against bad… Eco-systems – the interconnection of display of affection in schools essay, water / life etc; A trusted alliance: horse and rider; blind person and guide dog; Business networks that rely on one another; Uniting against a common enemy. Highly accurate, scientific records; The layering of time; Disintegration and memory; Bones: the structure of life – the architecture of a living form; Fish skeletons; Archaeology and the documenting of fossils; Unexpected items as fossils (i.e. a fossil of an iPod or other contemporary object – remnants of a modern existence); Dinosaurs / extinction. Note: this topic lends itself perfectly to printmaking, rubbings and layered, mixed media works. Of Augustus Book. Modern diet / processed food; Digital technology and essay the impact it has on our lives; Soaring depression levels / the psychiatric torment of modern man; Soaring caesarean rates; Drugs and referencing a book in a research paper mind-numbing forms of escape; Slowing down; More, more, more: ever increasing consumption; The mechanised processes involved in the production of meat: pigs in public in schools essay tiny cages / battery hens / images from an dissertation abattoir; Disconnection from the whole: i.e. a factory worker who spends his/her whole life assembling one tiny part of a product, without having any input into the big picture: disillusionment with life purpose. Framing / windows; Blurring of the boundary between inside and out; Prisons / loss of freedom; Breaking in the exterior barrier of things i.e. injuries in display in schools essay flesh resulting in word essay the spilling out of insides; Autopsy; Opening a can of preserved fruit; Pregnancy /birth; Shelter from the rain; The inconsistency between what is display of affection, going on in the outside world and the inner turmoil of someone’s brain; The change in state as something moves from 6000 essay, outside to public display of affection inside the statut juridique enterprise, human body (i.e. food energy); An environment that is devoid of ‘outside’ i.e. fluorescent lights / poor ventilation…lacking in plant life…unable to see nature outdoors…the dwindling human condition etc; Apocalyptic future: what will happen if humans destroy the outdoor conditions; or a wall is erected to in schools keep an infected virus-ridden population ‘outside’; The peeling back of interesting things to 3 prong expose what is underneath (inside)…i.e. Display Of Affection In Schools. banana skins, seedpods, envelopes.

Vegetables or interesting fruit sliced through to expose the insides (things with lots of of augustus pelletier report, seed / pips / bumpy skin etc); Something opening to reveal something unexpected (i.e. inside a cardboard box); The Impossible Staircase: indoors blending into of affection in schools, outdoors in dissertation statut juridique an indeterminable fashion / a blurring of dimensions; Inside the of affection essay, human body: complex, organic form: the miracle of life (human anatomy drawings / x-rays; Inside an animal carcass; The human ‘outside’ – an statut juridique exterior presented to those around us. The fixation we have on creating the display in schools essay, best exterior possible: weight control/dieting; makeup; cosmetic surgery; latest fashions; Inside the earth: minerals / geology / the underworld; Sectional views through a landscape (i.e. Qualities Essay. showing a slice through the ground / inside the earth): mines / slips / erosion / quarries, with trucks and machinery taking soil and public essay rocks away; The soul: inside / outside – leaving the body; Plays upon storage and scale, i.e. Referencing Research. miniature ‘scaled down’ items inside other items, like large wild animals stored inside tiny jars; Castings of the insides of objects – things you don’t normally think about public of affection, – that are then exposed for all to referencing a book see; Walls / divisions / outsiders; Deterioration that has occurred to something as a result of in schools, being left outside (i.e. an ice sculpture that is left in the sun or a decayed, rusted, weathered structure showing the 3 prong, long term effects of the elements); Light streaming in a window from outside; Kids in a daycare facility looking longingly outside; Animals in of affection in schools essay a small enclosure: a sorry life in comparison to those wild and causes change paper free outside; Looking outside from an unusual perspective, i.e. as if you are a mouse looking through a small crack into a room; Inside a bomb shelter; Inside is public display of affection essay, meant to equal haven / shelter: what if inside is change, not this at of affection in schools essay all: a crime scene / an 3 prong thesis statements inside that has been violated; In the palm of your hand; The contents of something spilling out; Shellfish or snails inside their shells. Love and hate relationships / fighting between families and loved ones; The human mind, swinging from of affection in schools essay, joy to misery and qualities essay despair / schizophrenia / the meddling mind: our own worst enemy; A whole lot of similar things, with one different thing that clashes with the rest; Disturbing of the peace: a beautiful scene which is rudely interrupted (i.e. a hunter firing a bullet into display of affection essay, a grazing herd of enterprise, animals or someone pulling out display of affection in schools a gun in a crowded shopping mall); Musical interpretations: jazz bands / instruments / broken instruments; Money: the root of good and evil; The broken family / divorce / merged families; The clashing of 3 prong, humans with the environment; Something beautiful and ugly; Meditation to escape the discord of display essay, modern day life; Prescribed medication (happy pills) to minimise the discord in life – but eliminates the harmony? A visual battle: a mess of clashing colours; Things in causes of climate the wrong environment: placing objects unexpectedly in different locations to create discord (or at least alertness and aliveness) a scene of apparent harmony. Erosion; Changing seasons; The impact of human waste / litter on display in schools the environment; Urban sprawl; Forests cut down to the journal pelletier book report make way for public display in schools, new developments; The pattern of crops, farming and qualities essay writer paddocks on the land. Sky High: Aerial views of swirling motorways by New Zealand painter Robert Ellis. Black holes / stars / solar systems / the of affection essay, big bang; Skateboarders or snowboarders; A drug induced high; Cloud formations / the causes essay paper, science of rain; Flying in sleep; Views from an public aeroplane window; Sky High: Aerial landscape by Wayne Thiebaud.

Patterns humans have made in the landscape – i.e. motorways / city grids; Hang-gliding / hot air balloons / free fallings / parachuting; Insects / birds flying; Wing structures; Airports; Aftermath of a plane crash; Superman / superheroes; Things blowing into the journal pelletier report, the air (old newspapers / an open briefcase / seed pods / dandelion seeds); Falling off a high rise building; Paper aeroplanes; Giants / over-scaled items; A inner cityscape of high rise buildings – glimpses through windows to people living lives contained in tiny capsules in skyscrapers; Athletes / sports people leaping through air. Public. Sky High: Australian artist Joel Rea produces amazing paintings of qualities of a good writer, dogs, people and other objects flying or free-falling through the air. His paintings have a surrealist element, often including over-sized elements. Brilliant work! Sky High: Simple and public essay symmetrical compositions showing scenes out referencing in a aeroplane windows by Jim Darling. A beautiful photograph of a skateboarder and public essay his shadow. An intricate still life that creates shadows which become an integral element of the composition; Translucent sculptures; Images containing only dissertation juridique enterprise shadow (without the source object); Woven shadows; Overlapping shadows from multiple light sources; Crumpled pieces of paper: manipulation of public display essay, shadow.

Shadows that are not of the object shown; A dark alleyway or other location where the 3 prong statements, lighting conditions are dramatic; Photographs of paper sculptures: artificial manipulation of form to explore light and shadow; Skin colour; A monochromatic subject, with the emphasis on tone (light shade) rather than colour; Sunhats and sunscreen / skin cancer; Buildings with visible shading screens built into the facade. Symbols in public display essay airports with crowds of people of multiple ethnicities (i.e. icons communicating without language); An absurd aspect of a pop star’s life; The worship of causes of climate change paper, a pop star by an ordinary teen (posters peeling off a crowded bedroom wall etc); Religious icons – relevance in a modern world; Someone using icons to public in schools communicate; The lie of the icon: a pop star with a public image that is thesis statements, nothing like they really are; Sex symbols: the disparity between ‘real’ bodies and those portrayed in magazines… An obsessed fan’s memorabilia collection relating to a particular famous person; Objects related to public in schools essay something negative that you don’t want to remember: i.e. a night out on the town (cigarette butts, empty beer bottles); Memorabilia related to a famous wedding (i.e. Prince Charlies and Diana); A collection of essay day, tacky plastic characters from a particular film, that lie forgotten and dusty in public display of affection in schools essay the bottom of a box; War memorabilia, interspersed with photographs. Juridique Enterprise. ‘Sleazy’ signs from a dodgy part of town…with litter / other traces of human life / dark alleyways underneath; A inner cityscape crowded with brightly lit signs – perhaps exploring things to essay do with the the journal of augustus pelletier book report, clutter of display of affection essay, human life / overpopulation of space etc; An decrepit sign (on an entertainment park or tired motel, for example) with broken bulbs / peeling paint; Disassembling old neon signs and reassembling different signs together in essay day tongue-and-cheek ways; Inspiration drawn from the of affection in schools essay, Neon Boneyard – where old neon signs go to die; Focusing on a book in a the eye-catching aspect of neon colour to draw attention to display essay unexpected subjects… Young children playing with toys; A family playing a card or board game; Playing in water – or at the beach, with a bucket and spade in the sand; Sports – competitive playing; ‘Playing the field’; Dress up games; A young child putting up make-up in research the mirror (playing at the imitation of adults); Wendy houses; An early childhood education scene; Playing gone wrong: an of affection essay injured child / fighting children etc… A graphite drawing of a paper aeroplane by Christina Empedocles. Drawings of 3 prong thesis, folded paper provide ample opportunity for of affection in schools, practising the rendering of day, form. Origami; Paper aeroplanes (see Christina Empedocles and public essay Ali Page) Paper bags (see the painting below by Karen Appleton) Architectural models; Folding architectural structures; Tents; Beach chairs; Weaving. Causes Of Climate Essay Paper. Folded paper bags by Karen Appleton. Elevating the status of the ordinary: a printed folded paper aeroplane by Ali Page. A physical journey from a particular destination to another (i.e. the mundane drive between your home and school…seeing beauty in the ordinary etc; your first visit to see something that moved you); The transformational journey from old to new (old structure demolished for something new / old technology making way for public of affection, new etc); A journey through time, such as a person aging / physical changes, or a record of memorable occasions in a life; Childhood to of a good essay writer adulthood; Getting through an emotional circumstance, such as a loved one passing away or overcoming illness; Conception/pregnancy/birth; A miniature journey (i.e. walking down your garden path – with viewpoint at your feet etc; brushing your teeth in the morning – the journey from arrival at the sink to bright white smile); Achieving a goal; An academic journey – through school etc (ambition / academic goals / failure / success / test papers / assignments / grades etc…as in public display of affection essay the hurdles you need to get to statements university); On a bus or a plane or a train; Memorabilia related to public display in schools a particular journey (i.e. an overseas trip); A still life made from qualities of a good essay writer, tickets, maps, timetables; The journey of an animal (i.e. Display Of Affection. a bird or fish, swimming upstream); The journey of an insect walking a short distance over interesting surfaces; Terrorism and the journey you will never forget. dishwasher drawing by artist Jo Bradney.

A family argument; Domesticated cat or other animal; Domestic chores – focus on a mundane ordinary task such as doing the dishes (see Sylvia Siddell and Jo Bradney); Housewives / the female role / feminism etc; Wild versus Domestic; The ‘perfect’ home situation illusion and what bubbles below the surface… Domestic versus foreign / invading / other; Domestic goods = items made in your own country…a still life featuring country-specific items… A dripping painting of a building facade by Uwe Wittwer. Deceptive facades, and the walls we put up to a book in a research paper hide our true emotions; Decaying wall surfaces / peeling away; Reflective windows, mirroring a busy street or some other interesting scene (fragmented reflections); A decorative facade – old church walls etc; Old fashioned shop fronts / signage; Secrets hidden behind facades / the things nobody talks about; Sunshades / light streaming through facades / window openings; Masks / dress-ups; Abstraction of a building facade (see work above by Uwe Wittner). Of Affection. The merging of reality and our ‘online’ lives; The fictional online persona (the person we craft in our Facebook profiles and causes of climate so on); iPods / digital devices and brightly lit screens; Cyber dating / online love; Brain waves and digital imaging of of affection, human brains while dreaming. Windows / frames – from unexpected locations / unexpected angles or in places where the outside scene contrasts the inside scene; Transparent layers / glass / distortion / interesting views through things; X-rays; Old overhead projector transparencies; Flicking through an old recipe book or photo album; Looking through small gaps between leaves in the foreground at of climate change essay a natural scene; Trains / tunnels; A child looking through cracks in public of affection a jetty at the water below; Invisibility, and the feeling you get when someone ‘looks through’ you – i.e. Change Essay. doesn’t notice you at all; Kids playing hide and seek, peeking out from public display of affection in schools essay, a hiding place; Inappropriate snooping through someone else’s personal belongings… An emotive NCEA folio by essay day, Lizzi: This outstanding NCEA Level 1 Art board (the equivalent of public, a Year 11 GCSE or IGCSE Art folio) perfectly fits the #8216;Looking Through#8217; theme.

People – Ordinary and/or Extraordinary. Referencing Paper. People engaged in ordinary mindless actions, i.e. Display Of Affection Essay. brushing teeth, doing one’s hair, eating breakfast; Scars / tattoos / deformities that are out of the ordinary; The vices of ordinary people (cigarette smoking, alcoholism, food addiction etc); Portraits of really ‘plain’ people – seeing the beauty in the ordinary; The facades / layers people build up around themselves to make themselves seem extraordinary – make-up, fashion accessories etc; A person of extraordinary importance in your life (your mother or grandmother etc); Ordinary people who have extraordinary roles (i.e. a firefighter); The extraordinary; Merging images of people with other objects to make fantastical creatures; A portrait of an ordinary stereotype: the gossip or the cheerleader etc; The desperate attempts or lengths someone will go to become extraordinary; Depictions of ordinary people, so that they look eerie and the journal pelletier extraordinary, like the awesome artworks by Loretta Lux; Sculptures of the ordinary, at extraordinary scales, like Ron Mueck (viewer discretion advised). Display In Schools. A grandmother or other elderly person holding a baby; Meeting your childhood self or yourself fifty years in the future; Ancient man meeting the modern world: the conflict between genes and the modern environment; Ancient artefacts, alongside modern instruments; Discarded outdated computers / technology, to make way for new (things that become rapidly obsolete); Fresh fruit alongside rotted and 3 prong statements decaying produce; Plastic surgery: an of affection in schools attempt to make old into new; A decaying structure alongside a new, contemporary form; New posters overlaid onto an outdoor wall layered with old, peeling posters; An old architectural form demolished for change essay paper, something new / old technology making way for new etc). The impact of digital technology on modern lives; Advances in preventative health and medicine; The prevalence of natural disasters in recent times; Terrorism; Time; The mechanics of an public of affection essay old clock; A topical issue, such as food addiction. Birth; Death; Train stations / Airports / Looking out windows at that which is thesis, left behind; Divorce / departure of a parent; Parents who leave their children; Recovering from public in schools essay, a departure / coping mechanisms; First day at of climate change essay paper school (or some other place); Feet walking away; A decaying, decrepit building after the departure of the public in schools essay, occupants; A look at building entrances and exits; Motorway exits; Maps / subway routes / directions for travellers… Fruit, vegetables and gardening tools placed in a setting of your choice. A freshly harvested outdoor setting; A farm-like scene with wooden crates / indoor wooden shed; Vegetables stored for animals; Vegetables hanging to dry, i.e. onions / garlic with tools leaning nearby; A kitchen scene; A fruit and vege shop; A bustling marketplace; Preserving fruit – knives / chopped fruit / preserves in referencing research glass jars; Fruit, veges and tools in an unexpected location, i.e. hanging in plastic bags; Abstract works derived from the patterns on the skin of fruit and vegetables or the interiors that have been sliced open with knifes; The brutal smashing of a watermelon or some other fruit or vegetable with a hammer; The hanging of decaying fruit and display vegetables. Wedding traditions; Birthday celebrations; Religious rituals; Guy Fawkes; Christenings; Coming-of-age rituals; Graduation ceremonies. This post is a work in progress.

For more help with selecting a topic, you may like to read this blog post about what makes a good A Level Art idea. You may also be interested in the article about the of a essay, 2013 Art exam topics. This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for display of affection essay, seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter.

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essay scholar The Academic Essay. The academic essay is merely a specific writing genre#150;as is the love letter, newspaper editorial, or pop-fiction. As a genre, it functions within a set of norms, rules, and conventions. Public In Schools Essay. The purpose of this discussion is to the journal of augustus book report make clear to you what those rules and norms are, and how to display of affection use them to express your argument clearly.

The purpose of the academic essay is to persuade by of a reasoned discourse. Scholars use the essay amongst themselves to advance ideas. Its value as an instructional tool is to assist students in developing their critical thinking skills. As you recall, critical thinking is defined as: the ability to read theory accurately, appropriate it meaningfully, apply it independently, generate results based on that application, analyze the results, and form a clear argument based on those results that can be defended with a specific line of reasoning. A good academic essay engenders this process and clearly demonstrates that the process has been performed successfully. With this in mind let's examine how to write an academic essay. Do you frequently find yourself struggling with the introduction to your essays? Do you not know how to begin the essay? Do you find yourself searching for a generalizing statement that will get things going, and trying to find a delicate balance between BS'ing and saying something meaningful? If so, that's because you are not following the norms for the introduction to the academic essay. Public Display In Schools Essay. Following this norm actually makes introductions a piece of cake and gets you right into the body of the a book research, essay.

Here is the norm: The purpose of the introduction is two-fold: 1. To introduce the theoretical framework that will guide your analysis. 2. To introduce the thesis statement that will organize your paper. Following this norm allows you to display of affection in schools essay cut to the chase.

No more generalizing statements of dissertation juridique philosophical speculation that you venture forth hoping that it won't get shot down. You know, crap like Hemingway was perhaps one of the most visionary authors of public display his time. or The Western is perhaps the word day, most uniquely American of all the genres. Rather, if the purpose of the essay is to demonstrate that you have appropriated a theory and applied it independently to produce results, then the function of the introduction becomes more focused: to introduce the in schools, theory#150;or theoretical framework#150;that you have decided to use. Hence you will find that many essays begin with such statements as In his book. Essay Paper. Or, In her essay.

IMPORTANT NOTE: One of the main reasons that the norm of the Introduction developed this way is because of an important rule of the Academic Essay: Avoid making statements that you cannot prove. Display In Schools Essay. The problem with the generalizing/philosophical/BS'ing statements like Hemingway. and The Western. is that they cannot be proven through reasoned discourse. Moreover, to even try and do so would require voluminous amounts of 6000 word essay discourse for something that is not even your thesis: what you actually ARE setting out to prove. As a result, the of affection in schools, genre of the Academic Essay has evolved into the above norm. It still meets an introduction's purpose of orienting the dissertation statut juridique enterprise, reader, it just does so in a very specific manner. Having accomplished that, the expectation for an essay is that you will introduce a thesis statement that is directly related to that theoretical framework (or its application). As a result, a major convention of the academic essay is that: The introduction ends with the thesis statement. Having stated a thesis, you are expected to then go and prove it through the public display in schools essay, body of the essay.

That said, it is important to discuss what's at stake in making a thesis statement. There are four basic logical forms for a thesis statement: #149; A banal thesis statement. #149; A simple thesis statement. #149; A complex thesis statement. #149; An impossible thesis statement. Let's discuss each of these quickly before moving on. A banal thesis statement is a statement that does not really say anything#150;it is in fact meaningless because it is either so overly general or so evident as to not be of good significance.

Here's an example from literature. A frequent argument students will make is This author used symbolism to of affection make his point. Of A Essay Writer. The statement, however, is meaningless precisely because it is public display in schools essay, not of causes of climate significance: every author writing literature uses symbolism of one kind or another, either using language metaphorically or metonymically. Thus, to display of affection essay attempt to single out or make a distinction of a piece for using symbolism is to not say anything that even needs proving to begin with. A simple thesis statement is not quite what it may sound like. The Journal Book. A simple thesis statement means that only one main point or argument is public of affection in schools essay, going to be proved. The term simple argument can thus be misleading because the argument itself can and frequently is very theoretically sophisticated. Qualities Of A Good Essay. What makes them simple is that in public of affection in schools essay terms of their logical structure, they only take on dissertation statut juridique, one line of proof, and hence, their organization of proof will be simple. One has to public of affection in schools be careful, however, because sometimes one main argument may require SEVERAL supporting arguments.

The example here would be the of a good essay, argument that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre. Here the writer has only one thing to prove, but in order to do so will have to establish the elements that comprise the Western Genre and demonstrate how the film embodies them--not a small task. Simple thesis statements are eminently preferable in terms of writing an essay for a course. Of Affection Essay. It allows you to focus on your points and dissertation juridique enterprise, your proofs rather than getting lost in the organization of your arguments. A complex thesis statement means that the thesis has more than one point to prove. In this respect, the public display in schools essay, essay will have to organize more than one line of reasoning in of climate change paper so far that more than one thing has to be proven. Complex theses are not necessarily more theoretically sophisticated than simple thesis statements, they are only more difficult to organize clearly. In this respect, they are not worth what they entail and should be avoided.

An example of a complex thesis statement would be something like: Faulkner's novels critique the ideologies of patriarchy and racism. This would be an appropriate analysis for the work of in schools essay Faulkner, but I'm not sure it would be worth it. To begin with, it is not clear what the writer has to gain in terms of proving BOTH of referencing a book in a these aspects of the work rather than just the one. Public Of Affection In Schools Essay. Instead, with this complex thesis, there are going to be long sections of the essay where half of thesis what needs to be proved will be left suspended while the other half gets discussed. In addition, the public display of affection in schools, thesis picks the work of Faulkner which necessitates discussing every book, rather than just one. Thus it is that an important convention of the academic essay is that: A complex thesis statement can usually be restructured into a more theoretically sophisticated (if not interesting) simple thesis statement. Making an 3 prong statements Argument.

As stated earlier, the public in schools essay, academic essay is an exercise in reasoned persuasion. In this respect, the word essay day, thesis statement is an important organizational structure insofar as it establishes how the rest of the essay will be organized. Classical logic maintains that there are 3 basic kinds of persuasive statements: statements of fact, statements of value (or evaluation), and statements of policy (or action, which argue what we should do). Unless otherwise specified, the first of these, the statement of fact, is the form that the thesis statement for an academic essay should take#150;the obvious exception being when you write evaluative criticism (which you will NEVER do in public display of affection in schools my course). Statements of fact can themselves be grouped into juridique, two basic forms: arguments of classification, and arguments of operation or function. It is possible to make other distinctions, like for public display, example, arguments of relationship (how to in a things relate to each other) but these distinctions can be readily subsumed into these two basic groups.

Arguments of classification are when you establish some sort of criteria, and then argue that something meets or fails to meet that criteria. Display Of Affection In Schools. The earlier example that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre is an example of an argument of classification. Of Climate Paper. Having established what comprises the Western Genre, the writer will then go on to prove how Star Wars embodies, contains, or possesses those elements. The writer will, in other words, prove that Star Wars meets that criteria. Arguments of operation or function argues in terms of what something does, or how it functions. Display Of Affection Essay. The earlier argument that Faulkner's work critiques the ideology of patriarchy is an example of function.

This statement argues that Faulkner's work DOES something: it criticizes the ideology of patriarchy. Note that unlike the argument of classification, the writer of this essay SEEMS to have to dissertation juridique enterprise do more to prove their thesis. They will not only have to define what the public display, ideology of patriarchy is#150;and thus establish criteria#150;they will also have to demonstrate that Faulkner's work DOES something with that criteria. The question of HOW leads to a discussion of the body of the essay. The Body of the Essay.

From a conceptual standpoint, the function of the body of the essay is to prove the thesis statement laid out in referencing a book in a the introduction. In Schools. Easy enough. This section discusses how the writer accomplishes that proof. In the discussion of types of argument, I made the in a, point that the writer will have to establish criteria that can be used to prove their argument. The body of the essay is the location where the writer accomplishes that. An introduction is precisely that: It INTRODUCES the theoretical framework and the thesis statement. It does not DESCRIBE or DISCUSS these two things. This is a fairly common mistake that beginning essay writers make. Display In Schools Essay. They fear that they have not said enough in the intro and word essay day, as a result, go on to discuss aspects of their theory or elaborate on a thesis. The problem with doing so is that it screws up your organization.

What comes next is no longer clear to the reader. If you keep it clear to yourself that the purpose of the public display of affection in schools essay, introduction to your essay is to only INTRODUCE your theoretical framework, and your thesis statement, then the function of the body of your essay will also become evident to the reader. They will expect you to establish criteria so that you can prove your thesis. As a result, another important norm of the academic essay is: A primary function of the body of the qualities good, essay is to public display of affection essay establish the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven. Thus it is that having argued that Star Wars is a Western, the body of the paper is going to have to first establish the elements that comprise the Western#150;it will have to establish the criteria by which the thesis can be proven.

To argue that Faulkner's work criticizes thee ideology of patriarchy is going to require that the writer establish what the ideology of patriarchy is. Establishing the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven leads to the next logical step: demonstrating how the object under investigation meets those criteria. Clearly it is not enough for the Faulkner essayist to just define what the ideology of patriarchy is. Causes Change Essay Paper. Their thesis is that Faulkner's work criticizes that ideology. As a result, they will have to point to specific things within the text and argue that they relate to those criteria IN A SPECIFIC WAY#150;in this case through a process of criticism. This process of relating the public display essay, object of investigation back to 3 prong thesis the established criteria is another fundamental component of the body of the essay.

Without it, the public of affection in schools essay, proof is not complete. As silly as that sounds, I kid you not that the most frequent mistake of beginning essay writers is a failure to a book paper relate their analysis back to the criteria they have established. Thus it is that another important norm for the academic essay is: Relate the analysis back to the terms and public display of affection in schools essay, concepts of the established criteria. The Star Wars example brings up another fundamental logical task to this process. From the beginning you have probably thought the Star Wars thesis to not be very feasible. The film is not set in the West, and it occurs in 3 prong thesis the future. The question becomes, however, whether these are ESSENTIAL criteria to the Western, and if not, what is? In terms of proving that thesis statement, the writer is going to have to clearly establish what the elements of the Western Genre are, and then relate aspects of the film back to ALL of those criteria. Herein lies the essential importance of completeness to display in schools that process. Referencing In A Research Paper. If the Star Wars writer establishes the criteria but can only point to the gun-fighting that occurs in the film, then their essay will fail to persuade. Their essay will fail to persuade precisely because it inadequately addresses the scope of the display essay, criteria.

Thus it is that another important norm for 3 prong thesis statements, this process is: Fully address the established criteria. It is very important to note that fully addressing the scope of the criteria does NOT mean that the object under discussion has to fully meet ALL the of affection in schools essay, criteria. To stick with the Star Wars example, the writer can not IGNORE the issue of setting and even remotely hope to persuade the audience. In some way, the writer is going to have to address the fact that both time and place are out of the bounds of the Western. This is the point precisely. The author will have to ADDRESS that point#150;those criteria#150;not necessarily MEET those criteria. In this respect, the writer is 6000 day, going to have make a supporting argument about how these criteria relate to each other in display of affection terms of comprising the genre (or in a logical sense the whole). The important point is dissertation statut enterprise, that all criteria are addressed adequately.

Failure to address any of the established criteria creates a gap in logic. Public Display. Subsequently, the 6000 essay day, reasoning process (and its ability to persuade) fails. Fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria fulfills the logical requirements necessary to persuade reasonably and public, allows the writer to draw conclusions. Before that process is discussed, however, it is necessary to examine an important component of this relating back process. The Role of Description. Relating the object of investigation or the object of the 3 prong, thesis back to the established criteria is necessarily going to involve description. Description is frequently an unclear and thorny issue for writers of the academic essay#150;especially in terms of scope (how much is enough?). The purpose of public of affection in schools description, however, clarifies the issue of referencing scope. Of Affection. The purpose of description to is to make clear, or establish WHAT in the object of investigation (the film, the scene, the shot) relates to dissertation statut juridique the criteria being used.

It therefore becomes important for the writer to use description in such a manner as to establish the basis of the relationship between the object and the criteria. Furthermore, the writer should LIMIT description to accomplishing only public in schools, this task. Added description is not only superfluous, but distracts from trying to prove your argument. As a result, another important norm for the body of the academic essay is: Subordinate description to the purpose of analysis. As stated above the process of fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria has the effect of fulfilling the logical requirements. It is THAT task which ultimately persuades, not the conclusion itself. It is for 3 prong thesis, this reason that, in some respects, the conclusion does not seem to have a FUNDAMENTAL role in the process of reasoned persuasion. That in itself probably accounts for how many dopey tips exist for in schools essay, what to do with a conclusion, like: repeat the 3 prong statements, thesis statement (like people have forgotten it despite the fact that you've been working to prove it the entire time) or some other such thing. What to do with a conclusion if the work of proof is already done? The most effective thing to do with a conclusion is to first signal that the work is in schools, coming to close, and then close off the discussion itself by stating something definitive about the work. Like the introduction, then, the essay, conclusion has a dual role: to signal the transition to closure, and to public display in schools close the discussion with a definitive statement.

The work of the conclusion should reference the thesis, without necessarily repeating the thesis (or the the journal of augustus report, steps by which it was proven) It should then say something definitive that signals closure by pointing to the implications of what you've discussed, by amplifying what you've discussed, or by display essay contextualizing what you've discussed. In each case, you are striving to close discussion by being definitive, and you are taking caution not to the journal pelletier book report violate rule #1 of the academic essay: avoid statements that you cannot prove. To stay with the public display in schools essay, running examples, the 3 prong, conclusion to the Faulkner paper could look something like this: . it therefore serves as an example of how literary texts structure their criticisms of dominant ideologies. (pointing to the implications of proving your argument). Thus, far from being a portrait of its time Faulkner's work demonstrates that literary works actively engage ideologies. (amplifying your argument) Rather than a story centered exclusively on war, Hemingway's novel instead participates in the reinforcement of dominant ideologies with American culture. (Contextualizing the public display of affection, argument)

Note that the similarity here is how definitive these statements are. They draw upon the work that has been done, but say something different and of climate essay paper, final that is logically based upon what has been discussed. There are, of course, variations on the genre of the of affection in schools essay, academic essay--some rather large difference exist, for example, between the social sciences and the humanites. 3 Prong. This discussion is based on the humanties approach. Other variations can result from the in schools essay, idiosyncracies of specific instructors.

To the degree that what is written here sounds heavy handed and inflexible, I caution instead that such tone is trying to reflect the manner in which your own analysis and writing will need to sound precise and rigorous#150;the standards by which the academic essay is evaluated. The precision and rigor with which these norms and conventions are applied should function only to demand that your own analysis and reason engender these standards. Statements. They are thus meant to elevate your thinking, not control it. The principles by which the display in schools essay, academic essay structures itself is designed to statut enterprise be a discipline that frees your thinking, not subjugate it. Within its conventions is public display of affection in schools essay, unlimited creative potential whose only demand, ultimately, is that you say something meaningful that others can be persuaded of via your logic. What I have attempted to do here is make the norms and conventions of the genre explicit so that you can refine your skills working within it. Mastering this genre has the benefit of developing your skill to analyze situations using explicit criteria, and be able to make decisions based on that analysis.

More than a few people have found that possession of statut juridique such a skill is invaluable in life and professional endeavors.

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Gas Turbine Mechanical Systems Technicians operate, repair and perform organizational and intermediate maintenance on mechanical components of gas turbine engines, main propulsion machinery including gears, shafts and controllable pitch propellers; and dissertation statut juridique, assigned auxiliary equipment and propulsion control systemsA· maintaining and repairing gas turbine engines and auxiliary equipment; working with blueprints, schematics and charts; performing administrative procedures related to gas turbine propulsion system operation and maintenance; performing work area inspections; testing lubricating oil and of affection essay, distillate fuels for contamination, neutralization and precipitation; operating standard test equipment; stopping engines and checking proper performance; replacing and adjusting operating tolerance of contacts, microswitches, relay switches, pressure switches and temperature switches; operating electric plant control and main propulsion equipment; operating pumps, turning gear, air compressors, oil purification system, low pressure air dehydrators and engineering control systems; performing preventive maintenance on paper ship's fuel system and air system; maintaining sea water service system, waste drain system, oil purification system and manually operated valves; using hoisting and lifting devices and maintaining special tools. Maintain and operating ship's service gas turbine generators and support systems; maintaining and controlling ship's service steam water chemistry; maintaining the controllable pitch propeller system. This individual would be expected to perform work independently and mentor Gas Turbine Mechanical Systems Maintainer(s) with very limited supervision. 100506-N-8959T-202 GULF OF ADEN (May 6, 2010) Gas Turbine Systems Technician 2nd Class Jose Ramos, assigned to in schools, the Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Farragut (DDG 99), explains the ship's machinery consoles to Australian Navy Able Seamen Machinery Technicians Gregory Gonzales, left, and statut juridique, Shane Adams during a personnel exchange with the display Anzac-class frigate HMAS Parramata (FFH 154). Farragut is dissertation juridique enterprise part of Combined Task Force 151, a multinational task force established to conduct anti-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden. Display. (U.S. Navy photo by of augustus pelletier book report Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Cassandra Thompson/Released) 100130-N-1688B-224 GULF OF OMAN (Jan. 30, 2010) Gas Turbine Systems Technician (Mechanical) 1st Class Eli Miranda stands watch at display of affection the standard operating station unit during a damage control drill aboard the guided-missile cruiser USS Hue City (CG 66). Hue City is deployed with the Eisenhower Carrier Strike Group to support maritime security operations in the U.S. 5th and 6th Fleet areas of responsibility. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Matthew Bookwalter/Released)

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