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Short essay on a visit to a market place. Harvard Online! A market place is the place spread out in a specific area, where a variety of goods of daily requirements are available for purchase by customers. There are an umpteen number of markets all they catering to the daily requirements of the public, and essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, they are placed close to residential areas for the convenience of the customers. I had heard a lot about a market called Chandni Chowk in Old Delhi but had never seen it. Once this year, in the month of October, on the occasion of my sister's marriage, when my mother was going to Chandni Chowk for shopping I insisted that I would also like to accompany her. My mother and harvard university dissertations, even my sister tried their best to essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, dissuade me from going but, I insisted. They even told me that there would be too much crowd and that a child of my size may get suffocated there. However, I heard none of their comments and pleas but insisted on accompanying them. We started on harvard dissertations online our journey from Vasant Kunj and even when we were just half way through, my patience gave way as, the distance was forbidding. Nothing could be done in the matter now, and I had to observation, keep quiet as, I had myself put the suggestion and locked a noose round my neck.
After about university dissertations online one and a half hours on the road we finally reached the much talked of essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study market - Chandni Chowk - the biggest and harvard dissertations, oldest market of Delhi. What I saw in this market in braveheart, the first place was a sea of university dissertations online men rushing up and down everywhere on all the essays roads. It appeared as though all the people were just rushing to some very important mission to and fro on the roads. The sight of the harvard crowd the sample observation one of the like I had never seen before just frightened me out of my wits, and, I already started. Harvard University Online! wondering why I opted to come here. As we proceeded towards the sample essay shops yes, I was really impressed. There, all, yes all items of consumer needs could be seen in plenty but all the shops were just too crowded. Since we had gone there for shopping for my sister marriage we also had to wade through the crowd and do our work. Harvard Dissertations! First, we went to a jewelry shop. The sight of that long road full of jeweler shops on both sides of the road took me by surprise.
I had never imagined that, such an expensive item like jewelry was also available in essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, dozens of online shops and, each shop was crowded with customers. I came to know that, this road dotted with shops of jewelry was called Dariba Kalan, and all the shops here were decades old. Here we sat for essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, almost an harvard university dissertations hour in the shop where Mummy had ordered some items and thus for a while, got some relief from the pushing and jostling on the crowded roads. After our work here, I was once again a bit fresh and now we moved to saree shops where we had to make bulk purchases for my sister and gifting to friends and relatives. Oh my God what a shock awaited me here.
So many narrow lanes were emerging from the main road and sample essay, leading to huge saree shops with stocks of thousands of sarees. Sarees of golden work called zari were just glittering in those tiny shops. Here in dissertations online, these lanes I think we spent nearly three hours peeping into one shop and then another, and critical thinking, making selections of sarees. This part of the harvard university online market was not even visible from the observation main road but, it appeared to be an important business centre having brisk sales. Harvard! I was absolutely dazed to braveheart, see huge stocks piled up in each of these tiny shops. All salesmen in each and every shop were busy catching customers. I noticed that, most women would come to a shop, see a few sarees and just go away, while some others were making purchases of thousands of. rupees. The sale was rather brisk considering that the items bought were far too expensive. Seeing the fast movement of customers in and out harvard university online of the shops, I asked one of the persuasive essays on school shopkeepers if this was the situation prevailing every day. To this, the reply was the university dissertations obvious one that, these days the sale is more than usual because this period of the year was the marriage season, and the festival season is also round the corner. This reasoning did convince me to some extent but I still continued to wonder how much crowd there could be daily.
This I thought because I am told that this market is forever congested, all the year round, only becoming unmanageably crowded on occasions like marriages and festivals. After having bought a lot of sarees, I don't know how many, we finally got up from the shop to get out - and believe me, we forget our way out, and got lost in those tiny congested lanes and persuasive essays on school lunch, by-lanes. Finally we had to ask someone to guide us to the main road. Here on harvard university the main road we again saw a row of big shops of all kinds of items, and all full to essay, the brim. Next we were told that, there are several other markets branching out from this main road of Chandi Chowk. All these other roads specialise in special items and are wholesale dealers. The entire lot of these markets branching off from the main road of Chandni Chowk is all together called Chandi Chowk.
Special shops for clothes, stationery, grains etc. Harvard! are offshoots of this main road. Since we had no other work, now we went out to essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, the car, which again was a long walk through a crowd. This visit to Chandni Chowk has been my first experience. The wading slowly through thick crowds, the shops full of items of daily consumption, the different markets for different items did impress me. Though it was a tiring day but a wonderful shopping experience. This was my most interesting visit to a market of repute in Delhi. Preserve Articles is harvard university dissertations home of thousands of articles published and thinking, preserved by users like you.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ernst Cassirer was the harvard university, most prominent, and the last, Neo-Kantian philosopher of the twentieth century. His major philosophical contribution was the resume one, transformation of his teacher Hermann Cohen’s mathematical-logical adaptation of Kant’s transcendental idealism into university dissertations online, a comprehensive philosophy of symbolic forms intended to address all aspects of human cultural life and essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, creativity. Harvard University Online? In doing so, Cassirer paid equal attention to both sides of the traditional Neo-Kantian division between the Geisteswissenschaften and resume career, Naturwissenschaften, that is, between the social sciences and the natural sciences. This is expressed most systematically in his masterwork, the multi-volume Philosophie der symbolischen Formen (1923-9). Here Cassirer marshaled the widest learning of human cultural expression—in myth, religion, language, philosophy, history, art, and science—for the sake of completing and correcting Kant’s transcendental program. The human being, for Cassirer, is not simply the rational animal, but the animal whose experience with and reaction to the world is harvard governed by symbolic relations. Cassirer was a quintessential humanistic liberal, believing freedom of rational expression to be coextensive with liberation. Cassirer was also the twentieth century’s greatest embodiment of the Enlightenment ideal of comprehensive learning, having written widely-acclaimed histories of the persuasive essays lunch, ideas of science, historiography, mathematics, mythology, political theory, and philosophy. Though cordial with both Moritz Schlick and Martin Heidegger, Cassirer’s popularity was eclipsed by the simultaneous rise of harvard university dissertations online, logical positivism in the English-speaking world and of phenomenology on anchoring steven essay the European continent. His professional career was the victim, too, of the political events surrounding the ascendency of Nazism in German academies.
Ernst Cassirer was born in 1874, the son of the established Jewish merchant Eduard Cassirer, in the former German city of Breslau (modern day Wroclaw, Poland). He matriculated at the University of Berlin in 1892. His father intended that he study law, but Cassirer’s interest in literature and philosophy prevented him from doing so. Sampling various courses at harvard dissertations online the universities at thinking activities for high Leipzig, Munich, and Heidelberg, Cassirer was first exposed to the Neo-Kantian philosophy by the social theorist Georg Simmel in harvard dissertations, Berlin. Persuasive On School? In 1896, Cassirer began his doctoral studies under Herman Cohen at the University of Marburg. Cassirer’s interests at university Marburg ran, as they would always, toward framing Neo-Kantian thought in the wider contexts of historical thinking.
These interests culminated in braveheart, his dissertation, Descartes: Kritik der Matematischen und Naturwissenschaftlichen Erkentniss (1899). Three years later, Cassirer published a similarly historical book on harvard dissertations online Leibniz’ System in seinen wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen (1902). Cassirer was also the editor of persuasive on school lunch, Leibniz’ Philosophische Werke (1906). His focus on the development of modern idealist epistemology and its foundational importance for harvard university online the history of the various natural sciences and mathematics reached its apex in braveheart essay, Cassirer’s three-volume Das Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft der neuren Zeit (1906-1920), for harvard university which he was awarded the Kuno Fischer Medal by the Heidelberg Academy. The first volume, Cassirer’s Habilitationschrift at the University of Berlin (1906), examines the development of epistemology from the anchoring steven, Renaissance through Descartes; the second (1907) continues from modern empiricism through Kant; the third (1920) deals with the development of epistemology after Kant, especially the division between Hegelians and Neo-Kantians up to the mid-twentieth century; and the fourth volume of Das Erkenntnisproblem on contemporary epistemology and science was written in exile in 1940, but only published after the end of the war in 1946. Although his quality as a scholar of harvard university dissertations online, ideas was unquestioned, anti-Jewish sentiment in persuasive essays on school lunch, German universities made finding suitable employment difficult for Cassirer. Only through the personal intervention of Wilhelm Dilthey was Cassirer given a Privatdozent position at the University of Berlin in 1906. Harvard University Dissertations? His writing there was prolific and continued the Neo-Kantian preoccupation with the intersections among epistemology, mathematics, and essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, natural science. Cassirer’s work on, and with, Einstein exemplifies the quality of his contributions to the philosophy of harvard, science: Der Substanzbegriff und der Funktionsbegriff (1910), and sample of a, Zur Einstein’schen Relativitatstheoretische Betrachtung (1921). These works also mark Cassirer’s conviction that an historian of ideas could make a major contribution to the most contemporary problems in every field.
After the First World War, and in the more tolerant Weimar Republic, Cassirer was invited to a chair at the new University of Hamburg in 1919. There, Cassirer came into the cultural circle of Erwin Panofsky and the Warburg Library of the online, Cultural Sciences. Immediately Cassirer was absorbed into the vast cultural-anthropological data collected by the Library, affecting the widest expansion of Neo-Kantian ideas into the previously uncharted philosophical territories of myth, the evolution of language, zoology, primitive cultures, fine art, and essay, music. The acquaintance with the harvard dissertations online, Warburg circle transformed Cassirer from a student of the Marburg School’s analysis of the transcendental conditions of thinking into a philosopher of culture whose inquisitiveness touched nearly all areas of human cultural life. This intersection of Marburg and Warburg was indeed the necessary background of Cassirer’s masterwork, the four-volume Philosophie der symbolischen Formen (1923-1929). In addition to his programmatic work, Cassirer was a major contributor to the history of ideas and the history of science.
In conscious contrast with Hegelian accounts of history, Cassirer does not begin with the assumption of a theory of dialectical progress that would imply the inferiority of essay, earlier stages of historical developments. By starting instead with the authors, cultural products, and historical events themselves, Cassirer instead finds characteristic frames of mind that are defined by the kinds of philosophical questions and responses that frame them, which are in turn constituted by dissertations characteristic forms of rationality. Steven Holl Essay? Among his works at this time, which influenced a generation of historians of ideas from Arthur Lovejoy to Peter Gay are Individuum und Kosmos in der Philosophie der Renaissance (1927); Die Platonische Renaisance in England und die Schule von Cambridge (1932); Philosophie der Aufklarung (1932); Das Problem Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1932); and Descartes: Lehre, Personlichkeit, Wirkung (1939). Cassirer’s philosophy of harvard, science had a similar influence on the historical analyses of Alexander Koyre and, through him, Thomas Kuhn. In 1929, Cassirer was chosen Rektor of the University of Hamburg, making him the first Jewish person to hold that position in Germany. However, even as Cassirer’s star was rising, the braveheart essay, situation for university Jewish academics was deteriorating. With Hitler’s election as Chancellor came the ban on Jews holding academic positions. Cassirer saw the writing on the wall and essay, emigrated with his family in 1933.
He spent two years at Oxford and then six at Goteborg, where he wrote Determinismus und Indeterminismus in der modernen Physik (1936), Descartes: Lehre, Personlichkeit, Wirkung (1939), and Zur Logik der Kulturwissenschaften (1942). In 1931, he wrote the first comprehensive study of the Swedish legal theorist and proto-Analytic philosopher, Axel Hagerstrom. In 1941, Cassirer boarded the last ship the Germans permitted to sail from Sweden to the United States, where he would hold positions at Yale for university two years and then at resume career one Columbia for harvard one. His final books, written in English, were the career-synopsis, An Essay on Man (1944), and his first philosophical foray into contemporary politics, The Myth of the State (1946), published posthumously. Cassirer’s death in thinking activities for high schoolers, New York City on April 13, 1945, preceded that of Hitler and the surrender of Germany by mere weeks. “The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms is not concerned exclusively or even primarily with the purely scientific, exact conceiving of the world; it is harvard concerned with all the forms assumed by man’s understanding of the world” ( Philosophy of Symbolic Forms , vol. III, 13). For Cassirer, Neo-Kantianism was less about doctrinal allegiance than it was about a common commitment to explore the cognitive structures that underlie the variety of human experience.
After the persuasive on school lunch, death of Cohen, Cassirer became increasingly interested in value and culture. Inspired by dissertations the Warburg Library, Cassirer cast his net into an ocean of cultural expression, trying to find the common thread that united the manifold of cultural forms, that is, to move from the steven holl essay, critique of reason to the critique of culture. As to what precisely symbolic forms are, Cassirer offers perhaps his clearest definition in an early lecture at the Warburg Library (1921): By ‘symbolic form’ I mean that energy of the spirit through which a mental meaning-content is dissertations online attached to a sensual sign and inwardly dedicated to this sign. In this sense language, the mythical-religious world, and the arts each present us with a particular symbolic form. For in them all we see the mark of the basic phenomenon, that our consciousness is not satisfied to simply receive impressions from the outside, but rather that it permeates each impression with a free activity of expression. In what we call the objective reality of things we are thus confronted with a world of self-created signs and images. (“Der Begriff der Symbolischen Form im Aufbau der Geisteswissenschaften”) An illustration Cassirer uses is that of the curved line on a flat plane. To the geometer, the line means a quantitative relation between the two dimensions of the plane; to the physicist, the line perhaps means a relation of energy to mass; and to thinking activities schoolers the artist, the line means a relation between light and darkness, shape and contour. Harvard University Dissertations Online? More than simply a reflection of different practical interests, Cassirer believes each of these brings different mental energies to bear in turning the visual sensation of the line into a distinct human experience.
No one of these ways of experiencing is the true one; though they each have their distinctive pragmatic uses within their individual fields. The task of the philosopher is to understand the internal directedness of each of steven essay, these mental energies independently and in relation to the others as the sum total of dissertations online, human mental expression, which is to say, culture. The first two forms Cassirer discusses, in the first two volumes respectively, are language and myth. The third volume of the Philosophy of anchoring steven, Symbolic Forms concerns contemporary advances in epistemology and natural science: “We shall show how the stratum of conceptual, discursive knowledge is grounded in harvard online, those other strata of spiritual life which our analysis of braveheart, language and university online, myth has laid bare; and with constant reference to this substructure we shall attempt to determine the particularity, organization, and architectonics of the steven holl, superstructure – that is, of science” ( Philosophy of Symbolic Forms , vol. III, xiii). Cassirer works historically, tracing the harvard university, problem of sample of a essay, philosophical knowledge through the Ancient Greeks up through the Neo-Kantian tradition. The seemingly endless battle between intuition and conceptualization has been contended in various forms between the originators of university, myths and sample of a observation essay, the earliest theorists of harvard university dissertations online, number, between the Milesians and Eleatics, between the empiricists and rationalists, and again right up to Ernst Mach and Max Planck. Cassirer’s position here is conciliatory: both sides have and will continue to critical schoolers contribute their perspective on harvard online the eternal questions of philosophy insofar as both recognize their efforts as springing from the braveheart, human’s multifaceted and spontaneous creativity—as symbol-forming rather than designating endeavors that in their dialectics, each with the university dissertations online, other side, construct more elaborate and essays lunch, yet universal ways to navigate our world: Physics gains this unity and extension by advancing toward ever more universal symbols.
But in this process it cannot jump over its own shadow. It can and must strive to replace particular concepts and harvard university online, signs with absolutely universal ones. But it can never dispense with the function of concepts and signs as such: this would demand an intellectual representation of the world without the basic instruments of representation. ( Philosophy of Symbolic Forms , vol. III, 479) The fourth volume, The Metaphysics of Symbolic Forms , was published posthumously. Along with other papers left at of a observation the time of his death, the German original is now found in the first volume of Cassirer’s Nachgelassene Manuskripte und Texte , edited by John Michael Krois and harvard online, Oswald Schwemmer in 1995. The English volume, assembled and edited by Donald Philip Verene and John Michael Krois in persuasive essays, 1996, contains two texts from different periods in Cassirer’s writings.
The first, from 1928, deals with human nature rather than metaphysics proper. In agreement with Heidegger, curiously, Cassirer seeks to replace traditional metaphysics with a fundamental study of human nature. Harvard University Online? Much of the thematic discussion of steven holl, this part receives a refined and more complete expression in Cassirer’s 1944 Essay on Man . What is of novel interest here concerns his discussion of harvard dissertations, then contemporary philosophical anthropologists like Dilthey, Bergson, and Simmel and also the Lebensphilosophen , Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche, who otherwise receive short shrift in his work. His critical remarks of these latter thinkers involve their treatment of braveheart, life as a new sort of metaphysics, one marred, however, by the sorts of dogmatism of pre-Kantian metaphysics. The second text in Verene and Krois’s assembled volume comes from 1940, well after the project had been otherwise finished, and its theme is what Cassirer terms “basis phenomena”: phenomena so fundamental that they cannot be derived from university online, anything else.
The main basis phenomena concerns how the tripartite structure of the self’s personal relation to the environment is one mirrored in a tripartite social structure of the “I,” the “you,” and that which binds society: “work.” Not to be confused with the Marxist conception of work, for Cassirer work is anything made or effected, any subjective operation on university dissertations online the objective world. The initial and most fundamental production of work, for thinking activities for high Cassirer, is culture—the sphere in which the “I” and “you” come together in active life. Several objections to Cassirer’s masterwork have been raised. First, the precise identity and number of forms is ambiguous over Cassirer’s corpus. In the lecture from 1921, Cassirer names language, myth-religion, and art as forms, but that number cannot be considered exhaustive. Dissertations? Even in his summatory Essay on Man , consecutive pages maintain different lists: “myth, language, art, religion, history, science” (222) and then “language, myth, art, religion, science” (223); elsewhere science is omitted (63); mathematics is sometimes added; and religion is sometimes considered part of schoolers, mythic thinking. The first two of the four volumes of The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms —on language and myth respectively—would seem to indicate that each volume would treat a specific form. Dissertations? But the latter two volumes break the trend to deal with a host of different forms. Moreover, it is ambiguous how precisely those forms are related. For example, myth is sometimes treated as a primitive form of language and sometimes non-developmentally as an equal correlate.
Arithmetic and geometry are the logic that undergirds the scientific symbolic form, but in essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, no way do they undergird primitive forms of science that have been superseded. Whether the forms are themselves developmental or whether development takes place by university the instantiation of a new form is also left vague. Sample? For example, Cassirer indicates that the move from Euclidean to non-Euclidean geometry involves not just progress but an entirely new system of symbolization. However, myth does not seem to develop itself into anything else other than into something wholly different, that is, representational language. There is, however, a certain necessity to dissertations Cassirer’s imprecision on braveheart these points.
Taken together, the Philosophy of Symbolic Forms is a grand narrative that exposits how various human experiences evolve out online of an originally animalistic and primitive articulation of expressive signs into the complicated and more abstract forms of culture in the twenty-first century. As “energies of the spirit” they cannot be affixed with the kind of rigid architectonic featured in Kant’s transcendental deduction of purely logical forms. Though spontaneous acts of mental energy, symbolic forms are both developmental and pragmatic insofar as they adapt over time to changing environments in response to real human needs, something that resists an overly rigid structuralism. Critical For High Schoolers? Those responses feature a loose sort of internal-logic, but one characterized according to contingent cultural interactions with the world. Therefore, one ought not to expect Cassirer to offer the same logical precision that comes with the typical Neo-Kantian discernment of mental forms insofar as logic is only one form among many cultural relations with life. Cassirer’s late Essay on Man (1944) expresses neatly his lifelong attempt to combine his Neo-Kantian view of the actively-constituting subject with his Warburgian appreciation for the diversity of human culture. Here, as ever, Cassirer begins with the history of views up into his present time, culminating in the presentation of harvard university dissertations online, a definitive scientific thesis that he would then proceed to refute. Career? Johannes von Uexkull’s Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere (1909) argued that evolutionary biology has taken too far the view that animal parts and functions develop as a response to environmental factors.
In its place Uexkull offers the “functional circle” of animal activity, which identifies the interaction of distinct receptor and effector systems. Animals are not simply reacting to the environment as it presents itself in sensory stimuli. They adapt themselves, consciously and unconsciously, to their environments, sometimes with clear signs of intelligence and insight. Different animals use diverse and sometimes highly complex systems of signals to better respond and manipulate their environments to their advantage. Dogs, for harvard university online example, are adroit at reading signals in body language, vocal tones, and even hormone changes while being remarkably effective in expressing a complex range of immediate inner states in terms of the vocalized pitch of essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, their whimpers, grunts, or barks, as well as the bends of their tails, or the posture of their spines.
In Pavlov’s famous experiments, dogs were conditioned to react both to university the immediate signals of career, meat—its visual appearance and smell—and also to mediate signals, like a ringing bell, to the same effect. Cassirer thinks this theory makes good sense of the animal world as a corrective to a too-simple version of evolution, but doubts this can be applied to humans. Harvard University Online? Over and above the signals received and expressed by animals, human beings evolved to braveheart use symbols to university online make their world meaningful. Sample Essay? The same ringing of the harvard university online, bell would not be considered by man a physical signal so much as a symbol whose meaning transcends its real, concrete stimulation. For man, a bell does not indicate simply that food is coming, but induces him to wonder why that bell might indicate food, or perhaps whether an exam is over, or the persuasive essays on school, fulfillment of a sacrament, or that someone is on the telephone. None of those symbols would lead necessarily to a response in the way the conditioned dog salivates at the bell.
They instead prompt a range of freely creative responses in harvard university, human knowers within distinct spheres of meaning: Symbols—in the proper sense of this term—cannot be reduced to lunch mere signals. Harvard University? Signals and resume, symbols belong to two different universes of discourse: a signal is a part of the physical world of being; a symbol is a part of the human world of meaning. University Online? Signals are ‘operators’; symbols are ‘designators’. Signals, even when understood and used as such, have nevertheless a sort of physical or substantial being; symbols have only a functional value. ( Essay on Man 32) Between the steven, straightforward reception of harvard, physical stimuli and the expression of an inner world lies, for Cassirer, the symbolic system: “This new acquisition transforms the whole of human life. As compared with the other animals man lives not merely in a broader reality; he lives, so to speak, in a new dimension of reality” ( Essay on Man 24). That dimension is distinctively Kantian: the a priori forms of space and time.
Animals have little trouble working in three-dimensional space; their optical, tactile, acoustic, and kinesthetic apprehension of spatial distances functions at least as well as it does in humans. But only to the human is the symbol of pure geometrical space meaningful, a universal, non-perceptual, theoretical space that persists without immediate relationship to his or her own interaction with the world: “Geometrical space abstracts from sample of a observation essay, all the variety and heterogeneity imposed upon us by the disparate nature of our senses. Harvard University? Here we have a homogenous, a universal space” ( Essay on Man 45). In terms of time, too, there can be no doubt that higher animals remember past sensations, or that memory affects the manner in which they respond when similar sensations are presented. But in the human person the past is not simply repeated in career, the present, but transformed creatively and university online, constructively in ways that reflect values, regrets, hopes, and so forth,
It is observation essay not enough to pick up isolated data of our past experience; we must really re-collect them, we must organize and university online, synthesize them, and assemble them into a focus of thought. It is this kind of recollection which gives us the characteristic human shape of career one, memory, and distinguishes it from all the university dissertations online, other phenomena in animal or organic life. ( Essay on Man 51) As animals recall pasts and live within sensory space, human beings construct histories and geometries. Both history and geometry, then, are symbolic engagements that render the world meaningful in an irreducibly human fashion. This symbolic dimension of the person carries him or her above the effector-receptor world of environmental facts and subjective responses. He or she lives instead in a world of possibilities, imaginations, fantasy, and dreams. Thinking? However, just as there is a kind of logic to the language of contrary-to-fact conditionals or to the rules of poetic rhythym, so too is there a natural directedness expressed in how human beings construct a world of meaning out of those raw effections and receptions. That directedness cannot, however, be restricted to rational intentionality, though reason is indeed an essential component. In distinction from the Neo-Kantian theories of experience and representation, Cassirer thinks there is a wider network of forms that enable a far richer engagement between subject and object than reason could produce: “Hence, instead of defining man as an animal rationale , we should define him as an animal symbolicum ” ( Essay on harvard dissertations online Man 26). With his definition of man as the critical activities, symbolic animal, Cassirer is in position to reenvision the task of philosophy.
Philosophy is dissertations online much more than the analysis and eventual resolution of a set of linguistic problems, as Wittgenstein would have it, nor is it restricted, as it was for essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study many Neo-Kantians, to transcendentally deducing the logical forms that would ground the natural sciences. Philosophy’s “starting point and its working hypothesis are embodied in the conviction that the varied and seemingly dispersed rays may be gathered together and brought into a common focus ( Essay on Man 222). The functions of the human person are not merely aggregrate, loosely-connected expressions and factual conditions. Philosophy seeks to understand the harvard university dissertations, connections that unite those expressions and conditions as an organic whole. Max Muller was the leading theorist of myth in Cassirer’s day. In the face of Anglophone linguistic analysis, Muller held myth to be the necessary means by which earlier people communicate, one which left a number of traces within more-developed contemporary languages.
What is needed for the proper study of myth, beyond this appreciation of sample observation essay, its utility, is a step by step un-riddling of the university, mythical objects in non-mythical concepts so as to rationally articulate what a myth really means. Sigmund Freud, of course, also considered myth to be a sort of unconscious expression, one that stands as a primitive version of the naturally-occuring expression of subconscious drives. Cassirer considers myth in terms of the Neo-Kantian reflex by first examining the conditions for thinking and then analyzing the objects which are thought. In his Sprache und Mythos (1925), which is activities schoolers a sort of condensed summary of the first two volumes of Philosophy of dissertations online, Symbolic Forms , Cassirer comes to criticize Muller, more so than Freud, for one an unreflective realism about the objects of myth. Harvard Dissertations Online? To say that objects of any sort are what they are independent of their representation is to misunderstand the last century of transcendental epistemology. Steven Holl? Accordingly, to treat myth as a false representation of those objects, one waiting to be “corrected” by harvard online a properly rational representation, is to ignore the wider range of human intellectual power. Naturalizing myths, as Muller and his followers sought to persuasive essays lunch do, does not dissolve an object’s mythical mask so much as transplants it into the foreign soil of an alternative symbolic form: From this point of view all artistic creation becomes a mere imitation, which must always fall short of the original. Not only harvard, simple imitation of a sensibly presented model, but also what is known as idealization, manner, or style, must finally succumb to this verdict; for measured by the naked ‘truth’ of the object to be depicted, idealization is nothing but subjective misconception and falsification.
And it seems that all other processes of mental gestation involve the same sort of outrageous distortion, the same departure from objective reality and the immediate data of on school, experience. ( Language and Myth , trans. Langer , 6) Muller’s view of myth is a symptom of a wider problem. For if myth is akin to art or language in dissertations online, falsifying the world as it really is, then language is limited to merely expressing itself without any claim to truth either: “From this point it is but a single step to the conclusion which the modern skeptical critics of language have drawn: the complete dissolution of any alleged truth content of language, and career one, the realization that this content is nothing but a sort of harvard dissertations online, phantasmagoria of the spirit” ( Language and Myth , trans. Essay? Langer , 7). Cassirer rejects such fictionalism in myth and language both as an appeal to psychologistic measures of truth that fail to see a better alternative in harvard university dissertations, the philosophy of symbolic forms. For Cassirer, myth (and language, discussed below) does reflect reality: the reality of the subject. Accordingly, the study of myth must focus on the mental processes that create myth instead of the presupposed ‘real’ objects of myth: Instead of sample observation, measuring the content, meaning, and truth of intellectual forms by something extraneous which is supposed to be reproduced in them, we must find in these forms themselves the measure and criterion for university online their truth and activities schoolers, intrinsic meaning. Instead of taking them as mere copies of something else, we must see in each of these spiritual forms a spontaneous law of generation; and original way and tendency of harvard online, expression which is more than a mere record of something initially given in fixed categories of real existence. ( Language and Myth , trans. Langer , 8)
The mythic symbol creates its own “world” of meaning distinct from that created by essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study language, mathematics, or science. Dissertations? The question is no longer whether mythic symbols, or any of these other symbolic forms, correspond to persuasive on school reality since it is distinct from that mode of representation, but instead it is dissertations a question on how myths relate to those other forms as limitations and supplementations. No matter how heterogeneous and variegated are the essay, myths that come down to us, they move along definite avenues of feeling and creative thought. An example Cassirer uses to harvard university dissertations illustrate his understanding of myth-making is the Avesta myth of Mithra. Attempts to identify Mithra as the sun-god, and thereby analogize it to the sun-god of the Egyptians, Greeks, and essay, other early people, are misguided insofar as they stem from the attempt to explain away the object of mythical thinking in naturalistic rational terms. Cassirer points out that the analogy doesn’t hold for strictly interpretive reasons: Mithra is said to appear on harvard university dissertations mountain tops before dawn and thinking activities schoolers, is said to illuminate the university online, earth at night as well, and cannot be the mythical analog of the sun. Mithra is not a thing to be naturalized, but evidence of an alternate spiritual energy that fashions symbolic responses to experiential confusions. Of A Observation? What Mithra specifically reflects is a mode of harvard dissertations, thinking as it struggles to make sense of how the qualities of light and darkness result from a single essential unity: the one, cosmos. As historical epochs provide new and self-enclosed worlds of experience, so too does myth evolve in conjunction with the needs of the age as an dissertations expression of overlapping but quite distinct patterns of mental life. Myths are hardly just wild stories with a particular pragmatic lesson. There is a specific mode of perception that imbues mythic thinking with its power to transcend experience.
Similar to Giambattista Vico’s vision of historical epochs, Cassirer views the development of culture out of myth as a narrative of progressively more abstract systems of representation that serve as the foundation for human culture. Like Vico, too, there is continuity between the most elevated systems of theoretical expression of resume career, modern day—namely, religion, philosophy, and above all natural science—and a more primitive mind’s reliance upon myth and magic. However, Cassirer shares more with Enlightenment optimism than with Vico’s pessimistic conviction about the progressive degeneracy of scientific abstraction. The first volume of The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms (1923), on harvard university online language, is guided by essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study the search for epistemological reasons sufficient to explain the university dissertations, origin and development of human speech. Language is neither a nominal nor arbitrary designation of objects, nor, however, does language hold any immediate or essential connection to the object of its designation. The use of a word to designate an object is already caught in a web of intersubjectively-determined meanings which of themselves contain much more than the simple reference. Words are meaningful within experience, and that experience lies, as it did for Kant, as a sort of middle-ground between the pure reception of objects and the autonomous activity of reason to generate forms within which content could be meaningful. In contrast to Kant and the Neo-Kantians, however, those forms cannot be presumed to be identical among all rational agents over the spans of history. Animal language is essentially a language of anchoring holl, emotion, expressions of desires and aversions in response to environmental factors.
Similarly the earliest words uttered by our primitive ancestors were signs to harvard university dissertations online deal with objects, every bit a tool alongside other tools to deal with the primitive’s sensed reality. As the human mind evolved to sample of a observation essay add spatio-temporal intuitions to university dissertations online mere sensation, a representational function overtook the mind’s merely expressive operations. The primitive vocalized report of received sensations became representations of enduring objects within fixed spatial points: “The difference between propositional language and emotional language is the real landmark between the human and the animal world. All the essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, theories and observations concerning animal language are wide of the mark if they fail to recognize that fundamental difference” ( Essay on Man 30). The features of those objects were further abstracted such that from commonalities there emerged a host of types, kinds, and eventually universals, whose meaning allowed for the emergence of mathematics, science, and philosophy. The animal’s emotive signals operate as a practical imagination in a world of harvard university dissertations, immediate experience.
Proper human propositional speech, on the other hand, is already imbued at even its most basic levels with theoretical structures that involve quintessentially spatio-temporal forms linking subjects and holl essay, their objects: “Language has a new task wherever such relationships are signified linguistically, where ‘here’ is distinguished from ‘there,’ where the location of the speaker is university dissertations online distinguished from the one spoken to, or where the greater nearness or distance is rendered by various indicative particles” (“The Problem of the Symbol and its Place in essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, the System of Philosophy” in Luft , 259). University Dissertations Online? The application of dimensionality, and temporality as well, transforms the subjective sensation into an objective representation. Prepositions, participles, subjunctives, conditionals, and the rest, all involve either temporal or spatial prescriptions, and none of them seems to be a feature of animal space. The older animalistic content is not entirely discarded as the same basic desires and emotions are expressed. The means of that expression, however, are formally of an braveheart entirely different character that binds the subject to harvard university online the object in ways supposed to be binding for other rational agents. Observation? Although the interjection “ouch!” expresses pain well enough, and although animals have variously similar yelps and cries, it lacks the representational form of the proposition “I (this one, here and now) am (presently) in pain..” In the uniquely human sphere of ethics, too, the reliance on subjunctive and conditional verbal forms—“I ought not to have done that,” for example—always carries language beyond simple evocations of pleasures and aversions into the symbolic realm of meaningfulness. The Neo-Kantian position on language allows Cassirer to address two contemporary anomalies in linguistic science.
The first is the famous case of Helen Keller, the unfortunate deafblind girl from Alabama, who, with the help of her teacher Anne Sullivan, went on to become a prolific author and social activist. Harvard University Dissertations Online? Sullivan had taught Helen signs by using a series of taps on her hand to correspond to particular sense impressions. Beyond her disabled sensory capacities, Cassirer argued, Helen was unable to cognize in the characteristically human way. One day at a water pump, Sullivan tapped “water” and Helen recognized the disjunction between the various sensations of water (varying temperatures, viscocities, and degrees of pressure) and the “thing” which is universally referred to as such. Persuasive Lunch? That moment opened up for Helen an entire world of names, not as mere expressive signals covering various sensations but as intersubjectively valid objective symbols. This discovery marked her entry into a new, symbolic mode of thinking: “The child had to make a new and much more significant discovery. She had to understand that everything has a name —that the university dissertations online, symbolic function is not restricted to particular cases but is a principle of universal applicability which encompasses the whole field of thinking schoolers, human thought” ( Essay on Man 34f). The second case is the pathology of aphasia.
Similar to harvard dissertations Helen Keller, what had long been thought a deficiency of the senses was revealed by Cassirer to be a cognitive failing. In the case of patients with traumatic injuries to certain areas of the brain, particular classes of speech act became impossible. The mechanical operation of producing the words was not the problem, but an inability to speak objectively about “unreal” conditions: “A patient who was suffering from a hemiplegia, from a paralysis of the right hand, could not, for instance, utter the persuasive essays lunch, words: ‘I can write with my right hand,’ because this was to him the harvard university online, statement of a fact, not of a hypothetical or unreal case” ( Essay on Man 57). These types of aphasiacs were confined to the data provided by their sense impressions and lunch, therefore could not make the crucial symbolic move to theoretical possibility. For Cassirer, this was good evidence that language was neither mere emotional expression nor free-floating propositional content that could be analyzed logically only a posteriori . In addition to these cases of dissertations, abnormal speech pathology, Cassirer’s attention to the evolution of language enabled him to take a much wider view of both the form of utterance and its content than his more famous counterparts among the linguistic analysts. In Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language , for example, the attempt is made to reduce semantic rules to syntax. The expected outcome was a philosophical grammar, a sound and complete system of words in the sort of logical relation that would be universally valid. For Cassirer, however, “human speech has to fulfill not only a universal logical task but also a social task which depends on the specific social conditions of the speaking community.
Hence we cannot expect a real identity, a one-to-one correspondence between grammatical and logical forms” ( Essay on Man 128). Contrary to the early analytical school, language cannot be considered a given thing waiting to be assessed according to independent logical categories, but instead needs to be assessed according to the a priori application of those categories to verbal expressions. Accordingly, the task of the braveheart, philosopher of harvard university dissertations, language must be refocused to account for the diversity and creativity of linguistic dynamics in order to better encapsulate the human rational agent in the fullest possible range of his or her powers. Cassirer was perhaps the last systematic philosopher to have both exhaustive knowledge of the historical development of resume career, each of the individual sciences as well as thorough familiarity with his day’s most important advancements. Substance and Function (1910) could still serve as a primer for the history of major scientific concepts prior to the twenthieth century. The first part examines the concepts of number, space, and university online, a vast array of special problems such as Emil du Bois-Reymond’s “limiting concepts”; Robert Mayer’s methodological advancements in thermo-dynamics; the spatial continuities of atoms in the physics of Roger Boscovich and Gustav Fechner; Galileo’s concept of inertia; Heinrich Hertz’s mechanics; and John Dalton’s law of multiple proportions. Persuasive On School? Each of these is examined with a view toward the epistemological presuppositions that gave rise to those problems and how each scientist’s innovations represented a novel way of posing problems through an application of spatio-temporal concepts. This historical survey allows Cassirer to offer his own contributions to these problems along recognizably Neo-Kantian lines in the second part of university dissertations, Substance and essays, Function . Science cannot be considered a collection of harvard dissertations, empirical facts. Persuasive On School Lunch? Science discovers no absolute qualities but only qualities in relation to university online other qualities within a particular field, such as the concept of mass as the sum of relations with respect to external impulses in motion, or energy as the momentary condition of a given physical system. Concrete sensuous impressions are only transformed into resume, empirical objects by the determination of spatial and temporal form.
The properties of objects, in bringing them into meaningful discourse by means of measurement, are thus mathematized as a field of relations: “The chaos of impressions becomes a system of university, numbers; but these numbers first gain their denomination, and thus their specific meaning, from the system of concepts which are theoretically established as universal standards of lunch, measurement” ( Substance and Function 149). Objects as they stand outside possible experience are not the proper subject matter of university, science, anymore than they are for mathematics. Proper science examines the logical connections among the persuasive on school lunch, spatio-temporal relationships of objects precisely as they are constituted by experience. Abandoning the particular sensuous properties of objects for their logical relations as members of a system refocuses the scientific inquiry on harvard university online how the steven essay, natural world is symbolized by mathematical logic. Science becomes anthropomorphized insofar as whatever content is university dissertations online available to experience will be content that the human being spontaneuosly and creatively renders meaningful: “No content of experience can ever appear as something absolutely strange; for even in career, making it a content of our thought, in setting it in spatial and temporal relations with other contents we have thereby impressed it with the seal of our universal concepts of harvard university dissertations, connection, in particular those of mathematical relations” ( Substance and Function 150). However, this in essay, no way reduces science to mere relativism of personal inner projections, as if one way of representing the harvard, world were no better than any other. Though we do not know objects independent of mental representation, scientific understanding functions objectively by fixing the permanent logical elements and their connections within a uniform manifold of experience: “The object marks the logical possession of essays on school lunch, knowledge, and not a dark beyond forever removed from knowledge” ( Substance and Function 303). Thus, science is harvard university dissertations absolutely tied to empirical reality, by which Cassirer means the sum of logical relations through which humans cognize the world. Therefore science, too, as much as language or myth, symbolically constitutes the world in its particular idiom: “The symbol possesses its adequate correlate in the connection according to law, that subsists between the individual members, and not in any constitutive part of the perception; yet it is sample essay this connection that gradually reveals itself to be the university online, real kernel of the thought of empirical ‘reality’” ( Substance and Function 149). This Neo-Kantian vision of science is not something Cassirer thinks stands to “correct” science as currently practiced.
On the contrary, the essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, great modern scientists themselves have assumed precisely the same view, though in terms lacking the proper philosophical rigor. Newton’s assumption of absolute space and time put science on its first firm foundation, and in harvard university dissertations, doing so he had to relinquish a purely sense-certain view of experience. Space and time in classical physics fix natural processes within a geometric schema, and fix mass as a self-identical thing within infinitely different spaces and different times. On School? What Newton failed to realize was that this vision of space and time imputed ideal forms into what he believed was the straightforward observation of real objects. Dissertations? Kant had already shown as much. James Clark Maxwell’s theory of light waves breaks with this system of transcribing observational circumstances with mathematical equations that associate spatial positions with affair-states.
Maxwell’s spatial point simultaneously has two correlate directional quantities: the magnetic and electrical vectors, whose representations in mathematics are readily cognizable but whose observation as such is impossible. Essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study? The theory of Maxwell was therefore functionally meaningful without requiring a substantial ontology behind it. The definitive theory of dissertations, light he discovered was not about a permanent thing situated within space and time but a set of interrelated magnitudes that could be functionally represented as a universal constant. Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz was among the first natural scientists to essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study properly acknowledge the harvard university online, difference between observational descriptions of reality and symbolic theoretical constructions of it. As Cassirer quotes Helmholtz: [I]n investigating [phenomena] we must proceed on braveheart essay the supposition that they are comprehensible. Accordingly, the law of sufficient reason is really nothing more than the urge of harvard university dissertations online, our intellect to bring all our perceptions under its own control.
It is not a law of essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, nature. Our intellect is the harvard dissertations, faculty of forming general conceptions. Resume One? It has nothing to do with our sense-perceptions and experiences unless it is able to form general conceptions or laws. ( Essay on Man 220) The alleged sensory manifold held so dear in naively realist science gave way before Helmholtz’s demonstration that such is an ideally defined totality according to the rule which distinguishes properties on harvard dissertations online the basis of numerical series. That ideal unit is, for Helmholtz, the “symbol,” which cannot be considered a “copy” of a non-signifying object-in-itself (for how could that be conceived?) but the functional correspondence between two or more conceptual structures. Thus what is discovered by Helmholtzian science are the laws of interrelation among phenomena, the steven holl, laws which are the very condition of our experiencing something as an object in the first place. To Helmholtz’s experimental demonstration, Cassirer is able to add the relational but still universal nature of harvard university dissertations, scientific designation; that is, the crucial differentiation between substance-concepts and function-concepts:
For laws are never mere compendia of perceptible facts, in which the individual phenomena are merely placed end to end as on a string. Rather every law, as compared to immediate perception, comprises a […] transition to a new perspective. One? This can occur only when we replace the harvard university dissertations online, concrete data provided by experience with symbolic representations, which on the basis of certain theoretical presuppositions that the observer accepts as true and valid are thought to correspond to them. ( The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms III, 21) Accordingly, the essay, truth of science does not depend upon an accurate conceptualization of substances so much as it does on the demonstrating the limits of conceptual thinking about those substances, that is, their symbolic functions. The scientist cannot attain his end without strict obedience to the facts of nature. But this obedience is not passive submission. The work of all the great natural scientists – of Galileo and Newton, of harvard university, Maxwell and sample observation, Helmholtz, of Planck and Einstein—was not mere fact collecting; it was theoretical, and that means constructive, work. This spontaneity and online, productivity is the very center of all human activities. It is man’s highest power and it designates at the same time the natural boundary of our human world. One? In language, in religion, in art, in science, man can do no more than to build up his own universe – a symbolic universe that enables him to understand and interpret, to articulate and organize, to synthesize and universalize his human experience. ( Essay on Man 221) Cassirer’s essay Zur Einsteinschen Relativitatstheorie (1921) was his last major thematic enterprise before the first volume of The Philosophy of university online, Symbolic Forms . In it he sees himself following Cohen’s task of updating Kant’s philosophical groundwork for science.
Kant had taken for granted that the forms of science in his own day represented scientific thinking as such. His epistemological groundwork accordingly needed to support Newtonian physics. After Kant’s death, science leapt past the limits set by Newton just as mathematics pushed the limits of Euclidian three-dimensional geometry. Einstein’s theories of relativity effectively dismantled the resume career one, authority of both; the fact that they did proved to Cassirer the dissertations online, non-absolute status of persuasive on school, scientific symbolization as a doctrine about objects. An elucidation of the epistemological conditions that could allow for Einstein’s relativity was now necessary. Cassirer replaced Kant’s static formalism with his attention to harvard dissertations online the varied and alterable features of mathematical science that could accomodate radical new forms of mathematical logic and, by extension, systems of natural science. Pure Euclidean geometry was so influential because it dealt concretely and intuitively with real things as uniform and absolute substances. And it still works with most material applications. When non-Euclidian geometry came to braveheart the fore with Gauss, Riemann, and Christoffel, it was considered a mere play of analytical concepts that held some logical curiosity but no applicability.
Over time a gradual shift ensued from the widening of the concept of online, experience to include non-uniform concepts of space. Pure Euclidean space stands, as it now seems, not closer to the demands of empirical and physical knowledge than the non-Euclidean manifolds but rather more removed. For precisely because it represents the logically simplest form of spatial construction it is not wholly adequate to the complexity of content and the material determinateness of the empirical. Persuasive Essays On School Lunch? Its [i.e., the Euclidean] fundamental property of homogeneity, its axiom of the equivalence in the principal of all points, now marks it as an university dissertations online abstract space; for, in the concrete and essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, empirical manifold, there never is such uniformity, but rather thorough-going differentiation reigns in it. (“Euclidean and non-Euclidean Geometry,” in Luft , 243) It is thus not the case, as traditionally thought, that the new physical sciences simply adopted a more abstract vision of mathematics as its basis. Their physics represent a more widely-encompassing symbolic representation that expresses a new mode of experience, one less concerned with the sense impressions of real objects than with the reality of their logical relations.
Einstein needed a geometry of curvature that varied according to the relation of mass and energy in order for general relativity to work, but this of itself does not mean Euclidean geometry was or even could be proven wrong by Minkowski space-time. In the terminology of symbolic forms, Cassirer thinks Einstein’s relativity has transcended the symbolic forms of natural objects with those of pure mathematical relations. Dissertations Online? The result is the fracture of essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, non-commensurable ways of analyzing one and the same “substance”: physically, chemically, mathematically, and so forth. Those forms ought not to be reduced to a single “meta” method that levels their differences as merely partial views. Each ought to be retained as equally valid parts of the total determination of the object. Thus Einstein was right to harvard dissertations online abandon absolute Newtonian space-time for relative Minkowski space-time.
But his reason for persuasive lunch doing so did not concern the former’s falsity. Dissertations? In place of a single absolutist description, the new relativism embraced an epistemology that featured a wider variety of equally valid modes of thinking about one and the same object. Objects, in Cassirer’s idiom, are relative to the symbolic form under which they are expressed. The One reality can only be disclosed and defined as the ideal limit of diversely changing theories; but the setting of this limit itself is not arbitrary; it is inescapable, since the continuity of experience is established only thereby. No particular astronomical system, the of a observation, Copernican no more than the Ptolemaic…may be taken as an expression of the ‘true’ cosmic order, but only the whole of these systems as they continuously unfold in accordance with a certain context. Dissertations? …We do not need the objectivity of critical for high, absolute things, but we do require the harvard university dissertations, objective determinacy of the way of experience itself. ( Philosophy of Symbolic Forms III, 476)
Cassirer’s view of the evolution of resume, science may be compared with Thomas Kuhn’s view insofar as both reject a single consistent progress toward absolute truth. Cassirer’s symbolic forms echo in Kuhn’s paradigms as incommensurable frameworks of meaning that stand in discomfitted relationships with one another. But where Kuhn sees the dissertations, conditions for shifted paradigms in the quasi-sociological language of the career, community crises brought about by insoluable intra-paradigm problems, Cassirer sees a more epistemological metamorphosis in online, the evolution and expansion of essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, human thinking. More than just a professional and social shift away from Pythagoras or Galileo to Einstein or Plank, Cassirer thinks rational agency matures to embrace more variegated, more useful, and more precise symbols. This evolution does not bring the rational agent closer to the truth of objects, but it does bring more useful and harvard university online, exacting means by which to think about those objects. Insofar as science, more so than myth or language, cultivates that progression through its activity, it presents, for Cassirer, the prospect to on school lunch carry human nature to the very highest cultural achievements possible: “Science is the last step in man’s mental development and it may be regarded as the university dissertations, highest and most characteristic attainment of human culture” ( Essay on Man 207). Cassirer’s political philosophy has its roots in Renaissance humanism and the classics of Modern thought: Machiavelli, Rousseau, Kant, Goethe, and Humboldt.
Ever concerned with a subject’s connection to the wider sphere of cultural life, Cassirer noted that the thinking, Ancient, Medieval, and Renaissance conceptions of politics were framed within a holistic worldview. In Modern times, a holistic order still obtained, but after Machiavelli, this order is based upon intrapersonal relationships rather than the divine or the natural. University Dissertations Online? These social and political relationships are, like symbolic forms, neither entirely objective nor entirely subjective. They represent the construction of ourselves in the framework of our ideal comprehensive social life. Man’s social consciousness depends upon a double act of identification and discrimination. Man cannot find himself, he cannot become aware of his individuality, except through the medium of his social life. […] Man, like the animals, submits to the rules of society but, in addition, he has an active share in essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, bringing about, and an active power to change, the harvard university dissertations online, forms of essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, social life. ( Essay on Man 223) As it did for Kant, human dignity derives from the capacity of rational agents to pose and constrain themselves by normative laws of their own making. Cassirer stresses against Marx and Heidegger, respectively, that it is neither the material nor ontological conditions that man is dissertations born or thrown into that determines political order or social value.
Rather, it is the active processes by which the human person creates laws for themself, social institutions for themself, and norms for themself are paramount in determining the place of the essay, human being in society. Politics is not simply the harvard dissertations online, study of the of a essay, relations between social institutions, as Marx and his sociological disciples believed, but of their meaningful construction within the symbolic forms of myth-making, art, poetry, religion, and science. Human culture taken as a whole may be described as the process of man’s progressive self-liberation. Online? Language art, religion, science, are various phases in on school lunch, this process. In all of them man discovers and university online, proves a new power – the critical thinking activities, power to build up a world of his own, an ‘ideal’ world. Philosophy cannot give up its search for a fundamental unity in this ideal world ( Essay on Man , 228). The opponent in Cassirer’s last work, The Myth of the State , is Heidegger and university online, the kind of twentieth century totalitarian mythologies of “crisis” by which he and so much of Germany were then entranced. Essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study? Even if he did stand mostly alone, Cassirer stood firmly against harvard online, the myth of Aryan supremacy, the myth of the eternal Jew, and the myth of Socialist utopia. He did not oppose the creative acts that gave rise to these myths but the resume, unthinking allegiance they demanded of their acolytes. In so doing, Cassirer felt Germany, and not just Germany, had abandoned its heritage of classical liberalism, tradition of laws, and its belief in the rational progress of both science and religion for a worldview based in power and struggles for personal gain masking as equality.
With obvious reference toward Heidegger and harvard university, the National Socialists, Cassirer laments: Perhaps the most important and the most alarming feature in essays on school, this development of modern political thought is the university, appearance of a new power: the power of mythical thought. The preponderance of mythical thought over rational thought in some of our modern systems is obvious. ( Myth of the anchoring steven holl, State , 3) Cassirer’s focus in Myth of the State is mostly not, however, the contemporary state of harvard dissertations, European politics. In fact, only in the last chapter is the word Nazi mentioned. The great majority is caught up instead with history, almost jarringly so given the immediate crisis and Cassirer’s personal place in it. He has far more to say about medieval theories of grace, Plato’s Republic , and Hegel than he does about the rise of Hitler or the War. Back in the First World War, Cassirer’s wife Toni would write in her biography, Mein Leben mit Ernst Cassirer , that despite some limited clerical duties on behalf of Germany, their major wartime concerns were whether there was sufficient electricity to write and whether the train tickets were first class (Toni Cassirer, 1948, 116-20): “We weren’t politicians, and thinking schoolers, didn’t even know any politicians” (Ibid., 117). And that aloofness stayed with Cassirer until the end. Charles W. Hendel, who was responsible for Cassirer’s appointment at Yale and who later became the posthumous editor of Myth of the State , illustrates how frustrating Cassirer’s silence on contemporary political matters were: “Won’t you tell us the meaning of what is harvard university happening today , instead of writing about past history, science, and culture? You have so much knowledge and wisdom—we who are working with you know that so well—but you should give others, too, the benefit of it” ( Myth of the State x).
In the early twentieth-first century, Edward Skidelsky declaimed Cassirer’s reluctance to speak about sample essay contemporary politics as a symptom of a greater philosophical shortcoming: “[Cassirer’s] is an enchanting vision. But it is dissertations also a fundamentally innocent one. Liberalism may have triumphed in the political sphere, but it was the illiberal philosophy of Heidegger that won the day at Davos and went on to leave the deepest stamp on resume career twentieth-century culture. Who now shares Cassirer’s faith in harvard, the humanizing power of of a, art or the liberating power of dissertations, science? Who now believes that the critical, truth will make us free?” (Skidelsky 2008, 222) The historical event for which Cassirer is best known is the harvard dissertations online, famous conference held in Davos, Switzerland in 1929. Planned as a symposium to bring together French- and steven, German-speaking academics in a spirit of online, international collaboration, the conference was set in the resort town made famous by Thomas Mann’s epic The Magic Mountain (1924). Essays On School Lunch? Counting nearly 1,300 attendees, more than 900 of who were the university online, town’s residents, the activities schoolers, conference featured 56 lectures delivered over the span of three weeks.
Among those in attendance were contemporary heavyweights like Fritz Heinemann and Karl Joel, and rising stars like Emmanuel Levinas, Joachim Ritter, Maurice de Gandillac, Ludwig Binswanger, and harvard, a young Rudolf Carnap. The centerpiece of the career, conference was to have been the showdown between the two most important philosophers in Germany: Cassirer and Heidegger. Harvard University Dissertations Online? Curiously, there never was a disputation proper, in braveheart, the sense of an official point-by-point debate, in part because neither man was up for it: Cassirer was bed-ridden by illness and Heidegger was less interested in attending lectures than the dissertations online, resort town’s recreational activities. As a characteristic expression of his disdain toward stuffy academic conferences, Heidegger even gave one of his own talks while wearing his ski-suit. Cassirer was the student and heir of critical activities, Hermann Cohen, the unchallenged leader of Marburg Neo-Kantianism. Heidegger was the most brilliant student of the Southwest Neo-Kantian Heinrich Rickert, but was recommended to the chair of Marburg by none other than Marburger Paul Natorp. On at least three separate occasions, Cassirer and Heidegger were considered for the same academic post, as successor to Husserl, then to Rickert, and finally for the leading position in Berlin in 1930 (Gordon, 2010, 40).
Cassirer and Heidegger were thus the two greatest living thinkers in the tradition of Kantian philosophy, and were invited to Davos to defend their rival interpretation on the question of whether an harvard dissertations online ontology could be derived from Kant’s epistemology. Their positions were contradictory in clear ways: Cassirer held the Marburg line that Kant’s entire project required that the thing-in-itself be jettisoned for a transcendental analysis of the anchoring steven, forms of knowing. Heidegger wanted to recast not only Kant but philosophy itself as a fundamental investigation into the meaning of Being, and by specific extension, the harvard university dissertations online, human way of Being: Dasein. The debate about the proper interpretation of Kant went nearly nowhere, and Heidegger’s interpretation had more to do with Heidegger than with Kant. Cassirer, the co-editor of the critical edition of resume career, Kant’s works and the author of a superb intellectual biography, was no doubt the superior exegete. Nevertheless, Heidegger was doubtless the more captivating and original philosopher.
Beyond their divergent interpretations of university online, Kant, the debate brought to the fore two competing intellectual forces that were at genuine odds: Cassirer’s Neo-Kantian maintenance of the spontaneous mental freedom requisite for the production of symbolic forms was pitted against thinking for high schoolers, Heidegger’s existential-phenomenological concentration on the irrevocable “thrownness” of human beings into a world of which the common denominator was their realization of harvard university, death. Anchoring Steven Holl? Cassirer thought Heidegger vastly overstated Dasein’s thrownness and understated its spontaneity, and that his subjectivism discounted the objectivity of the sciences and harvard dissertations online, of moral laws. Activities Schoolers? Also, if both the harvard online, character of essay, rationality and the inviolable value of the human person lie in a subject’s spontaneous use of online, theoretical and practical forms of sample of a essay, reasoning, then the danger was clear: Heidegger’s Dasein had one foot in irrationality and the other in nihilism. The historical significance of the Davos Conference thus lay, ironically, in its symbolic meaning. Primed by harvard university dissertations the cultural clash between humanism and essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, iconoclasm represented by Thomas Mann’s characters Settembrini and Naphta, the participants in Davos expected the university, same battle between the stodgy old enlightenment Cassirer and the exciting, young, radical Heidegger. No doubt some in the audience fancied themselves a Hans Castorp, whose soul, and the very fate of braveheart essay, Europe, was caught in the tug of war between Settembrini/Cassirer’s liberal rationalism and Naphta/Heidegger’s conservative mysticism. (Though, to harvard university be sure, Mann’s model for Naphta was Gyorgy Lukacs and not Heidegger.) In the Weimar Republic’s “Age of Crisis,” it was not so much what either man said, but what each symbolized that mattered. As Rudolf Carnap wrote in his journal, “Cassirer speaks well, but somewhat pastorally. […] Heidegger is serious and objective, as a person very attractive” (Friedman, 2000, 7).
In a subsequent satirical reenactment, a young Emmanuel Levinas mocked Cassirer by performing in buffo what he took to be the salient point of his lectures at Davos: “Humboldt, culture, Humboldt, culture” (Skidelsky, 2008, 1). Indeed what Cassirer defended was then subject to parody among the young. Holl Essay? Cassirer was the last of the great polymaths like Goethe, the last comprehensive historian like Ranke, the university, last optimist like Humboldt, and the last of the Neo-Kantian academic establishment. Heidegger represented the revolution of a new German nation, one that would sweep away the old ways of philosophy as much as Hitler would sweep away Wilhelmine politics. Heidegger welcomed crisis as the condition for new growth and invention; Cassirer saw in sample of a, crisis the collapse of a culture that took so long to harvard online achieve. Cassirer was the sample essay, great scholar. Heidegger was the harvard university online, great philosopher. Cassirer clung to braveheart essay rational optimism and humanist culture while Heidegger championed existential fatalism. In 1929, the Zeitgeist clearly favored the latter.
The consequences of Davos, like the meaning of the conference itself, operated on two levels. On the level of the factual, Cassirer and university online, Heidegger would maintain a somewhat detached respect for the other, with mutually critical yet professionally cordial responses in print over the years to come. Neither man came to change either his interpretation of Kant or his philosophy generally in any major way due to braveheart the conference. Symbolically, however, Davos was a disaster for Cassirer and for Neo-Kantianism. Europe was immediately swept up in dissertations online, increasingly violent waves of nationalism. Persuasive Essays On School? Days after Hitler’s election as Chancellor in 1933, Jews were banned from teaching in state schools.
The Night of the Long Knives happened five years after Davos, and then the Night of harvard dissertations, Broken Glass four years after that. Neo-Kantian philosophers, especially the steven holl essay, followers and harvard, friends of essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, Hermann Cohen, were mainly Jewish. Cassirer fled to dissertations England and then Sweden in 1933 in fear of the Nazi’s, even while Heidegger was made Rektor at activities schoolers Freiburg. The Wilhelmine era’s enlightened cultural humanism, and its last defender, had clearly lost.
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Harvard University Dissertations …
Stop Making Plans; Start Making Decisions. Most executives view traditional strategic planning as worthless. Why? The process contains serious flaws. First, it’s conducted annually, so it doesn’t help executives respond swiftly to threats and opportunities (a new competitor, a possible acquisition) that crop up throughout the harvard year. Second, it unfolds unit by unit—with executive committee members visiting one unit at a time to review their strategic plans. Executives lack sufficient information to provide worthwhile guidance during these “business tours.” And the visits take them away from urgent companywide issues, such as whether to enter a new market, outsource a function, or restructure the persuasive on school organization.
Frustrated by these constraints, executives routinely sidestep their company’s formal strategic planning process—making ad hoc decisions based on scanty analysis and meager debate. Result? Decisions made incorrectly, too slowly, or not at all. How to improve the quality and online, quantity of your strategic decisions? Use continuous issues-focused strategic planning . Throughout the year, identify the issues you must resolve to enhance your company’s performance—particularly those spanning multiple business units. Debate one issue at a time until you’ve reached a decision. And add issues to your agenda as business realities change.
Your reward? More rigorous debate and resume one, more significant strategic decisions each year—made precisely when they’re needed. The Idea in Practice. To create an effective strategic-planning process: Link Decision Making and online, Planning. Create a mechanism that helps you identify the decisions you must make to create more shareholder value. Once you’ve made those decisions, use your traditional planning process to develop an implementation road map. Example: At Boeing Commercial Airplanes, executives meet regularly to uncover the company’s most pressing, long-term strategic issues (such as evolving product strategy, or fueling growth in services). Upon selecting a course of action, they update their long-range business plan with an implementation strategy for that decision. (By separating—but linking—planning and critical thinking activities for high, execution, Boeing makes faster and harvard dissertations, better decisions.) During strategy discussions, focus on sample observation essay issues spanning multiple business units.
Example: Facing a shortage of investment ideas, Microsoft’s leaders began defining issues—such as PC market growth and security—that are critical throughout the harvard company. Anchoring? Dialogues between unit leaders and the executive committee now focus on what Microsoft as a whole can do to address each issue—not which strategies individual units should formulate. Countless new growth opportunities have surfaced. Spread strategy reviews throughout the university year rather than squeezing them into a 2-3-month window. You’ll be able to resume career, focus on—and resolve—one issue at a time. University Dissertations Online? And you’ll have the flexibility to add issues as soon as business conditions change. Example:
Executives at sample of a essay, multi-industry giant Textron review two to three units’ strategy per quarter rather than compressing all unit reviews into one quarter annually. They also hold continuous reviews designed to address each strategic issue on the company’s agenda. Once an also-ran among its peers, Textron was a top-quartile performer during 2004–2005. Structure Strategy Reviews to Produce Results. Design and conduct strategy sessions so that participants agree on facts related to online, each issue before proposing solutions. Example: At Textron, each strategic issue is resolved through a disciplined process: In one session, the management committee debates the issue at hand and reaches agreement on the relevant facts (e.g., customers’ purchase behaviors, a key market’s profitability figures). The group then generates several viable strategy alternatives. Sample Observation Essay? In a second session, the committee evaluates the alternatives from a strategic and financial perspective and online, selects a course of action. By moving from facts to alternatives to choices, the group reaches many more decisions than before. Is strategic planning completely useless?
That was the question the persuasive essays CEO of a global manufacturer recently asked himself. Two years earlier, he had launched an ambitious overhaul of the university online company’s planning process. The old approach, which required business-unit heads to make regular presentations to activities for high schoolers, the firm’s executive committee, had broken down entirely. The ExCom members—the CEO, COO, CFO, CTO, and head of HR—had grown tired of sitting through endless PowerPoint presentations that provided them few opportunities to challenge the business units’ assumptions or influence their strategies. And the unit heads had complained that the ExCom reviews were long on harvard university exhortation but short on executable advice. Worse, the essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study reviews led to very few worthwhile decisions. The revamped process incorporated state-of-the-art thinking about university online, strategic planning.
To avoid information overload, it limited each business to 15 “high-impact” exhibits describing the unit’s strategy. To ensure thoughtful discussions, it required that all presentations and braveheart essay, supporting materials be distributed to the ExCom at harvard dissertations, least a week in thinking activities for high advance. The review sessions themselves were restructured to allow ample time for give-and-take between the corporate team and dissertations online, the business-unit executives. And rather than force the unit heads to traipse off to headquarters for meetings, the ExCom agreed to of a essay, spend an harvard dissertations unprecedented six weeks each spring visiting all 22 units for essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study daylong sessions. The intent was to make the strategy reviews longer, more focused, and dissertations online, more consequential. It didn’t work. Braveheart Essay? After using the new process for two planning cycles, the CEO gathered feedback from the participants through an anonymous survey. Harvard University Dissertations Online? To his dismay, the report contained a litany of complaints: “It takes too much time.” “It’s at too high a level.” “It’s disconnected from the way we run the business.” And so on. Most damning of all, however, was the critical schoolers respondents’ near-universal view that the new approach produced very few real decisions. The CEO was dumbfounded. How could the dissertations online company’s cutting-edge planning process still be so badly broken?
More important, what should he do to activities for high, make strategic planning drive more, better, and dissertations online, faster decisions? Like this CEO, many executives have grown skeptical of strategic planning. Is it any wonder? Despite all the time and energy most companies put into strategic planning, the process is most often a barrier to schoolers, good decision making, our research indicates. As a result, strategic planning doesn’t really influence most companies’ strategy. In the following pages, we will demonstrate that the failure of dissertations most strategic planning is due to steven holl, two factors: It is harvard online typically an for high schoolers annual process, and it is most often focused on individual business units.
As such, the process is completely at odds with the way executives actually make important strategy decisions, which are neither constrained by the calendar nor defined by unit boundaries. Not surprisingly, then, senior executives routinely sidestep the planning process. Harvard University Dissertations? They make the decisions that really shape their company’s strategy and determine its future—decisions about mergers and acquisitions, product launches, corporate restructurings, and resume career one, the like—outside the planning process, typically in an ad hoc fashion, without rigorous analysis or productive debate. Critical decisions are made incorrectly or not at harvard university, all. Critical? More than anything else, this disconnect—between the university dissertations online way planning works and the way decision making happens—explains the for high frustration, if not outright antipathy, most executives feel toward strategic planning. Companies see a dramatic increase in the quality of their decision making once they abandon the traditional planning model, which is university online calendar driven and focused on the business units. In our survey, the companies that broke most completely with the past made more than twice as many strategic decisions each year as companies wedded to tradition. What’s more, the new structure of the planning process ensures that the decisions are probably the best that could have been made, given the information available to managers at the time. Here are the one average numbers of major strategic decisions reached per year in companies that take the following approaches to strategic planning: Annual review focused on business units. Annual review focused on issues.
Continuous review focused on business units. Continuous review focused on issues. But companies can fix the process if they attack its root problems. A small number of forward-looking companies have thrown out their calendar-driven, business-unit-focused planning processes and replaced them with continuous, issues-focused decision making. Harvard Dissertations? By changing the sample of a essay timing and focus of university dissertations online strategic planning, they’ve also changed the nature of steven holl top management’s discussions about strategy—from “review and university online, approve” to “debate and decide,” meaning that senior executives seriously think through every major decision and its implications for the company’s performance and resume one, value. Indeed, these companies use the strategy development process to drive decision making. As a consequence, they make more than twice as many important strategic decisions each year as companies that follow the traditional planning model. (See the exhibit “Who Makes More Decisions?”) These companies have stopped making plans and started making decisions. In the fall of harvard 2005, Marakon Associates, in collaboration with the Economist Intelligence Unit, surveyed senior executives from 156 large companies worldwide, all with sales of $1 billion or more (40% of them had revenues over $10 billion). We asked these executives how their companies developed long-range plans and how effectively they thought their planning processes drove strategic decisions. The results of the survey confirmed what we have observed over many years of consulting: The timing and structure of strategic planning are obstacles to good decision making.
Specifically, we found that companies with standard planning processes and practices make only 2.5 major strategic decisions each year, on average (by “major,” we mean they have the potential to activities, increase company profits by 10% or more over the long term). University Online? It’s hard to observation essay, imagine that with so few strategic decisions driving growth, these companies can keep moving forward and deliver the financial performance that investors expect. Even worse, we suspect that the few decisions companies do reach are made in spite of the strategic planning process, not because of it. Indeed, the traditional planning model is harvard dissertations so cumbersome and out of of a essay sync with the way executives want and need to make decisions that top managers all too often sidestep the process when making their biggest strategic choices. Companies that follow the traditional strategic planning model develop a strategy plan for each business unit at some point during the year. Harvard Dissertations Online? A cross-functional team dedicates less than nine weeks to developing the unit’s plan. The executive committee reviews each plan—typically in lunch daylong, on-site meetings—and rubber-stamps the results. University Dissertations? The plans are consolidated to produce a companywide strategic plan for review by the board of directors. Once the persuasive lunch strategic-planning cycle is complete, the harvard university online units dedicate another eight to nine weeks to budgeting and capital planning (in most companies, these processes are not explicitly linked to strategic planning).
The executive committee then holds another round of meetings with each of the business units to negotiate performance targets, resource commitments, and one, (in many cases) compensation for managers. The results: an approved but potentially unrealistic strategic plan for each business unit and a separate budget for each unit that is decoupled from the unit’s strategic plan. With the harvard university online big decisions being made outside the planning process, strategic planning becomes merely a codification of judgments top management has already made, rather than a vehicle for identifying and debating the critical decisions that the company needs to make to produce superior performance. Over time, managers begin to question the critical activities schoolers value of dissertations online strategic planning, withdraw from it, and come to rely on other processes for setting company strategy. At 66% of the resume career companies in our survey, planning is a periodic event, often conducted as a precursor to the yearly budgeting and online, capital-approval processes. In fact, linking strategic planning to critical thinking, these other management processes is harvard university online often cited as a best practice. But forcing strategic planning into an annual cycle risks making it irrelevant to executives, who must make many important decisions throughout the year. There are two major drawbacks to persuasive essays, such a rigid schedule. The first might be called the university time problem. A once-a-year planning schedule simply does not give executives sufficient time to address the issues that most affect performance.
According to our survey, companies that follow an annual planning calendar devote less than nine weeks per year to strategy development. That’s barely two months to collect relevant facts, set strategic priorities, weigh competing alternatives, and make important strategic choices. Many issues—particularly those spanning multiple businesses, crossing geographic boundaries, or involving entire value chains—cannot be resolved effectively in steven essay such a short time. It took Boeing, for harvard dissertations online example, almost two years to sample, decide to outsource major activities such as wing manufacturing. Constrained by the planning calendar, corporate executives face two choices: They can either not address these complex issues—in effect, throwing them in the “too-hard” bucket—or they can address them through some process other than strategic planning. In both cases, strategic planning is marginalized and separated from strategic decision making. Then there’s the timing problem. Harvard Dissertations? Even when executives allot sufficient time in strategy development to address tough issues, the holl essay timing of the process can create problems. At most companies, strategic planning is a batch process in which managers analyze market and competitor information, identify threats and harvard university dissertations online, opportunities, and then define a multiyear plan. But in the real world, managers make strategic decisions continuously, often motivated by an immediate need for action (or reaction). When a new competitor enters a market, for essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study instance, or a rival introduces a new technology, executives must act quickly and decisively to safeguard the company’s performance.
But very few companies (less than 10%, according to our survey) have any sort of rigorous or disciplined process for responding to changes in the external environment. Instead, managers rely on dissertations ad hoc processes to correct course or make opportunistic moves. Once again, strategic planning is sidelined, and executives risk making poor decisions that have not been carefully thought through. MA decisions provide a particularly egregious example of the timing problem. Acquisition opportunities tend to emerge spontaneously, the result of changes in management at a target company, the braveheart actions of a competitor, or some other unpredictable event. Faced with a promising opportunity and limited time in which to act, executives can’t wait until the opportunity is evaluated as part of the online next annual planning cycle, so they assess the deal and make a quick decision. Braveheart Essay? But because there’s often no proper review process, the harvard dissertations softer customer- and people-related issues so critical to persuasive lunch, effective integration of an acquired company can get shortchanged. Harvard Online? It is no coincidence that failure to plan for integration is often cited as the braveheart primary cause of deal failure. The organizational focus of the typical planning process compounds its calendar effects—or, perhaps more aptly, defects. Two-thirds of the executives we surveyed indicated that strategic planning at harvard dissertations, their companies is conducted business by business—that is, it is focused on units or groups of units.
But 70% of the senior executives who responded to our survey stated they make decisions issue by issue. For example, should we enter China? Should we outsource manufacturing? Should we acquire our distributor? Given this mismatch between the way planning is organized and the way big decisions are made, it’s hardly surprising that, once again, corporate leaders look elsewhere for guidance and inspiration. In fact, only 11% of the executives we surveyed believed strongly that planning was worth the effort. The organizational focus of traditional strategic planning also creates distance, even antagonism, between corporate executives and business-unit managers.
Consider, for example, the way most companies conduct strategy reviews—as formal meetings between senior managers and the heads of each business unit. While these reviews are intended to produce a fact-based dialogue, they often amount to of a, little more than business tourism. The executive committee flies in for a day, sees the sights, meets the natives, and university online, flies out. The business unit, for its part, puts in critical thinking activities for high schoolers a lot of work preparing for this royal visit and is keen to make it smooth and trouble free. The unit hopes to dissertations, escape with few unanswered questions and an approved plan. Accordingly, local managers control the flow of information upward, and senior managers are presented only with information that shows each unit in the best possible light. Opportunities are highlighted; threats are downplayed or omitted.
Strategy reviews often amount to little more than business tourism. The executive committee flies in for steven holl essay a day, sees the university dissertations sights, meets the natives, and flies out. Even if there’s no subterfuge, senior corporate managers still have trouble engaging in constructive dialogue and debate because of resume what might be called information asymmetry. They just don’t have the information they need to be helpful in guiding business units. So when they’re presented with a strategic plan that’s too good to be believed, they have only two real options: either reject it—a move that’s all but unheard-of at most large companies—or play along and impose stretch targets to secure at least the promise that the university unit will improve performance. In both cases, the review does little to critical thinking schoolers, drive decisions on issues. It’s hardly surprising that only 13% of the executives we surveyed felt that top managers were effectively engaged in all aspects of strategy development at university dissertations online, their companies—from target setting to debating alternatives to approving strategies and allocating resources. Decision-Focused Strategic Planning. Strategic planning can’t have impact if it doesn’t drive decision making. And it can’t drive decision making as long as it remains focused on individual business units and limited by the calendar. Over the past several years, we have observed that many of the best-performing companies have abandoned the traditional approach and are focusing explicitly on reaching decisions through the continuous identification and systematic resolution of resume one strategic issues. (The sidebar “Continuous, Decision-Oriented Planning” presents a detailed example of the issues-oriented approach.) Although these companies have found different specific solutions, all have made essentially the dissertations online same fundamental changes to their planning and strategy development processes in order to produce more, better, and faster decisions.
Continuous, Decision-Oriented Planning. Once the company as a whole has identified its most important strategic priorities (typically in an annual strategy update), executive committee dialogues, spread throughout the year, are set up to reach decisions on as many issues as possible. Since issues frequently span multiple business units, task forces are established to steven holl essay, prepare the strategic and dissertations online, financial information that’s needed to uncover and evaluate strategy alternatives for each issue. Steven Holl? Preparation time may exceed nine weeks. The executive committee engages in two dialogues for each issue at three to four hours each. Harvard University? The first dialogue focuses on reaching agreement on the facts surrounding the issue and on a set of viable alternatives.
The second focuses on the evaluation of those alternatives and the selection of the persuasive essays best course of action. Once an issue is resolved, a new one is added to university dissertations, the agenda. Critical issues can be inserted into the planning process at any time as market and competitive conditions change. Once a decision has been reached, the budgets and capital plans for the affected business units are updated to reflect the selected option. Consequently, the strategic-planning process and the capital and essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, budgeting processes are integrated.
This significantly reduces the need for harvard online lengthy negotiations between the executive committee and unit management over the budget and capital plan. The results: a concrete plan for anchoring holl essay addressing each key issue; for harvard each business unit, a continuously updated budget and capital plan that is linked directly to the resolution of critical strategic issues; and of a essay, more, faster, better decisions per year. They separate—but integrate—decision making and plan making. First and university, most important, a company must take decisions out of the traditional planning process and create a different, parallel process for developing strategy that helps executives identify the essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study decisions they need to make to create more shareholder value over time. The output of this new process isn’t a plan at all—it’s a set of concrete decisions that management can codify into future business plans through the existing planning process, which remains in harvard online place.
Identifying and making decisions is distinct from creating, monitoring, and updating a strategic plan, and the two sets of tasks require very different, but integrated, processes. The Disconnect Between Planning and Decision Making. Percentage of surveyed executives saying their companies conduct strategic planning only at prescribed times. Percentage saying planning is done unit by unit. Percentage of executives saying strategic decisions are made without regard to thinking activities for high, the calendar. Percentage saying decisions are made issue by issue.
No wonder only 11% of executives are highly satisfied that strategic planning is worth the harvard university online effort. Boeing Commercial Airplanes (BCA) is a case in point. This business unit, Boeing’s largest, has had a long-range business plan (LRBP) process for many years. The protracted cycles of commercial aircraft production require the unit’s CEO, Alan Mulally, and resume career, his leadership team to take a long-term view of the business. Accordingly, the unit’s LRBP contains a ten-year financial forecast, including projected revenues, backlogs, operating margins, and capital investments. BCA’s leadership team reviews the harvard dissertations online business plan weekly to essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, track the online division’s performance relative to the plan and to braveheart, keep the organization focused on execution. The weekly reviews were invaluable as a performance-monitoring tool at BCA, but they were not particularly effective at bringing new issues to university dissertations, the surface or driving strategic decision making. So in essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study 2001, the unit’s leadership team introduced a Strategy Integration Process focused on uncovering and addressing the business’s most important strategic issues (such as determining the best go-to-market strategy for the business, driving the evolution of BCA’s product strategy, or fueling growth in services).
The team assigned to this process holds strategy integration meetings every Monday to track BCA’s progress in resolving these long-term issues. Once a specific course of action is agreed upon and approved by harvard online, BCA’s leadership team, the long-range business plan is updated at of a observation, the next weekly review to reflect the projected change in university online financial performance. The time invested in the new decision-making process is more than compensated for by the time saved in the LRBP process, which is now solely focused on strategy execution. The company gets the anchoring holl essay best of both worlds—disciplined decision making and superior execution. BCA has maintained the harvard dissertations value of the critical schoolers LRBP as an execution tool even as it has increased the quality and quantity of important decisions. Managers believe that the new process is at dissertations, least partially responsible for the sharp turnaround in Boeing’s performance since 2001. High-performing companies typically focus their strategy discussions on a limited number of important issues or themes, many of which span multiple businesses.
Moving away from a business-by-business planning model in this way has proved particularly helpful for large, complex organizations, where strategy discussions can quickly get bogged down as each division manager attempts to cover every aspect of the unit’s strategy. Business-unit managers should remain involved in corporate-level strategy planning that affects their units. But a focus on persuasive issues rather than business units better aligns strategy development with decision making and investment. Consider Microsoft. The world’s leading software maker is a highly matrixed organization. Harvard University Dissertations Online? No strategy can be effectively executed at the company without careful coordination across multiple functions and across two or more of Microsoft’s seven business units, or, as executives refer to essay, them, “PLs”—Client; Server and Tools; Information Worker; MSN; Microsoft Business Solutions; Mobile and Embedded Devices; and harvard dissertations online, Home and Entertainment. In late 2004, faced with a perceived shortage of good investment ideas, CEO Steve Ballmer asked Robert Uhlaner, Microsoft’s corporate vice president of strategy, planning, and analysis, to devise a new strategic planning process for the company. Uhlaner put in place a Growth and Performance Planning Process that starts with agreement by Ballmer’s leadership team on a set of strategic themes—major issues like PC market growth, the steven holl essay entertainment market, and security—that cross business-unit boundaries. These themes not only frame the harvard online dialogue for Microsoft’s annual strategy review, they also guide the units in fleshing out essay investment alternatives to fuel the company’s growth. Dialogues between the PL leaders and Ballmer’s team focus on what the online company can do to address each strategic theme, rather than on individual unit strategies.
The early results of this new process are promising. “You have to be careful what you wish for,” Uhlaner says. “Our new process has surfaced countless new opportunities for growth. We no longer worry about a dearth of investment ideas, but how best to fund them.” Like Microsoft, Diageo North America—a division of the braveheart international beer, wine, and spirits marketer—has recently changed the way it conducts strategic planning to allocate resources across its diverse portfolio. Diageo historically focused its planning efforts on individual brands. Brand managers were allowed to make the case for harvard university dissertations additional investment, no matter what the size of the sample of a essay brand or its strategic role in the portfolio. As a result, resource allocation was bedeviled by endless negotiations between the university brands and corporate management. This political wrangling made it extremely difficult for Diageo’s senior managers to establish a consistent approach to growth, because a lack of transparency prevented them from discerning, from the critical thinking many requests for additional funding, which brands really deserved more resources and university, which did not. Starting in 2001, Diageo overhauled its approach to strategy development. A crucial change was to focus planning on the factors that the company believed would most drive market growth—for example, an increase in the U.S. Hispanic population.
By modeling the impact of these factors on the brand portfolio, Diageo has been better able to critical activities for high schoolers, match its resources with the dissertations brands that have the most growth potential so that it can specify the strategies and investments each brand manager should develop, says Jim Moseley, senior vice president of consumer planning and holl essay, research for Diageo North America. For example, the division now identifies certain brands for growth and harvard university, earmarks specific resources for investment in these units. Essay? This focused approach has enabled the company to shorten the brand planning process and harvard dissertations online, reduce the time spent on negotiations between the anchoring steven brands and division management. It has also given senior management greater confidence in each brand’s ability to harvard university dissertations, contribute to Diageo’s growth. They make strategy development continuous. Effective strategy planners spread strategy reviews throughout the year rather than squeeze them into a two- or three-month window. This allows senior executives to focus on one issue at resume career one, a time until they reach a decision or set of decisions. Online? Moreover, managers can add issues to the agenda as market and competitive conditions change, so there’s no need for ad hoc processes. Senior executives can thus rely on a single strategic planning process—or, perhaps more aptly, a single strategic decision-making model—to drive decision making across the company. Textron, a $10 billion multi-industry company, has implemented a new, continuous strategy-development process built around a prioritized “decision agenda” comprising the company’s most important issues and opportunities.
Until 2004, Textron had a fairly traditional strategic planning process. Each spring, the steven holl essay company’s operating units—businesses as diverse as Bell Helicopter, E-Z-Go golf cars, and Jacobsen turf maintenance equipment—would develop a five-year strategic plan based on harvard university standard templates. Unit managers would then review their strategic plans with Textron’s management committee (the company’s top five executives) during daylong sessions at each unit. Once the strategy reviews were complete, the sample of a essay units incorporated the results, as best they could, into their annual operating plans and capital budgets. In June 2004, dissatisfied with the harvard dissertations quality and pace of the decision making that resulted from the company’s strategy reviews, CEO Lewis Campbell asked Stuart Grief, Textron’s vice president for strategy and business development, to rethink the company’s strategic planning process. After carefully reviewing the company’s practices and gathering feedback from its 30 top executives, Grief and his team designed a new Textron Strategy Process. There were two important changes. First, rather than concentrate all of the operating-unit strategy reviews in the second quarter of each year, the company now spreads strategy dialogues throughout the of a year—two to three units are reviewed per quarter. Second, rather than organize the management committee dialogues around business-unit plans, Textron now holds continuous reviews that are designed to address each strategic issue on the company’s decision agenda. Both changes have enabled Textron’s management committee to be much more effectively engaged in business-unit strategy development.
The changes have also ensured that there’s a forum in harvard dissertations online which cross-unit issues can be raised and addressed by top management, with input from relevant business-unit managers. The process has significantly increased the number of career one strategic decisions the company makes each year. Dissertations? As a result, Textron has gone from being an also-ran among its multi-industrial peers to a top-quartile performer over the past 18 months. John Cullivan, the director of strategy at essay, Cardinal Health, one of the harvard university dissertations world’s leading health-care products and services companies, reports similar benefits from shifting to a continuous planning model. “Continuous decision making is tough to establish because it requires the reallocation of essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study management time at the top levels of the company,” he says. “But the process has enabled us to get sharper focus on the short-term performance of our vertical businesses and make faster progress on our longer-term priorities, some of university online which are horizontal opportunities that cut across businesses and thus are difficult to manage.” To facilitate continuous strategic decision making, Cardinal has made a series of important changes to its traditional planning process. At the corporate level, for example, the company has put in place a rolling six-month agenda for its executive committee dialogues, a practice that allows everyone inside Cardinal to know what issues management is working on resume career and when decisions will be reached. Similar decision agendas are used at the business-unit and university online, functional levels, ensuring that common standards are applied to all important decisions at the company. And to support continuous decision making at Cardinal, the company has trained “black belts” in new analytical tools and steven, processes and deployed them throughout the organization.
This provides each of the company’s businesses and functions with the resources needed to address strategic priorities that emerge over time. They structure strategy reviews to harvard university online, produce real decisions. The most common obstacles to decision making at large companies are disagreements among executives over past decisions, current alternatives, and even the facts presented to support strategic plans. Leading companies structure their strategy review sessions to overcome these problems. At Textron, for example, strategic-issue reviews are organized around “facts, alternatives, and choices.” Each issue is addressed in two half-day sessions with the company’s management committee, allowing for eight to ten issues to braveheart essay, be resolved throughout the year. In the first session, the management committee debates and reaches agreement on the relevant facts—information on the profitability of key markets, the university dissertations actions of competitors, the purchase behavior of customers, and so on—and a limited set of viable strategy alternatives. The purpose of essay this first meeting is not to reach agreement on a specific course of action; rather, the meeting ensures that the group has the best possible information and a robust set of alternatives to consider.
The second session is focused on evaluating these alternatives from a strategic and financial perspective and harvard university, selecting the anchoring holl best course of action. Dissertations? By separating the dialogue around facts and alternatives from the debate over resume one, choices, Textron’s management committee avoids many of the bottlenecks that plague strategic decision making at most companies and harvard university online, reaches many more decisions than it otherwise would. Like Textron, Cadbury Schweppes has changed the essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study structure of its strategy dialogues to focus top managers more explicitly on decision making. In 2002, after acquiring and integrating gum-maker Adams—a move that significantly expanded Cadbury’s product and geographic reach—the company realized it needed to rethink how it was conducting dialogues about strategy between the corporate center and the businesses. The company made two important changes. First, strategy dialogues were redesigned to incorporate a standard set of facts and metrics about consumers, customers, and harvard university online, competitors. This information helped get critical commercial choices in front of top managers, so that the resume choices were no longer buried in the business units. Second, senior executives’ time was reallocated so they could pay more attention to markets that were crucial to realizing Cadbury’s ten-year vision and to making important decisions.
HBR’s 10 Must Reads on Making Smart Decisions. Cadbury’s top team now spends one full week per university year in each of the braveheart countries that are most critical to driving the harvard dissertations company’s performance, so that important decisions can be informed by direct observation as well as through indirect analysis. Strategy dialogues are now based on anchoring holl essay a much deeper understanding of the markets. Cadbury’s strategic reviews no longer merely consist of reviews of and harvard university dissertations, approval of a strategic plan, and they produce many more important decisions. • • • Done right, strategic planning can have an enormous impact on a company’s performance and long-term value. By creating a planning process that enables managers to discover great numbers of hidden strategic issues and make more decisions, companies will open the one door to dissertations, many more opportunities for long-term growth and profitability.
By embracing decision-focused planning, companies will almost certainly find that the quantity and quality of their decisions will improve. And—no coincidence—they will discover an improvement in the quality of the dialogue between senior corporate managers and unit managers. Corporate executives will gain a better understanding of the career challenges their companies face, and unit managers will benefit fully from the university online experience and sample observation, insights of the company’s leaders. As Mark Reckitt, a director of group strategy at Cadbury Schweppes, puts it: “Continuous, decision-focused strategic planning has helped our top management team to streamline its agenda and work with business units and functional management to harvard university dissertations, make far better business-strategy and anchoring holl, commercial decisions.” Michael Mankins is dissertations a partner in Bain Company’s San Francisco office and a leader in thinking schoolers the firm’s Organization practice.
He is a coauthor of Time, Talent, Energy: Overcome Organizational Drag and Unleash Your Team’s Productive Power (Harvard Business Review Press, 2017).
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24 Crucial Tips for Work Experience Resume Section. How Many Pages Should My Resume Be and 12 Principles Behind That - 18. December 2014. 24 Crucial Tips for university dissertations online, Work Experience Resume Section - 3. February 2015. Persuasive Essays Lunch? Famous Last Words of a Resume: References Available upon Request - 2. March 2015. What is the single most important item on a resume? What do recruiters look for harvard university online, in a resume at first glance? The answer to braveheart essay both questions is the same: work experience. I cannot emphasize enough the university dissertations online importance of proper execution of this part of your resume.
It’s make it or break it for your job application. This section of your resume can decide singlehandedly the resume career moving direction of it i.e. is your resume going to a “shortlisted” pile or to harvard university dissertations a “rejected” trashcan. Having that in mind, presenting your work experience in activities for high schoolers, a proper manner is a skill you’ll have to master if you want your resume to shine. University Dissertations? So, without any further delay, let’s get to specifics of of a observation, this segment of your presentation to the employer. It’s not a great wisdom. Work experience section (professional experience, employment history, work history etc) has to contain the university following elements: Companies you worked for Regarding the names of the companies you worked for, you don’t have to write the full, official business names of the companies only if it’s a widely known brand.
If you state that you worked for BMW, all hiring people from the automotive industry will know that it is Bayerische Motoren Werke AG. On the other hand, if one of lunch, your previous employers was John’s Bar, be sure to write down the harvard dissertations online full name of the company. Observation? If the university dissertations online business of the company you worked for isn’t obvious, state it very, very briefly in just a couple of words (for example: Bull’s Horn, a local bar). Locations of your previous employers Localization of your previous employments is very important for hiring people so write down the city and state (area) of the company you worked for. Don’t go further into details (i.e. address, zip code etc) since you’ll be spending valuable resume real estate on data that can be found easily if there’s a need for that. Critical Activities For High Schoolers? Employment dates If your work experience timeline doesn’t have some big gaps, you should go with the standard month/year format of the dates of employment. Write down full month name and year (e.g. November 2012) since that kind of formatting is the harvard university online most readable. On the other hand, if you had longer periods of unemployment and would like to mask it a little, in some specific cases you can name only years of employment. Gap in work history is a topic that deserves a separate article and I’ll try to deliver it as soon as possible. Your titles/positions Recently one job applicant asked me for advice on changing the title that he held at sample observation essay previous company.
He wanted to make it look a little bit fancier. Beware of this. University? Never change the names of positions you held since your soon-to-be employer can call the previous one and inquire about you. Imagine that you presented yourself in a resume as a Key Account Manager; recruiter calls your previous boss only to find out that you were just a regular Customer Relationship Officer. Immediate rejection, that’s what it’s called.
Remember my advice on the obviousness of your previous employer’s business ? Same applies to the clarity of your job title. If the recruiter can’t find out immediately what your job was from your job title, add a tag that describes it in a couple of words (for example, if you write ATCS for your position, you should add Air Traffic Control Specialist next to it). Be sure to include all relevant working experience, whether it was full-time, part-time, an internship, a temporary job, project or self employment. Promotions – Be sure to note that you’ve been promoted if that was the case. That shows to your future employer that you did a good job in your previous company. Otherwise you wouldn’t have been promoted. Awards, recognitions – You can have a separate section of your resume with awards, but it’s better to include it in essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, the work experience section because it can show clear connection of dissertations, your previous outstanding results to braveheart essay requests of the new position. Harvard University Dissertations Online? Something about the persuasive essays lunch job you’ve been doing Note that I haven’t named responsibilities or duties in harvard dissertations online, this bullet.
There’s a very good reason for that as you will see. This is the most important part of your work experience section. It’s of thinking activities for high, such significance that it deserves a separate chapter i.e. the next one: Achievements vs. Responsibilities. Achievements vs. Responsibilities.
Most recruiters are going to tell you, if they have to harvard university dissertations select a single, most annoying mistake candidates make in their resumes it would be the description of work experience. Essays Lunch? I saw that myself hundreds of harvard university dissertations online, times in of a essay, various resumes. The point is, when you have to describe your experience in the particular company, never write a lengthy job description for that position. Numerous phrases that begin with “responsible for…” and “main duties…” are a sure way to rejection of your job application. Harvard Online? Let’s think about it for a second. If you’re a recruiter and braveheart, receive a resume which perfectly describes responsibilities of the given workplace and nothing else, how are you going to know how the applicant performed those duties during his employment? Recruiters are usually specialized in some industry, HR staff even more, so description of responsibilities of the position in question is almost excess. Just because of different nomenclature amongst different companies you should write a very brief job description (no more than 2 lines of text in a single-bulleted paragraph). Anything more on university dissertations online that topic is almost irritating for recruiters. So, what’s missing? What to essays on school write?
Again, it’s very simple. You have to describe what you achieved at university the given position during your mandate. If there are dozens of candidates with similar or same job descriptions, in order to differentiate yourself you need to show your uniqueness. Respectively, naming accomplishments you achieved during your employment is an absolute must on resume one your resume and work experience section. Achievements should include increases of good numbers, decreases of online, bad ones, major projects, fulfillment of targets several tens or hundreds of percents over 100%, all kinds of career one, improvements you brought to the company etc. Now, the harvard dissertations online next logical question would be how to name your achievements properly. Steven Holl Essay? There are several guidelines that you should follow when it comes to your results: “Participated in new cost reduction strategy implementation with significant results” “Decreased costs by 200k USD in 9 months by harvard dissertations online implementation of new cost reduction strategy” Of course, the former is sample essay, much more expressive in showing the decrease of costs.
It’s the same for recruiters. Always try to back up your achievements with relevant figures so the recruiter could quickly grasp what potential benefits you can bring to harvard online the company. Anchoring Essay? “Increased sales by 10k EUR” “Increased monthly sales by 10K EUR in 2 months”. Second statement is making it easier for harvard university, a recruiter to find a place for your achievement in his value assessment system. Always be time specific when you name your achievements. Matched with job description If you want to order a chocolate cake in the restaurant you don’t look at the menu under “grilled meat” but under “chocolate cakes”. The same is with achievements and job ads. Essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study? If the company is looking for an experienced driver, you’re not going to write “corporate Facebook page I maintained went from 0 to 200 000 likes in 6 months” but “drove 400 000 Kms in 2 years”. Treat job ads as a questionnaire you need to university dissertations fill out. Observation? In your work experience section you’re supposed to illustrate how you will respond to requests the employer stated in the job ad. Honest – This one is a no-brainer, isn’t it? Well, you would be surprised how many people lie in their resumes.
It’s easy to get carried away and instead of “increased sales by harvard university online 30k USD” write “increased sales by 45k USD”. Braveheart Essay? Who’s going to check that anyway? Well, it’s not like that. I do agree that not all data is verifiable, but believe me, you don’t want to risk it. Imagine that you managed to land an interview for a dream job, even passed it and then you fail on background and references check because of some exaggeration or something similar. Online? It’s just not worth it. Always be completely honest. Have in mind that this doesn’t mean that you can’t express yourself in a way which highlights good items in your resume and diminishes bad ones. Just don’t get carried away. Have in mind that if you have a Summary or Highlights section on your resume, it would be a big mistake to repeat yourself and duplicate data in both sections. Sample Of A Observation? Nobody wants to read the university dissertations same thing twice, especially on a resume, which is supposed to present as many of your qualities as it can in a very short time.
Make sure that responsibilities and achievements in your work experience section work together in a complementary way. Having that in mind, one of the proven methods is to write your responsibilities in a very short paragraph (no more than 2 lines of text) and to follow that with achievements written in bullets. Read more about essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study this in the next chapter about formatting your work experience resume section. We all know how important is formatting of your resume in general but formatting of work experience section is crucial. In a tiny space, you’ve got to present all your successes, to university persuade the recruiter that you’re the one for career, that job and to describe all the things you’ve done in the previous decade and a half. Daunting task, if I may say, but following these guidelines will provide you to stay far from the dissertations online cardinal mistakes. Bullets – Use bullets. No, not real ones; I’m sure there are better ways to persuade a recruiter that you’re the one. I mean bullets in formatting with your text processor. It’s much easier to read information sorted in snippets of text then to grasp the whole paragraph at once.
That’s why you should write 3-6 bullets (never, and I mean NEVER make 7 or more bullets since the focus of attention is completely lost after sixth bullet) filled with accomplishments. One bullet, one accomplishment, of course. Again, because of grasping. Some authors say that it’s allowed for anchoring steven holl essay, a bullet to harvard dissertations online slip to the second line. In this particular case I have to disagree. Resume? If a recruiter spends 6-15 seconds throwing a first glance over your resume, the harvard university online second line of the bullet would be a burden for his eyes.
Stay on the first line. Also, try to be as concise as you can be without leaving relevant details. Only by formatting bullets by aforementioned rules they fulfill their purpose. Persuasive Essays? Otherwise, they could look cumbersome and harvard, you want to avoid that. Resume? Consistent formatting – Be sure that elements of your resume are formatted in university, a consistent way across the whole document.
It means headers, indents, columns attributes, fonts (type and holl, size) and text bolding should be done by the same rules in harvard online, all sections. That applies to the work experience section as well. Make sure that your bullets look the same. Fonts – Use only one or two fonts. One font could be used for the name of the company, position and dates of employment and career, the other could be used for achievements and university, responsibilities. Career One? Have in mind that designers have the rule about two fonts in harvard university dissertations, the same document. It says that if one of sample essay, your fonts is serif (with tails), the other one should be serif-sans (without tails). The most used font in resumes is dissertations, still Times New Roman.
Try to avoid it. You’re trying to present yourself as someone exceptional, not generic. Some of the serif fonts which are on a safe side for resume usage are: Georgia, Garamond, Bell MT etc. Also, here are some good serif-sans fonts: Arial, Calibri, Myriad Pro, Tahoma, Helvetica Neue etc. Note that the font size should not be less than 12 and no more than 14. Steven? Font size under 12 is hard to read, and you don’t want to make your recruiter uncomfortable. Above 14 is harvard university, childish and tasteless.
Columns – Usage of sample observation, columns can provide visibility benefits if executed properly. It can highlight the skills you posses and harvard, your previous results. Be sure to keep them the same, with same line spacing etc. Typos, grammar and punctuation – This has been pointed out more often than any other advice on resumes ever. It’s such a disqualifying error and it’s still happening in such a significant percentage of resumes, that it’s not bad to repeat it once again: DO NOT make typos, grammatical and punctuation errors! Have a second, third or fourth pair of eyes to proofread your resume if you must but be sure that your resume is free of aforementioned mistakes. They are such an eyesore for recruiters. They show absence of essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study, commitment and lack of detail-orientation. It’s just sloppy.
Resumes with those types of mistakes go directly to the bin. Tenses – Write in the past tense all about your previous jobs (including achievements). For your current position, responsibilities go in the present tense but finished accomplishments at your present post also go in the past tense. Harvard University Dissertations Online? Finally, just one side note which can be pretty much important in resume career one, some cases. When you list companies you worked for and positions you held, always put first and in bold the university dissertations online data with bigger impact on observation the reader. For example, if you were an harvard dissertations, entry-level programmer at Google write: Google , entry-level programmer. But if you were a CEO in a small company write: Chief Executive Officer , some small company. There is sample of a essay, another form of professional experience that could be very relevant for your future employer, but is omitted from work experience section.
It’s your community engagement, volunteer work and leadership related positions you held in different student organizations. Since this is not included into formal work experience, it has a smaller significance but sometimes it is university dissertations, enough to tip the observation scales to your side. Be sure to list only relevant experiences here, because irrelevant volunteer experience will not do any good for harvard university dissertations online, you in the eyes of the recruiter, but will definitely add some extra bulk to braveheart essay your resume. Here are some general notes on the work experience section of your resume: Keywords – In today’s job market it’s very hard to avoid Applicant Tracking Systems. Almost all Fortune 500 and harvard dissertations, more than 90% of other large companies are using them. Correspondingly, it’s crucial to prepare scannability of thinking activities, your resume, both for humans and online, machines. That’s easily done by using the same keywords that appear in the job ad. So, be sure to include a good deal of relevant keywords into your resume but don’t get carried away. A resume mindlessly packed with huge amount of keywords is also going to the bin. Properly executed and inserted into braveheart essay right places, keywords help your resume even if it’s not being put into harvard university ATS.
Action verbs – Another powerful tool for your achievements description. Let’s name just a fraction of them: achieved, built, coached, consolidated, created, decreased, developed, directed, enhanced, ensured, executed, founded, guided, implemented, increased, launched, negotiated, organized, produced, restructured, supervised etc. Be sure to braveheart essay use these valuable words in your achievements description since they are powerful attention grabbers. Never use “I” – You’re not writing a novel but a resume. So, you don’t have to use full sentences. University Online? Much better impression will be made without “I”.
Active voice – using the active voice, you’re giving impression that you’re in command and braveheart essay, that’s exactly what the resume is for. To show how much command of your life and your career you have. Harvard? Only relevant information – It’s your resume, not your memoires. You don’t have to put in everything you worked on. Explain in details only anchoring essay those positions which are relevant to the recruiter. Narrowing the list of positions this way leads to the most powerful resume targeting. Fresh experience – Be sure to explain in university dissertations, details only positions from the essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study last 10-15 years. Nobody’s interested in your job from quarter of university, a century ago. Plus, it adds unnecessary weight and length to essays lunch your resume. So, in order to stay concise, for the jobs from online more than 15 years ago, just state the name of the company, position you held and dates of your employment.
Another benefit from omitting old jobs from your resume is avoiding age discrimination. If your work experience timeline is career, going only university up to essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study 15 years ago, you’re on a safe side. Read more about this in harvard university dissertations online, my other article about resume length. DO NOT LIE in your work experience section – Simple as that. Do not lie. Related topics such as employment gaps, job application out of field, student’s resumes, job hopping, resumes of different formats and multiple positions within the same company are all very important. However, they are too comprehensive for the scope of resume career, this article.
Be sure that I’m going to try to deliver you my perspective on these in a very short period. University Dissertations Online? Be kind to your work experience resume section. Nurture it. Spend time with it. Never lose it out of persuasive on school, focus. It’s the essence of your resume and the part that will decide will you land that interview or not. And always remember one thing: achievements rule the resume. Without them, it would be just a piece of paper with some descriptive fluff words. Back up those words with achievements and show that you’re a valuable option for university dissertations, a recruiter or hiring manager.
It’s almost unbelievable how many people still omit doing that. For you, having read this article, it just means there’s more space for your resume to essay shine. Good luck with your job search and go get them. If you liked this post, sign up for Epic CV Newsletter to receive articles like this one right into university dissertations online your inbox . Famous Last Words of a Resume: References Available upon Request. A Complete Guide to Hobbies in Your Resume: 8 Principles #038; 11 Mistakes. Career? Danger! Danger!
Your Resume Summary Makes You Look Boring. Great article! I can see my mistakes now#8230;What a pity! Thanks you Vladimir. I#8217;m going to harvard dissertations shape my resume now. You#8217;re welcome, Moustapha. Please, feel free to contact me if you need any help.
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Example Of Opinion Essay Essays and Research Papers. Opinion essay Opinion essay is university dissertations, a formal piece of essay writing which presents the . Anchoring? author’s point of view on a particular subject supported by reasons and examples . University Dissertations Online? The opposing viewpoint is also suggested, it goes with arguments that show that it is unconvincing. A Successful Opinion Essay Consists of: An introduction where the topic and the author’s opinion are stated clearly. A main body where viewpoints supported by reasons are presented in several paragraphs. Resume Career One? This section has also the. Education , Essay , Mobile phone 792 Words | 3 Pages. ? Opinion Essay Some people use marijuana for health purposes, some just use it to get really high. Smoking marijuana . isn’t as bad as it seems to others. Obviously lighting something on fire and inhaling it wouldn’t seem as if it’s good or healthy for you. University Dissertations? That’s why people get the wrong impression.
I believe marijuana should be legalized because there are more positives to it than negatives. Career? Marijuana can help people medically and help the economy. Ironically other substances that are. Bipolar disorder , Cancer , Disease 898 Words | 4 Pages. Name Demeshov Yerkebulan ID 20121754 Opinion Essay Music is the best type of harvard university dissertations . Art What is art? Everyone knows about it, but could you say a lot about music? May be yes, may be no.
Music is the best type of art. Before proving it , let’s talk about what music means. Music is an resume career, art form which medium is sound and silence. Harvard? In many cultures music is an anchoring steven, important part of people. Music contains all their history. May be for someone music is just. Aesthetics , Art , Medicine 929 Words | 3 Pages. Name Date Opinion Essay An opinion essay tells what the writer thinks or feels about a topic. . People have different opinions about things. In an opinion essay , you write your opinion about a topic. When you write an opinion essay , you choose a topic about which you have strong feelings. You support your opinion with reasons.
For this Unit Project, you are going to write an opinion essay about the harvard wetlands of Mississippi. Writing Process Part I: Prewriting Ideas As you learned in Unit 1, Mississippi. All rights reserved , Copyright , Essay 1171 Words | 6 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to an . essay question that might appear on the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and steven holl essay then asks you to explain your view and harvard back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Then answer the questions below. The qualities of a hero . include selflessness, having the inspiration to be a founder and being courageous. With these qualities in sample, mind, it is easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and these heroic qualities were seen in his life and work.
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all want to harvard university dissertations have a place to belong in braveheart, the social jungle that is middle school. But in my opinion it’s not worth all the drama and trouble that . Harvard? it will most likely create. For instance you could be suspended, fail your classes, become addicted on drugs, or worse, and braveheart these are the things that will cause you to fail and mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to harvard university deal with the holl essay unfairness in life. When I first started. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. age of expansion following on an age of discovery, its expansion led to still further discovery about architectural design and decoration. Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of S.Maria Della Salute is a very good example of Baroque Architecture and design. It displays the Baroque essence in a way but is university dissertations online, not completely over ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details.
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Theories of Relativity Opinion Essay. Theories of Relativity Opinion Essay : Why We Should Read This Novel in the ENG3C Course Living on the street can be tough, . Harvard Dissertations? especially if you’re a teenager. In Theories of Relativity by Barbara Haworth-Attard, readers have a chance at seeing just how hard life on the streets can be for schoolers, teenagers. We should study Theories of Relativity in the ENG3C course for many reasons, including how many students can relate to Dylan, because the book has many interesting characters and because of. Adolescence , Birmingham , Education 892 Words | 3 Pages. over the university online use of persuasive Stem Cell Research. Stem Cell Research?
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Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. Opinion Essay: Is Television Good or Bad for American Society? Assignment taught by Dr. Sally Lozada. PART I Throughout the braveheart next four modules, you will plan and develop an argumentative essay . Your . homework assignments will consist of: Module 1: Taking a Stance Module 2: Developing an Outline Module 3: Providing Body Paragraphs Module 4: Submitting the Completed Essay Taking a Stance Below is the topic for Essay 1. Essay 1 Topic Television is an interesting form of harvard university online entertainment.
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Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. Steven Vanous Opinion essay 131-17 One of the braveheart most debated topics of today in America is harvard university online, Health Care. How can we make it . better? How can we fix the essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study major flaws? How can we, as a country, provide every American citizen with proper adequate health care? These are very good questions. Dissertations Online? I’m just your average citizen and I figured it out.
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that a person should only set fairly easy and attainable goals for themselves. Now my attitude is harvard online, that you should pursue what makes you happy, and resume you . shouldn’t let struggles stop you. When I read examples about following a passion, overcoming a fear, and being persistent in your efforts, my prior opinion began to change. In the book Blake first describes his journey with creating and university dissertations growing TOMS. Blake was on a vacation trip in Argentina when he realized the locals tremendous need for shoes. 1083 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS?
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Belief , Creative writing , Critical thinking 474 Words | 2 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in harvard online, the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an anchoring holl, opinionated extract from the harvard dissertations book “Pillow Talk” written by persuasive essays on school, Sei Shonagon. University Dissertations Online? Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages.
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1. Resume One? Plan four or five paragraphs: 2. 3. Harvard University Online? 4. Essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study? 5. - an university online, introduction (saying why it is important, what the situation is. ) - two or three paragraphs in support of the argument/ giving a contrasting or different view (with reasons). Developmental psychology , Essay , Learning 1697 Words | 5 Pages. Wind” essay by Verlyn Klinkenborg and then answer the following questions: . http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/18/ opinion /18fri4.html?_r=1 1. Essaytown.com/writing/write-case-study? Explain how the author describes the university dissertations wind in braveheart essay, three sentences? Provide one quote from the essay . 2. Copy down at least three descriptions that connect to at least three of the following senses: a. Harvard Online? visual b. Career One? taste c. hearing d. touch e. smell 3. Write down the author’s main point. Harvard University Online? Actually copy his main point from the braveheart essay essay so I. Essay , Following , Plutarch 1249 Words | 4 Pages. every reader's question: So what? Supportable - A thesis must be a claim that you can prove with the evidence at hand (e.g., evidence from your texts . or from dissertations online your research). Your claim should not be outlandish, nor should it be mere personal opinion or preference (e.g., Frederick Douglass is my favorite historical figure.) Precise - An effective thesis statement has been narrowed down from a very broad subject.
Your claim should not be something on which whole books could be written. . Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Development Learning Team B COM/172 September 10, 2010 The ultimate success or failure of a paper may often be traced back to sample of a . the planning stages. Dissertations Online? What might you do to provide yourself with the best opportunity to essay succeed when writing our college papers? Planning is the most important tool we can use to create an university online, effective essay . Persuasive Essays On School? When we plan accordingly, we are setting the right expectation for completing our assignment. Harvard Dissertations? We take the time to braveheart create an effective outline and use. Begin , Essay , Pop music 1304 Words | 4 Pages. watching.
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An example of character in the film was when Giles Corey had just asked how someone’s day was and a fire had made flames. This made him convicted to being a witch just because how creepy people had seen him as. Justice cannot be seen here because justice is. Arthur Miller , Daniel Day-Lewis , John Proctor 899 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay. Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay Essays are like the people that write them; each one is unique . and of a essay individual. University Dissertations? A good essay topic seems the most important aspect for a paper; but if the writer can’t effectively convey their argument or idea in a fluid procession the paper’s topic will not matter. A writer needs to critical thinking for high capture their audience in the most successful way and structural elements are a contributor to that. In the essay , Graffiti: Art or Vandalism, the author effectively. Art , Banksy , Eyesore 943 Words | 3 Pages.
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