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BTEC First Diploma in Business Presentation
A Sample Juice #038; Sports Bar Business Plan Template FREE. Btec First Diploma. Are you about resume for seniors, starting a juice bar or sports bar? If YES, here is diploma in business coursework, a complete sample bar business plan template feasibility report you can use for cover for an, FREE. Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a juice and sports bar. We also took it further by btec analyzing and drafting a sample juice and sports bar marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for juice and the story of my experiments, sports bar businesses.
So let#8217;s proceed to first diploma in business coursework, the business planning section. For Seniors. Why Do Bars Exist? One of the ways to relax after a hard day’s work includes going to cool off at a bar. Btec First Coursework. In the United States of spanish narrative essay, America for instance; there is always the need to btec in business, go cool off because of the need to work round the clock if need be and then make ends meet. This is one of the reasons why quite a number of people do not joke with the aphorism that says ‘all work and no play, makes jack or Debbie (as the case may be) a dull boy’ . As such, bars will continue to the story of my with, spring up here and there, Truth is that the bar business can be said to be saturated because of the competition involved. Btec First In Business. More and more people want to go into the trade and make good money. Whether it is with those selling the locally made brand of religion term papers, drinks, or the very pricey brands of wines, the truth remains that one can be a millionaire overnight in this trade. With the necessary financing, as well as the license to operate, you can be sure to first in business, start off and spanish essay, hit the road running soon enough.
Stating a bar business requires that you start off on the right footing. Whilst some folks start a business before writing a business plan, yet experts have always advised that the reverse is better. First Coursework. This means that there is the need to first go to the drawing table and draw up a business plan before then starting out. It is very needful for essay of dramatic poesie, you to note that writing a business plan might not come easy. Btec. However, there is just one way to do this and spanish narrative essay, get it right. Btec In Business. What way could this be, you just may ask? That one way entails that you get a copy of an the story experiments truth existing business plan and then use it to tailor yours. This means that you can get a sample bar business plan and then tweak it by putting in all your own relevant information. Btec First Diploma Coursework. This is religion papers, why this read was put together.
There are calculations and projections that need thorough attention, these areas include your sales projection, profit projections, and btec first diploma in business coursework, what have you. If the idea of writing a business plan still looks vague, then you will find below a sample bar business plan which will help you immensely. A FREE Sample Juice Sports Bar Business Plan Template. Cover Letter For An Application. In the United States of in business, America just like in any part of the spanish narrative essay, world, the bar and nightclub industry is indeed a very lucrative industry. In the United States alone, statistics has it that the bar and night club industry generate a whooping sum of $20 billion in revenue annually from about 45,000 established and recognized bars and night clubs in the US. The distilled spirits industry generates around $100 billion in United States of America.
For those that run bars and night clubs, their major sources of revenue generation are the sale of assorted beers, distilled spirits, liquor, martinis, wine, food and non – alcoholic beverages. Beer which is the first diploma coursework, major selling point for bars accounting for in my opinion thesis, 37% of the revenue generated by bars in diploma the United States is manufactured by more than 3,000 breweries (both conventional and microbrewery). For example; statistics has it that the United States of America produced about 196 million barrels (23.0 GL) of beer in 2012 alone, and consumes roughly 28 US gallons (110 L) of beer per capita annually, and a larger percentage of this beers are sold in resume bars and night club and diploma in business, In 2011, the United States was ranked fifteenth in the world in per capita consumption, while total consumption was second only to in my opinion, China. This goes to btec in business, show that bar and night club business is indeed a very lucrative business in the United States. Although people still gather to socialize in spanish narrative essay bars, just as they have always done in btec first in business coursework time past, but with factors such as driving whilst intoxicated and increase in crime rates, the cover letter, drinking pattern in bars is being affected. Also, the growing concern as regards health and fitness toward the end of the 20th century was part of what redefined non-alcohol consumption in the US. In essence, the rate at btec first diploma coursework which people consume beers and poesie, other drinks alcoholic and non – alcoholic is what determines the growth of bar and night club industry.
Any entrepreneur who wants to start a bar business in btec first diploma in business coursework the US would definitely be confronted with tough competition out there. Letter Application. The truth is that, you will not only in business compete with bars in your location or city, but you would be competing with every other entertainment options such as; night clubs, restaurants, casinos et al. For instance, people go to poesie, bars to drink and socialize and they tend to get more when they go to night clubs or other entertainment hub. In night clubs, people do not only drink and socialize, but they also dance if they choose to and get entertained. Coursework. Lastly it is important to state that in as much as starting a bar business can be profitable and for seniors, rewarding, the success of any new bar in the United States is not automatic. The chances that new bars have to struggle within the first in business, first 6 months of launching can’t be ruled out.
As a matter of fact, it can take between two to five years before most bars can possibly recover their initial investment. In order words, just like loads of new businesses, the letter for an, statistics for bars do not favor the startups, you just have to have a long term investment plan if you intend starting your bar business. Sample Bar Business Plan Template Executive Summary. Bay Town Bubbling Bar is a neighborhood bar that will be located in downtown Los Angeles; at 300 S. Grand Central Parkway in Los Angeles, California. The facility is centrally located and it is close to the popular Market Center and a residential estate in LA.
We are set to make available assorted beers, crafted beers, wines, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis, non-alcoholic drinks, beverages and foods to the people in Los Angeles in a conducive environment that is specifically designed for socializing and networking and free from all forms of violence. Our bar facility is centrally located in a busy street and it has the diploma, capacity to accommodate 200 people per time. Bay Town Bubbling Bar is designed and constructed to meet both the health and safety standard as recommended by the local authority. Our customers are going to be treated to good music at all times. We have made provision for in my, a live band, karaoke, country side music and jazz et al.
This will be played at diploma the background to create the ambience that our customers will cherish. We are in business to make profits, at the same to give our customers value for their money; we want to give people the opportunity to choose from the wide range of beers and other drinks that are manufactured in the United States of America. Bay Town Bubbling Bar will go all the way to make available in world religion term papers our bar most of the first diploma in business coursework, brand of beers produced in the US. Our goal is to make every day a day of opinion, celebration, networking and socializing for as many people that will patronize our bar. First Diploma In Business. No doubt, we will become the talk of essay, town amongst the socialites in Los Angeles, because we have put plans in btec first diploma place to make our bar bubbling 24 / 7 and highly secured because who want to open attract everybody (celebrity and non-celebrity alike).
Bay Town Bubbling Bar is owned by David Jefferson who has managed several bars and night clubs in Los Angeles and Las Vegas prior to opening his own. He has the magic wand to attract people who go to bars on a regular basis and this is largely because the people love him. The business will be managed by world term his trusted associate for many years, Iverson Cooper who coincidentally was recruited and trained by him 5 years ago in downtown Las Vegas. Btec Diploma In Business Coursework. Bay Town Bubbling Bar is going to operate a standard bar that will make available every product that can be found in a standard bar in essay poesie the United States. Btec First Diploma In Business. We will ensure that we go all length to make available assorted drinks in of dramatic poesie our bar. These are some of the products that will be found in our bar; Beers (Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, Budweiser, Michelob Ultra-Light, Natural Light, Busch Light, Bush, Redds Apple Ale, Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Keystone Light, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Bud Light Lime, Bud Light Platinum Lager et al) Locally Crafted Beers (Pale Beers, Amber Beers, Dark Beers, Hebrew Beers, Gluten Free, Organic Brews, Cider et al) Wines Distilled spirits Liquor Martinis Small Chops Non – alcoholic beverages Tobacco. Our vision is to establish a standard and btec first in business, secured bar Los Angeles, CA that will be the melting pot of all lovers of alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks. Opinion Thesis. Our mission is to establish a bar business that will make available all the brands of alcoholic and no – alcoholic drinks in the United States at every given time to first, our highly esteemed customers and a place where people can network and socialize. Narrative Essay. Bay Town Bubbling Bar is a business that is established to be a pacesetter when it comes to how standard bars should be run in Los Angeles and even in the United States of America.
We have the goal of assembling a team of dedicated workforce who will give our customers excellent customer service at all times, a team that will ensure that we will continue to have repeat customers and a team that will indeed make us the melting pot for btec in business coursework, beer lovers and socialites in Los Angeles. In view of the above, we have been able to follow suit on narrative essay what is btec first diploma in business, obtainable in standard bars in the US and perhaps improve on the structure with time when the need arises. Below is the shape and in my opinion, structure we will build Bay Town Bubbling Bar on; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Bar Manager Bartender / Baristas Accountants / Cashiers Procurement Officer DJ Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant Cleaners Security Officers. Roles and Responsibilities. Chief Executive Officer – CEO: Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the organization’s vision, mission, and overall direction – i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization’s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for recruitment Responsible for payment of salaries Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization. Responsible for managing the daily activities in the bar Ensures that the facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Interfaces with vendors Reports to the Chief Executive Officer Attends to Customers complains and enquiries Prepares budget and reports for the organization Responsible for Training and Development in the organization Responsible for procuring of raw materials and equipment Handles any other duty as assigned by the CEO. In Business Coursework. Interacts with customers, take orders for drinks and snacks. Plans and resume, presents bar menu. First Diploma Coursework. Checks identification of the guest to make sure they meet age requirements for purchase of alcohol and tobacco products. Mixes ingredients to prepare cocktails and other drinks.
Mixes drinks, cocktails and other bar beverages as ordered and in compliance with hotel standard drink recipes. Prepares alcohol or non-alcohol beverages. Serves Wine and Beer to guests. Arranges bottles and glasses to make attractive displays. Assesses customers’ needs and preferences and narrative, make recommendations Makes lists of supplies in conjunction with the bar manager / management Prepares inventory or purchase requisitions as needed to btec diploma in business, replenish supplies. Ensures that the world papers, assigned bar area is fully equipped with tools and btec diploma, products needed for Mixing beverages and serving guests. Collects payment for drinks served and balance all receipts.
Prepares financial report at the end of every working week Handles all financial transaction on behalf of the company Interfaces with our bankers Responsible for world term papers, payment of tax, levies and first in business coursework, utility bills Handles any other duty as assigned by the CEO / microbrewery manager. Ensures that customers are entertained with the best of music per time Manages the experiments with essay, sound system for the bar In charge of music collections Provides music at events. Responsible for developing music playlists. Interacts with public at parties. Responsible for first diploma coursework, mixing music tracks. Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant.
Opens door and welcome customers Ensures that customers feel relaxed and at home Handles customers enquiries Assesses customers’ needs and preferences and make recommendations Ability to Sell or influence others for up selling and the story of my experiments with truth, suggestive selling. Provides recommendations and suggestions to guest for choosing Drinks and Snacks. Btec First Diploma In Business Coursework. Serves customers in a friendly and helpful manner. Provides guidance to guests on resort activities, dining options and general resort and resume, Regional information. Determines when a customer has had too much alcohol and if required refusing any further serving on a polite way. Demonstrates a thorough knowledge of food and btec first in business coursework, beverage products, menus and Promotions Handles any other duty as assigned by the bar manager. Handles and move objects, such as glasses and bottles, using hands and arms. Religion Papers. Cleans up after customers and clean work area. Clears ashtrays as and when required.
Washes glassware and btec diploma coursework, utensils after each use. Maintains a clean working area by sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, cleaning of glass doors and windows, etc. if required. Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of stock Handles any other duty as assigned by the restaurant manager, Ensures that the facility is secured at all time Controls traffic and organize parking Give security tips to staff members from time to time Patrols around the building on a 24 hours basis Submits security reports weekly Any other duty as assigned by the restaurant manager. Sample Juice Bar Business Plan Template SWOT Analysis. Bay Town Bubbling Bay is established with the aim of becoming the melting point for socialites and letter for an application, lovers of beers in Los Angles which is why we have taken our time to critically analyze and conduct SWOT analysis to be able to identify areas we need to work on btec diploma coursework if indeed we want to world religion term, achieve our business goal. No investor would want to invest his or hard earned money without assessing the risks involved in the venture and btec, also his or her capability to deliver and make profits from the business.
The ability to make profits from cover letter for an, any business and to favorably compete with competitors in the industry starts with the result you get from your SWOT analysis. In view of that, Bay Town Bubbling Bar hired a business and HR specialist to help conduct SWOT analysis for the business and below is btec first, a summary of the result that was generated; Our strength as a company is, excellent and for an application, detailed customer service. Wide range of assorted drinks, beverages, tobaccos and food. Excellent facility, excellent ambience and perfect location for a bar in metropolitan city like Los Angles. Our perceived weakness could be that we are new business, and we may not have the financial muscle to btec first in business coursework, sustain the kind of poesie, publicity we want to first diploma in business coursework, give our business. Opinion. There are unlimited business opportunities available to bar businesses in busy cities like Los Angeles; Los Angeles is btec, one of the cities in the world where social life is at of my with truth essay its peak.
Another opportunity that we stand to leverage on is the fact that we can easily order any brand or beer and drinks directly from the manufacturer with little or no stress. One of the threats that are likely going to diploma coursework, confront us is the government policies, downturn in the economy which is likely going to affect sales and perhaps the emergence of new bars (competitors) within the same location where our bar is located. Sample Juice Sports Bar Business Plan Template MARKET ANALYSIS. In recent time, the societal shift away from alcoholic drinks toward healthier lifestyles is to a larger extent contributing to a steady decline in the amount of household spending allocated to trips to bars and nightclubs plus the fact that nobody wants to be caught driving while drunk. World Term Papers. The recent market trend is such that the increase in first diploma in business coursework the number of consumers choosing packaged beverages for home consumption rather than at bars or nightclubs is also on the increase. This trend is surely going to have lasting impacts on both the resume for seniors, bar business and nightclub business. Diploma. Statistics has it that the number of bar and nightclub business establishments is forecast to decline slightly but that does not in any way affect the revenue generated by those who are still in business. In fact, the revenues are expected to grow as the economy improves and consumer spending increases. Resume. The industry revenue is projected to grow to about 2.5% per year over the next 6 years. It is also important to point out that personal income and entertainment contributes greatly to first in business coursework, the numbers of people that patronize bars and night clubs.
Although there are loads of clients for bar business, but the profitability of individual bars within the location where they operate depends largely on their ability to drive traffic and develop a loyal customer’s base. Bars and nightclubs do not only compete with one another alone, they also share the available market with other businesses like restaurants, hotels, casinos and outlets that retails drinks for home consumption. We have done our feasibility studies, market survey and drafted out in my thesis, our juice sports bar marketing plan. We were able to identify those who we expect will eventually become our loyal customers; our target market. Below is first diploma, our target market; Corporate Executives Business People Sports Men and Women Government Officials College Students Tourists. World Religion Term Papers. Below are the statistics that we intend working with when developing our marketing and sales strategy (culled from the internet); Householders under 35 spend 51% ($108.40 for 25 to 34 year olds) t0 58% ($113.55 for under 25 year olds) above the average household expenditure of $71.98 on beer and first diploma in business, ale at restaurants and bars. Cover Letter. Further, people who live by themselves and spend less than average on btec first diploma in business most typical consumer staples, tend to the story of my experiments truth essay, spend 6% relative to btec coursework, the rest of the spanish narrative, population on beer at bars and restaurants. Ethnicity . Spending by non-Hispanic whites on beer and ale is 16 percent higher than the national household average and comprises 88 percent of the market.
Spending by other ethnic groups were lower than the national average: Hispanic (33% less, 7.7% of btec first coursework, market), Black (73% less, 3.3% of market), and Asian (50% less, 1.9% of market). Geography . Resume For Seniors. Differences in spending on beer and ale at restaurants and bar emerge regionally: Midwest (38% higher, 32% of market), West (2% higher, 23% of market), Northeast (11% less, 15% of market), and South (19% less, 29% of market). Diploma In Business. Income levels . Households earning $100,000 or more spent 84% more than the resume, average household on beer and ales, households earning $70,000 – $100,000 spend 21% more than average, households earning $40,000 to $70,000 spend about 15% more than average, while households earning less than $40,000 spend about 50% less than average.” Part of what is going to btec first diploma in business, be our selling point in Los Angeles is the fact that we operate a standard bar, in a perfect location for the kind of business that we run and also the fact that bar facility is highly secured. Poesie. Another factor that will give Bay Town Bubbling Bar competitive edge is that we have enough packing space to accommodate the numbers of customers our bar can contain per time. We are not ignoring the btec first, fact that we are amongst the few neighborhood bars in downtown Los Angeles that sell almost all the brands of beers, crafted beers, wines, distilled spirits, liquors et al and the story of my experiments with truth essay, obviously, that will surely count towards our advantage in the market place and also the robust experience of our CEO and the bar manager is also a positive for Bay Town Bubbling Bar. Sample Sports Bar Business Plan Template SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Btec First Diploma. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. Top of the list on our marketing and sale strategy document is generating a buzz for spanish narrative essay, our bar via word-of-mouth and first coursework, leveraging on spanish narrative essay road show. The model of bar we intend running is a neighborhood bar, hence we are not going to rely only on the conventional ways of marketing. We don’t have the plans to run paid adverts on Local TV stations, local radio stations or even local newspaper but we will sure maximize every other available means to promote our business. Our unique selling proposition is that we have a collection of almost all the brand of first diploma in business coursework, beers produced in America in our bar, we have assorted drinks and the story of my experiments with truth, tobaccos et al.
In view of that, we are going to adopt the following strategies to ensure that we do not only attract customers but generate repeated sales from them. Parts of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt are; Open our bar in a grand style with a party for all. Ensure that we have a wide range of btec first coursework, beers, wines, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis and non-alcoholic drinks at all times. Make use of attractive hand bills to create awareness and also to give direction to of dramatic, our bar Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places Position our greeters to welcome and direct potential customers Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our bar. The sources of income for Bay Town Bubbling Bar are stated below; Sales of Beers (Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, Budweiser, Michelob Ultra-Light, Natural Light, Busch Light, Bush, Redds Apple Ale, Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Keystone Light, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Bud Light Lime, Bud Light Platinum Lager et al) Sales of btec first diploma coursework, Locally Crafted Beers (Pale Beers, Amber Beers, Dark Beers, Hebrew Beers, Gluten Free, Organic Brews, Cider et al) Sales of Assorted Wines Sales of Distilled spirits Sales of Liquor Sales of Martinis Sales of Small Chops Sales of Non – alcoholic beverages Sales of Tobacco. Opinion Thesis. It is important to state that our sales forecast is based on the data gathered during our feasibility studies and also some of the first diploma, assumptions readily available on the field. Below is the sales projection based on the location of our bar and all the products we have for thesis, sale; The prices of our Beers, Locally Crafted Beers, Wines, Distilled spirits, Liquor, Martinis, Small chops, Non – alcoholic beverages, and Tobacco will be what is obtainable in the market. In fact we will try as much as we can to sell below the industry’s average so as to btec first diploma coursework, attract loads of customers.
We also have plans in place to discount our products once in a while and also to reward our loyal customers. Our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our pub; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any difficulty.
Sample Bar Business Plan Template Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Bay Town Bubbling Bar is a neighborhood bar and we will ensure that we create the buzz that will make people in our area know about us and what we do. The Story Of My Experiments. We are quite aware that one of the effective ways of btec coursework, promoting our bar is to experiments essay, create special internal promotions which in turn will help us achieve our aim of leveraging on btec first diploma word of mouth publicity. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Bay Town Bubbling Bar; Encourage our loyal customers to help us use Word of Mouth Sponsor relevant community program Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to opinion thesis, promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on btec first diploma strategic locations Engage in world religion term road show from btec in business, time to time Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Position our Flexi Banners at strategic positions around our bar location. Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) This is the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital; The Total Fee for Registering the letter for an, Business in Los Angeles, CA: $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the accounting services totaling $1,200. Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580.
Cost for hiring Consultant – $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers’ compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium – $2,400. Cost of accounting software, CRM software and Payroll Software – $15,000 Cost for btec first coursework, payment of rent for 12 month at $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of $105,600 . The Story Experiments With Essay. Cost for facility remodeling – $25,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery – $500 ) Phone and first coursework, utility deposits ($2,500). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) – $60,000 The cost for Start-up inventory – $16,027 Storage hardware (bins, utensil rack, shelves, glasses case) – $3,720 The cost for of dramatic, counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) – $9,500 Cost for serving area equipment ( glasses, flatware) – $3,000 Cost for diploma, store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) – $13,750 Office equipment and furniture – $3,600 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and the story of my experiments with truth, chairs et al): $4,000. The cost of Launching a Website: $600 The cost for our grand opening party: $5,000 Miscellaneous: $2,500. We would need an estimate of btec diploma in business, $500,000 to successfully launch our bar in downtown Los Angeles, CA. This amount includes the salary of all employees and the CEO (Owner) for 3 months. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Bay Town Bubbling Bar.
Bay Town Bubbling Bar is a private business that is owned by Mr. David Jefferson and he intends to finance the business alone. Although he has plans to make the essay poesie, bar manager part owner of the business after 3 or 5 years of services, but that does not stop him from reserving well over 80 percent stake of the business for himself and his family. Since he is the sole financier of the business, he has decided to adopt the following means to generate start – up capital for the business; Generate part of the first diploma in business, start – up capital from his personal savings and essay, sale of his stocks Source for btec first in business, soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from world religion term, my Banks. N.B: Mr. Btec First In Business Coursework. David Jefferson has been able to in my opinion, generate $250,000 the breakdown shows that he generated $150,000 from his personal savings and btec first diploma in business coursework, sale of his stocks and he generated $100, 000 soft loans from his family members and friends. The balance of $250,000 will be generated as loan facility from his bank. Sample Bar Business Plan Template Sustainability and essay poesie, Expansion Strategy.
Part of the grand plan of sustaining Bay Town Bubbling Bar is to make the bar manager a part owner of the business. The truth is that if the owner of the bar is not going to be active in the running of the bar, the chances of being defrauded will be higher. From our findings, another factor that kills new businesses is financial leakages. In order to plug financial leakages, the management of Bay Town Bubbling Bar will adopt the use of payment machine and diploma in business, accounting software to in my, run the business. In the bid to building a successfully business, we will ensure that all our employees are comfortable and we will provide them with the best of facilities and welfare package that will help them achieve peak performance in all their duties and in turn help the organization achieve its goals and business objectives.
Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of btec first diploma coursework, Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Renting of cover application, facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from btec diploma in business coursework, family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of for seniors, Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of btec first in business, The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the of dramatic, Needed furniture, electronic appliances, office appliances and btec first diploma in business, bar accessories: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for of my, the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – suppliers of all our needed drinks, tobacco and small chops: In Progress.
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You would think someone at in business coursework, LiveScience would know better by now. pareidolia again and again and again. Though the face on the comet, with its shadowy profile, looks almost sinister, it is far from unique: Humans are wired to see faces everywhere. In fact, the phenomenon is so common that it even has a name: Pareidolia, which in Greek means, in essence, faulty image. Your brain is constantly trying to make the thesis most out of just the tiniest thing, said David Huber, a psychologist at btec first diploma in business coursework, the University of Massachusetts Amherst, who has studied the phenomenon. You’re sort of in overdrive on imagining from limited information that there is a face. From the Shroud of Turin, thought to carry the for an imprint of the crucified Jesus’ face and first diploma in business coursework, body, to faces in the clouds and the Virgin Mary on a grilled cheese sandwich, people have always seen faces in everyday objects. The Story Of My Experiments With Truth Essay. Even the faintest hint of eyes, nose and first coursework, a mouth in world papers roughly the right places will often trigger the brain’s facial recognition system, Huber said. When people see faces in images, a brain area called the fusiform face region lights up in brain scans, said Kang Lee, a developmental neuroscientist at the University of Toronto, in Canada, who has worked with Huber on several studies of how people process faces. This brain region is btec in business likely a key junction point where low-level visual information is processed to say Aha!
It’s a face, Huber said. The distance between facial features seems to play a key role in cover application the brain’s ability to spot and diploma in business coursework, uniquely identify different faces. As I pointed out back in December of 2012, LiveScience carried this bit of insanity then and that posting was called LiveScience Goofs Again : A prime example of pareidolia and its connection to religious images is the Shroud of Turin, a cloth bearing the image of a man — which some believe to be Jesus — who appears to have suffered trauma consistent with crucifixion. The negative image was first observed in 1898, on essay of dramatic poesie, the reverse photographic plate of amateur photographer Secondo Pia, who was allowed to photograph it while it was being exhibited in the Turin Cathedral. Are there no editors at this magazine? In the three short paragraphs just above the paragraph I just quoted, Zimmermann very correctly and very clearly defined pareidolia as follows: The psychological phenomenon that causes some people to see or hear a vague or random image or sound as something significant is known as pareidolia ( par-i-DOH-lee-a ).
The word is derived from the Greek words para , meaning something faulty, wrong, instead of, and the noun eidolon , meaning image, form or shape. Pareidolia is in business coursework a type of apophenia, which is experiments a more generalized term for seeing patterns in random data. Some common examples are seeing a likeness of Jesus in the clouds or an image of a man on the surface of the moon. The picture of a man on the Shroud of Turin is not at btec first diploma in business, all mere random data. It is unmistakably a picture of a man. It might be a yet unexplained work of art.
It might even be a photograph by Leonardo da Vinci. (Humor me, I’m just trying to make a point). Of My Truth Essay. It might be the product of some natural phenomenon. Or it might be a miraculous acheiropoieton, an image not created by first in business coursework, human hands. But it is not a pattern of random data that just so happens to look like a man. That would be so extraordinary and so statistically implausible as to be truly miraculous. It is not a pareidolia. Whatever anyone may think about the shroud’s authenticity, there is one thing everyone should agree about: the image of a man with a well-featured face on the shroud is not a pareidolia. Here is spanish essay a handy search of this blog on the subject . A prime example of pareidolia and its connection to religious images is the coursework Shroud of Turin, a cloth bearing the image of essay a man — which some believe to be Jesus — who appears to have suffered trauma consistent with crucifixion.
The negative image was first observed in 1898, on the reverse photographic plate of amateur photographer Secondo Pia, who was allowed to photograph it while it was being exhibited in coursework the Turin Cathedral. Are there no editors at this magazine? In the three short paragraphs just above the paragraph I just quoted, Zimmermann very correctly and very clearly defined pareidolia as follows: The psychological phenomenon that causes some people to see or hear a vague or random image or sound as something significant is for seniors known as pareidolia ( par-i-DOH-lee-a ). The word is derived from the Greek words para , meaning something faulty, wrong, instead of, and the noun eidolon , meaning image, form or shape. Pareidolia is a type of apophenia, which is a more generalized term for seeing patterns in first diploma in business coursework random data. Some common examples are seeing a likeness of Jesus in the clouds or an image of a man on the story truth essay, the surface of the moon. The picture of a man on btec first diploma coursework, the Shroud of Turin is not at all mere random data. It is unmistakably a picture of a man. It might be a yet unexplained work of art.
It might even be a photograph by Leonardo da Vinci. (Humor me, I’m just trying to make a point). It might be the product of some natural phenomenon. Or it might be a miraculous acheiropoieton, an image not created by human hands. But it is not a pattern of essay poesie random data that just so happens to look like a man. That would be so extraordinary and so statistically implausible as to be truly miraculous. It is diploma coursework not a pareidolia. We’ve covered this extensively in this blog, most recently four months ago when I wrote these words (again) from an earlier post: One day, I was astonished to receive an email from spanish narrative essay, someone who claimed that we only think we see an btec first in business coursework image of a face on the Shroud. What we think is an image, he told me, is merely the of my experiments happenstance accumulation of btec diploma in business smudges and stains on the cloth. It is no different than an essay imaginary image of Jesus on a burned slice of toast.
It is a pareidolia, an apophenia. I had never heard of either of these words. Now I have. As far as I can see, they mean the same thing. According to my Merriam-Webster dictionary apophenia is the first in business experience of seeing patterns or connections in random or meaningless data. Pareidolia is resume defined as apophenia. I wrote back. The image is too detailed. It is too realistic and too complex to not be the real face of a man.
When I say real, I mean by diploma coursework, any means. Absent other evidence this includes painting, photograph or something else that we don’t understand. But he persisted. His mind was made up. You can’t prove it, he wrote back. It could be pure coincidence and you don’t know for a fact that it isn’t. What is the threshold for resume perceiving an image? What are the criteria for btec diploma in business saying that the image is of a man?
Are you an expert on the human face? I suspect that there is a rather fuzzy swath of undecidedness between certainty that an image is of a face and is not. Given the setting and circumstance and a measure of sanity in whatever our worldview may dictate to us, we can usually avoid undecidedness. If I see a face in religion papers the clouds, I know it is in business coursework a phantasm (another cool word), an illusion, an apparition of sorts. I am sure most of us think the same thing if we see a face on the story experiments with truth essay, a piece of toast or in a smudge of a windowpane. It should be easy to know what we see for first in business coursework any given context. If I see a face in a Picasso, even if it looks less like a face than what I see on my morning toast, I know it is an image of a face because of the of my experiments with truth context. First Diploma In Business Coursework. But what about the face on the shroud? It is world religion papers a face. The context is clear.
There is an btec diploma entire body there – admittedly, at the risk of being declared incompetent, maybe a pareidolia. Of My Experiments Essay. I don’t know how the face got there but it is a face. Is there pareidolia on btec in business coursework, the shroud? I think so: the coins over the eyes, lettering, flowers, scorches that look like clowns. Poesie. We’ve been there many times. Les Fredette’s Crucifixion Nail: Why I am Skeptical About It.
Les Fredette seeing what he thinks is a crucifixion nail has inspired me to repost something I wrote in November 2010. It explains, in large measure, why I am skeptical of his claim about first diploma in business, a nail and many other such similar claims. For those bored with me repeating myself, don’t read it. I think I see the light coming to me, coming through me giving me a second sight. Those are words from the song, I Think I See, by for an application, Cat Stevens, written years before Yusuf Islam, as he is now called, converted to Islam. It was, some said, a metaphor for the promised land. And sometimes the light [I think I see] at the end of the tunnel isn’t the promised land. Sometimes it’s just New Jersey, Jon Stewart said at the Rally to Restore Sanity, not meaning, of course, to criticize Yusuf Islam who was at the rally to sing his more famous song, Peace Train. In Shroud circles, when you hear the diploma coursework four-word phrase, I think I see you immediately think of Ray Rogers.
I think I see, won’t do, he wrote concerning one person’s observation that was pretty much only one person’s observation. Religion Term. I think I see is btec first in business coursework not a scientific statement, he wrote often. To me, in an email, he wrote: tests and measurements will always have more credibility than ‘I think I see.’ What others said they saw, Rogers said he thought they merely thought they saw. I agree. One day, I was astonished to receive an email from someone who claimed that we only essay, think we see an image of btec coursework a face on the Shroud.
What we think is an image, he told me, is merely the happenstance accumulation of smudges and stains on the cloth. It is resume for seniors no different than an imaginary image of Jesus on a burned slice of toast. It is a pareidolia, an apophenia. I had never heard of either of these words. Now I have. As far as I can see, they mean the same thing. According to my Merriam-Webster dictionary apophenia is the experience of seeing patterns or connections in random or meaningless data. Pareidolia is defined as apophenia. I wrote back.
The image is too detailed. It is btec diploma in business too realistic and too complex to not be the real face of a man. Resume For Seniors. When I say real, I mean by any means. Absent other evidence this includes painting, photograph or something else that we don’t understand. But he persisted. His mind was made up.
You can’t prove it, he wrote back. It could be pure coincidence and first diploma, you don’t know for a fact that it isn’t. In My Opinion. What is the threshold for in business coursework perceiving an image? What are the opinion criteria for saying that the image is of a man? Are you an expert on the human face? I suspect that there is a rather fuzzy swath of undecidedness between certainty that an image is of a face and is not. Btec First Diploma In Business Coursework. Given the setting and circumstance and world religion, a measure of sanity in whatever our worldview may dictate to us, we can usually avoid undecidedness. If I see a face in the clouds, I know it is a phantasm (another cool word), an illusion, an apparition of sorts.
I am sure most of us think the same thing if we see a face on a piece of toast or in a smudge of a windowpane. It should be easy to know what we see for any given context. If I see a face in btec first diploma coursework a Picasso, even if it looks less like a face than what I see on my morning toast, I know it is an image of a face because of the world religion papers context. But what about the btec diploma face on resume for seniors, the shroud? It is a face. The context is clear. There is an btec diploma entire body there – admittedly, at the risk of being declared incompetent, maybe a pareidolia. I don’t know how the essay of dramatic face got there but it is btec diploma in business a face. The folks at world religion papers, the Harvard Law School are very much interested in this subject, as one might imagine they would be. In an interesting article on a fascinating blog they maintain called The Situationist , they explore the subject. They begin by pointing out that Carl Sagan once wrote:
As soon as the infant can see, it recognizes faces, and first, we now know that this skill is hardwired in our brains. Those infants who a million years ago were unable to recognize a face smiled back less, were less likely to win the hearts of their parents, and less likely to prosper. In My Opinion. These days, nearly every infant is quick to identify a human face, and to respond with a goony grin. But it need not just be faces. Coursework. Takeo Watanabe, a neuroscientist at Boston University, suggest[s] that subliminally learning something ‘too well’ interferes with perceptions of reality. The blog article continues: [P]eople have gotten so used to seeing faces everywhere that sensitivity to them is for seniors high enough to first diploma coursework, produce constant false positives. This tendency to become hyperattuned to common stimuli may represent a survival advantage. If you lived in spanish essay primeval times, for instance, Dr. In Business. Watanabe said, it would be good to be very sensitized to tigers.
A famous example is the giant face on Mars from a NASA photograph. In 2001, Michael Malin, the president and in my opinion, chief scientist at Malin Space Science Systems, wrote an article entitled Unmasking the Face on Mars. It is published on NASA’s official website. In it he wrote: Twenty five years ago something funny happened around Mars. NASA’s Viking 1 spacecraft was circling the planet, snapping photos of possible landing sites for its sister ship Viking 2, when it spotted the shadowy likeness of diploma in business coursework a human face.
An enormous head nearly two miles from end to end seemed to world religion, be staring back at the cameras from a region of the Red Planet called Cydonia. There must have been a degree of surprise among mission controllers back at btec first diploma in business coursework, the Jet Propulsion Lab when the face appeared on their monitors. In My Opinion. But the btec first coursework sensation was short lived. Of My With. Scientists figured it was just another Martian mesa, common enough around Cydonia, only this one had unusual shadows that made it look like an Egyptian Pharaoh. Indeed—and we should not be surprised by this—many people were convinced that this was a gigantic monument of some sort created by humans or human-like aliens who once lived on Mars. NASA re-photographed the mesa from different angles. They used the same ray tracing technology (think VP8) that is used to show the btec first diploma in business coursework 3D image of the face on the shroud to show that the religion papers Martian face was not a face at all. Had it been, the results would have been similar to btec first, the results obtained from the face on the shroud. The face was a pareidolic image.
But some people, not unlike flat-earthers, remain convinced that it is narrative a face. The images of a person, certainly a man if we look closely, exists on the shroud. Many well pronounced features are part of that image. But there may be other parts of the image that some people claim to see that are probably pareidolic perceptions. Takeo Watanabe’s views that subliminally learning something ‘too well’ results in false positives may explain many reported images and features of the btec shroud image. A botanist may see images of flowers and plants. A numismaticist may see images of ancient coins. A dentist may see what looks like teeth.
It would be totally unfair to the story essay, say that this is what happened when such experts saw these things. But it would be unfair to not suggest the possibility. The shroud is dirty, creased and wrinkled. First Coursework. It has been exposed to dust, moisture, smoke from cover, fire and almost certainly candles and incense. It has been exposed to moisture and there are clear water stains in places. Btec In Business. It has been folded different ways and religion, rolled up for storage. Folding causes creases.
It has been held aloft and probably hung in btec first diploma coursework ways that over time caused stretching. The cloth was woven on a hand loom with handspun thread that is not perfectly uniform. All of world religion term papers this contributes to btec first diploma, visual information and cover letter, visual misinformation. So does the banding patterns, the variegated appearance of the cloth. We know that it alters the appearance of the face very dramatically. It certainly must contribute to diploma, what some say they see on the shroud. For instance, if you look closely, you are likely to see what looks like teeth behind the man’s lips, as though somehow the image contains x-ray qualities. But vertical banding lines may be the reason we see teeth.
Clear banding lines extend well beyond the teeth, beyond the opinion face even, and seemingly for first diploma in business the length of the cloth. Photography also introduces visual noise. Different films have different contrast characteristics that can significantly change the appearance of faint details. Lighting may create small shadows between threads and among wrinkles and creases. Even the color temperature of lighting can have an effect because different films are subject to different colors being reflected from the cloth. What we perceive in essay a photograph of the btec first in business coursework shroud may not be what we see if we look at the cloth with our own eyes. People have seen coins over the eyes; and not just coins but enough details to identify them as specific coins minted by Romans for Jewish use around the time of Jesus’ crucifixion. People have identified flowers and plants that are specific to the environs of Jerusalem. The list of things seen goes on narrative, and on.
There are, supposedly, a hammer, a nail, a fluffy shaped sponge tied to a reed, a coil of rope, a pair of dice and part of a plaque with enough lettering in Greek, Latin and possibly Hebrew to identify it as saying, Jesus of first coursework Nazareth. But are these things really imaged on the cloth? Are there criteria for deciding? Consensus among people who closely study the images on spanish narrative, the shroud is valid so long as that study is as completely objective as possible. Worldview nullification must be avoided at all cost. Coursework. It is not proper to experiments truth essay, reject these images because you don’t believe the shroud is real. But it is fair to btec diploma in business coursework, be skeptical, as in opinion thesis the case of the btec first diploma flowers, teeth, coins and lettering because there is identifiable noise such as the thesis banding, wrinkles and crinkles and whatnots. ’I see’ said the blind man as he picked up his hammer and saw, so goes the excruciatingly ridiculous old English ditty. I see flowers, I see teeth . . . You get the idea. I would like to see the btec first flowers.
I see something that looks like two flowers. I’m not convinced they are flowers. I’m not trained enough in botany to know many other types of for seniors flowers to look for. I’ve read the books. Btec In Business. Studied the charts and diagrams.
Looked at pictures through gadgets. I don’t see the flowers. I want to see. Show me. Show me that these images are not pareidolias or apophenias or phantasms or I-think-I-sees. Show me that the light at the end of the tunnel isn’t New Jersey. A reader writes: I recall one of your postings in which you recounted the story of someone who claimed that there really wasn’t a picture of a man on the shroud, that what we all saw was no different then a picture of in my opinion thesis Jesus that appears on a slice of toast. As I recall, no amount of explanation could convince him to change his mind. Of course not.
That would violate the first law of kookiness. Now, excuse me for interrupting the reader’s email to repeat a part of what I wrote that the reader refers to: One day, I was astonished to receive an email from someone who claimed that we only think we see an image of a face on the Shroud. What we think is an image, he told me, is first merely the happenstance accumulation of the story of my truth smudges and stains on the cloth. It is no different than an imaginary image of Jesus on in business, a burned slice of toast. It is a pareidolia, an apophenia. I had never heard of either of term these words. Btec First Diploma In Business. Now I have. As far as I can see, they mean the the story experiments truth same thing. According to my Merriam-Webster dictionary apophenia is the experience of seeing patterns or connections in random or meaningless data.
Pareidolia is defined as apophenia. I wrote back. The image is too detailed. Btec. It is too realistic and too complex to not be the resume for seniors real face of a man. First In Business. When I say real, I mean by of dramatic poesie, any means. Absent other evidence this includes painting, photograph or something else that we don’t understand. But he persisted.
His mind was made up. You can’t prove it, he wrote back. Btec First Diploma In Business Coursework. It could be pure coincidence and you don’t know for a fact that it isn’t. What is the threshold for experiments with essay perceiving an image? What are the criteria for saying that the image is of a man? Are you an expert on the human face? . . . I suspect that there is a rather fuzzy swath of undecidedness between certainty that an image is of a face and is not. Given the btec setting and circumstance and a measure of sanity in whatever our worldview may dictate to us, we can usually avoid undecidedness. If I see a face in the clouds, I know it is a phantasm (another cool word), an illusion, an apparition of sorts. I am sure most of us think the essay poesie same thing if we see a face on a piece of toast or in a smudge of a windowpane. First Diploma. It should be easy to know what we see for any given context. If I see a face in a Picasso, even if it looks less like a face than what I see on my morning toast, I know it is an image of a face because of the context.
But what about the face on the shroud? It is a face? The context is clear. There is an entire body there – admittedly, at the risk of being declared incompetent, maybe a pareidolia. Spanish Narrative. I don’t know how the face got there but it is a face. Now to resume the readers email: Dr. Sciencebod has the same sort of problem with 3D. He fails to distinguish between fully expected pseudo-elevations from burn marks and btec first diploma, the real-elevations visible on the real image of a man on the shroud.
This is apparent when he writes, “So-called 3D-encoded information is an artefact of the computerised imaging – which explains why the 1532 burn marks appear as a hologram-like 3D as well as the experiments with truth essay image itself.” A bit of btec first in business coursework disclaimer is in order. I’m not convinced that the in my opinion thesis shroud is real. At the same time I’m not convinced it is fake. Diploma Coursework. So for me it is a mystery. If it is real, I am not at all inclined to think the image was caused by energy left over from some sort of physical resurrection. I have seen no convincing evidence for that.
But even if I had I would have significant difficulty accepting it. I am a Catholic much more in sympathy with progressive Catholic scholars like Crossan who interprets the resurrection as a statement of faith and not as a physical event in a scientific or historic sense. However, the 3D, which Dr. Sciencebod so casually dismisses, is ever so appropriate for essay the shape of a human form that it is silly to think otherwise unless one confuses reality with toast. Even so, the 3D effect obtained by plotting luminescence may not be a real measure of distance between body and cloth. It may be something entirely different that we have not imagined. But it is not casually dismissible. First Diploma. Regardless of essay poesie how it came about, it is a real property of the image.
One cannot claim to have found a method by which to create the image on the shroud unless one can show how that method encodes this property. One cannot claim it’s an artifact in order to btec coursework, escape this pass/fail criteria. NOTE: Top picture is from Discover Magazine . Letter Application. Bottom picture is called “Face in the Shroud.” It is a 3D rendering of btec diploma in business data in the shroud image undertaken by in my opinion thesis, Ray Downing for the History Channel special, The Real Face of Jesus . The Shroud of Turin may be the real burial cloth of Jesus. The carbon dating, once seemingly proving it was a medieval fake, is now widely thought of as suspect and meaningless. Even the famous Atheist Richard Dawkins admits it is controversial. Christopher Ramsey, the director of the Oxford Radiocarbon Laboratory, thinks more testing is needed. So do many other scientists and archeologists. This is because there are significant scientific and non-religious reasons to doubt the validity of the tests.
Chemical analysis, all nicely peer-reviewed in scientific journals and subsequently confirmed by numerous chemists, shows that samples tested are chemically unlike the whole cloth. It was probably a mixture of older threads and newer threads woven into the cloth as part of a medieval repair. Recent robust statistical studies add weight to this theory. Btec First. Philip Ball, the former physical science editor for Nature when the carbon dating results were published, recently wrote: “It’s fair to say that, despite the seemingly definitive tests in for an 1988, the status of the Shroud of Turin is murkier than ever.” If we wish to be scientific we must admit we do not know how old the cloth is. But if the newer thread is about half of what was tested – and some evidence suggests that – it is possible that the cloth is from the time of Christ.
No one has a good idea how front and back images of a crucified man came to diploma in business, be on the cloth. Yes, it is narrative possible to create images that look similar. But no one has created images that match the btec first chemistry, peculiar superficiality and cover for an application, profoundly mysterious three-dimensional information content of the images on the Shroud. Again, this is in business all published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. We simply do not have enough reliable information to arrive at in my, a scientifically rigorous conclusion.
Years ago, as a skeptic of the Shroud, I came to realize that while I might believe it was a fake, I could not know so from the btec first diploma in business coursework facts. Now, as someone who believes it is the experiments real burial shroud of Jesus of Nazareth, I similarly realize that a leap of faith over unanswered questions is essential.
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The Model-View-Controller (MVC) Design Pattern for PHP. Amended 1st September 2017. As of 10th April 2006 the software discussed in this article can be downloaded from www.radicore.org. I am no stranger to software development having been a software engineer for over 25 years. I have developed in a variety of 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation languages on a mixture of mainframes, mini- and micro-computers (which are now called Personal Computers). I have worked with flat files, indexed files, hierarchical databases, network databases and diploma in business coursework, relational databases. The user interfaces have included punched card, paper tape, teletype, block mode, CHUI, GUI and essay poesie, web. I have written code which has been procedural, model-driven, event-driven, component-based and diploma in business, object oriented.
I have built software using the for seniors 1-tier, 2-tier and the 3-Tier architecture. I have created development infrastructures in 3 different languages. Btec First In Business. My latest achievement is to create an environment for building web applications using PHP that encompasses a mixture of 3-Tier architecture, OOP, and where all HTML output is generated using XML and XSL transformations. This is world term, documented in A Development Infrastructure for btec first diploma coursework, PHP. Before teaching myself PHP the only occasion where I came in contact with the concept of the model-view-controller design pattern was when I joined a team that was replacing a legacy system with a more up-to-date version that had web capabilities. I was recruited because of my experience with the language being used, but I quickly realised that their design was too clumsy and the time taken to develop individual components was far to long (would you believe two man-weeks for resume, a SEARCH screen and btec first diploma in business, a LIST screen?). They kept arguing that there was nothing wrong with their design as it obeyed all the rules (or should I say 'their interpretation of the rules'). I was not the essay poesie only one who thought their implementation was grossly inefficient - the client did not like their projected timescales and costs so he cancelled the btec coursework whole project. How's that for world religion papers, a vote of first in business, confidence for resume for seniors, their design! When I started to build web applications using PHP I wanted to adapt some of the designs which I had used in the past.
Having successfully implemented the first coursework 3-Tier architecture in my previous language I wanted to attempt the same thing using PHP. My development infrastructure ended up with the following sets of components: Presentation layer - a set of component scripts, screen structure scripts, and the story experiments with essay, a series of reusable XSL stylesheets and controller scripts. Business layer - this contains a separate class for each business entity. As each business entity also has a database table, and as the first diploma coursework code to communicate with a database table is resume, virtually the same regardless of the business entity, I put all the sharable code into an abstract class and defined each business entity as a subclass. First. This enables me to share all the narrative essay standard properties and methods of the superclass through inheritance. Diploma Coursework. This I have documented in Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 2). In My Thesis. Data Access layer - a single component which contains all the in business DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements for spanish narrative, a particular RDBMS engine. If I wish to switch from one RDBMS to another all I have to do is btec first in business coursework, replace this single component. Although I have never been trained in OO techniques I read up on the theory and used the OO capabilities of PHP 4 to produce a simple class hierarchy that had as much reusable code as possible in an abstract superclass and where each business entity was catered for with a concrete subclass. I published an article Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and (Part 2) which described what I had done, and I was immediately attacked by self-styled OO purists who described my approach as totally wrong and unacceptable to REAL object-oriented programmers.
I put the question to the PHP newsgroup and asked the opinion of the greater PHP community. This generated a huge response that seemed to be split between the it is spanish narrative, bad and btec in business, it is good camps, so I summarised all the criticisms, and my responses to those criticisms, in a follow-up article entitled What is/is not considered to be good OO programming. I have absolutely no doubt that there will be some self-styled MVC purists out there in Internet land who will heavily criticise the contents of this document, but let me give you my response in advance: I have read the principles of MVC and in my, built software which follows those principles, just as I read the principles of OOP and built software which followed those principles. Diploma In Business. The fact that my implementation is different from your implementation is totally irrelevant - it works therefore it cannot be wrong. I have seen implementations of several design patterns which were technical disasters, and I have seen other implementations (mostly my own) of the same design patterns which were technical successes. Following a set of principles will not guarantee success, it is essay of dramatic, how you implement those principles that separates the men from the in business boys. The principles of the various design patterns are high-level ideas which are language-independent, therefore they need to be translated into workable code for each individual language. This is where I have succeeded and others have failed. I have spent the last 25+ years designing and writing code which works, and I don't waste my time with ideas that don't work.
Other people seem to think that following a set of rules with blind obedience is the prime consideration and spanish essay, have no idea about writing usable or even efficient code. When someone dares to criticise their work they chant it cannot be wrong because it follows all the rules. Btec Diploma. The difference between successful and for seniors, unsuccessful software is not in the underlying rules or principles, it is how those rules or principles are implemented that counts. Where implementation 'A' makes it is easier and btec diploma in business, quicker to narrative develop components than implementation 'B', it does not mean that 'A' is right and 'B' is wrong, it just means that 'A' is better than 'B'. Where an implementation works it cannot be wrong - it can only be wrong when it does not work. The Principles of the MVC Design Pattern. After researching various articles on btec diploma in business the internet I came up with the following descriptions of the principles of the Model-View-Controller design pattern: The MVC paradigm is a way of breaking an application, or even just a piece of an application's interface, into three parts: the model, the view, and the controller. MVC was originally developed to essay poesie map the traditional input, processing, output roles into btec first in business coursework the GUI realm: Input -- Processing -- Output.
Controller -- Model -- View. A model is an object representing data or even activity, e.g. a database table or even some plant-floor production-machine process. The model manages the behavior and data of the poesie application domain, responds to btec requests for information about its state and responds to cover application instructions to change state. The model represents enterprise data and the business rules that govern access to and updates of this data. Btec First Diploma Coursework. Often the model serves as a software approximation to a real-world process, so simple real-world modeling techniques apply when defining the model. The model is the the story of my piece that represents the state and low-level behavior of the component. It manages the state and conducts all transformations on that state.
The model has no specific knowledge of either its controllers or its views. The view is the piece that manages the visual display of the state represented by the model. A model can have more than one view. Note that the model may not necessarily have a persistent data store (database), but if it does it may access it through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). A view is some form of btec diploma in business coursework, visualisation of the state of the essay poesie model. The view manages the graphical and/or textual output to the portion of the bitmapped display that is allocated to its application. Instead of a bitmapped display the view may generate HTML, PDF, CSV or XML output. The view renders the contents of a model. It accesses enterprise data through the model and diploma, specifies how that data should be presented. The view is responsible for thesis, mapping graphics onto a device.
A view typically has a one to one correspondence with a display surface and in business coursework, knows how to render to resume for seniors it. A view attaches to a model and renders its contents to the display surface. A controller offers facilities to change the state of the model. The controller interprets the mouse and keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate. A controller is the first in business coursework means by world which the user interacts with the application. First. A controller accepts input from the user and instructs the of my with truth essay model and view to perform actions based on that input. Btec In Business Coursework. In effect, the controller is responsible for mapping end-user action to for seniors application response.
The controller translates interactions with the view into actions to be performed by the model. In a stand-alone GUI client, user interactions could be button clicks or menu selections, whereas in btec coursework a Web application they appear as HTTP GET and with essay, POST requests. In Business Coursework. The actions performed by the model include activating business processes or changing the state of the for seniors model. Diploma In Business Coursework. Based on letter application the user interactions and the outcome of the diploma coursework model actions, the controller responds by selecting an appropriate view. The controller is the piece that manages user interaction with the model. It provides the world religion term papers mechanism by which changes are made to the state of the in business coursework model. In the Java language the MVC Design Pattern is letter application, described as having the following components: An application model with its data representation and first, business logic. Views that provide data presentation and user input. A controller to dispatch requests and control flow. The purpose of the MVC pattern is to separate the model from the view so that changes to the view can be implemented, or even additional views created, without having to refactor the model.
The model, view and controller are intimately related and in constant contact, therefore they must reference each other. The picture below illustrates the basic Model-View-Controller relationship: Figure 1 - The basic MVC relationship. Even though the above diagram is incredibly simple, there are some people who try to of dramatic poesie read more into diploma coursework it than is the story truth, really there, and they attempt to btec in business enforce their interpretations as rules which define what is proper MVC. To put it as simply as possible the MVC pattern requires the following: It must have a minimum of three components, each of which performs the responsibilities of resume, either the Model, the btec first in business View or the Controller, as identified above. You may include as many additional components as you like, such as a Data Access Object (DAO) to communicate with a relational database. There is a flow of data between each of those components so that each may carry out its designated responsibilities on that data. What is not specified in MVC is cover for an application, how the mechanics of first diploma in business, that flow are to be implemented. The data may be pushed by the Model into the View, it may be pulled by the View from the Model, or pulled into an intermediary (such as the Controller or an Observer) before it is cover letter, pushed into the View.
It does not matter how the data flows, just that it does flow. Btec First Diploma In Business Coursework. The actual mechanics are an essay of dramatic implementation detail and first in business coursework, can therefore be left to the implementor. The MVC pattern does not identify from where each of essay, these components is instantiated and called. Btec First Diploma In Business Coursework. Is there a mystical 4th component which oversees the 3 others, or can one of them oversee and direct the other two? As this is opinion, not directly specified in MVC the actual mechanics can be treated as a separate implementation detail.
Note the following: HTML or PDF output can only be generated and output in one place - the View. Coursework. Data validation and business rules can only be applied in cover for an one place - the Model. Coursework. SQL statements can only be generated and world religion papers, executed in one place - either within the Model (not good) or via a separate Data Access Object (DAO) which is my preferred method. There are some people who criticise my interpretation of the rules of MVC as it is different from theirs, and therefore wrong (such as how data moves from the Model to the View), but who is to say that their interpretation is the only one that should be allowed to in business coursework exist?
In my opinion a design pattern merely identifies what needs to for seniors be done without dictating how it should be done. Provided that the what is first, not violated any implementation should be a valid implementation. I do not develop software which directly manipulates real-world objects, such as process control, robotics, avionics, or missile guidance systems, which means that a lot of the properties and essay of dramatic poesie, methods which apply to real-world objects are completely irrelevant. First Coursework. I develop enterprise applications such as Sales Order Processing, Inventory, Invoicing and Shipments which deal with such entities as Products, Customers and Orders, so I am only manipulating the information about those entities and not the actual entities themselves. This information is held in a database in the form of tables, columns and relationships. Regardless of what properties or attributes a real-world object may have, in a database application it is only necessary to store those pieces of information that are actually required by that application.
A product in the real world may have many properties, but the application may only need to record its Id, Description and Price. A person in the real world may have such methods as sit, stand, walk and run, but these operations would never be needed in an enterprise application. Regardless of the operations that can be performed on a real-world object, with a database table the only operations that can be performed are Create, Read, Update and Delete (CRUD). Following the term process called data normalisation the information for an entity may need to btec diploma in business coursework be split across several tables, each with its own columns and relationships, and in the story of my essay these circumstances I would create a separate Model class for btec diploma coursework, each table instead of having a single class for world religion papers, a collection of tables. As an application is divided into a number of user transactions or use cases, it would be wise to have a separate controller for each use case instead of a single universal controller which can deal with all possible use cases. Some people advocate the creation of a separate controller for each use case, such as in GRASP - The Controller which states the following: A use case controller should be used to deal with all system events of a use case, and may be used for in business, more than one use case (for instance, for use cases Create User and of my experiments with, Delete User, one can have a single UserController, instead of first diploma in business coursework, two separate use case controllers). I do not have a separate Controller, or a group of controllers, for resume, each business entity.
Each user transaction (use case) does something with a database table, so I have placed the something into a resuable controller script, then use a component script to identify which table (model) should be the btec first in business coursework subject of that action. Because each business entity is resume for seniors, a database table, and each database table has exactly the same operations, I have designed my controllers around the operations that can be performed on an unspecified database table where the btec first diploma coursework name of that table is not known until run time. So instead of such controllers as Create User and Delete User , Create Product and Delete Product , Create Order and Delete Order I simply have Create Table and Delete Table . These controllers can be used with any table in essay of dramatic any database, and because they have been reduced to this level of diploma in business coursework, simplification they can be supplied as standard framework components and do not need to be created or modified by any developer. There is a separate controller for each of my Transaction Patterns. In my implementation, as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, the whole application is broken down into a series of top-level components which are sometimes referred to as tasks, actions, functions, operations or transactions (that's user transactions, not database transactions), each of which is may be related to a Use Case. Each transaction component references a single controller, one or more models, and usually a view. Some components do not have a view as they are called from other components in order to perform a service, and once this service has been completed they return control to the calling component. Each component is self-executing in that it deals with both the HTTP GET and POST requests. Figure 2 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (1)
The Model is implemented as a series of of dramatic poesie, business entity classes each of which contains all the properties and btec first in business, methods required by poesie a single business entity. It is actually a subclass to an abstract superclass which contains properties and diploma in business coursework, methods which are common to all database tables. Essay Poesie. The model is responsible for all data validation, business rules and task-specific behaviour, while the actual generation of DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements is coursework, performed in a separate DML class. The DML class or Data Access Object (DAO) is the only object in spanish essay the entire framework which is allowed to communicate with the diploma in business database, and it can only cover for an, be called by a model component. This isolates the model from the underlying database and allows the application to be switched from one RDBMS to btec first diploma another simply by switching to another DML class. Only the DML class deals with database resources - all communication with the entity subclass is by standard database-agnostic arrays. The View is implemented as a series of screen structure scripts which are combined with the output from each database table class to in my thesis produce an coursework XML document.
This file will also include the essay data for the menu bar, navigation bar, action bar, pagination and scrolling areas. Diploma Coursework. The completed XML document is then transformed into religion term papers HTML output by using one of the generic XSL stylesheets. For each database table there is typically a list view (containing multiple occurrences with data arranged horizontally) and a detail view (containing a single occurrence with data arranged vertically). If output in an alternative format is btec first, required, such as PDF instead of HTML, there are separate transaction patterns which use a different view object to create PDF output in in my opinion either LIST view or DETAIL view, each with its own report structure file. There is also another view object to create CSV output.
Note that my implementation of MVC differs from the Java implementation in the following ways: Controllers do not select which View to use. Each of btec first in business coursework, my page controllers is thesis, tied to btec first a single view as described in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications. There is, in effect, a separate Transaction Pattern for each type of use case. The Model does not send updates to the View . When the Model has finished the actions requested by the Controller , the religion term Controller will instantiate its one and only View , inject the Model(s) into the View, and the View will then extract all data from the btec diploma in business Model(s) and render it in the desired format. There are separate Views for HTML, CSV and PDF output. All HTML output is generated from a collection of reusable XSL stylesheets. The View does not send user gestures to narrative essay the Controller . Communication is always one way from the Controller to the View , never from the View to the Controller . With web applications there are only two possible actions - GET and POST - and these are received by the Controller which then calls the appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) followed by a single call to the View . Also note that, unlike the Java implementation, I do not use any of the btec in business coursework following design patterns - Filter, Helper, Composite, Front Controller, Value Object, Facade or Delegate. Opinion. I do, however, use a Data Access Object (DAO), but only because it is component in coursework the 3-Tier Architecture.
Figure 3 - My implementation of the cover for an application MVC pattern (2) Note that all the items in the above diagram are clickable links. As I said in the introduction, my implementation of MVC is combined with the 3-Tier Architecture which has separate layers for Presentation logic, Business logic and Data Access logic. How the two can interact is shown in Figure 3a: Figure 3a - The MVC and 3-Tier architectures combined. This implementation has very high Levels of Reusability due to the number of components which are either pre-written and come supplied with the framework, or are generated by the framework. This component is comprised of the following: A separate and unique Component script for each user transaction. Each of these is generated from the Data Dictionary.
A sharable Controller script which is supplied in the framework in first in business the catalog of opinion thesis, Transaction Patterns. The Model is never supposed to handle the output of its data to any particular device or medium. Instead it is supposed to diploma transfer its data to another object which deals with that device or medium. In this implementation I have separate objects to create output in either HTML, PDF or CSV format. The HTML component operates as follows:
It is given a Screen Structure file which is generated from the Data Dictionary initially, but which may be modified as required. Essay. This identifies which XSL stylesheet to use, and which data columns need to be displayed where. After the Model(s) have finished executing they are injected into btec the View which will extract all the data and copy it to an XML document. Resume For Seniors. Information from the screen structure file is also copied into the XML document so that the XSL stylesheet will know which data elements to put where. The View will then copy in btec first in business data supplied by the framework, such as menu buttons, screen title, navigation buttons, action buttons, pagination and scrolling details, and any messages.
The View will then perform an application XSL Transformation using the nominated XSL stylesheet and the newly constructed XML document to produce an btec diploma in business coursework HTML document. Of My With Essay. The HTML output is then sent back to the requesting client device. The PDF component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the Model and first diploma, instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. The Controller instantiates the PDF object and injects into it the MOdel and the name of the report structure file.
The PDF object instructs the Model to resume fetch a record which it will format into a page for btec in business, the DETAIL view or a line in the LIST view. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is no more data. The CSV component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the Model and instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. Resume For Seniors. The Controller instantiates the CSV object injects the btec in business Model into it. Papers. The CSV object instructs the Model to btec first diploma coursework fetch the first record so that it can construct a line of column labels. The Story Essay. The CSV object will then write the current record's data to the output, then read the btec first coursework next record. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is world religion papers, no more data. Note that some components may not have a view at all as they perform a service without producing any visible output.
This component is btec first diploma in business, comprised of the following: A separate Business Entity class for religion term, each table within the application database. Each of these is coursework, generated by resume for seniors exporting the table's details from the Data Dictionary to diploma coursework produce a class file and a structure file. The structure file provides information which is used by my standard validation object to validate user input. This file can be regenerated whenever the table's structure changes. Each of these concrete table classes inherits its standard methods and properties from a single Abstract Table class which is supplied as part of the framework. Narrative. This ensures that all the common code is defined in btec first in business coursework one place but can be shared by many objects. Each table class contains its own specific business rules and data validation rules, but all communication with the physical database is routed through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). There is a separate DML class for each DBMS engine which is for seniors, supplied as part of the framework.
This arrangement makes it possible to switch from one DBMS to first coursework another without having to narrative essay make any changes to any table class. Currently supported DBMS engines are MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and SQL Server. My implementation also has the following characteristics: Each of the components can be classified as one of the following: Some of btec first diploma in business coursework, these components are built into the framework while others you have to generate yourself: The framework components are pre-written and come supplied with the framework or are invoked automatically. The application components are generated by the framework using information obtained from your application database. The Data Dictionary is used to generate the business entity classes as well as the component scripts, screen structure files and report structure files. Components are either application-agnostic or framework-agnostic: The framework components are application-agnostic as they have no knowledge of the internals of any application component. A framework component may send data to or receive data from an application component, but that data has no meaning to the framework.
The application components are framework-agnostic as they have no knowledge of where the data comes from that they receive, or what happens to the data that they send out. All communication between the various components is as follows: Each Controller and View communicates with the Model using methods which are defined within the abstract class. Each Model communicates with the DAO using methods which are defined within the abstract class. All default behaviour is provided by the framework components, so when a developer wishes to alter the default behaviour the cover letter application only code that he/she has to write goes into one of the pre-prepared methods in in business coursework a Model class. This also means that, as the spanish narrative essay author of the btec first coursework framework, I can alter or enhance the resume for seniors default behaviour of any component within the application simply by changing a framework component. In other frameworks where the supplied components are more primitive and require much more developer effort such widespread enhancements are simply not possible. Every application component (user transaction) will have one of these scripts.
This will be identified in the URL so it can be activated without the need to pass through a Front Controller. Coursework. It is a very small script which does nothing but identify which model (business entity), view (screen structure file) and controller to use, as shown in the following example: Where the controller requires access to more than one business entity, such as in a parent-child or one-to-many relationship in a LIST2 pattern, or a parent-child-grandchild relationship in a LIST3 pattern, then names such as $parent_id , $child_id , $outer_id or $inner_id are used. The same screen structure file can used by spanish components which access the same business entity but in btec first coursework different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and of dramatic poesie, search) as the diploma in business XSL stylesheet is provided with a $mode parameter which enables it to determine whether fields should be read-only or amendable. Note that no component script is allowed to access more than one view.
While most will produce HTML output using the specifications in a screen structure file there are some which produce PDF output using a report structure file. Some components may have no view at all - they are called upon to the story of my with truth essay take some particular action after which they return control to first diploma coursework the calling component which refreshes its own view accordingly. Each of these is generated from a component in the Data Dictionary. There are more details available in religion papers the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. There is a separate pre-built controller script included in the framework for each of the patterns identified in coursework Transaction Patterns for Web Applications. By simply changing the name of the controller script the whole character of the component will change. These component controllers may also be known as transaction controllers or page controllers. The following is an example of narrative, controller std.update1.inc : The controller does not know the names of the business entities with which it is dealing - these are passed down as variables from the component script.
It will append the standard '.class.inc' to each table name to in business coursework identify the class file, then instantiate a separate object for each table. Note that I did say entities in the plural and not entity in the story truth essay the singular. Btec First In Business. There is no rule (at least none which I recognise) which says that a controller can only communicate with a single model, which is why I have transaction patterns which sometimes use two or even three models at a time. Religion Term. Just because some example implementations show a single model does not mean that all implementations must also be restricted to a single model. The method names that the controller uses to communicate with each table object are the btec first diploma coursework generic names which are defined within the abstract table class. This means that any controller can be used with any concrete table class. The controller does not know the names of cover, any fields with which it is dealing - what comes out btec in business of the business entity is a simple associative array of 'name=value' pairs which is passed untouched to the View object which will transfer the world papers entire array to an XML document so that it can be transformed into HTML. In any INPUT or UPDATE components the coursework entire contents of the POST array is passed to the business entity as-is instead of term papers, one field at a time.
Again this means that no field names have to in business be hard-coded into any controller script, thus increasing their re-usability. My framework currently has 40+ pre-built controller scripts which are part of my library of Transaction Patterns. The same pattern can be used with virtually any business object in of my experiments with truth essay the application, thus making them loosely coupled and highly reusable. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This encapsulates the properties and methods which can be used by any database table in the application.
When a concrete table class is created it makes use of these sharable properties and methods by the mechanism known as inheritance. The generic methods which are used by in business coursework the Controller script when it calls a Business entity object are all defined with this abstract class, and as they are all then available to opinion every concrete table class this enables the concept known as polymorphism. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is responsible for all communication the database by constructing queries using the standard SQL Data Manipulation Language (DML) using instructions passed down from the calling Business Entity class. There is btec in business coursework, a separate DML class for each different DBMS engine, such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and SQL Server, which means that the entire application can be switched from one DBMS to another simply by changing a single entry in the configuration file.
This means that it is essay, also possible to develop an application using one DBMS engine but deploy it to btec first diploma in business coursework use another. Note that this class does not have any inbuilt knowledge of any database or database table, so a single class can be used to access any table in letter any database. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. Each business entity is implemented as a separate class so that it can encapsulate all the btec first diploma properties and letter, methods of that entity in a single object. As each of these business entities also exists as a database table a great deal of common code can be shared by inheriting from the abstract table class. In its initial form a concrete table class requires very little information to differentiate it from another database table - just the database name, the btec first diploma coursework table name, and the table structure. Spanish. Rather than having to create each class file manually, as of first in business, June 2005 these can be generated for you as described in A Data Dictionary for PHP Applications. This provides the following facilities: IMPORT - Populate the dictionary database using details extracted from the physical database schema.
EDIT - Modify the details for use by the application. EXPORT - Make the details available to world religion the application in the form of disk files which can be referenced by means of the include() function. Two files will be created for btec in business, each database table: tablename.class.inc - this is the initial class file for the database table. The Story Of My Experiments Essay. It will only be created if it does not already exist, so any customisations which have been added since the initial creation of the file will not be lost. tablename.dict.inc - this contains the column details, key details and btec diploma in business, relationship details. Spanish Narrative Essay. This will be overwritten during the export process, so no customisations are allowed. All customisation should be performed in the dictionary and then exported to this file. Alternatively it is in business coursework, possible to make temporary customisations at runtime by placing code in the _cm_changeConfig method of the in my opinion relevant table subclass. The variables in the class constructor do not contain application data (that which passes through the object between the user and the database) but instead contain information about the application data.
Collectively they are sometimes referred to as meta-data , or data-about-data . This meta-data contains declarative rules rather than imperative rules as they are defined here but executed somewhere else. When the time comes (i.e. when the user presses a SUBMIT button on an HTML form) the user data passes from the Controller into the Model where it is passed to a validation object along with the diploma meta-data, and it is the responsibility of the validation object to ensure that the user data conforms to spanish narrative essay those rules. The validation object returns an $errors array which will contain zero or more error messages. If there are any error messages then the operation is diploma coursework, aborted. The structure file is cover letter, a simple PHP script which identifies the XSL stylesheet which is to be used and the application data which is to be displayed by that stylesheet. It does this by constructing a multi-dimensional array in the $structure variable. The following formats are available: Each structure file has the following components:
These circumstances are: The fieldname does not exist in the XML document. The field has the nodisplay attribute set in the $fieldspec array. This behaviour can be overridden by adding 'display-empty' = 'y' to the item in the ['zone']['fields'] array in the screen structure file. This will cause every cell in that row to be output, even if it is empty.
When this information is written out to the XML document it will look something like the following: Screen Structure file for a more complex multi-column DETAIL view (vertical) Here is an btec coursework example of essay of dramatic poesie, a screen structure file that will produce a multi-column DETAIL view as shown in Figure 5: Notice the btec first following differences between this and the standard 2-column view: Each row is world term, numbered explicitly so that multiple entries can be specified for rows 2 and 13. Rows which contain a single label and btec first, field (rows 1, 4 and 11 in this example) can be expressed as 'field' = 'label' A row can contain nothing but a label to act as a heading or sub-heading.
Rows which require more than one field require a separate entry for resume for seniors, each label and each field. First Coursework. Please note the following: If a field has a label then the label entry must be defined before the field entry. Essay Of Dramatic. It is possible to have a field without a label . It is not possible to btec first diploma in business coursework have a label without a field unless you specify the label-only option. Each entry may include any of the following options: colspan - will allow that field to span more than one column in in my thesis the HTML table. Without it the remaining columns in that row would be blank. rowspan - similar to colspan , but allows the field to extend vertically for more than 1 row. First In Business Coursework. cols - will override the value for multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. rows - will override the value for multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. align - specify horizontal alignment within this cell. See the HTML specification for details. valign - specify vertical alignment within this cell.
The selectbox entry does not relate to any field from the database. It is a reserved word which causes a checkbox to be defined in that column with the label 'Select'. The nosort entry (which can be specified in either of the columns and fields arrays) is optional and will prevent the column label from being displayed as a hyperlink which, when pressed, will cause the data to be sorted on that column. In some cases it might be useful to of my experiments with truth display an empty column (no heading, no data), and this can be achieved by inserting a line in any of the following formats: It is also possible to use some of the field options which have been described previously: Options which are added to the ['zone']['columns'] array will appear in btec in business coursework the colgroup element of the HTML document. Options which are added to the ['zone']['fields'] array will appear in essay of dramatic the td element of the btec diploma in business HTML document. When this information is written out to the XML document it will look something like the letter following: Although the contents of the screen structure file is fixed it is possible to make temporary amendments before it is used to build the btec first in business coursework HTML output.
Please refer to the following: There are more details available in essay of dramatic poesie the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. After the business entity has finished its processing the controller will instruct the view component to produce the HTML output. It does this by putting all the relevant data into an XML document. This data comes from the coursework following sources: The screen structure file in order to religion term identify what application data goes where on the screen.
This will appear in the structure element of the XML document. Application data from each of the business objects (there may be more than one!) which were specified in the component script. Diploma In Business. This data will appear in essay the data area of the HTML output. Btec First In Business. This area is broken down into one or more zones (e.g. 'main', or 'outer' and 'inner', or 'outer', 'middle' and 'inner'), and opinion, each object's data is allocated to one of those zones. First Diploma Coursework. Framework data from either the database or session data, such as: The menu buttons. The navigation buttons. The title bar. Essay Poesie. The column headings for LIST screens. The action buttons. The message area for errors and warnings. The pagination and scrolling areas.
This document will then be transformed into HTML. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is a standard process by which an XML document is transformed into HTML output using instructions contained within an XSL Stylesheet. This process is performed at the web server end by default, but it is diploma coursework, also possible for it to be performed within the client browser, thus reducing the load on world religion the server. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is the document which is sent back to the client's browser is btec first diploma in business coursework, response to the request. Its content should conform to of my the (X)HTML specification which is supervised by the World Wide Web Consortium. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. The framework contains a series of reusable XSL stylesheets each of which will present the data in one of the structures described in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications.
These stylesheets are reusable because of first coursework, one simple fact - none of them contain any hard-coded table or field names. Precise details of which elements from the XML file are to be displayed where are provided within the XML file itself from data obtained from a screen structure script which is placed into the structure element. This is a great improvement over my original software which required a separate version of a stylesheet for each component. There are two basic structures for displaying data, and while some stylesheets use one or the other there are some which contain the same basic elements in different variations and combinations. DETAIL view, single row displayed vertically LIST view, multiple rows displays horizontally. XSL Stylesheet for a DETAIL view (vertical) This is a DETAIL view which displays the contents of a single database row in columns going vertically down the page with labels on the left and data on the right, as shown in Figure 4. In most cases the the story experiments with essay standard 2-column view will be sufficient, but there may be cases when it is desired to diploma in business coursework have more than one piece of of dramatic poesie, data on the same horizontal line, as shown in first in business Figure 5. It is of dramatic, important to note that it is not a simple case of diploma in business, adding in extra columns to the story of my experiments with truth a row.
An HTML table expects each row to have the same number of columns, so it is necessary to make adjustments on all other rows otherwise they will contain empty columns. Notice the following points about Figure 5: 'data1' has been told to span 3 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'data2a'. Line 2 contains two labels and two fields. This dictates that each row must therefore contain 4 columns. 'data4b' does not have a label. This is allowed, but it is diploma in business coursework, not possible to have a label without data. 'data4b' has been told to span 2 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'label2b'. In an cover application HTML table it is first diploma in business, possible to have a single piece of data which spans more than one column, as shown in Figure 5. It is also possible to the story of my experiments truth have a single piece of first diploma in business coursework, data which spans more than one row, as shown in in my opinion Figure 6. Notice here that the effect of spanning multiple rows requires data in the other columns in btec coursework each of the rows that are being spanned. Details on for seniors how to achieve these effects are given in Structure file for a DETAIL view. The same DETAIL view can be used by different components which access the same business entity in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and first diploma, search) as the controller script will pass its particular mode to the XSL stylesheet during the transformation process.
The XSL stylesheet will use the mode value to alter the way that it deals with individual fields by making them read-only or amendable as appropriate. Here is resume, a sample of the first coursework XSL stylesheet which provides a DETAIL view: Full a full breakdown of the different parts within the XSL stylesheet please refer to Reusable XSL Stylesheets and Templates. XSL Stylesheet for a LIST view (horizontal) This is resume for seniors, a LIST view which displays the in business coursework contents of several database rows in essay poesie horizontal rows going across the page. The top row contains column headings (labels) while the first in business subsequent rows contain data, each row from a different database occurrence.
Here is a sample of the XSL stylesheet which provides a LIST view: There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. Each application component (transaction) within the world religion system will have its own unique component script. Although this is diploma in business coursework, not sharable, it is a very small script which does nothing but identify which Model, View and Controller to use, most of which are sharable. This arrangement allows me to achieve the following levels of reusability: There is a separate Model class for each business entity (database table) within the application which encapsulates all the properties and methods necessary for that entity. This class can be shared by world religion papers any number of components. Every Model class starts off by being very small as the majority of the btec first in business required code is world religion term papers, inherited from an btec in business coursework abstract table class. Code to physically access a particular RDBMS is routed through a single DML class. Letter Application. This does not contain any hard-coded table or column names, therefore can be shared by in business coursework all of the Model classes.
Every transaction which produces HTML output uses the same HTML View component. This uses a screen structure file which is tied to a particular database table but which may be shared by more than one transaction. Essay Of Dramatic Poesie. Each transaction follows a particular pattern which uses one of the pre-defined XSL stylesheets which is btec diploma in business coursework, supplied within the framework. Of Dramatic. There are a dozen or so of these XSL stylesheets which can be used by any number of different transactions, and as they do not contain any hard-coded table or column names they can be used with any number of Model classes. Every transaction which produces PDF output uses the same PDF View component.
This uses a report structure file which is unique for each report. Every transaction which produces CSV output uses the same CSV View component. This does not have any type of structure file as it will simply write to the output file every record that it is given. Every transaction requires a Controller which handles the communication with the Model and the View. None of my controller scripts contains any hard-code table names or column names, so they can be used with any Model.
Each Controller script will be tied to btec in business a particular type of View - HTML, PDF, CSV or no view at cover, all in those cases where no visible output is required - and is catalogued in first in business coursework my library of Transaction Patterns. Using this design I have built framework which contains the following: Each transaction accesses one of the pre-defined Controller scripts, one for each of the 43 Transaction Patterns. Each table (Model) class is generated from my Data Dictionary and inherits a large volume of code from of my with truth a single abstract table class. All SQL queries are constructed and btec first diploma in business, executed through a single Data Access Object. All HTML output is generated by a single HTML object which uses one of the 12 XSL stylesheets. All PDF output is generated by a single PDF object. All CSV output is generated by a single CSV object. Using this framework I have built an application which contains over 2,000 user transactions, 250+ database tables and for seniors, 450+ relationships. Each database table (Model) class was generated from my Data Dictionary and first diploma, automatically shared code from my abstract table class and world religion papers, Data Access Object.
Each user transaction was generated from one of my Transaction Patterns and first diploma, automatically shared one of cover for an, my Controller scripts and btec first, one of thesis, my View objects. In my implementation I can add a new table to my database, import the coursework details into my Data Dictionary, create the class file for the Model then create the initial transactions for the LIST1, SEARCH1, ADD1, ENQUIRE1, UPDATE1 and DELETE1 patterns, and for seniors, be able to run them from my menu system, in under 5 minutes without having to write a single line of code . How much code would you have to write to achieve that in your implementation? In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each Model in btec first in business order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as the model classes are generated from my Data Dictionary and inherit a large amount of code from my abstract table class. In your implementation how much code do you have to write to in my opinion thesis validate user input?
In mine it is btec coursework, none as all user input is cover letter for an, automatically validated using my standard validation object which compares each field's value with the field's specifications provided by diploma the table structure file. In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each View in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is in my opinion thesis, none as each HTML page is created from a pre-built View object which uses one of my pre-defined XSL stylesheets. In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each Controller in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as each transaction uses one of my pre-defined controller scripts. In your implementation how many Controllers are tied to a particular Model and are therefore not sharable?. In mine I have 43 controllers which can operate on btec first diploma in business coursework any Model, so they are infinitely sharable.
If your implementation cannot achieve the same levels of reusability/sharability as mine then please do not try to tell me that my implementation is inferior. More information regarding the levels of reusability which I have achieved can be found in the following: In this forum post someone asked advice on how the MVC pattern should be implemented, so I decided to resume offer some based on my experience of having successfully implemented the MVC pattern in btec first diploma a large web application. It seems that quite a few people took exception to my approach as it violated their personal interpretations of the cover letter for an application rules of MVC. In this post I stated the following: Should the Model transmit its changes directly into the View, should the btec in business View extract the changes directly from the essay poesie Model, or should the Controller extract from the btec first Model and inject into the View? Actually, there is no hard and fast rule here, so any of these options would be perfectly valid. Well in MVC the view gets its own data from the model. Controller extracting from the essay model and passing to the view is wrong. MVC states that views access the model directly (ie not using the btec first in business controller as a mediator) and that models should not know of controllers and views.
He has reinforced this statement in an article entitled Model-View-Confusion part 1: The View gets its own data from the Model. What he fails to realise is that different examples of MVC implementations show different ways in which the model obtains its data, so he cites the cover ones that follow his personal opinion as being right and dismisses all the others as being wrong. I feel that his interpretation of the statement models should not know of btec in business, controllers and views goes too far. Application. A model may have any of its methods called by another object, or may call a method on btec first an object of unknown origin which has been injected into it, but it should not have any hard-coded dependencies on specific view objects or any methods which are tied to specific objects as this would introduce tight coupling between those objects. By using generic methods which can be used by multiple objects you are introducing loose coupling which makes the code more maintainable and less prone to error. The model will be called from a controller, but it should not need to know which controller so that it may change its response in some way. The Story Of My With. The model may push its data into first diploma a view object which was instantiated and injected into it by the controller, or it could have its data pulled out by a view object. In either case it should not need to know which view or controller requested that data, it should simply return the world term papers data and btec, let the calling object do what it wants with it, which may be to render that data it whatever form is appropriate, which could be HTML, PDF, CSV or whatever. My point of view is reinforced by How to use Model-View-Controller (MVC) which lists the following in essay the Basic Concepts section: In the MVC paradigm the user input, the modeling of the btec first diploma in business coursework external world, and the visual feedback to the user are explicitly separated and handled by three types of object, each specialized for its task. The view manages the in my opinion thesis graphical and/or textual output to the portion of the bitmapped display that is allocated to its application.
The controller interprets the mouse and keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate. the in business coursework model manages the of my truth essay behavior and data of the application domain, responds to coursework requests for information about its state (usually from the view), and spanish, responds to btec diploma coursework instructions to change state (usually from the controller) The formal separation of these three tasks is an important notion that is particularly suited to Smalltalk-80 where the resume for seniors basic behavior can be embodied in abstract objects: View, Controller, Model and in business, Object. The MVC behavior is then inherited, added to, and modified as necessary to provide a flexible and powerful system. Although this document was written with Smalltalk-80 in world papers mind, these basic concepts can be implemented in any language which has the appropriate capabilities. Notice that it concentrates on the responsibilities of the three components, and first diploma coursework, does nothing but suggest how the data may flow between them. Note the use of the term usually in in my opinion thesis the above list, and the phrase commanding the model and/or the view to btec first in business coursework change as appropriate.
Later in the same document you may find references to particular implementations, but as far as I am concerned these are suggested implementations by virtue of the fact that the words used are can , could and in my opinion, may . These are not imperatives such as must , should or will , and btec first coursework, as such should not be regarded as required in any implementations. This Wikipedia article contains the following: In addition to dividing the application into three kinds of in my opinion thesis, components, the MVC design defines the first in business coursework interactions between them. A controller can send commands to its associated view to change the view's presentation of the cover model (e.g., by scrolling through a document). It can also send commands to the model to update the model's state (e.g., editing a document). First Diploma Coursework. A model notifies its associated views and controllers when there has been a change in its state.
This notification allows the views to produce updated output, and the controllers to change the for seniors available set of commands. A passive implementation of MVC omits these notifications, because the application does not require them or the software platform does not support them. A view requests from the model the information that it needs to btec first diploma in business coursework generate an output representation. So even in this definition there are several possibilities: The controller can send commands to both the model and the view . The model can send commands to both the view and the controller . The view can receive commands from both the model and cover letter for an application, the controller . Note that the word used is can and first diploma in business coursework, not should or must . Which variation of world religion papers, these options you choose to implement is diploma in business, therefore down to your personal preferences or what options are available in your design. So even though the MVC pattern does not (or should not, IMHO) dictate how the flow of data should be implemented, whether it should be pulled or pushed, or who should do the spanish narrative pulling or the diploma pushing, TomB seems to world think that the first in business only implementations which are allowed are those which have received his personal seal of approval.
Isn't this a little arrogant on his part? By state I meant does the model contain a 'current record set'. Selecting which records to show is clearly display logic (along with ordering and limiting). I replied in this post with the following: I disagree (again).
The Model contains whatever records it has been told to contain, either by issuing an sql SELECT statement, or by having data injected into it from the for an application Controller. Btec. The View does not *request* any particular records from the Model, it deals with *all* records that are currently contained in the Model. Ordering and limiting are data variables which are passed from the Controller, through the Model and to the DAO so that they can be built into in my opinion the sql SELECT statement. The View does *not* decide how to limit or sort the data - the data which it is given has already been sorted and limited. TomB argued in this post with the following: Ordering, limiting and generally deciding which records to show is btec diploma coursework, 100% display logic. By moving this to the model you've reduced reusability of the view.
I don't know about letter for an application, you, but if there are 1,000s of records to btec first diploma coursework display, but the user wants to see them in pages of 10, it is much more efficient, both in time and memory, for the Model/DAO to use limit and offset values so that only the relevant records are actually read from the database. All of these records are then passed to the View, and letter, the View displays every record which it has been given. It just does not sound practical to pass 1,000s of records to the View, then get the View to decide which 10 to display. Similarly it is far easier to sort the records by adding order by to the SQL query than it is to have code to sort them in the View. This is no way reduces the reusability of the view as all HTML output is produced from btec diploma a single pre-written View object which uses one of my pre-written XSL stylesheets. This single object can be used to create the HTML output for any transaction and any Model. What could be more reusable than that? There also seems to be some dispute over what the term display logic actually means.
A software application can be broken down into resume the following types of logic: Display logic - code which generates the HTML output that is sent to btec in business coursework the user. Narrative Essay. This exists in, and only in, the View. Business logic - code which implements the business rules. This exists in, and only in, the Model, which has a separate class for each entity within the application domain.
Data Access logic - code which constructs and executes SQL queries to read or update data in a database. Diploma In Business. This exists in, and narrative essay, only in, the Data Access Object (DAO) which is accessed from the Model. Btec First Diploma In Business Coursework. Control logic - code which translates user input into operations on the Model and the View. This exists in, and only in, the Controller. It is of my, clear to me that display logic is that code which directly generates the HTML output. The data which is transformed into HTML may come from any source, but the code which obtains or generates that data is btec first, not part of the display logic. The Model does not generate any HTML, therefore it does not contain any display logic. Similarly the Model does not generate and execute any SQL queries, therefore it does not contain any data access logic. This can be summed up as follows: Code which transforms data into HTML is display logic. Code which creates or obtains the data which is subsequently transformed into HTML is not display logic.
I'm sorry if my interpretation of these minor details is different to yours, but just because my interpretation is different does not mean that it is wrong. I still have components which carry out the responsibilities of Model, View and Controller, so as far as I am concerned my version of MVC is perfectly valid. My implementation may be different from yours, but it is allowed to in my be different. According to some people there is supposed to be a rule which says that a Controller can only ever communicate with a single Model, but as I have never heard of this rule and have never been given any justification for its existence I see no reason to be bound by it. In my implementation each HTML page is broken down into a series of zones or areas, and btec first in business coursework, each zone is essay, populated using the btec first contents of a different object as follows: The menu bar is populated from the for seniors MNU_MENU table in the MENU database.
The title bar is populated from the MNU_TASK table in the MENU database. The navigation bar is populated from the MNU_NAV_BUTTON table in the MENU database. The message area is populated with any messages, plus any field errors which cannot be associated with any field on the screen. The data area will display data from btec first diploma in business one or more application objects. How this data is for seniors, displayed depends on how many occurrences (rows) can be shown at any one time: For single rows there will be the following: Application data will be displayed vertically with labels on the left and field contents on the right. A scrolling area which will allow the first user to move backwards or forwards through the available rows in the current selection. For multiple rows there will be the following: A row of column headings which are shown as hyperlinks which allow the current sort sequence to be changed. World Term. Application data will be displayed horizontally with each field below its corresponding label. Diploma In Business Coursework. A pagination area which will allow the user to move backwards or forwards through the available pages in the current selection. Essay. The navigation bar will contain hyperlinks to allow the number of rows per page to be altered.
The action bar is populated from a variable which is defined in diploma in business coursework the controller script. In all my previous programming languages I was able to populate different areas on the screen from different tables in the database, so I saw no reason why I should not do exactly the for seniors same with PHP. Each of my page controllers will deal with each of btec in business, those applications objects independently and separately, regardless of the number, and not through any single composite object. For example, take three database tables which are related as shown in Figure 9: A typical screen will list multiple rows from the ORDER table in a single zone using the LIST1 pattern as shown in Figure 10. Data from the CUSTOMER table will not need a separate zone as it can be obtained from a JOIN within the ORDER object. Note that each row of ORDER data may show details for a different CUSTOMER.
A variation of this may show only of my experiments with truth essay, those ORDERs for a single CUSTOMER using the LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 11. Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. Btec First Coursework. This is separate from world religion papers and in addition to the ORDER zone which can display multiple rows. First In Business. Only those ORDERS which are related to the current CUSTOMER will be shown. Another screen may only show those ITEMs for resume for seniors, a single ORDER using the LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 12. Here the diploma in business ORDER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is separate from world term papers and in addition to the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows.
Only those ITEMs which are related to the current ORDER will be shown. Diploma Coursework. Any CUSTOMER data is obtained using a JOIN within the ORDER object. Another screen may only show those ITEMs for a single ORDER for a single CUSTOMER using the LIST3 pattern, as shown in Figure 13. Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. Resume For Seniors. This is separate from and in addition to the ORDER zone which can also only display one row at a time, and the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ITEMs which are related to the current ORDER which are related to the current CUSTOMER will be shown.
The idea of forcing the page controller to go through a single composite object in order to deal with the separate database objects never occurred to me. Doing so would require extra effort which would achieve absolutely nothing (except to conform to first diploma in business coursework a rule which I did not know existed) so as a follower of the KISS principle it is my choice, if not my duty, to avoid unnecessary complexity and world religion, stick with the simplest thing that could possibly work. While not a direct criticism of my approach, a blog written by Fabien Potencier (who created the Symfony framework), contains the following statement: I don't like MVC because that's not how the web works. Btec First. Symfony2 is an resume HTTP framework ; it is a Request/Response framework . In my opinion anyone who says that the MVC design pattern is not suitable for the web has a blinkered mind which is being constrained by first diploma the circumstances in which that pattern was created and the way it was first implemented.
It was originally designed for and implemented in a language which ran in a stateful environment on the desktop using a bitmapped display, and where it was possible for every keystroke to poesie be detected by the program and to have an immediate effect on the output. Twenty plus years later the internet arrived with a totally different stateless protocol with its HTTP Request/Response cycle in which individual keystrokes are not detected - the client sends a request to the server, the sever processes that request and responds with a complete HTML document which causes the whole display to diploma in business be rebuilt. If you bother to look at the description of MVC its says nothing about being tied to resume for seniors software which runs in a stateful environment using a bitmapped display where every keystroke can be detected and processed. MVC is nothing more than a design which identifies three components which each have their own distinct and btec first coursework, separate responsibilities. How those responsibilities are carried out is not specified, the design simply identifies what should be done and not how it should be done. Cover For An. MVC is not tied to btec first diploma in business coursework a particular language, or a particular protocol, nor is world religion term, it limited to a particular implementation . That blog also contains the following statement:
. because the MVC word is btec in business coursework, so overloaded and because nobody implements exactly the same MVC pattern anyway. The phrase same MVC pattern is totally meaningless as there is spanish, only one MVC pattern, but there may be different implementations of that pattern using either different languages or different programming styles. Btec First Diploma In Business Coursework. There may be different variations with different names, such as Model-View-Presenter or Model-View-Adapter, but there is only one MVC. Provided that your software has three components which fulfil the responsibilities of the Model, View and Controller then you definitely have an world religion papers implementation of MVC, and anyone who says otherwise is mistaken. I quite deliberately said an implementation of MVC as there is first diploma coursework, no such thing as the implementation.
For example, with PHP applications the View component may use a templating system such as Smarty or one of the opinion many other templating engines. Personally I prefer to use XSL. Some people put data validation in the Controller, but I prefer to keep it in btec in business coursework the Model with the other business logic. This means that all knowledge of any application is confined to the Model/Business layer while both the Presentation and Data Access layers are application-agnostic by virtue of the fact they do not contain any knowledge of any application. Controllers, Views and spanish narrative essay, DAOs are supplied with the framework while individual Model classes are generated by btec first diploma in business the framework using table structures obtained from the application database which is designed and built by the developer. The idea that MVC is not suitable for the HTTP Request/Response cycle is also nonsense.
Take a look at Figure 14: Figure 14 - Request/Response cycle with MVC. In my framework this is implemented in the following steps: The Controller receives the HTTP request from the client. The Controller calls the appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) and papers, waits for it/them to finish. Note that the results contain only first in business coursework, data, no HTML. If the Model wishes to resume for seniors touch the database it does so by communicating with the DAO. The Controller calls the View with the result(s) from the Model(s) in order to btec first diploma coursework transform the raw data into HTML. The Controller sends the HTML response back to the client.
My implementation contains three components which carry out the responsibilities of the three components which are described in MVC, so anyone who says it is not MVC is mistaken. It also runs on the web, so anyone who says that MVC is letter, not suitable for the web is mistaken.
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10 practical tips for writing better exam essays. The key words in the title are practical and exam . Last week I ran a “competition” to write an essay on aid and poverty. Btec First Diploma In Business. The essays I received were spectacularly good and I do suggest you check them out in the comments section. My one worry though was were they really practical essays in an exam. My essay, which you will find below, is I think much simpler than almost all the spanish essays I received and perhaps a more practical model for diploma, exams. I should add that these are mostly band score 8.0 writing tips and are written especially for resume for seniors, candidates who are aiming high. The moral is: 1. Btec Diploma In Business. Read write read write read write read write read write read. Thesis. What does this mean? It means that you should go back and first in business coursework, read the paragraph you have just written before you start the next one. You may think that this is a waste of time.
If so, you’d be wrong. It’s important to link your paragraphs together what more practical way to do that than just read what you have written? It helps you with words for the next paragraph it is good to repeat some words as this improves your coherence. Look at my sample essay to see how I repeat/reflect language. In one paragraph I talk about the short term, this makes it easy to move onto the long term in the next paragraph. You may also want to check out my series of lessons on the process of writing IELTS essays where you will find a much more detailed explanation of this, 2. Resume. Don’t be smart, be clear select your best idea. One of my very first posts/articles on this site was headed “IELTS is not a test of intelligence”. Btec In Business Coursework. While the post itself now looks a little old, the advice is still good. You are being tested on the quality of your English, not on the quality of your ideas.
This advice is particularly important for candidates who come from an academic background where they are used to of dramatic poesie, being graded on quality and quantity of ideas. IELTS is btec diploma in business different: it is quite possible to write a band 9.0 essay and not include some key #8220;academic#8221; ideas, let alone all the ideas. The practical advice here is to opinion thesis, select your best idea and write about that. That means not writing everything you know leave some ideas out . Don’t worry if it is not your best explanation, worry about whether it is your clearest explanation. 3. Write about what you know relax about ideas. This is a similar idea.
IELTS is an international exam (that’s the “I” in IELTS) and btec diploma in business, the questions are written to be answered by anyone around the world. Some people stress about world term papers finding ideas. They shouldn’t. The ideas you need are generally simple (eg”I disagree”, “This is not a good idea”). The practical solution is to btec first diploma, think about what YOU know and what YOUR experience is. If you look at the question, this is what it tells you to do.
If you come from Bonn, write about Bonn; if you come from Ulan Bator, write about Ulan Bator! 4. Examples are easier to write than explanations. In an exam you are under pressure. You want to make things as easy for for seniors, yourself as possible. Btec First In Business. One practical idea to the story with essay, achieve this is to focus as much on examples as explanations when you write. Why? It’s simply harder if you only think “because”. Some of the ideas may be very complex and, under pressure, it can be difficult to explain these with reasons.
What may happen is that your sentences become too long and the ideas confused. The practical bit is to btec first, concentrate as much on examples. This is a good idea as examples tend to be easier to write as you are simply describing situations. You should also note that the instructions tell you to use examples! All you need to do is make sure that your examples are relevant to the main idea. 5. Spanish Narrative. Don’t write too much the examiner is paid by the minute. Diploma. There is no upper word limit I know of, but it really isn’t a good idea to write 350 words or more. Here’s why: Examiners will only spend so much time looking at any essay. Spanish. Write too much and they will read what you wrote “less carefully”. It is easier to read/grade a 300 word essay than a 400 word essay!
The more you write, the first coursework more likely you are to make language mistakes. For Seniors. The more you write, the btec in business more likely you are to go off topic. The examiner won’t read/grade anything that doesn’t directly relate to the question. If you write less, you give yourself more time to choose the best words and for seniors, that’s what you are being graded on. If you write less, you give yourself more time to btec first in business coursework, go back and check what you have written. Spanish. One of the most famous philosophical thoughts is “know yourself”.
How does this apply to first in business coursework, exam writing? Did Plato really have IELTS in mind when he wrote his dialogues? Well, no, but#8230; The idea is that you should check for your mistakes when you write. The practical part here is that you shouldn’t check for mistakes generally that’s too hard and resume for seniors, probably a waste of time in the exam. Coursework. What isn’t a waste of time though is to look for mistakes you know you can correct the ones you normally make! The really practical thing is to have your own checklist in your head before you start writing. 7. See the whole essay in your head before you start writing. It’s very important that your essay is a whole that all the bits fit together. If you don’t do that, you may lose significant marks for both coherence and task response. This means planning of of dramatic course. Planning bothers some people and bores others.
There are different ways to do this, but at the very least have a map of btec in business coursework your essay in your head. 8. Focus on the backbone of your essay. This is a related point. All the world religion essay matters of course, but perhaps some bits matter more than others. I’d suggest the practical thing to do is concentrate on btec coursework, the backbone of your essay, the bits that help you write better and in my, the examiner to understand better.
The backbone is: The introduction : this should identify the question and outline your position. Don’t rush it as it is the first thing the examiner will read. First impressions count. The first/topic sentences of first in business each paragraph : these should be clear and to the point. They should identify exactly what that paragraph is about and show how it relates to the rest of the essay. The practical tip is to cover application, keep the detail/clever ideas for the body of the paragraph.
Start off general and then build towards the diploma coursework specific. The conclusion : this is the easiest part of the essay essay normally. Most often, all you need to do is go back to the introduction and rephrase it. Btec Diploma In Business. Get these bits right and the rest of the essay tends to take care of itself. 9. Don’t just practice whole essays. The best way to learn to write essays is to spanish narrative, write essays? True or false? My answer is a bit of both. Yes, you do need to btec diploma coursework, practise writing complete essays, but it may be a mistake to do only that. The different part of essays require slightly different skills. To write an introduction, you need to be able to paraphrase the question.
To write a body paragraph, you need to be able to narrative, explain ideas. To write a conclusion, you need to first, be able summarise. The practical suggestion is to practise writing introductions, body paragraphs and conclusions separately. In My. Focus on btec first diploma in business, skills. 10. Focus on essay, the question and refocus on the question. I have left this one to last as it is for me the most important idea.
Essays go wrong for different reasons. Some of these you may not be able to avoid: the quality of your English may not be good enough yet. The one mistake you can always avoid is that you didn’t answer the first diploma coursework question. Too many essays go wrong because candidates didn’t read and world term papers, think about the question properly. The practical suggestion: before you write each paragraph, refer back to the question to remind yourself about what you are meant to write about. Btec First Diploma Coursework. It is very easy to get carried away in exams.
You may start off on topic, then you have a “good idea” as you write. So you write about that. Sadly, that “good idea” may not fully relate to the question. Big problem. My sample essay on poverty and aid. In My Opinion Thesis. This essay which you can download below is intended to be an example of the ideas in this post. It is fairly simple in structure. It focuses clearly on the question I left many of my best ideas out.
I concentrated on what I could explain clearly. It comes in at only just over 300 words. This is where I catalogue all my writing materials. If you are looking for more specific advice, this is the place to first diploma in business coursework, start. The ideas here are similar and you will find more general guidance on dos and don#8217;ts in IELTS essays. How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of narrative essay my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 96 Responses to 10 practical tips for writing better exam essays.
Thank you, Dominic. Very useful. And a very nice essay! fanks so much, this is btec coursework excellent. Thanks for all your tips. Essay. I think it is really useful for me. Diploma Coursework. thank you!! This is a big help for me #128521; Thanks for good information. Really it is very help full. now i got why i dropped out the last two exams. Experiments With Essay. hope these tips will help a lot in my test to achieve a good score#8230;thanks for tips..
I want to write exam. Can we use #8216;quotation#8217; in the essay (task 2)? Umm, I actually have a plan to start my essay with quotation (of course if the topic allows me to diploma coursework, do so). To illustrate, lets say the topic is #8216;Today, the high sales of popular consumer goods reflect the power of advertising and application, not the first coursework real needs of the society in cover letter for an application which they are sold#8217;. Btec In Business Coursework. To what exten do you agree or disagree. Can I have the essay poesie following introduction: #8216;Brother, please convince dad to buy me Galaxy S4#8217;-said my 12 years old younger brother.
I was wondering why a 12 years old would need a Galaxy S4. Then I realized he actually does not need this, it is the eye catching advertisements that made him feel he needs this. Truely, people nowadays buy many things because of the attractive advertisements, even if they actually do not need this. Umm how do you rate this introduction? Is there any problem to use #8216;quotation#8217;? The instruction says that you should use any relevant examples or experience. First Coursework. So logically there should not be any problem, right?
But the problem is I have not seen this approach in any of the model answers. So not sure whether this is a good one. Thanks in advance. Please tell me what is narrative essay wrong with me writing and how I should improve my writing to get 7 or even 8 easily. Nowadays, everyone wants to be famous and tries to be shown on btec first diploma in business, the silver screen. Although some people reckon that fame has a lot of merits, others have a different idea in this.
In this essay, both advantages and disadvantages of being a celebrity will be elaborated. Being famous has a significant number of positive points which will be discussed in more details. Celebrities receive huge amounts of money, so they can buy luxurious cars, devices and gadgets. Therefore, they enjoy their lives as well as draw ordinary people#8217;s attention. For example, TV, magazines, newspapers and essay of dramatic, yellow pages print their photos on the front page, and they can be viewed by diploma in business, viewers. Also, they can really enjoy their lives because they can purchase what they like. On the other hand, there are some negative sides with fame, which cannot go unseen. Famous people do not have privacy at all, so they cannot live like ordinary people. For instance, they cannot go to shopping centres and do shopping there because people will gather to take a photo with them, due to their high popularity amongst people, especially teenagers.
In addition, paparazzi and journalists scrutinize their personal lives because people like to know about their stars. Cover Letter Application. As a result, superstars always should hide themselves from the eyes of journalists who want to intrude their privacy. Furthermore, because of being a model for btec, pupils and thesis, adults, they are responsible for their actions because teenagers adore and follow them. To sum up, demerits of btec in business fame outweigh its positive points because of reasons which were cited in this essay. Thank you so much:D. thanks helped a lot. I must say that you have worked really well on opinion, this piece of writing. It brings some new thoughts in btec first diploma in business coursework reader#8217;s mind and that will really reflect in the way he usually thinks over world religion term papers, a matter. The writing ideas you suggested is looking working and effective in first diploma in business coursework both cases, whether for surpassing the existing skills or to have some new skills. Good job,thank u. Thanks for helping self learners all over the world. God bless you abundantly. Spanish Essay. Thank you!
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Good,better and even best tips. thank you for all informations. Thanks for your advice! it will be very useful to study for in business coursework, the exam. However, I want you to ask for one last advice#8230; I dont know how to start studying for the writing test, what do you think is the spanish order of in business steps to success? thanks in advance. The practical advice here is to select your best idea and write about essay that. That means not writing everything you know.
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Thanks in advance. 1. hard question to answer without an example. But let me try. Let us imaging you#8217;re writing about #8220;happiness#8221;. You could use a conditional such as. Some men might lead more fulfilled lives if they became full-time parents and looked after their children. 2. Yes you can. Don#8217;t get silly about it though. Make sure the data is plausible and relates to btec first diploma in business, the point you are trying to make,
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Thanx for Ur useful information keep writing like this and give us these types of substantial conformance I think that it can enhance my vocabulary power and essay writing. I really felt pink after reading this I think that it was the main problem in spanish essay my exams thanku so much. nice one..verry impressive i see you#8230;#8221;valuing charity#8221;#8230;keep it up#8230;i hope it can help my essay writing contest for tomorrow:-) Can anyone please advise me to what use weather pencil or pen for essay writing.This would be a great help. Hi Dominic plz tell me whats is the first in business level of essay of dramatic poesie this essay.Kindly suggest me corrections. The rising trend of an increasing number of women turning as major bread earners of the family is pervasive these days. Btec In Business Coursework. This essay will first accentuate that women empowerment is the experiments with essay major cause of first diploma in business coursework this shift and for an, then it will highlight its effect of abstained family and societal duties.
Firstly, the most significant reason behind the first women contributing to for seniors, the proportionate amount of btec first diploma family earnings is, the orientation of the society towards revolutionary women empowerment . The Long felt need for the contribution of women to the economic and societal decisions was propelled by for an, their inner thrust of first diploma self accomplishment . Hence, they broke the shackles of household chores and moved out for seniors, of the houses to earn money and equal status as that of men. Moreover, this movement was further supported by btec first diploma coursework, the governments of various countries.For instance, reservations were made for women to occupy significant positions in public enterprises, services and in my thesis, other institutions. On the other hand, this positive development in the society has resulted into more number of impoverished families.Women being considered the heart and soul of the families are more proficient in accomplishing family affairs than their male counterparts.However, more and more number of women moving out of the families for work has affected the family and societal bondings negatively to a considerable level.It is evident from the btec coursework fact that younger generations are now more interested in hangout with friends than attending family and social rituals. In conclusion, while women are giving remarkable economic contribution to their families resulting in spanish better living standards nonethless, this has led to an anomaly of a weak society.This aberration however can be overcome through collective effort of the family members in sharing role and responsibilities, thus framing better work -life balance. I#8217;m sorry but I really don#8217;t have time to give individual feedback of this sort.
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Btec national diploma in business coursework
Examples Of Tone Essays and Research Papers. meaning is btec first coursework conveyed not only through words but also through tone of voice and of my with essay, body language (facial expressions, hand gestures, etc.). As a . result, listeners pay more attention to our tone and body language than to btec first in business coursework our word choices in narrative essay order to derive additional clues to coursework our meaning. Challenges of Online Communication One of the letter for an, challenges of btec diploma, communicating online is that we must depend entirely on words to convey meaning. For example , we do not have the opportunity to reinforce our intention. Audience , Communication , Etiquette 901 Words | 3 Pages. social sciences and humanities. Many ethnomusicological works are created not necessarily by spanish narrative, 'ethnomusicologists' proper, but instead by btec diploma, anthropologists . Spanish Narrative Essay? examining music as an btec in business, aspect of a culture. A well-known example of such work is Colin Turnbull's study of the Mbuti pygmies.
Another example is Jaime de Angulo, a linguist who ended up learning much about the the story truth, music of the first in business, Indians of Northern California . Yet another is Anthony Seeger, professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, who. Anthropology , Community building , Ethnomusicology 1424 Words | 5 Pages. the Laws of Supply and essay, Demand The simulation in the text is about a small city by the name of Atlantis. Atlantis is a well-maintained city with many . First Coursework? positive aspects for the community. For An Application? All of the btec first diploma in business, aspects make it a pleasant living environment. For example , the city has maintained streets, maintained sidewalks, large parks and jogging paths. To rent an apartment in the community of Atlantis an individual would have to go through Good life Management. The current vacancy rate is at 28 percent of in my, availability. Economics , Elasticity , Income elasticity of demand 1569 Words | 3 Pages.
self-awareness and understanding. Further examination of the text shows that the narrator is actually embarrassed and chagrined by the confused adoration . towards his friend’s older sister that marked his childhood, creating a reflective yet fatuous tone that is btec first diploma coursework developed through the utilization of for seniors, literary devices such as dramatic diction, simile, extended metaphor, and religious imagery. Btec First Diploma? Joyce’s word choice both provides insight into and encapsulates his feelings regarding blind love and infatuation. Childhood , Dubliners , Fiction 1031 Words | 3 Pages. 2: Allowing free trade between countries can be beneficial, but it also imposes costs. Use the ITT Tech Virtual Library to research the for seniors, costs and benefits . of allowing free trade. Discuss aspects of free trade that some may consider unfair. For example : a. Distribution of costs and benefits of free trade. In other words, does everyone share in the gains and btec first diploma in business coursework, the costs equally? b. Competing with different labor restrictions (or lack thereof), such as slave or child labor. c. Differences in environmental. Economic surplus , Economics , International trade 1169 Words | 2 Pages. STYLE, TONE , AND MOOD IN LANDLADY Prose 1 Arief Febriyanto 63708028 Moch Fajar Akbar 63708014 Willi Adjie 63706897 ENGLISH . DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS INDONESIA UNIVERSITY OF COMPUTER 2011 STYLE, TONE , AND MOOD 1. STYLE Style is the use of for seniors, literary devices, tone , and mood in a particular way that makes author’s writing recognizable.
In another word, the style of writing is the btec in business coursework, style of author who writes it. The author’s style can be recognized by the following. Emotion , Feeling , Fiction 1366 Words | 5 Pages. Julia Favero Professor Weiss English 10A 30 March, 2013 Night: Shifts in the story of my with truth essay Tone In every writing piece, be it a news journal or a deep . philosophical book, literary devices serve as the first diploma coursework, substructure for the assembly of tone . Essay Poesie? In “Night”, the narrator goes through intense emotions and by modifying the utilization of literary devices, predominantly diction, syntax and symbolism, tone accordingly shifts throughout the first coursework, book; thus, it becomes noticeable how the character’s emotions go from for seniors outraged. Demonstration , Elie Wiesel , Emotion 1190 Words | 4 Pages. Audience Purpose and Tone Three possible entry points into first coursework, assessing an resume, essay—and important considerations for writers as well—are the . identification of the essay’s audience, purpose and tone . “Audience” refers to the readership the writer is writing for—as best we can tell from reading it ourselves. An essay’s intended audience could be the btec first diploma, entire world, or the entire English-reading population, or everyone in the United States, or readers of the Washington Post newspaper. It could be.
Author , Creative writing , Essay 653 Words | 4 Pages. ?EN238 2/10/14 Tone in “My Last Duchess” “My Last Duchess,” by Robert Browning is renowned for being an essay of dramatic, ideal model of a dramatic . monologue. He employs the primary elements of a dramatic monologue to produce a poem that compels his readers to interpret the btec first diploma in business coursework, poem from a psychological perspective, and thus form opinions or conclusions about the poem’s subjects. Furthermore, Browning utilizes the speaker’s tone in unison with a dramatic monologue’s primary features in order to enhance the portrayal. Dramatic monologue , Duke , My Last Duchess 911 Words | 3 Pages.
Tone Essay In the novel Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison, the author portrays distinguishable tones throughout . the book with several literary devices. The main devices that Ellison most commonly utilizes are diction, imagery, details, language, and overall sentence structure or syntax. In the novel the main character or invisible man undergoes a series of dramatic events that affect the author's tone and the main character's overall outlook on the story of my truth essay his life and society. The author interweaves. Character , Invisibility , Invisible Man 2131 Words | 5 Pages. Misogynistic tones have often been written (sometimes hidden) in a text or lyric for the purposes of entertainment- this has been a common . practice throughout the history of the written word; and was especially prevalent in 1966 America before the women’s rights acts was implemented. It was this year that James Brown recorded the song titled “It’s a Man’s World”- kind of appropriate that I used this song as an example of lyrical content which contains a large element of chauvinism. I’ve listened.
Female , Gender , Gender role 1566 Words | 4 Pages. Tone in “Mirror” by Sylvia Plath In “Mirror” by Sylvia Plath, the speaker is diploma represented as a mirror that reflects the life and actions of the story of my truth essay, . another human being. The speaker develops a casually detached tone right from the beginning of the poem, but also portrays an accepting mood by the end of the diploma in business coursework, work. These tones and moods are expressed through the use of cover for an, diction, punctuation, metaphors, and imagery. The tone of this poem fluctuates and makes it difficult for the reader to grasp the emotions.
Emotion , Poetry , Style 1058 Words | 3 Pages. Essay: Diction and Tone in Poetry In the field of literature, authors use various forms of writing techniques to create diction and . Diploma? tone . One way that the author, Andrew Marvel, of “To His Coy Mistress” uses a unique way of diction to portray several styles of world term, tone , in which they shift from one another, through stanza to stanza. His diction creates a variety of first in business, literary styles that most authors use as a way of conveying a personal message. This diction creates a multitude of imagery that the reader. Andrew Marvell , Carpe diem , Ganges 935 Words | 3 Pages.
Tone Loc Many of you today may not know of the artist I’m going to talk about today but may know of his work. He is pretty popular with . certain types of for an application, people I’ll let you be the btec coursework, judge on that. With? Tone Loc didn’t always have the best child hood in fact a hood is just might what you call it. Tone loc was a very unique some would say typical person as you read more you’ll soon see just how different he is. . All Through the diploma coursework, Night , Cool Hand Loc , FernGully: The Last Rainforest 1103 Words | 3 Pages. Style and Tone Essay Style is the way in truth essay which something is written, as opposed to the meaning of what is written. The writer uses a . certain style and tone to craft the story.
Style refers to diploma in business the writer’s choice of diction, sentence structure, tone and organization. No One’s Mystery by Elizabeth Tallent shows style and tone throughout the whole story, which shows reality vs. In My Thesis? fantasy and being in love with someone you shouldn’t. Diction refers to the class of words than an author decides is. A Story , Emotion , Feeling 994 Words | 3 Pages. Tone of “Truth” The poem, “Truth,” by first diploma coursework, Gwendolyn Brooks, was written in 1949, during a continuing era of black oppression in America.
Brooks . was born June 7, 1917 in Topeka, Kansas but her family moved to Chicago shortly after her birth, according to for seniors her biographer, Georg Kent (2). The Poetry Foundation biography of Gwendolyn Brooks says her father was a janitor who had dreamt of diploma, becoming a doctor and her mother was a schoolteacher and classically trained pianist (Halley). Both of her parents had. African American , Annie Allen , Black people 1836 Words | 5 Pages. Leading By Example Peter Thatcher Presented By; Mohamed Adly Ahmed Atef Sherif Hassan Aly Saber Amr Hassan Wael Nabil Preface Anyone can . be a leader, but to be a successful leader can be a real challenge. A leader needs to be able to draw on a vast array of skills and attributes and be able to apply them at the right time and in the right way. Narrative Essay? Above all a leader has to recognize that his/her success will ultimately depend on the people that he/she leads which means creating an environment. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 1869 Words | 6 Pages.
tribulations until she finds true love and achieves an btec first in business coursework, almost nirvana-like state of being. The manner, in which Charlotte Bronte writes, her . tone and diction especially, lends its self to the many purposes of the novel. The diction of Bronte usually had characteristics of gothic culture and showed the usually negative and angry inner thoughts of Jane. The tone of the world religion term, novel was there sympathetic towards Jane and displayed her as an intelligent and kind person who has been given a terrible lot in life. 1990s music groups , 2000s music groups , Charlotte Bronte 968 Words | 3 Pages.
Types of Poetry Examples Learning about the different types of in business, poetry is often easier when you review examples of the different . types. Each example gives you the of my with, opportunity to see the btec first, differences between the style and tone of each type. Ads by Google Spiritual Healing. Visit John of God. Send photos to John of Godwww.MiraclesOfJohnOfGod.com/ Examples Highlight the Poetic Types Each type of poetry is characterized by its own style. By understanding the various styles, you are better able to.
Epic poetry , Homer , Iambic pentameter 1288 Words | 5 Pages. Tone Essay on the poem After Auschwitz by Anne Sexton. was. The speakers tone is mostly angry. During the poem, the speaker's tone becomes more and more angry and dark but at the end . Cover Application? of the poem in the last two lines it also turns into a sad tone . Diploma In Business Coursework? These tones are created to confirm the bad things that happened in the concentration camp Auschwitz. Sexton's use of sentence structure, imagery and spanish, detail are key to create this angry, dark and btec in business, sad tone through the thesis, poem. The strongest tone that appears through the poem is an angry tone . One technique Sexton. Auschwitz concentration camp , Human , Nazi concentration camps 851 Words | 3 Pages. triangle. a. Who is the btec in business, speaker? (education, ethnicity, era, political persuasion, etc.) b. Poesie? Who is the first diploma in business coursework, audience? c. What is the subject? 2. What is the . author saying about the subject?
What is his/her assertion? 3. World Term Papers? What is the author’s attitude ( tone ) about the subject? a. Btec First Diploma In Business? What specific word choice (diction) clues the reader in? b. Letter? What figures of btec diploma, speech are used? Does the poesie, imagery/analogies/allusions conjure positive/negative/angry/melancholy/activist feelings in the reader? c. What type of. Al Gore , An Inconvenient Truth , Global warming 600 Words | 4 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in professional and semi-professional musicians.” One of the most visible . benefits of playing a musical instrument is the improvement of memory capacity and ability. For example , the constant use of both the left and right hemispheres of the brain simultaneously in someone who plays the coursework, piano exercises memory. Thanks to this, it is world religion term also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages.
hardships, and in the end, come out better then before. Through exploring the tone , mood, and theme of first in business, these works, one can see a common . Spanish Narrative? characteristic of finding balance between trust and loyalty, while also having a hope for btec first, a successful future. Experiments Truth Essay? Shaun Tan, author of The Arrival, displays his understanding of the balance between loyalty and first in business, trust through telling a story of immigration, all through the use of spanish essay, pictures. Btec First Coursework? The tone of this story is shown through how he displays his feelings towards true. Ben Gibbard , Colm Feore , Death Cab for Cutie 986 Words | 5 Pages. Some further text.” To demonstrate this, Edgar again leaves his final sentence of the stanza unfinished, showing how one word leads to the next. The . fourth stanza continues the idea of one book leading to another, an “atlas or gazetteer,” for example , to look up unfamiliar place-names. But in the fourth stanza Edgar moves on from the idea of essay poesie, addictive reading and begins to first in business answer the question posed in resume for seniors stanza two: how do books speak? The answer he provides is that they use the reader, by prompting. Poetry , Question , Reader 1480 Words | 4 Pages. The Tone of Bright and Morning Star him down.
Wright writes the diploma in business coursework, story so expertly that the reader really experiences Communist life in the South, and get caught up in the danger and essay, suspense of first diploma, . the of dramatic poesie, story, living it as though he or she were part of the story! He was able to create this tone of fright and suspense using stylistic devices like colloquialisms, foreshadowing, and symbolism. Richard Wright uses the diploma in business coursework, stylistic device called colloquialisms, dialogue that was very realistic for the setting, to religion term help the reader mentally experience. Black people , Communism , Communist state 2029 Words | 6 Pages. Academic Writing Analysis Example. insights, his arguments are generally weakly substantiated as a result of the lack of evidences, examples and first in business, citations. In paragraph 7 for . Letter For An Application? instance, the writer made an btec first coursework, attempt to incorporate surveys but the world term, lack of citations and proper statistics makes it a weak claim.
Another example occurred in paragraph 4. The author used Adolf Hitler as a case study; however, he failed to relate his example to the topic of diploma coursework, human cloning. The supporting detail here was poorly developed. Moreover, the. Academia , Argument , Critical thinking 969 Words | 6 Pages. their failure to acknowledge this and take action, the issue can only get worse.
O'Reilly's placing of the blame for America's struggles on the American . public suggests that he considers himself to be above the of my experiments with truth essay, people, adding a somewhat condescending tone to his editorials. In many of his editorials, Bill O'Reilly further addresses the audience by making calls to action, though unlike the previous statements, he includes himself in these. These calls to action suggest that the liberality of the government. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. Symbolism, Tone and Mood: An Overview and Review What is in business a symbol? • A symbol is an ordinary object, event, person, . Letter For An Application? animal, or color to diploma which we have attached a special meaning and significance. • So, symbolism is simply the act of attaching inner meaning to resume for seniors outward things.
So what is Literary Symbolism? • When the author uses an object or reference to add deeper meaning to a story. • Can be subtle or obvious, used sparingly or heavy? handedly. • An author may repeatedly use the same object to first diploma in business convey . Fiction , Motif , Northern Mockingbird 757 Words | 4 Pages. The Raven: Creating the Melancholic Tone. Melancholic Tone Edgar Poe’s “The Raven”, representing Poe’s own introverted crisis of hell, is unusually moving and attractive . to in my thesis the reader. In his essay entitled “The Philosophy of Composition,” Poe reveals his purpose in writing “The Raven” and also describes the btec diploma in business coursework, work of composing the of dramatic, poem as being carefully calculated in btec diploma coursework all aspects. Of all melancholy topics, Poe use the one that is universally understood, death, which specifically involves a beautiful woman.
The apparent tone in “The. Edgar Allan Poe , Graham's Magazine , Lenore 1032 Words | 3 Pages. 8/05/2015 MGMT2725 CAREER PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Week 9 Tutorial S1 2015 OVERVIEW ? ? Examples of Good vs. Bad Themes (20 mins) A chance . for you to ask questions and thesis, continue working on your themes. (40 mins) 1 8/05/2015 EXAMPLES OF THEMES GOOD BAD 1. I'm a very well-organized person. 1. I'm capable of gathering information. 2. Btec First Diploma Coursework? Working independently is important to me. 2. Competition. 3. I have an enterprising spirit. 4. I'm good at making friends.** 5. I'm a deep thinker. 6. Socialising.
Form of the Good , Risk , Score 869 Words | 5 Pages. An example of a paragraph Achoura is letter for an one of the most important celebrations in which Muslims do various activities. Btec First In Business? It is celebrated . on Muharram 10th every year. On this occasion, families meet together for a special meal of dried fruit and couscous with guedid. They also eat cakes and drink milk or juice. More importantly, they offer Zakat to poor people. Moreover, families and friends meet each other on of my experiments truth essay the big day to play their drums while singing and dancing. In Business? In addition, Achoura is. Mixture 611 Words | 3 Pages.
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the slaves worked in the plantation. The slave was born black leaders - Frederic, said in his autobiography, the average person is happy, when the slaves . sing songs of grief and sadness. Or sing particularly desolate feeling very warm tone ; or with a very bleak tone singing especially fanatical feelings; every note, every word of the lyrics express suffering slaves filled with sorrow and grief. Btec First In Business Coursework? 7. Who is Austin Gore and his maxims? What did he do to Demby? Why? Gore’s punishment? Austin Gore. Africa , African slave trade , Arab slave trade 1874 Words | 6 Pages. Enron: Tone at the Top The fall of Enron is not just one of the spanish narrative, largest bankruptcies in U.S. history, but in my opinion, a landmark case study . of the lack of btec first coursework, business ethics in an organization.
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2007–2008 world food price crisis , Australia , Citation 890 Words | 3 Pages. ? Examples For our illustration purpose consider investing ˆ 1000 for 1 year. We'll consider two investment cases viz: Case I: Domestic . Investment In the U.S.A., consider the spot exchange rate of $1.2245/ˆ 1. So we can exchange our ˆ 1000 @ $1.2245 = $1224.50 Now we can invest $1224.50 @ 3.0% for spanish narrative essay, 1 year which yields $1261.79 at the end of the btec first in business, year. Case II: Foreign Investment Likewise we can invest ˆ 1000 in a foreign European market, say at the rate of 5.0% for 1 year. But we buy forward. Canadian dollar , Currency , Dollar 1052 Words | 2 Pages. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay. Then answer the religion, questions below.
The qualities of btec in business, a hero include selflessness, having . the application, inspiration to be a founder and first, being courageous. Essay Of Dramatic? With these qualities in mind, it is easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. First Coursework? He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and these heroic qualities were seen in his life and poesie, work. He was born in Al Ain and had a simple education which included learning the Koran and mathematics. His. Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages.
Nature and btec in business coursework, the Unfamiliar: Examining the Divergence of Tone in for seniors the Travel Writing of Bartram and Waterton. English 2318.1 November 26, 2013 Nature and the Unfamiliar: Examining the Divergence of coursework, Tone in the Travel Writing of of dramatic poesie, Bartram and . Waterton Human experience within nature is a broad, ever-expanding subject of study, wherein one is limited to either divulging personal experience or interpreting the validity of the experiences of others in order to gain insight. In Business? As such, nature writing takes innumerable forms, with each approaching the task of describing experience within nature in a unique. Alligatoridae , Charles Darwin , Essay 1922 Words | 6 Pages. classes they switch our lecturer into Mr Darren. This issue make us uneasy for a few classes but we started to get used to it. The note given by Mr Darren . was really useful and the explanation was very easy to understand.
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Steinbeck foreshadowed . the the story of my with, pivotal events based on Lennie’s psychological structure, innocence, brute strength and the pure brotherly love he holds for btec first in business coursework, George. This therefore gives an overall depressing tone of the book with barely any positive events. Steinbeck first foreshadowed the pivotal events of the book through Lennie’s slight mental disability shown on page 8 where George. Foreshadowing , Great Depression , John Steinbeck 953 Words | 3 Pages. A Time for Truth Bioscience 31, 559 (1981) reprinted in Evolution versus Creationism, op cit. This concept is letter for an application also explained in introductory biology books . that are used in colleges and universities (and in some of the better high schools).
For example , in some of the best such textbooks we find: Today, nearly all biologists acknowledge that evolution is a fact. Diploma Coursework? The term theory is of my with no longer appropriate except when referring to the various models that attempt to explain how life evolves. it is. Biology , Charles Darwin , Creationism 2190 Words | 6 Pages.
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