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MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for sex photo Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is asking you to format the page and present the history essay content in a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of essays conventions. This document will show you how to format an cost paper, essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about putting the sex photo final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about what to write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in the body of van gogh cafe terrace your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List.
(lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by the order the quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for sex photo essays Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the van gogh terrace Works Cited page of an sex photo, MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. For MLA style, you need:
1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the sample whole paper, including title block and sex photo, Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. On My Friend! Change it to sex photo essays 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the van gogh essay typeface to sex photo Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac)
My copy of Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the left and right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to brain based thesis 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of essays MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the history essay same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface:
Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) In the top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an automatic page number and essays, your surname. 2.1 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to resume the right place for you to t ype your surname . Click anywhere in the body of the paper to sex photo essays exit the header area. 2.2 Adding the van gogh terrace essay Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the sex photo essays top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of resume Page (header)” and sex photo essays, “Alignment” to cafe essay “Right”) Click just to the left of the new page number, and essays, type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to cost research the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number and section, and essays, today’s date. Centered on the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the history essay reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and Macbeth”). Like all the other text in sex photo, an MLA style paper, the title block is double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the rest of the paper — it is paper not boldface, or enlarged. There is no extra space above or below the title. A truly informative title will include the sex photo general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. Van Gogh Cafe Essay! (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to make about Hamlet and sex photo essays, Macbeth. Reuse part of your thesis statement.)
This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on brain based thesis how you format the page. Essays! (For a resource to help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. Terrace At Night! The first happens in the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on a separate page at the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to look like filler. Essays! Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the brain based whole passage. Sex Photo! (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right).
Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and media, the page number) after the period . (This is different from essays inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the author’s name and the page number. If the quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by rujukan dalam Elizabeth Mount College in essays, 2010, the noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of brain citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to sex photo quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the history essay same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the sex photo sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into essay best our own sentence.
To let the reader know what we changed, we put  around it. Again, note the sex photo essays absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the body of the paper. Let’s imagine we want to sample resume reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to include any of the technical details. We can save space, and make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space.
If we use an essays, author’s idea, rephrased in our own words, we must still cite the history essay idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited. This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it. Start a new page . Essays! MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page. MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Essay On My Best Friend! Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to Create an sex photo, Individual Works Cited Entry.
Exactly what goes into each item in media, your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry. If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for sex photo how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an brain based thesis, electronic source (such as an email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. Sex Photo Essays! How to Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the cost entries alphabetically by the author ‘s last name. If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely.
Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in sex photo, your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item. Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of Word, I select the text and essay on my friend for girls, choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. Sex Photo Essays! (In my copy of word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999. 06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the history essay Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification.
07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to sex photo more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for terrace at night your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and sex photo essays, avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on based “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an explanation about page numbers. Essays! That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to put page numbers in the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in citations.
How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on cost paper within the sex photo essays authors works? That means the quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information.
Before my college year in America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for useful information about how to thesis write MLA format essay. Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of sex photo essays essay. When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again. I’m glad to know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of any assignment involving writing. With your delicate information about to sample media write MLA format essay in sex photo, right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to reduction the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to essays something you found on page 20 of the text by terrace at night Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for.
Is the Table of Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google. Im in middle school and I have to do this. Sex Photo! I have never heard of MLA Format and this helped ALOT. Thanks so much!
Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the brain based thesis line spacing to 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the question.
I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and sex photo essays, paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of history essay paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to sex photo essays our website. Lansdale School of Business. I am glad you found this page helpful.
Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the dalam resume Bib builder!! I’m glad to hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh.
How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. (They aren’t for documenting sources — use an in-text citation and a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about essays, whether you really do need to use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the link in history essay, item 4, above. This page is about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example.
I followed everything to the “t” and my professor says that my header is sex photo indented and history essay, my paragraphs are double indented and the page numbers are in wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from thiis handout for sex photo years, and when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision. But your instructor is the history essay one who designed the essays assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the history essay person to approach with questions. I agree. .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from sex photo essays a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. Resume! I followed the instructions that are on the page.
But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in essays, a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor. Dalam! Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and evaluates it according to sex photo essays his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about what “format” the college application essay should be in. History Essay! Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e. seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in the APA system? And what lends itself to the Humanities with the sex photo MLA? TIA.
As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of essay on my best for girls date more quickly; so the date is prominent in APA citations, and sex photo essays, page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from them. MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and further the work of scholarship as it is conducted in the humanities. Thanks for the reply. Resume Media! What do you mean by ” MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in essays, MLA format?
In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by “procedure” and “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is history essay different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. Sex Photo Essays! But it’s best for you to talk to your teacher about the specifics of brain thesis any asisgnment. Ok, thanks.
I just wanted to ask and clarify it. Also, doesn’t the sex photo essays word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and resume, is often used for atheists, for example… or am I wrong? I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the culture of humans,” without intending the more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the sex photo essays humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is based Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at essays, all. Shavez, what were you looking for?
This page is about formatting a paper you have already written. The first section includes links to pages about how to cafe essay write essays. Thank you very much for essays this useful information. As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for cost research paper me to write an sex photo essays, essay in mLA format about history essay, evolution. Essays! I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. In middle school I never wrote an essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to thesis do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and the name of an sex photo, author is not a good paper title, and I would ask them to van gogh cafe at night write a title that catches the sex photo reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and resume, identifies what position the paper is going to take on the topic.
But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the sex photo book title in italics. Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for essay on my best friend for girls you. Very informative. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course. Sex Photo Essays! Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and sample, business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions.
Click on “Citing” at the top of the page. One of the options on the other end of that link is how to essays cite a web page. This article..thing is the based thesis only reason I am passing my online college class. Sex Photo! Especially the citation builder. Thank you!
cool it was helpful. is the text or what you wrote supposed to resume be centered in the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and posted on line, is essays it a photograph of brain based something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model? There is no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph. Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. In general, though, the 8th edition of the essays MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.” Photograph.
The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the resume media picture on sex photo a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly. Brain Based Thesis! If you found the sex photo image as the result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to advise you on what to do. hahahah xD me too same.
I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help. There is cost reduction research no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on. It depends on what grade you want to sex photo earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the based thesis due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to essays revise your work, and many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Friend! Especially the citation builder.
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and sex photo essays, Sample Essays. Dalam Resume! VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. Essays! Interest: Picking a question you want to on my best for girls, know more about can make this paper more interesting.
Available Sources: I give links to essays, many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. Resume! I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the sex photo, categories of food and health, obesity and cost reduction, dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and science and sex photo, technology, with videos and many links to research and student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay.
Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Resume! Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the sex photo, topic is something everyone has an resume, opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to sex photo, back up your essay, either from articles or from history essay people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and sex photo, that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage?
What is rujukan dalam Love? What kind of love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for essays, a father to based thesis, raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out sex photo well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the brain, hunger faced by people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and sex photo essays, keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way?
What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the cost, best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks?
What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to sex photo essays, be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people?
Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cafe terrace, cost of healthcare for essays, overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for reduction research paper, people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight?
Are sugar substitutes helpful for essays, dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on rujukan dalam resume, Obesity and Dieting. Sex Photo Essays! Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to essay friend for girls, other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for sex photo essays, Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of history essay weight and kept it off for long periods of essays time.
Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and brain thesis, Prevention. Sex Photo! Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by cost paper, promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of essays fracking? Does recycling really make a difference?
Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to rujukan resume, bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for sex photo essays, plastic bags in order to encourage the use of sample reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves?
What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the sex photo essays, environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is at night essay hazardous household waste and why is sex photo it important not to brain based thesis, throw it in the regular trash?
What is essays deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cost reduction paper cities like Beijing with high pollution?
Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations?
Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on essays, Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the cost reduction research, science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the essays, environmental topics page for your topic. U.S.
Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship?
Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the sample resume, effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an sex photo, only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today?
How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged?
What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the reduction paper, expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to sex photo essays, real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and media, how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk?
What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to essays, act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool?
Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the resume media, difference between reading on sex photo, a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to history essay, avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to essays, replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively?
SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to history essay, write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Essays! Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). Brain Based Thesis! Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the sex photo essays, research articles or web sites about that topic.
Look back at your question and refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for rujukan dalam, your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper? Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas and Writing Prompts. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for sex photo essays, College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by sample resume, Virginia Kearney 22. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by sex photo essays, Virginia Kearney 56.
100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. This is a great resource. I've just entered into history essay, college, and sex photo, didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the at night, argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years.
I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to sex photo, look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in grade 6 and history essay, I want some good topics for primary students. Essays! Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at first.
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I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for on my best for girls, writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from essays United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the rujukan, questions to sex photo, whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to brain based, solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to sex photo essays, focus more on history essay, how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the sex photo, other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is cost using other sources as well.
However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and sex photo, really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the state and the society. Sample Resume Media! For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of essays divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Rujukan Dalam! Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for sex photo, a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you!
Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from best for girls United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. Sex Photo! I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. Sample! preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago.
Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from sex photo essays Australia. Im about to try out rujukan dalam your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the essays, outcome will be in brain thesis how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York.
Love the sex photo, great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about. The less the words the greater the headache. Van Gogh Terrace At Night Essay! When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the sex photo essays, case. On My Best Friend For Girls! Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. What an interesting range of essays ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from research Wales.
A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Sex Photo! Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A.
Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and history essay, respective owners. Sex Photo! Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is sample resume a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Essays! HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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economics aqa essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 ghostwritingessays.com. Economics Aqa - Ghost Writing Essays. This Answers book provides answers for the questions asked in the workbook. Sex Photo! They are intended as a guide to give teachers and students feedback. The candidate responses supplied here for the longer essay-style questions are intended to give some idea about how the exam questions might be answered.
The examiner commentaries (underlined text) have been added to give you some sense of what is rewarded in the exam and which areas can be developed. Again, these are not the only ways to answer such questions but they can be treated as one way of approaching questions of these types. Topic 1 The firm: objectives, costs and revenues 1Both private and paper public companies are privately owned capitalist business enterprises. The difference stems from their ownership. Sex Photo! Private companies are owned by private shareholders who can choose the research buyer of their shares. Public company shares are listed on the stock market, which means that they have to comply with the sex photo rules of the stock market and any member of the public can buy shares in the company. An excess of sales receipts over the spending of a business during a period of time, which can be calculated using the formula: profit = revenue – costs. 3At any level of output, revenue is calculated by multiplying output by the price at which each unit of output is essay on my best friend, sold. In perfect competition, because it is always possible to essays, increase sales revenue by selling more units of output, the revenue-maximising level of output does not exist. In other market structures, including monopoly and history essay oligopoly, marginal revenue falls as more units of the good are sold.
Revenue maximisation occurs at sex photo the level f output at which marginal revenue is zero (MR = 0). Media! By contrast, in all market structures, including perfect competition, profit maximisation occurs at essays the level of output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MR = MC). 4An entrepreneur decides on questions such as how, what, where, how much and best friend for girls when to produce. Entrepreneurs decide how to employ the factors of essays, production, and sample resume media they bear the business’s financial risks. In small businesses, the essays entrepreneur is often the founder of the firm, building the business by investing his/her own time and money. The entrepreneur directly manages the best friend for girls business and takes the sex photo important decisions about sample resume media its direction and strategy.
5The management could control information and take decisions without the shareholders being able to essays, influence the decision or even being aware of an issue. 6The key difference between the short run and the long run relates to whether factors of production are fixed or variable. Best! In the short run, at least one factor of production (usually assumed to be capital) is fixed. Sex Photo Essays! Labour is assumed to be variable. In the long run, all factors of production are variable and none is fixed. This question is the rujukan dalam resume obverse of question 6. Essays! A fixed factor of production is one that cannot be increased in the short run, normally land and capital. A variable factor of production, normally labour, can be increased in the short run. Cafe At Night Essay! 8The law of diminishing returns sets in when units of a variable factor of sex photo essays, production, such as labour, are added to fixed factors of production. Eventually the extra output (marginal returns) produced by the marginal worker falls to be less than the marginal product of the previous worker added to the labour force. (i)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a more than proportionate increase in output. (ii)The firm increases the scale of production and best for girls experiences a proportionate increase in output. (iii)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a less than proportionate increase in sex photo essays, output. 10 [pic] 11Average variable costs are total variable costs divided by brain thesis the size of output. Average total costs are total costs divided by the size of output.
A firm’s average total costs can also be calculated by adding its average fixed costs to its average variable costs. Sex Photo Essays! 2Technical economies of scale occur when a firm’s production methods benefit significantly from rujukan dalam increasing to a larger scale. The productivity increases experienced by a firm in essays, traditional economic theory stem from the larger scale of production allowing for a greater division of cost reduction, labour and improved specialisation. Hence the firm experiences a technical improvement in production and more than proportionate output gains. An example is provided by Henry Ford’s adoption of assembly-line production in his car factories in the early years of the 20th century. A bulk-buying economy of scale occurs when a firm gets a discount as a result of buying raw materials or capital goods in bulk. For example, a school may be able to sex photo essays, buy 100 computers at ? 300 each, whereas a single computer would be priced at ? 600. 13(i) If a firm in a perfectly competitive market sets its price above P1, the ruling market price, it will not sell any of its products. This is because its products are identical to those of its competitors, and buyers who possess perfect market information and will buy from the cheaper rival firms selling at brain based thesis the ruling market price. ii) If the firm sets its price below P1 it will sell all of its output, but it will not be maximising profit.
There is no sense in doing this, given that an infinite number of customers are willing to buy the good at the higher price of P1. 14You can understand this question by referring back to the answer to question 3. Essays! As long as marginal revenue is positive (at all levels of output below Q1), the reduction monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and sex photo selling more. But when marginal revenue is cost paper, negative (at all levels of output above Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling less. Exam-style answers (essay) 01The laws of sex photo essays, diminishing returns and returns to scale are both parts of production theory. (The law of diminishing returns is also known as the law of van gogh cafe terrace, diminishing marginal productivity. ) Production theory explains the relationship between inputs into the production process and the output of goods or services that results. The inputs are the services of the factors of production that the firm employs. Essays! The basic nature of production is shown in the diagram below. [pic] Production theory divides into short-run production theory and long-run production theory. The law of diminishing returns is a short-run economic law, whereas returns to scale occur in the long run. The law of diminishing returns has the status of an economic ‘law’, because in the short run at resume media least one of the factors of sex photo, production (usually assumed to be capital) is held fixed. This means that the only way a firm can increase output in the short run is by adding more variable factors, e. g. labour, to fixed capital. Eventually, as labour is added to fixed capital, an extra worker (the marginal worker) gets in the way of the already existing labour force and based thesis the additional output attributable to sex photo, the marginal worker begins to fall.
This is cost paper, when the law of diminishing returns has set in. Returns to scale by contrast occur in the long run when all the factors of production increase. The firm increases its scale or size of operation. If a doubling of all the inputs (factors of production) leads to a less than doubling of output, decreasing returns to scale have set in. (Other possibilities are increasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale. ) To understand the relationship between the law of diminishing returns and short-run cost curves, consider the diagram on the next page. The upper panel of the diagram shows the marginal and average returns (or productivity) of labour. Sex Photo! Diminishing marginal returns begin at point A. Increasing marginal productivity of labour (or increasing marginal returns) is essay on my friend for girls, shown by the positive (or rising) slope of the marginal product curve, while diminishing marginal returns are represented, beyond point A, by the curve’s negative (or falling) slope. But once the law of essays, diminishing returns has set in, short-run marginal costs begin to sample, rise. Sex Photo Essays! This is shown by the upward-sloping section of the essay MC curve in the lower panel of the diagram.
And as soon as MC rises through the average variable cost (AVC) curve (and later the average total cost (ATC) curve), the two average cost curves begin to rise. This means that the AVC and the ATC curves are U-shaped. [pic] Just as short-run cost curves are derived from the short-run law of diminishing returns, so long-run cost curves result from the nature of sex photo essays, returns to scale. When a firm changes the van gogh at night essay scale of all the sex photo factors of production in sample resume, the economic long run, it is usual to assume that to start with it benefits from increasing returns to sex photo, scale but that eventually decreasing returns to scale set in. Given this assumption, the firm’s long-run average cost (LRAC) curve is U-shaped, as shown in the diagram below. However, other assumptions about the impact of returns to scale on long-run production would lead to different possible shapes of the LRAC curve. [pic] The mark scheme for the first part of an dalam resume essay question is ‘issue based’. Sex Photo! The mark scheme sets out all the rujukan dalam resume issues deemed to be relevant to the question and indicates the maximum marks that can be awarded for each issue. When added up, the total available mark is usually higher than 15 (the maximum mark for the first part of an essay question). When an answer scores more than 15 marks, the actual mark awarded is constrained to the maximum of 15. This is the case with this answer. Sex Photo Essays! All four parts of the friend for girls question are addressed accurately, earning well over 15 marks. The maximum mark of 15 is awarded.
02Large firms are sometimes and perhaps often better than small firms, but they are not always better. The main reason why large firms can be better than small firms stems from the fact that in many industries, e. . mass car production, firms benefit from increasing returns to scale as the size or scale of the firm increases. As the final diagram in the answer to sex photo essays, question 01 indicates, increasing returns to scale translate into economies of scale when measured in terms of long-run average costs of production. Van Gogh Essay! Economies of essays, scale are defined as falling long-run average costs of production, whereas diseconomies of scale are rising long-run average costs of production. Increasing returns to scale mean that as plant size increases, a firm can combine its inputs in a technically more efficient way. As a result average costs of production fall.
This means that large firms, particularly in based thesis, manufacturing, can benefit from technical economies of sex photo, scale. Many types of plant or machinery are indivisible, in the sense that there is a certain minimum size below which they cannot operate efficiently. A firm requiring only a small level of output must therefore choose between installing plant or machinery that it will be unable to use continuously, or using a different but less efficient method to produce the smaller level of output required. Large firms can also benefit from volume economies of scale. With many types of capital equipment (for example, metal smelters, transport containers, storage tanks and warehouses), costs increase less rapidly than capacity. When a storage tank or boiler is doubled in dimension, its storage capacity actually increases eightfold.
Since heat loss depends on the area of the container’s walls (which will only have increased fourfold) and not upon volume, a large smelter or boiler is technically more efficient than a small one. Volume economies are thus important in industries such as transport, storage and warehousing, as well as in van gogh cafe at night, metal and essays chemical industries, where an increase in the scale of plant provides scope for the conservation of heat and energy. When there are substantial economies of scale available to a firm, its LRAC curve will look like the one in diagram (a) of the following: [pic] When firms can benefit from substantial economies of scale (and economies of large-scale production), this will benefit firms. The gain in productive efficiency achieved from a large scale of operation means that profits will be larger for large firms than for small firms. History Essay! However, the opposite will be true if diseconomies of scale set in early on as a firm increases its size. Economies of small-scale production (as depicted in diagram (b)) show that small firms producing at Q1 are more productively efficient than large firms. This is likely to be the situation in personal service industries such as building customised furniture for clients. A range of other issues are also relevant to this question. Firms may grow large in essays, order to exploit the monopoly power that large size often gives to firms. The firms may benefit from monopoly profit, but their consumers suffer from unnecessarily high prices, restricted choice and general consumer exploitation.
The large profit and market power that large firms often enjoy may be used to reduction research paper, finance innovation and the benefits of dynamic efficiency which, if passed on to consumers, means that they also benefit. On the other hand, this might not happen; large firms may simply enjoy an easy life, content with a degree of X-inefficiency (unnecessary costs of production). In conclusion, the answer to essays, the question depends on dalam the assumptions made about whether economies of sex photo, scale are possible, the motives of firms, and the extent to which they can exploit monopoly power to history essay, the detriment of consumers. It is useful to divide large firms with monopoly power into sex photo those that are fully unified and technically integrated firms and those that are not. A fully unified or technically integrated firm is rujukan dalam resume, one that grows because it organises production in a productively efficient way in order to reduce average costs and increase profits. If monopoly power results, it is almost by accident. Providing it ‘behaves itself’ when large size gives it monopoly power, the firm, consumers and the public interest all benefit.
By contrast, if a firm grows (usually by sex photo essays takeover rather than through organic growth), its main motive may be to exploit consumers. Clearly such firms are not ‘best’. The mark scheme for the second part of an essay question is ‘level of skill based’. Having read the whole answer, the examiner places the answer in one of rujukan dalam, five levels. These are: • Level 1 — very weak Level 2 — weak with some understanding • Level 3 — reasonable including some correct analysis but very limited evaluation • Level 4 — good analysis but limited evaluation or reasonable analysis and reasonable evaluation • Level 5 — good analysis and good evaluation This answer has been awarded a mark at the top of level 4 in sex photo essays, the AQA mark scheme. The levels descriptors in the mark scheme are used for the second parts of all essay questions (and also all part 03 and 06 context data response questions at A2).
The level 4 descriptor is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of history essay, theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 4 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Limited but showing some | |17–21 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of sex photo essays, |appreciation of alternative | |(mid-point 19) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning |points of view | | | | |There is history essay, good awareness of | | |Good analysis but limited | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | |Some good application to |economic issues | | | | |issues |Largely relevant and well |Reasonable, showing an | |or |Good throughout much of the |Where appropriate, some good|organised with reasonable |appreciation of alternative | |Reasonable analysis and |answer with few errors and |use of data to support |logic and coherence |points of essays, view | |reasonable evaluation |weaknesses |answer |There is some awareness of history essay, | | | | | |the interrelatedness of sex photo, | | | | | |economic issues | | The answer displays both good analysis and good evaluation, but does not quite reach level 5. Brain Based! Although analysis of economies and diseconomies of scale is excellent, the analysis on monopoly is too thin, based on assertion rather than rigorous development and application of essays, economic theory. Hence the history essay answer is placed at the top of sex photo, level 4 rather than level 5. Topic 2 Competitive markets 1It is impossible for human beings to possess perfect information about what is happening in a market. With the possible exceptions of currency and cost research share markets, it is unrealistic to assume that all goods and services are identical, uniform or homogeneous. 2Motorists can research similar car models in sex photo, trade magazines and on the internet to get a picture of the price of cars depending on age, mileage, condition and availability. 3Whenever marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (MR gt; MC), selling an sample extra unit of output always increases total profit. The extra unit adds more to revenue than it does to costs. But whenever marginal revenue is less than marginal cost (MR lt; MC), selling an extra unit of output always reduces total profit. Sex Photo! The extra unit adds more to costs than it does to revenue. It follows that only when marginal revenue equals marginal costs (MR = MC) are profits maximised.
Normal profit is the level of profit made by a firm that provides just sufficient incentive to stay in thesis, the market. Essays! As a profit level, it is van gogh cafe essay, not high enough to attract new firms into the industry to compete with existing firms, or low enough to sex photo, force firms out of the market. Dalam! Supernormal profit is excess profit over sex photo essays and above normal profit. Rujukan! If there are no significant barriers to market entry, supernormal profit will attract new firms to enter the market and compete for customers. This should drive prices down until surviving firms make normal profit only. 5When the price of a good is greater than the marginal cost of production, the result is essays, allocative inefficiency because the price charged by resume media firms will be greater than the cost of essays, making the last unit. This indicates that the firm is over-charging consumers. Cost Reduction Paper! Hence not enough of the good is essays, demanded and society’s scarce resources are not properly allocated between competing uses. Sample Media! Allocative inefficiency occurs when P gt; MC or P lt; MC.
For any given employment of resources and any initial distribution of income and wealth among the population, total consumer welfare can increase if resources are re-allocated from essays markets where P lt; MC into those where P gt; MC, until allocative efficiency is on my friend, achieved when P = MC in all markets. 6Price competition occurs when firms seek to reduce costs and gain customers by offering products at the lowest possible price. By offering the good at sex photo essays a low price they hope to rujukan, create an incentive for the consumer to buy the product. Quality competition is when a firm seeks to sell a product to consumers on the grounds that it is superior quality when compared to rival products. Sex Photo Essays! In this case the firm’s product may be more expensive than rival goods but the firm’s business strategy aims to attract consumers by offering better quality, whether this be in design, materials, service and/or build quality. 7The internet breaks down geographical frontiers, which enables buyers and sellers to engage in national and international markets. This has made some markets bigger and helped fulfil the assumption that there are a large number of buyers and sellers.
Internet search engines and comparisons have allowed both business and consumers to move closer to the perfect information assumption. Consumers can more easily compare prices and this has helped to increase competition, although human decision making is still bounded by essay best friend limited time and constraints on the level of essays, detail that comparison websites provide. Rujukan! Exam-style answers (essay) 01Perfect competition is a market that meets all the six conditions that define the market structure. These are: (i) a very large number of buyers and sellers; (ii) each with perfect market information; (iii) each able to buy or sell as much as it wishes at the ruling market price determined in he market as a whole; (iv) individual buyers and essays sellers unable to influence the van gogh cafe ruling market price through their own actions; (v) a uniform or identical product; and (vi) an absence of barriers to entry into and exit from the sex photo essays market in the long run, i. e. complete freedom of entry and sample resume exit. A barrier to entry prevents new firms from sex photo essays entering a market. Taken together, these conditions tell us that a perfectly competitive firm, whose AR and MR curves are depicted in panel (a) of the diagram below, faces a perfectly elastic demand curve for its product. The demand curve facing the firm is located at the ruling market price, P1, which itself is friend for girls, determined through the interaction of market demand and market supply in the market as a whole, which is sex photo, illustrated in panel (b) of the diagram. [pic] The assumption that a perfectly competitive firm can sell whatever quantity it wishes at the ruling market price P1, but that it cannot influence the ruling market price by its own action, means that the firm is a passive price-taker.
Condition (iii) of the van gogh cafe terrace essay conditions of perfect competition tells us that a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wishes at the market’s ruling price. But, given that it can sell as much as it desires at the market’s ruling price, how much will it actually wish to produce and sell? Providing we assume that each firm’s business objective is solely to maximise profit, the answer is shown in panel (a) of the next diagram: [pic] Panel (a) in the diagram above adds the perfectly competitive firm’s average total cost (ATC) curve and its marginal cost (MC) curve to the revenue curves shown in the earlier diagram. Sex Photo! Point A in rujukan, panel (a) (at which MR = MC) locates the profit-maximising level of output Q1. At this level of output, total sales revenue is sex photo essays, shown by the area OQ1AP1. Total cost is shown by the area OQ1BC1. Supernormal profits (measured by subtracting the sample resume total cost rectangle from the total revenue rectangle) are shown by the shaded area C1BAP1. Referring back again to the list of the conditions of perfect competition, we can see that although firms cannot enter or leave the market in the short run, they can do so in essays, the long run (condition (vi)). Suppose that in the short run, firms make supernormal profit.
In this situation, the rujukan ruling market price signals to firms outside the market that an incentive exists for new firms to enter the market. The next diagram shows what might then happen: [pic] Initially, too many new firms enter the market, causing the supply curve to shift to the right to S2 in panel (b) of the diagram. This causes the price line to fall to P2, which lies below each firm’s ATC curve. When this happens, firms make a loss (or subnormal profit). But just as supernormal profit creates the incentive for new firms to enter the market, subnormal profit provides the incentive for marginal firms to leave the market. In panel (b) the market supply curve shifts to the left and the market price rises. Eventually, long-run equilibrium occurs when firms make normal profit only. For the sex photo essays market as a whole, this is shown at output Q/// and price P3.
This answer is similar to history essay, the answer written for the Topic 1 exam-style essay question in that it includes more than enough coverage of issues to earn all the available 15 marks. The candidate starts the answer with a list of the conditions of perfect competition. Weak answers frequently go no further than this. However this answer uses the conditions as prompts for sex photo, developing the rujukan dalam resume analysis required of a good answer to this question. Further good points are devoting more or less equal space to both the whole market and to sex photo essays, one firm within the market, and to the use of relevant and accurate diagrams to illustrate the analysis. The maximum 15 marks are awarded. Dalam! 02In economics the word ‘efficiency’ has several meanings. For example: Technical efficiency.
A production process is technically efficient if it maximises the output produced from the available inputs or factors of production. Productive efficiency or cost efficiency. Sex Photo Essays! To achieve productive efficiency, a firm must use the techniques and factors of production that are available, at lowest possible cost per unit of output. In the short run, the history essay lowest point on the relevant short-run average total cost curve locates the sex photo most productively efficient level of output for the particular scale of operation. X-efficiency. This occurs when a firm has eliminated all unnecessary costs of production, which means that it must be producing on and not above its average cost curve. Allocative efficiency.
This occurs when it is impossible to improve overall economic welfare by reallocating resources between industries or markets (assuming an cost research paper initial ‘fairness’ in the distribution of income and wealth among the sex photo essays population). For resource allocation in the whole economy to be allocatively efficient, price must equal marginal cost (P = MC) in each and every market in dalam, the economy. Dynamic efficiency. All the forms of efficiency mentioned above are examples of static efficiency, i. e. Sex Photo! efficiency measured at a particular point in time. By contrast, dynamic efficiency measures improvements in technical and productive efficiency that occur over time. Improvements in dynamic efficiency result from the introduction of better methods of producing existing products (including firms’ ability to benefit to a greater extent from economies of scale), and sample media also from developing and marketing completely new products.
The diagram below shows that a perfectly competitive firm achieves both productive and allocative efficiency in the long run, but only under the assumption that there are no economies of sex photo essays, scale. The firm is productively efficient because it produces the optimum output at the lowest point on the ATC curve, and it is allocatively efficient because P = MC. In long run or true equilibrium, a perfectly competitive firm must also be X-efficient. The reason is based, simple. If the firm is X-inefficient, producing at a level of unit costs above its ATC curve, in the long run the firm could not make normal profits. In a perfectly competitive market, to survive and make normal profits, a firm has to eliminate organisational slack or X-inefficiency. Essays! [pic] The first sentence in the previous paragraph asserted that perfect competition is reduction, efficient provided there are no economies of scale.
Consider now a situation, shown in the final diagram below, in which the market is sex photo essays, too small to allow a large number of history essay, firms each to achieve all the economies of scale that are possible. [pic] For a firm to benefit from economies of scale to the full, and hence to essays, be productively efficient in the long run as well as in the short run, its short-run cost curve would have to history essay, be positioned at SRATCN, or indeed further to the right than this. The problem is that the market is too small to allow both full economies of scale and the large number of firms required for perfect competition to be achieved. Long-run productive efficiency requires a monopoly market structure (natural monopoly). By contrast, perfect competition requires each of sex photo essays, a very large number of firms to be producing on a short-run average cost curve such as SRATC1. On such a curve, the perfectly competitive firm is indeed productively efficient in the sense that it achieves short-run productive efficiency, but it is producing way below the level of output that is productively efficient in the long run when scale economies are benefited from to the full. Terrace At Night! In conclusion, a perfectly competitive firm can be efficient when judged against the criteria of productive, X, and allocative efficiency, but only in the short run. Unlike a monopoly, a perfectly competitive firm cannot achieve long-run productive efficiency through the pursuit of economies of scale. Finally there is another argument, so far not considered, which may mean that perfectly competitive firms fail to produce the allocatively efficient level of output. True allocative efficiency requires that the price charged for a good by a firm should equal the marginal social cost of production and not the marginal private cost incurred by the firm, i. e. Essays! P = MSC and not P = MPC.
This means that when externalities, negative or positive, are generated in the course of production, a perfectly competitive firm will not produce an allocatively efficient level of output. Nor will the whole market. This is brain based thesis, clearly a level 5 answer which earns full marks. The level descriptors for level 5 are: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of essays, theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 5 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Good with a clear final | |22–25 marks |with few errors and research |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |judgement | |(mid-point 24) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning | | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis and good | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | | |economic issues | | The question focuses solely on efficiency criteria and not on welfare criteria, namely the consumer surplus members of households enjoy in perfectly competitive markets. Pleasingly, the answer starts with relevant definitions but while a couple of marks are available for definitions, this list is essays, really too long. Note that the concept of X-efficiency is not in the Unit 3 specification, though good answers frequently make use of the concept. Topic 3 Concentrated markets Water companies such as Thames Water are pure monopolies in the supply of tap water since their customers have no other companies from which they can buy tap water. Essay Best For Girls! The supermarket industry is oligopolistic because over 90% of market share is controlled by four large firms. 2The John Lewis Partnership is a firm that has grown primarily through organic growth.
Halifax Bank of Scotland (HBOS), which is now owned by the Lloyds Banking Group, is a firm that primarily grew through takeover and merger. 3British Gas and Thames Water. Natural monopoly occurs when there is only room in the market for one firm benefiting to the full from economies of scale. In the past, utility industries such as water, gas, electricity and the telephone industries were regarded as natural monopolies. Because of the nature of their product, utility industries experience a particular marketing problem. The industries produce a service that is sex photo, delivered through a distribution network or grid of pipes and cables into millions of separate businesses and homes. Competition in the provision of distribution grids is extremely wasteful, since it requires the duplication of fixed capacity, therefore causing each supplier to incur unnecessarily high fixed costs.
Until quite recently, utility industries were generally monopolies. History Essay! High barriers to entry prevent new firms from entering the market and competing for profits with the monopoly. Barriers to entry will often take the essays form of high sunk costs, i. e. billions of pounds of capital investment which enable the essay friend for girls firm to operate at sex photo the bottom of the long-run average cost (LRAC) curve. Monopoly firms can also be protected by legal restrictions imposed by the government. For many decades, but no longer today, the Royal Mail enjoyed a privileged position in the delivery of mail.
Patent and copyright law protects intellectual property rights. 5A cartel or price ring is an informal agreement between firms in a market to keep prices artificially high. This allows firms to exert monopoly power through collusion and make supernormal profits by overcharging consumers. This allows poorly managed and essay on my best friend inefficient firms to essays, continue to make profits and deprives consumers of the lower prices that could be offered by more efficient firms that have more innovative production methods and are less wasteful. Under UK, EU and US law, cartels are often illegal and can be punished with large fines and, in the USA, by imprisonment of sample resume media, company directors. Cartels can, however, provide benefits to the public.
If a cartel can protect firms from the pressures of sex photo, competition and allow firms to reduction research paper, invest in research and development to invent new products, it can be extremely beneficial to the public. Large pharmaceutical companies, for example, have argued that pricing agreements have allowed them to raise finance to invest in expensive scientific research and drug development which they could not do if they were constantly fighting aggressive price wars with rivals. Essays! 6Cartels are usually illegal because their behaviour results in higher prices for consumers and essay on my friend for girls they allow members of the cartel to operate inefficiently. In the sex photo case of the van gogh at night essay cement industry cartel broken up by the European Union competition authorities, firms were able to charge customers artificially high prices for essays, cement, which pushed up the costs of production for brain, the construction and building industry. This meant that government contractors had to spend more of their taxpayers’ money to purchase cement for investment projects such as school buildings, hospitals and roads. Sex Photo! Private sector companies also had to pass on higher prices to businesses and households, which depleted levels of household disposable income and reduced households’ ability to spend on brain thesis other goods and services. Most cartel members benefited significantly from the supernormal profits they made. Managers and the owners of the businesses would have benefited, but not the general public. Furthermore, the supernormal profit did not encourage managers to look for efficiency savings, invent new products or innovate new production methods. As a result, prices remained high as consumers paid too much for products. These market distortions resulted in sex photo essays, consumers facing wrong prices signals, which in turn led to a misallocation of scarce resources.
7In the original ‘prisoner’s dilemma’, two prisoners are jointly charged with a serious crime such as armed robbery and are held in isolation from each other. The prosecutor, hoping to have his task simplified, knows that a confession from one will convict the other, but he also knows that the available evidence is history essay, insufficient to essays, ensure a conviction. Van Gogh Terrace At Night Essay! If both prisoners plead not guilty, they are likely to go free. Sex Photo Essays! Hoping to ensure two guilty pleas, the rujukan prosecutor visits each prisoner in his cell and offers a deal. The prosecutor informs each prisoner that he will receive one of essays, two possible outcomes, depending on how he pleads: (i) if both prisoners plead guilty, each will go to prison for one year; and (ii) if one prisoner pleads guilty and the other not guilty, the prisoner pleading guilty will be freed and receive a reward — if he gives evidence to convict the other prisoner — whilst the other prisoner gets a five-year jail sentence.
Each prisoner faces the dilemma that if he pleads not guilty but the other prisoner pleads guilty and shops him, he will get the worse possible outcome, namely being banged up for five years. Shuddering at this possibility, both prisoners plead guilty and get the second best outcome: one year in jail. However, the best outcome for van gogh cafe essay, each prisoner, namely going free and possibly earning a reward, is sex photo, not achieved. The prisoner’s dilemma scenario can be used to model the behaviour of competitive duopolists, for example those in the arms industry. A British and a French company are competing to secure an arms deal to sell a billion pounds’ worth of weapons to Iraq. By paying bribes of $100 million to government ministers in Iraq, the British company believes it will get the whole deal. However, earning ? 1 billion depends on the actions of the reduction paper French company, the only other likely supplier of the arms. If both companies bribe Iraqi ministers, the deal is likely to be shared between the two suppliers. The British company’s profits will then be much less than if it alone pays bribes and gets all the business. The chief executive officer of the British company thinks it a pity to pay out $100 million, but if they did not and sex photo essays the French company did, the French would get all the business and the UK company would make zero profit. In the essay on my friend for girls absence of collusion, there are two strategies available to sex photo essays, each firm: (a)Pay the rujukan bribe, while the other firm does not bribe.
Outcome: (i)for the firm paying the bribe: a net income of $900 million (ii)for the firm refusing to bribe: nothing (b)Both pay the bribe. Outcome: The sale is shared: each firm nets $400 million. To avoid losing all the business and making zero profit, both rivals decide to pay the bribe. In this scenario, paying the bribe is each firm’s dominant strategy, i. e. the strategy to be pursued whatever rival firms do. Paying the bribe makes the British company better off, whatever the French do, and essays vice versa. 8When natural barriers to market entry are low or non-existent, incumbent firms (i. e. firms already in the market) may set low prices, known as limit prices, to deter new firms from sample media entering the essays market. Incumbent firms do this because they fear increased competition and loss of market power. With limit pricing, firms already in the market sacrifice short-run profit maximisation in order to maximise long-run profits, achieved through deterring the entry of history essay, new firms. By contrast, predatory pricing occurs when a firm cuts the price of its product to sex photo, a loss-making level in order to force a rival firm out of business. This strategy is normally used by large firms that can subsidise losses using profits from another part of essay best for girls, their business empire to force smaller rivals out essays of the market. 9Firms undertake price discrimination in order to maximise profits.
This arises when different customers have different elasticities of sample, demand at different prices. Sex Photo Essays! If one customer has a highly inelastic demand and another an elastic demand, the firm will be able to sell them the same product but at different prices. Train companies will typically price discriminate by charging different fares to different customers and also varying the price of a ticket at different times of the day to send price signals and create incentives and rujukan dalam disincentives to travel. Price discrimination occurs when firms charge different prices to different customers based on differences in the customers’ ability and willingness to pay. Those customers who are prepared to pay more are charged a higher price than those who are only sex photo, willing to pay a lower price. Price discrimination allows firms to increase profit by taking consumer surplus away from history essay consumers and converting it into extra monopoly profit or supernormal profit. Providing the increase in sales revenue resulting from price discrimination is greater than the extra costs incurred when charging different prices to essays, different customers, it is in firms’ interest to indulge in paper, this form of pricing.
10The gamer’s consumer surplus is sex photo, ? 0, being the difference between the maximum price he was prepared to pay and resume media the actual price he paid. The store owner’s producer surplus is ? 2, being the difference between the lowest price he was prepared to accept and the actual price paid. 11Expensive capital equipment and sunk costs, and patent and copyright laws. 12A patent is the legal protection given to an inventor or producer which grants exclusive rights to essays, a product for up to 20 years. This legal protection allows firms to essay on my best, make supernormal profits because they are effectively monopoly producers. Patent protection creates a strong incentive for firms to invent new products and essays create new technologies or pharmaceutical products which significantly improve social welfare.
Thus patent protection drives dynamic efficiency. Invention and rujukan new product design frequently require high levels of research and development which burden firms with significant sunk costs and risk bankruptcy if the new product fails. Hence the incentive of making supernormal profits over sex photo a 20-year period encourages firms to history essay, invent, seek dynamic efficiencies and take risks. Sex Photo Essays! Exam-style answers (data response) Competition and cost research paper monopoly in the EU airline industry 01Air France enjoys a domestic market share of sex photo, 80%, whereas the domestic market share of rujukan, Flybe is just under 30%. There is thus a difference of sex photo essays, just over 50% between the domestic market shares of the two airlines. A significant feature of the data is that only one airline, SAS, leads the domestic market in more than one country. Resume! SAS’s market share in Norway is about 43% while its market share in Sweden is about 37%. The first part of the context data response question in ECON 3 and in ECON4 will usually be in two parts. The first part requires a calculation (often a percentage calculation). The second part asks for identification of one other significant point of comparison, or in this question where there is only one data series in essays, Extract A, one other significant feature of the data.
Some future exam papers may revert to asking for two significant points of comparison (or features), without a preliminary calculation. For this question, the answer picks up 3 marks for the calculation and 3 marks for sample resume, identifying a significant feature in the data, constrained to the maximum mark of 5 available for the question. 02The term ‘monopoly power’ does not mean quite the same thing as monopoly. Whereas pure monopoly occurs when there is only one firm in the market, monopoly power exists even when pure monopoly does not. The term applies to a situation in which firms within the market possess the power to reduce output, raise the price, and make supernormal profit. By using strategies such as product design, brand imaging, persuasive advertising and protecting themselves through patents, firms can exercise a degree of essays, monopoly power even when there are many firms in the market. Although Air France is not a pure monopoly in the French market, it may be a monopoly for flights between particular airports. In any case, even when not a pure monopoly, Air France possesses a large amount of monopoly power which it may choose to exercise.
As the van gogh at night diagram below shows, on routes where its monopoly power is sex photo essays, complete, it may hike up the price it charges to rujukan resume, P2, compared to a competitive market price of P1. Essays! It does this by restricting the brain based thesis number of flights to F2, compared to F1, which would be the sex photo number of flights if the market were perfectly competitive. History Essay! [pic] In the latter case, market equilibrium would be determined at point A on the diagram. But when Air France acts as a pure monopoly, point B (where MR = MC) determines the level of output, with Air France then able to charge a price of P2. Air France could also use its monopoly power in other ways. The airline could indulge in price discrimination, charging higher prices to customers who are prepared to pay more for a flight. Alternatively, and presumably requiring the support of the French government, Air France might charge limit prices or even predatory prices. A limit price is a price set deliberately low to discourage competitor airlines from entering the market.
A predatory price is set even lower, below average costs, with the intention of driving rival airlines that have dared to enter the market, out of the market. However, perhaps the main way Air France might exercise its monopoly power is by gaining control of landing and take-off slots at French airports, to make it uneconomic or impossible for rivals to use the sex photo airports. As with the first part of context data response question, in ECON 3 and in ECON4 the second part of the question divides into two parts. The first part (worth 4 marks) asks candidates to explain the meaning of an essay on my best for girls economic term (in this case ‘monopoly power’). The follow-on part (worth 6 marks) tests the more demanding skill of economic analysis. An answer is constrained to a maximum of 6 marks if only the explanation or analysis is attempted. This answer is more than sufficient to sex photo essays, earn all 10 marks. In fact, the candidate is in danger of spending too much time on an 02 question, which would leave too little time to develop an answer to resume, the last part of the question. 03A cartel is a collusive agreement by firms, usually to sex photo, fix prices. History Essay! Sometimes output may also be fixed.
In the diagram below, five firms jointly agree to charge a price to keep firm E, which is the least efficient firm, in the market. In a competitive market, firm E would have to reduce costs or go out of business. Sex Photo! Cartel agreements therefore enable inefficient firms to stay in business, while other more efficient members of the price ring enjoy supernormal or monopoly profit. By protecting the history essay inefficient and enabling firms to enjoy an easy life protected from competition, cartels display the disadvantages of monopoly (high prices and sex photo restriction of van gogh terrace essay, choice) without the benefits that monopoly can sometimes bring, namely economies of scale and improvements in essays, dynamic efficiency. Although cartels can achieve a better outcome for all firms concerned, they are not likely to cost reduction paper, be good for the consumer.
For this reason, cartel agreements are usually illegal and judged by governments as being anti-competitive and against the public interest. Nevertheless, some forms of cooperation or collusion between oligopolistic firms may be justifiable and in the public interest. These include joint product development and essays cooperation to improve health and safety within the industry, or to ensure that product and labour standards are maintained. Such examples of industry collaboration are normally deemed to be good, in contrast to price collusion, which is regarded as bad. Brain Thesis! [pic] Currently, within the European Union, cartels are usually deemed to be illegal, both by national competition authorities such as the Competition Commission in the UK, and by EU competition policy. In both national and EU competition policy, a cartel agreement is treated as an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice, collectively undertaken by the member firms of the cartel. Within the UK, the Office of sex photo, Fair Trading (OFT) can refer collective restrictive agreements and resume practices to a court of law, the essays Restrictive Practice Court (RPC). Arguably, policy towards collective restrictive practices is more effective than other aspects of sample resume, competition policy because a court enforces the policy. A firm that ignores an RPC ruling may be found guilty of contempt and fined. Sex Photo! Nevertheless, the punishments that the RPC can hand out are quite weak — usually a fine of just a few thousand pounds.
Restrictive trading practice policy would be much more effective if fines of research paper, millions rather than thousands of pounds were imposed, and if the authorities were given more power to detect secretive collusive agreements. European Union competition policy, including policy aimed at cartels, is based on the principle of subsidiarity. This principle means that EU policy is activated only sex photo, when firms operating within the EU adversely affect or distort trade between EU member states. Cafe Terrace At Night! Thus a cartel agreement between a number of (probably small) UK companies, operating solely within the UK and not competing with firms from other EU countries, would not attract the attention of the EU Competition Commissioner, who is in charge of EU competition policy. In practice, EU and sex photo national competition authorities complement each other and should not be regarded as alternatives. It is also the history essay case that the EU Competition Commissioner imposes heavier fines and more draconian punishments on firms found to be operating anti-competitive cartel agreements, than do strictly national competition authorities. This is evidenced by the case study in Extract C in the question. The case study reported that the sex photo EU fined 11 national airlines about €800 million for fixing the price of air cargo between 1999 and brain based 2006. British Airways was fined €104 million, Air France-KLM €340 million and Cargolux Airlines €79.
9 million. The case study also draws attention to the fact that because cartel agreements are usually hidden, they are often exposed by a dissatisfied member of the cartel ‘blowing the sex photo essays whistle’ on other cartel members. Whistle blowers usually get off scot-free (to incentivise whistle blowing in other, as yet unexposed, cartels). Meanwhile, the dalam other cartel members are heavily punished. In conclusion, therefore, I take issue with the word ‘solely’ in the question. National and EU policy should reinforce each other and be treated as complements, rather than as substitute policy options. Essays! Perhaps a little harshly, this answer is placed at the top of level 4 (17–21 marks) rather than in level 5. The evaluation is certainly good enough for level 5. Resume Media! However, the sex photo essays analysis is on brain the thin side. Sex Photo! To ensure a level 5 mark, the candidate could have included theory (for example the theory of joint profit maximisation) to analyse how price rings can allow all the colluding firms to enjoy monopoly profit. Often the final part of a data-response question or an essay question contains a word such as must, always, inevitably, or in this case solely. Good candidates (such as this one) pick up on these words, arguing (in this case) that EU and UK competition authorities should complement each other and not be seen as alternatives to each other. This is good evaluation.
Topic 4 The labour market 1When households increase demand for goods and services, firms respond by employing more labour to dalam, increase production. Essays! Workers are demanded, not for the utility or pleasure their employment gives to employers, but because their labour is necessary for profits to history essay, be made when the goods or services that workers help to produce are sold. Perfect competition in the labour market is both similar to, and different from, perfect competition in the goods market. Sex Photo! In both markets, the cost ruling market price is set in the market as a whole through the interaction of essays, all the economic agents operating in cost reduction, the market. However, in a labour market, the ruling market price is in fact the sex photo ruling market wage, paid by history essay firms and received by workers. This difference illustrates role reversal in sex photo, the two sets of markets. Households, which are the source of demand in the goods market, are the source of supply of labour in the labour market. Similarly, firms, which are the source of supply in the goods market, are the source of demand (a derived demand) in the labour market.
As a result of role reversal, the rujukan dalam resume ruling market price facing each firm in the goods market is its perfectly elastic demand curve for sex photo, labour, and also the AR and MR curve facing each firm. By contrast, the ruling market wage facing each employer in the labour market is a perfectly elastic supply curve of labour, and history essay also the average cost of sex photo essays, labour (ACL) curve and media the marginal cost of labour (MCL) curve facing each employer. 3Transport for London (TFL) bargains collectively with ASLEF, the train drivers’ union, and with RMT, the essays National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers. The energy company EDF also bargains collectively with its workers’ unions. In 1999, the national minimum wage (NMW) came into force in the UK at a rate of van gogh cafe terrace, ? 3. 60 an hour for workers aged 22 and over. The current rates (from 1 October 2012) are: ? 6. 19, the main rate for workers aged 21 and over; ? 4. Sex Photo Essays! 98, the 18–20 rate; ? 3. 68, the 16–17 rate for workers above school leaving age but under 18; ? 2. 65, the apprentice rate, for apprentices under 19 or 19 or over and in the first year of their apprenticeship. 5(i)Income is an economic flow; it is the payments received by an individual or household in a given time period. Wealth is an economic stock; it is the accumulated assets, property and savings owned by an individual or household over time. ii)Welfare benefits are payments transferred to an individual or household by the government via the taxation and social security system, without labour or a factor service being supplied. Earned income is history essay, payments received by an individual or household in exchange for labour or interest on saving or the rent of an asset. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Income is essays, a flow while wealth is a stock.
Personal wealth is the stock, or historical accumulation, of everything people own, which has value. By contrast, income is the flow of money received hourly, weekly, monthly or annually, some of which (the part saved) can add to or enlarge personal wealth. This is one of the links between income and sample media wealth. A second link operates in the opposite direction: the wealthier people are, the sex photo more investment income they are likely to earn, which adds to their total income. Indeed, the rich benefit from a virtuous circle: wealth increases income, which allows the wealthy to history essay, save, and saving adds to wealth, and so on. Essays! By contrast, many of the poor suffer a vicious circle: low income means the poor have to borrow, borrowing adds to personal debt, income is then spent on debt repayment, consumption falls, and any wealth the poor possess disappears. As in other countries, income and wealth have always been unequally distributed in the UK. Even when economic growth creates full employment, the incomes of the rich tend to increase faster than those of the van gogh cafe essay poor. Three of the main causes of inequalities in essays, the distribution of income and wealth in the UK are old age, unemployment, and the low wages of many of those in work.
Old age causes income inequality (and also poverty) largely because many old people rely on the state pension and cafe terrace essay lack a private pension. Before the early 1980s, the sex photo essays state pension rose each year in line with average earnings. This meant that pensioners, albeit from a lower base, shared in the increase in national prosperity delivered by economic growth and higher real earnings. However, since the early 1980s, the brain based thesis state pension rose first in line with the retail prices index (RPI) (and latterly in sex photo, line with the consumer prices index (CPI)), rather than with average earnings. This has kept the real value or purchasing power of the brain thesis state pension at or near its early-1980s level, while the real earnings of those in sex photo, work have continued to rise. Pensioners reliant solely on the state for a source of income have especially suffered.
The state pension is now regarded very much as a ‘poverty income’. Even though the state pension is index-linked to the CPI, its real value has fallen because the cost of living of the elderly rises by more than any increase in the CPI. Unemployment benefits are also now linked to the CPI and, for resume, similar reasons as apply to the state pension, have fallen behind average earnings. Until quite recently, even if unemployment remained the same, increases in the incomes of the sex photo unemployed generally fell below increases in on my, the incomes of those in work. However, since 2008, unemployment has risen rapidly and stands above two and a half million. This means that more people suffer from low incomes (just as people living longer adds to the number of pensioners on low incomes). (Before moving on to explain how low wages increase income inequalities, it should be stated that recent events have partially offset the conclusions drawn in the previous paragraphs. Essays! Since 2009, the wages and history essay salaries of much of the UK population in work have hardly changed at all, but the state pension and unemployment benefits have risen by rather more, albeit from a lower starting point. At the same time, because of a series of crises in sex photo, private pension provision, many people approaching retirement age who had been looking forward to receiving substantial private pensions are now expecting much lower private pensions. ) Moving on to low pay as a cause of widening income differentials, an important factor has been the disappearance of middle-ranking jobs in the private sector. An example is in rujukan dalam, engineering, where skilled jobs have simply disappeared. Many of these jobs have moved overseas, leaving a vacuum in the British labour market.
There is now a worrying gap between low-skilled, low-paid jobs (so called McJobs) at the bottom of the pile, and highly-paid jobs in industries such as investment banking where the sex photo essays rate of pay has risen astronomically in recent years, in both real and van gogh terrace nominal terms. This answer scores 14 out of the 15 marks available. It earns the two marks available for definitions. (Because definitions pick up marks, it is always a good idea to provide two relevant definitions in the answer to sex photo, the first part of an essay question, or to the second part of a context data-response question). The candidate lists and then explains three causes of income inequality. The effects of old age and on my best friend for girls unemployment are explained well. Essays! The final explanation of the effect of low wages is sound but a little thin.
It would have benefited from graphical analysis, showing for example that the widening difference between high and low wages is partially caused by different demand and cost supply conditions in sex photo, different labour markets: [pic] 2A tax is progressive if, as income rises, a greater proportion of income is paid in based, tax. A transfer is the payment of essays, income by reduction paper the state to a benefit recipient, without the essays person involved providing any labour in exchange for essay best, the income received. Sex Photo Essays! It is of course possible for the government to use progressive taxation to narrow the gap between pre-tax and post-tax income, without redistributing income. Thesis! The tax revenue could for sex photo essays, example be spent on tanks and guns. It is also possible for the tax revenue raised from progressive taxation to be given back to the better-off, for example through subsidies given to sample resume, already-rich farmers or by giving gentrification grants to people on sex photo essays high incomes to spend on improving their houses. However, usually when we think of progressive taxation and transfers, the implicit assumption is van gogh terrace at night, that the rich are taxed more than the poor and that much of the sex photo essays tax revenue is transferred and given as welfare benefits to essay on my for girls, the poor. There is no doubt that progressive taxation and transfers provide an obvious way to reduce inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth. Before 1979, UK governments of sex photo, all political complexions used progressive taxation and a policy of transfers of income to the less well-off, in a deliberate attempt — with some success — to reduce inequalities in the distribution of income. However, there is a major problem involved if only progressive taxation and transfers are used with this aim in mind.
The reason for based thesis, this relates to sex photo, the conflict between two of the principles or canons of taxation: equity and efficiency. Equity means that a tax system should be fair, although, of sample, course, there may be different and possibly conflicting interpretations of what is fair or equitable. Specifically, a particular tax should be based on the taxpayer’s ability to pay. This principle is one of the sex photo essays justifications of progressive taxation, since the rich have a greater ability to pay than the poor. Efficiency means that a tax should achieve its intended aim or aims with minimum undesired distortion or side-effects. Arguably, the high income-tax rates that are necessary to history essay, make the tax system progressive have an adverse effect on personal incentives. In particular, they may reduce the incentives to work harder, to be entrepreneurial and to essays, take financial risks.
Free-market and supply-side economists believe these disincentive effects lead to a significant slowing down of the economy’s rate of growth. The economy ends up being more equal, but poorer overall when compared with competitor countries. Supply-side economists believe that greater incentives for work and enterprise are necessary in order to increase the UK’s growth rate. For free-market economists and politicians, progressive taxation and reduction research transfers to the poor mean that people have less incentive to sex photo essays, work harder and to engage in entrepreneurial risk. Moreover, the ease with which the poor can claim welfare benefits and the level at which they are available creates a situation in which the poor rationally choose unemployment and state benefits in preference to history essay, low wages and work. In this so-called dependency culture, the unwaged are effectively ‘married to the state’, but some of the poor, obviously not enjoying this marriage, drift into antisocial behaviour, attacking bus shelters and other public property, as well as privately owned property.
Meanwhile, at the top of the income pyramid, the high marginal rates of taxation, which form a large part of progressive taxation, are a disincentive to the better-off. They stop working, or work abroad, and many hours are wasted in designing and applying complicated systems of tax avoidance — a paradise for accountants. Tax evasion (the failure to pay legally due taxes) also proliferates, both at the top and bottom of the income pyramid. Illegal tax evasion leads to the growth of the so-called black economy and to activities such as smuggling. Supply-side economists believe that tax and benefit cuts, which are the opposite of progressive taxation and transfers, alter the sex photo labour/leisure choice in favour of essay on my friend for girls, supplying labour, particularly for benefit claimants who lack the skills necessary for high-paid jobs. They also believe that to make everyone eventually better-off, the poor must first be made worse off. Increased inequality is necessary to essays, facilitate economic growth from which all would eventually benefit. Through a ‘trickle down’ effect, the poor would end up better off in absolute terms, but because inequalities had widened, they would still be relatively worse off compared with the rich.
Needless to van gogh essay, say, by no means all economists agree with this extremely pro-free market analysis. However, virtually all agree that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to narrow income differentials. Apart from the pro-free market view just summarised, some economists believe that other forms of intervention in the free market are necessary. One of essays, these is the national minimum wage, which in recent years has marginally raised low pay rates. They also argue that governments should extend the provision of merit goods such as free state education and healthcare, in order to improve the social wage of lower-income groups. Sample Resume! The social wage is that part of a worker’s standard of living received as goods and services provided at sex photo essays zero price or as ‘income in based, kind’ by the state, being financed collectively out of taxation. However, such interventionist policies incur a significant opportunity cost. They lead to sex photo essays, high taxation, with the sample resume disincentive effect this brings about, and they may also lead to essays, adverse unintended consequences and to other aspects of government failure. It is important to van gogh cafe essay, read the question carefully.
This question does not ask for a discussion of essays, whether the distribution of income should be made more equal. Based! Unfortunately, the essays answer deflects a little too much in this direction. Nevertheless, it is still valid to argue that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to reduce inequalities, because of the disadvantages and unintended consequences of these two fiscal policy instruments. The answer scores 19 out of a possible 25 and has been placed at history essay mid-level 4. To achieve level 5, there should have been more focus on the actual set question and sex photo essays more discussion and analysis of cost, policies such as a national minimum wage, for example discussing whether such policies should be better viewed as alternatives or complementary to progressive taxation and transfers. No marks are awarded for sex photo, definitions in answers to the final parts of essay and context data-response questions. Nevertheless, it is essay best friend, still a good idea to define key concepts at the beginning of the answer as this acts as a good launching pad for developing the subsequent analysis and evaluation. Topic 5 Government intervention in the market A public good has three characteristics: it is non-excludable, non-diminishable (non-rival) and non-rejectable. Essays! These characteristics mean that (if it is a pure public good — see answer to question 2) it cannot be provided by the market mechanism. A merit good is sample media, provided by the market mechanism and it has the characteristics of a private good. It is excludable, diminishable (rival) and rejectable. Essays! A merit good, however, is often undervalued by households and thus under-consumed when provided at a market price by cost reduction research the free market.
There are two reasons for sex photo, this. First, consumers do not value the sample media positive externalities that result from consumption which benefit other people. Second, consumers typically suffer from an sex photo essays information problem which causes them to ignore or undervalue the benefits of consumption which will be enjoyed in the future. 2Public goods can be divided into pure public goods and non-pure public goods. National defence and police are examples of pure public goods — defined as public goods for sample, which it is impossible to exclude ‘free-riders’. However, most public goods (street lighting, roads, television and radio programmes and also lighthouses) are really non-pure public goods (also known as quasi-public goods). Essays! Methods can be devised for converting the goods into private goods by excluding ‘free-riders’ (for example, electronic pricing of road use). Non-pure public goods can be provided by markets, but the second property of non-rivalry or non-diminishability means there is a case for providing all public goods free in order to encourage as much consumption as possible.
For public goods, the optimal level of consumption occurs when they are available free of charge. 3For a merit good, the long-term private benefit of consumption exceeds the thesis short-term private benefit of consumption. However, when deciding how much to consume, individuals take account of short-term costs and benefits, but ignore or undervalue the long-term private cost and benefit. Preventative dentistry provides a good example. Many people ignore the long-term benefit of dental check-ups, and sex photo essays decide, because of the short-term unpleasantness of the experience, not to consume the service. Unfortunately, these people can nd up later in life with rotten teeth or gum disease, saying: ‘If only history essay, I had visited the dentist more often when I was younger’. Likewise, school children who undervalue the sex photo long-term private benefit of education say later in life: ‘If only I had worked harder at school, I would now have a better, more enjoyable job with more pay. ’ 4Property rights in a market-based economy stem from the notion that an individual owns land or a good and can exclude other members of society from essay entering the land or using the good, unless they are willing to essays, pay for the privilege. 5Regulatory capture is the notion that a firm can exert undue influence over a government agency charged with regulating the market in sample, which it operates. This can take the form of essays, excessive hospitality, persistent lobbying, aggressive pressure backed up with litigation and, in the extreme, bribery.
This results in the regulator becoming either too friendly or too scared of the firm to fairly regulate its conduct in the marketplace; hence the term ‘regulatory capture’. 6A cartel is generally illegal because it is an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice which protects inefficient firms, raises costs and discourages improvements in dynamic efficiency. As a result of the principle of subsidiarity, UK and EU competition authorities work together. EU policy over-arches UK policy when an EU-wide dimension is involved in relation to monopolies, mergers and trading restrictive practices. If the issue is on my best, strictly national, relating only to essays, the UK, the EU leaves policy implementation to essay on my best for girls, the UK competition authorities. See also the answer to Topic 3 essay question 03 on pages 15–16 of these answers. 7In 2008 and 2009 many banks in many countries, including the UK, were close to collapse. Sex Photo Essays! Some banks did collapse, such as Lehman Brothers in the USA. Banks faced the danger of possible collapse as a result of an unexpected fall in the value of their assets, stemming from the credit crunch and the sub-prime mortgage problem, which particularly affected US banks. The assets owned by the banks were now much less than their liabilities.
Banks make money by lending out much greater sums than they receive as deposits from customers. Providing customers with deposits in reduction research paper, a bank believe that their deposits are safe and can be paid back on demand, the bank is almost completely safe, with a minimal chance of it collapsing. Essays! However, in 2008 and 2009, customers began to withdraw their deposits from banks, leading to a fear of a run on the banks, followed by possible bank collapse. With many industries, government ministers nowadays take the view that failing businesses should be allowed to collapse. However, this is not generally their view with regard to banks. Politicians fear a domino effect in which the collapse of one bank leads to a string of collapses in other banks. This fear, let alone actual collapse, can have a devastating effect on history essay confidence in the economy, which may in sex photo essays, turn lead to a collapse in aggregate demand and rujukan dalam resume the creation of sex photo essays, recessionary conditions.
Government ministers also realise the crucial role of banks in providing liquidity to both households and essay friend for girls firms. When the essays banking system froze in 2007–08, firms found they were unable to borrow from banks. As a result, the cash supply to resume, perfectly well-run firms dried up and some of them went out of sex photo, business. All this helps to explain why the British government bought up a majority shareholding in the Northern Rock bank, RBS and HBOS, to enable these banks to continue trading. It was hoped that state ownership would secure the supply of loans both to business customers and to mortgagees, though this hope was only partially met. On My Friend! At the time of effective nationalisation, the sex photo essays UK government stated that the nationalised banks would be returned to the private sector as soon as possible. Part of the Northern Rock bank — the so-called ‘good bank’ but not the ‘bad bank’ element which is still state-owned — has been returned to the private sector, rebranded as a part of essay best for girls, Virgin Money. 8As the sex photo essays answer to question 7 mentions, part of the Northern Rock bank (which had been nationalised in 2008) was privatised in 2011. Many years earlier, British Telecommunications (BT), previously a nationalised firm since it was hived off from the Royal Mail, was privatised when the business was converted into a public limited company (PLC) whose shares were sold to the general public in terrace at night essay, three tranches, in 1984, 1991 and 1993.
An example of deregulation was a change in sex photo, the law to brain thesis, allow building societies to sex photo, compete with banks when granting loans to customers. Based Thesis! 9In terms of income, equality means that everyone receives exactly the sex photo same income. Equity relates to whether the distribution of van gogh cafe at night, income between different people is fair or just. Equality is thus a positive concept, since people’s incomes can be measured to see if they are exactly equal. Equity, by contrast, is normative since it depends on people’s value judgements as to what is essays, fair or just. 0In the poverty trap, also known as the earnings trap, low-waged people who pay income tax and national insurance contributions (NICs) to the government and history essay who lose welfare benefits, become trapped in relative poverty when their wages rise. The unemployment trap is closely related to the poverty trap, since both affect the poor and result from the nature of the tax and benefit systems. But people caught in the unemployment trap are out of work — at least in essays, terms of officially declared employment.
The unemployment trap contains un-waged social security claimants who ‘choose’ unemployment because they are better off out of work, living on benefits, than in low-paid jobs paying income tax and NICs and losing some or all of their right to claim means-tested benefits. 1Fuel poverty is defined as existing among households who spend more than 10% of their income on fuel. In July 2011, the resume UK government reported that more than a fifth of all households in the UK were affected by fuel poverty in 2009. Sex Photo! Higher fuel bills meant the number of homes affected rose by one million, or 22%, to 5. 5 million, according to the Department of Energy and Climate Change. Exam-style answers (data response) The impact of climate change on the UK economy 01Asian countries emitted 0. 9 billion tonnes of carbon pollutants in 1990. This is forecast to rise to 5. 1 billion tonnes in 2050, an increase of 4. 2 billion tonnes. This is a forecast increase of van gogh cafe terrace essay, 467%. One significant feature of the data is that, after 2010, the carbon emissions of emerging market countries is expected to sex photo essays, continue to rise, whereas the dalam resume rate of increase of the emissions of richer advanced countries (OECD countries) is expected to slow down (flatten), though not to fall. After 2010, the carbon emissions of non-Asian emerging market countries are expected to rise from about 1 billion tonnes to about 2. Sex Photo Essays! 7 billion tonnes.
OECD emissions are expected to rise from about 3. 5 billion tonnes to about 3. 7 billion tonnes over based the same period. Although this is an excellent answer, earning all 5 of the available marks, it is worth reminding you of circumstances in which candidates drop marks unnecessarily when answering this type of question. First, candidates often fail to read the data carefully and end up quoting numbers that are too far different from those in sex photo essays, the Extract. Second, even when the numbers quoted are accurate, candidates fail to include units of measurement (billion tonnes for both parts of this question, and sample a % sign for the % change in the first part of the answer). Third, in the answer to the second part of the question, it is vital to select a significant feature of the data rather than an insignificant feature. 02A public good, such as national defence, possesses the twin characteristics of sex photo, non-excludability and non-rivalry. History Essay! Non-excludability means that if the good is provided to one person it is provided to all.
It is impossible to exclude free-riders, i. e. eople who get the benefits without paying for the public good. Non-rivalry means that when one person benefits from the sex photo essays good, it does not reduce the quantity of the good available for other people. Cost Research! The gases and pollutants that are emitted into the atmosphere and sex photo essays lead to global warming are both externalities and a form of history essay, public ‘bad’. (A public ‘bad’ is the opposite of a public good. People are generally prepared to sex photo essays, pay for the removal of a ‘bad’, to avoid the unpleasantness otherwise experienced. But in the case of public ‘bads’, such as rubbish or garbage, payment can be avoided by dalam dumping the ‘bad’ in a public place, or on someone else’s property. Because of this, polluting gases are also externalities discharged in the course of production and consumption, for essays, example by terrace power stations and sex photo motorists. The unwilling victims of global warming cannot opt out of being adversely affected by the pollutants and they cannot charge a price which the history essay polluter must pay for the emissions discharged into the atmosphere. Taxation and regulation can in principle reduce that rate at which global warming is sex photo, taking place. However, as Extract B explains, the emission of global-warming gases is different from the van gogh cafe terrace emission of sex photo, many other negative externalities, for example traffic congestion. In the first place, the van gogh terrace emission is international.
No one country acting on its own can prevent other countries from sex photo continuing to emit gases. In the second place, the problem is historical. The atmosphere is continuing to warm up as a result of reduction research, emissions which have occurred in the past, indeed since the beginning of the industrial revolution about two centuries ago. It may be impossible to sex photo essays, stop continuing global warming simply by ending any further gas emissions, because pollutants already in the atmosphere will continue to brain thesis, contribute to global warming. And with the rapid growth of the world’s population, it is probably impossible to keep emissions at their current level, let alone to essays, reduce or to rujukan dalam resume, stop them.
This is a well-balanced answer, easily earning maximum marks — 4 marks for the snappy explanation of the sex photo essays meaning of best, a public good and 6 marks for sex photo essays, the subsequent analysis of the thesis issue posed by the question. It is sex photo essays, important to remember that only the final parts of context data-response questions and essay questions test the skill of evaluation. Evaluation is not required in rujukan, the answers to earlier sections of the questions, including this part. Do not be misled by sex photo the word whether, which you may think implies that answers should include some evaluation. This is not the case. 03Extract C lists a number of van gogh at night, benefits and costs that the UK economy may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change. The first of these is flash flooding. This will exclusively have adverse effects, for example the destruction of property, agricultural land, crops and animals, and the loss of human life.
The second is a decrease in heating bills. If this occurs it will benefit every UK household, though as Extract C states, the benefits are likely to sex photo essays, be offset by the increased use of energy to provide the power for air-conditioning systems which will grow in use if the climate becomes stiflingly hot in summer. The extract goes on to mention that ‘with fossil fuels becoming scarcer, the need to history essay, find more environmentally friendly methods of producing energy, such as solar, wind and water power, or geothermal energy, will become ever more pressing’. It is sex photo essays, possible to take issue with this prediction, on the ground that it is now out of date. In one important way, fossil fuels are not becoming scarcer. Vast quantities of shale gas lie beneath the brain based thesis earth’s crust and the technology now exists to extract and use this quite recently discovered source of fossil fuel. Methane extracted from shale gas may soon be used in place of the diminishing conventional supplies of natural gas. Shale gas can be extracted at sex photo essays an economic cost, and it will be used for home-heating, to replace petrol and diesel fuel, and for the provision of electricity. But is this a benefit or a cost?
It is certainly a benefit in van gogh cafe, that it will enable economic growth to essays, continue and standards of living to rise throughout the world. But it must always be remembered that shale gas is a fossil fuel. Its use will allow global warming to continue, perhaps at an even faster rate than currently or in the past, with all the possible adverse effects on economies and on human life that have been predicted. Its growing use may also help to bankrupt renewable energy industries, particularly wind energy. If this is so, shale gas will bring to a stop, or at least slow down, attempts to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. Air temperature rising by 5°C may spell disaster for human-kind and rujukan resume life as we know it on essays planet earth. Extract C mentions a number of other ways in brain based, which climate change may have an impact on the UK economy. These include the decline of ski resorts in Scotland, the growth of essays, hotel resorts in the south of the UK, and the effects on clothing sales, everyday food purchases, the construction industry, the types of crops grown in the UK, agricultural methods of production, and on how water is used and stored. However, in my view, all of these are relatively innocuous and van gogh cafe terrace at night are changes to which efficient markets, backed up by sensible government policy, can adapt. In conclusion, at the risk of being extremely pessimistic, I wish to sex photo essays, return to the argument made in the previous paragraph.
Again in my view, the costs which the UK economy (and indeed most other world economies) may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change are likely to be far greater, at least in the long run, than any likely benefits. Global warming will almost certainly increase air temperatures to a level at which human life as we have known it cannot continue. It may shift ocean currents in reduction research, the North Atlantic so as to make the UK climate significantly colder, despite warming elsewhere in the world. Water shortages, if not occurring in sex photo essays, the UK, may lead to attempted mass migration of people from poor to rich countries and to wars which destroy economic activity as countries fight over water and other resources and fight against inward migration of people trying to escape growing poverty and best for girls seeking a better life for themselves. Sex Photo Essays! The UK is likely to suffer directly or indirectly from all these results of climate change. This answer scores 16 out of 25 marks and is placed at the top of level 3 (10–16 marks). Although the candidate evaluates throughout the answer, and also in a concluding paragraph, the force of the evaluation is weakened because evaluation is not preceded by strong enough analysis.
The analysis should have focused on friend for girls diagrams showing the negative and positive externalities produced by global warming. The candidate draws on the prompts in the Extracts, but fails to analyse the implications of the prompts sufficiently. Essays! The answer veers on the side of rujukan, being too superficial. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently sound to merit the top of sex photo, level 3 and could possibly creep into dalam resume the bottom of level 4. Essays! The grade descriptor for level 3 is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of history essay, theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 3 |Satisfactory but some |Reasonable application to |Reasonably clear but may not|Superficial, perhaps with | |10–16 marks |weaknesses shown |issues |be fully developed and is |some attempt to consider | |(mid-point 13) | |Where appropriate, |perhaps confused in places |both sides of the issue(s) | | | |reasonable use of sex photo essays, data to |with a few errors present | | |Reasonable including some | |support answer |The answer is history essay, quite well | | |correct analysis but very | | |organised with some logical | | |limited evaluation | | |development | |
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D-Day or Operation Overlord, June 6, 1944. As dawn broke on June 6, 1944, the Allied invasion fleet became visible crossing the choppy waters of the English Channel to France. None of those who took part in D-Day, whether soldier, sailor, or airman, would ever forget the sight. It was by far the largest amphibious invasion force ever known, with more than 5,000 ships carrying 175,000 troops. The view from the air was breathtaking. Many pilots said later that the essays sea was packed so full of ships that it almost looked as if you could walk to resume, France. The air support plan included more than 6,000 aircraft, with transports dropping three airborne divisions, heavy and medium bombers attacking beach defences, and other squadrons on deception operations. Typhoon and P-47 Thunderbolt fighter-bombers would roam inland, ready to attack German reinforcements coming to help defend the coast. Layered screens of Allied fighters between the Parisian region and the Normandy beaches would ensure that German aircraft never reached the invasion area in daylight. And anti-submarine patrols of Sunderlands and essays B-24 Liberators had already started to patrol every map-square of the sea between southern Ireland and Brittany.
To the great embarrassment of Grand Admiral Doenitz, not a single German U-boat got through to van gogh cafe terrace essay, the Channel. In fact one Canadian pilot broke all records by sinking two German submarines in sex photo essays, the Bay of reduction research paper, Biscay within twenty-two minutes. The fact that the invasion fleet had sailed at sex photo, all on sample the night of June 5 was almost a miracle in itself. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Allied supreme commander, had faced a terrible dilemma. On June 2 his meteorologists had warned of essays, a bad storm. The invasion was put back by dalam twenty-four hours in a desperate hope that conditions might improve. Sex Photo. Eisenhower knew that a major postponement of two weeks until tides were again favorable could well prove disastrous. To disembark all those soldiers from their landing ships and then re-embark them later would have been very bad for morale, and the Germans might well have discovered the Allied plan. Told that there might be a break in the bad weather on June 6, Eisenhower assumed the reduction paper huge responsibility of his position and sex photo decided to go. Essay Best. General Miles Dempsey, who commanded the Second British Army in the invading force said later that Eisenhower’s decision was the bravest act of the whole war. It is easy for us to look back and think that D-Day was bound to succeed, but it could have been a disaster.
Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy, was an essays, intensely emotional event for all the research Allies—Americans, British, Canadians, and men from essays, thirty different countries, many of which had, like France, been occupied for the previous four years by the German Wehrmacht after its devastating victories in 1940. For the French, this moment of setting out to help liberate their homeland was especially poignant. For the British, it marked their return at last to essay on my best friend, the continent of Europe after the bitterness of their evacuation from Dunkirk. For American soldiers, the invasion represented a moment of selfless duty. The United States was once more coming to the rescue of essays, war-torn Europe, this time oppressed by the Nazi regime. All they could console themselves with was the idea that the sooner they helped win the war, the sooner they could go home to their families—assuming they survived. The pre-battle tension for essay best, everyone was considerable.
Keith Douglas, one of the great soldier poets of the Second World War, who was killed in Normandy a few days later, wrote the essays following lines shortly before D-Day: Actors waiting in the wings of Europe. we already watch the lights on the stage. and listen to the colossal overture begin. For us entering at the height of the din. it will be hard to hear our thoughts, hard to gauge. how much our conduct owes to fear or fury.
The overture was indeed colossal, whether from US Navy and Royal Navy battleships firing huge shells that screamed “like freight cars” over the heads of the cost reduction research paper soldiers packed into landing craft, or bombers coming in from the sea to smash the German defensive positions and barbed wire. Other bomber groups inland smashed French towns to essays, block the routes by which German reinforcements would arrive. French civilians in Normandy suffered terribly. Fifteen thousand were killed in the lead-up to D-Day, and van gogh cafe another 20,000 were to die during the fighting. Altogether some 75,000 French civilians were killed in the war by British and American bombing and artillery, an even higher figure than the sex photo 69,000 British killed by the German air force. Media. It is a terrible irony that the sex photo armed forces from democracies ended up killing so many civilians because their commanders felt forced by sample resume the pressure of public opinion at home to reduce their own casualties as much as possible.
Preceded by flotillas of minesweepers, the invasion fleet headed for five long beaches on the Normandy coastline. They were codenamed Sword, Juno, and Gold (where two British and sex photo one Canadian division were landing), and Omaha and Utah (where the leading battalions of three American divisions were headed). The task of the US 4th Infantry Division landing at Utah at the base of the rujukan dalam Cotentin Peninsula, was to head inland to meet up with the essays paratroopers of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions who had been dropped during the night. History Essay. Heavily weighed down by arms and ammunition, some had drowned in essays, flooded areas. Others landed on German positions and were massacred before they had a chance to fight back. A number were killed while they hung helplessly from parachutes caught on trees or on history essay rooftops. But although widely scattered in the chaotic drops, most of them survived to join up in improvised groups and cause terror among the German defenders, who thought they were everywhere. They were reinforced by more airborne troops flown over in large gliders towed by transport aircraft.
It was a frightening journey for sex photo essays, even the bravest men, knowing that many would be badly injured or killed on crash landing. The objective for the American 1st and 29th Infantry Divisions was Omaha Beach, a long, gently curving stretch of coastline. Approached from the sea, the beach ended on the right with massive cliffs. History Essay. Four miles farther around to the west was the Pointe du Hoc promontory. This was where a battalion of US Rangers had to scale a sheer cliff to sex photo essays, silence a German battery. The first landing craft set off from reduction paper, their mother ships at 0520 hours. They had over sex photo essays an hour’s journey in heavy seas to land on the beach at H-hour (the time the sample attack was to begin). The larger ships were anchored at least ten miles offshore, out of range of German coastal guns. During the long and tumultuous crossing, a dozen of the landing craft were swamped or capsized. The bomber formations appeared at 0605 hours. They flew in from the sea to reduce their vulnerability to flak over the target area, rather than following the line of the coast.
As they reached the beaches, their crews delayed an extra few seconds before releasing their bomb loads to avoid hitting any landing craft approaching the beach. As a result all the essays ground commanders’ hopes that the air force would destroy barbed-wire entanglements, minefields, and some of the cafe terrace essay defensive positions were utterly dashed. In the thirty minutes preceding H-hour, the essays B-24 Liberators and B-17 Fortresses dropped 13,000 bombs, but none fell on the beach. “The Air Corps might just as well have stayed home in bed for all the good that their bombing concentration did,” one officer in on my best for girls, the 1st Division observed angrily later. To compound the problem, the forty minutes allowed for the naval bombardment proved far too short to deal with the beach defences. At a given moment, the essays landing craft, which had been circling offshore to await H-hour, headed in toward land. The absence of fire from the shore aroused hopes that the warships and air force had done their work as planned. Reduction. The infantrymen were so tightly wedged that few could see much over the helmets in front of them and the tall landing ramp at sex photo, the front. The assault craft were still “bucking like an unbroken horse,” so many just shut their eyes against the queasy sensation of motion sickness.
By then the landing craft “reeked of vomit.” Because of the reduction research paper smoke and dust thrown up by the shelling, the coxswains had trouble recognizing any landmarks. “Soon we became conscious of pinking noises near us,” wrote a US Navy lieutenant, “and when a couple of essays, men toppled to the deck, we became conscious of the fact that we were being fired at with real bullets, by a very much alive enemy.” When the ramps were dropped, the German machine gunners concentrated their fire on the opening. “Men were tumbling just like corn cobs off of a conveyor belt,” wrote a sergeant from Wisconsin. In all too many cases, the cost reduction research paper landing craft had come to a halt on a sandbar short of the beach. The water appeared shallow, but ahead there were deep runnels. The craft were still bucking with the waves, and “if you slipped under the metal ramp you would be killed as it crashed down.” In some places men leaped off and found the water over their heads. In desperation, they dropped their weapons and wriggled out of their equipment to sex photo, survive. Some of dalam resume, those behind, seeing their buddies floundering under the weight of their equipment, panicked. “There were dead men floating in the water and there were live men acting dead, letting the sex photo essays tide take them in.” The prospect of crossing the dalam resume stretch of beach in front of them seemed impossible. Any idea of trying to run through the sex photo essays shallows, carrying heavy equipment and in sodden clothes and boots seemed like a bad dream in which limbs felt leaden and numb. Overburdened soldiers stood little chance.
There were cries in cost, all directions: “I’m hit! I’m hit!” With many of sex photo, their officers and noncoms among the first casualties, soldiers recovering from the shock of friend, their reception realized that they had to get across the beach, if only to essays, survive. A soldier from Minnesota in the 1st Division wrote home later describing how he had dashed forward in thirty-yard sprints. “I’ve never in all my life prayed so much.” He looked back at the remnants of his squad. “It was awful. Sample. People dying all over the place—the wounded unable to sex photo, move and being drowned by history essay the incoming tide and sex photo boats burning madly as succeeding waves tried to get in. Thesis. . Sex Photo. . . I’ve never seen so many brave men who did so much—many would go way back and brain based thesis try to gather in the wounded and themselves got killed.” Those who had made it were not even able to help with covering fire. “At least 80% of our weapons did not work because of sand and sex photo essays sea water.” In their desire to brain, be able to fire back as soon as they landed, most soldiers had made the mistake of stripping the waterproof covering from their guns before reaching the shore. Almost all the radios failed to work as a result of sex photo essays, seawater, and this contributed greatly to the chaos. An artillery officer described the brain based soldiers he saw. “They were beat up and shocked. Sex Photo. Many of them had forgotten that they had firearms to use.” It was hardly surprising that they were dazed. A number were barely out of high school, and this disastrous baptism of fire produced psychological trauma. Battalion and essay best for girls company officers ordered their men to sex photo, clean their rifles.
Those who had lost their weapons took them off the essay on my friend for girls dead. More senior officers arriving with their headquarter groups were to essays, provide the leadership critically needed at this time. They forced the men, once they had cleaned their weapons, to start breaking through the wire and minefields onto the bluffs behind to attack the German positions. In this way, Omaha Beach, which so easily could have been the scene of a terrible catastrophe, was transformed into a hard-won American victory. Once the Allies were securely ashore, they were bound to prevail with their overwhelming superiority in on my best friend, air power and artillery.
German plans for sex photo, a massive tank counter-attack against the British Second Army on rujukan resume the eastern side came to nothing when the Germans were hammered by the heavy guns of the US Navy and the Royal Navy off the coast. But the success of D-Day was not enough. Sex Photo Essays. American, British, and Canadian troops faced another two-and-a-half months of vicious fighting ahead in the Norman countryside before the German forces were ground down. Normandy was martyred in its suffering, but this terrible concentration of fighting at least saved Paris and the rest of the van gogh terrace essay country from destruction. Essays. Every year on the anniversary of D-Day, Allied veterans are welcomed back in memory of based, their comrades’ sacrifice.
Antony Beevor served as a regular officer in sex photo essays, the 11th Hussars in Germany. He is the author of Crete: The Battle and the Resistance , which won a Runciman Prize; Paris after the Liberation, 1944–1949 (written with his wife, Artemis Cooper); Stalingrad , which won the Samuel Johnson Prize, the on my friend Wolfson Prize for History, and the Hawthornden Prize for Literature; Berlin: The Downfall , which received the first Longman–History Today Award; The Battle for Spain ; and, most recently, D-Day , which received the RUSI Westminster Medal. His books have appeared in thirty languages and sold just over sex photo five million copies. A former chairman of the Society of Authors, he has received honorary doctorates from the history essay Universities of Kent and essays Bath and is a visiting professor at Birkbeck College and the University of essay, Kent. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for sex photo essays, History. Please click here to login and best friend for girls access this page. Click here to get a free subscription if you are a K-12 educator or student, and here for more information on the Affiliate School Program, which provides even more benefits.
Otherwise, click here for information on a paid subscription for those who are not K-12 educators or students. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Become an Affiliate School to have free access to the Gilder Lehrman site and sex photo all its features. Click here to start your Affiliate School application today! You will have free access while your application is being processed. Individual K-12 educators and students can also get a free subscription to the site by making a site account with a school-affiliated email address. Dalam Resume. Click here to do so now! Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Your subscription grants you access to archives of rare historical documents, lectures by top historians, and sex photo essays a wealth of original historical material, while also helping to support history education in schools nationwide. Click here to see the kinds of historical resources to which you'll have access and here to read more about the Institute's educational programs. Click here to sign up for an individual subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site.
Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for history essay, History. We're sorry, but it looks as though you do not have access to the full Gilder Lehrman site. All K-12 educators receive free subscriptions to the Gilder Lehrman site, and our Affiliate School members gain even more benefits! Not a educator or student? Click here for more information on purchasing a subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site. Teaching Resource: Essential Questions in Teaching American History Essay: Every Citizen a Soldier: World War II Posters on the American Home Front Primary Source: Japan declares war, 1941 Primary Source: Physicists predict a nuclear arms race, 1945 Multimedia: War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence from American Wars Essay: Advice (Not Taken) for the French Revolution from America Teaching Resource: American Music Goes to War Interactive: Battlelines: Letters from America’s Wars Multimedia: Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II Video Series: Essential Questions in American History.
This Omaha Beach doc works well in the Perspectives overview of war. Use with Jennifer Keene#039;s essay on How War Shaped the 20th C Learned how to sex photo essays, save documents to my file, using this document as an example (GL seminar 06/12).