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boy essay no no After a century-and-a-half of ap bio essay, Trans-Pacific emigration and decades’ worth of academic writing on the matter, buy cialis Asian-American identity is still a difficult concept to define. As opposed to answer essay real, whites, against whom all other ethnic groups are inevitably compared, and African-Americans, whose roots to the country begin with the essay 1995 slave trade, Asian Americans have no great narrative of their own. Madison! Instead, what identity they have managed to generate has come about through a process of negation, by privileging what Asian-American identity isn’t over essay 1995, what it is. For years, Asian American identity was most simply defined as non-white, as an offshoot of blackness. In his book Race, Rights and the Asian American Experience , Angelo Ancheta chronicles the phenomenon in thesis binding which Asian Americans, rather than being treated as human beings of equal rights, rather than being treated as their own respective ethnic group, merely fell victim to the same racist legislation already levied against ap bio 1995 blacks. To prove his point, he brings up the case of People v. Hall, which maintained that no Chinese person could testify against a white American due to an in-force statute that already prohibited the selected testimony of blacks (5). Furthering this parallel between Asian and African Americans, Ancheta also references the ap bio 1995 case of a2 sociology, Gong Lum v. Rice, which upheld the constitutionality of sending Chinese school children to separate schools twenty-seven years before Brown v. Board of Education. As far as the court systems were concerned, Ancheta observes, “yellow equaled black, and neither equaled white” (5). The Chinese were not alone in this regard. The incoming Japanese found themselves in a similar situation, and they were thereby forced to achieve citizenship in unorthodox and creative ways. In one particularly noteworthy case, Ozawa v. United States, a Japanese man tried to essay 1995, argue that he should be considered white based primarily on skin color (Ancheta 6).
This was not only a subversive take on the commonly-held notions of race and ethnicity, but it also served the adverse purpose of reaffirming the status quo, as it suggested that being Japanese automatically disqualified one from a2 sociology, citizenship, and in turn, one had to claim whiteness via any loophole possible. Ozawa’s efforts, however, ultimately proved unsuccessful. But one must ask, why is whiteness so seemingly at essay odds with being Japanese? As we see in John Okada’s 1957 novel, No-No Boy , the most vivid illustration of on writing application, this divide is in the treatment of Japanese people during and after World War II. 1995! Predominantly viewed as irreversibly foreign and antagonistic, Japanese Americans had to endure life in a2 sociology internment. This was initiated by Executive Order 9066, which removed 110,000 Japanese inhabitants, two-thirds of essay 1995, whom were actually citizens, from their homes and placed them in camps where they were closely monitored (Yogi 63). From there, all Japanese men of service age were forced to complete a loyalty questionnaire implemented by the War Relocation Authority – or WRA – that required them to declare allegiance to the United States or face imprisonment. It was in providing negative responses to the following two questions that a second-generation Japanese American, henceforth called a Nisei, earned the moniker of no-no boy: 27.) Are you willing to serve in the armed forces of the United States on combat duty, wherever ordered?
28.) Will you swear unqualified allegiance to madison essay question, the United States of America and ap bio 1995, faithfully defend the United States from any or all attacks by dissertation selected, foreign or domestic forces, and foreswear any form of allegiance to the Japanese emperor, or any other foreign government, power, or organization? (Yogi 65) Thus, the WRA questionnaire ultimately caused a rift within the Japanese community. Many first-generation Japanese maintained strong ties to Japan while their children, the Nisei, knew no other cultural affiliation than America, but the divide wasn’t merely generational. Those dubbed no-no boys were seen as nothing more than an essay, albatross for the Nisei community to thesis binding, bear. Essay 1995! This viewpoint is particularly upheld – and enforced – by those Japanese of the Nisei generation who answered affirmatively on the WRA questionnaire, proving themselves to be unwaveringly loyal to America and willing to fight on its behalf. The crux of a2 sociology essays, these conflicts rests ultimately on how Americans outside of the 1995 community – particularly whites, since they alone exercised socio-political control at this point in history – viewed all Japanese persons. The war veterans of the Nisei generation craved overdue recognition as fellow Americans that they felt they earned in the war.
But their wartime efforts, they soon realized, mattered little in post-war society, and because of question real, this, Nisei veterans adopted hatred toward their own in yet another attempt to ap bio essay, earn acknowledgment as fellow Americans. For their part, the no-no boys want the exact same thing as the men who served in the military. But unlike the veterans, who believed they only essay written needed to be recognized by white America, the no-no boys had to also somehow earn the respect of the war veterans, men who wanted nothing more than to banish them from the community. It is out of this tension and ap bio, anger that Okada’s No-No Boy emerges. A State of Emergency… A State of Emergence? A cornerstone of university essay, Asian American literature, No-No Boy chronicles the homecoming of one Nisei individual who could not answer affirmatively to the WRA questionnaire without feeling as if he was abandoning his ethnic heritage. Ichiro Yamada, the novel’s protagonist and sometimes narrator, walks the essay streets of Seattle with understandable apprehension and anxiety. Ichiro’s guilt is two-fold: first for a2 sociology essays his refusal to enlist and declare sole allegiance to America, and second for ap bio Japan’s attacks on Pearl Harbor. The latter should have no bearing on Ichiro personally, but due to a public perception that sees him as interchangeable with the bombers of usyd binding, Pearl Harbor, he spends the entire narrative attempting to repent. Ap Bio! But how warm of a welcome does Ichiro expect if he himself cannot enunciate an American identity on his own behalf?
One of the primary ways to a2 sociology essays, affirm individual identity, according to Homi K. Bhabha, is to simply enunciate it. Cultural difference, as Bhabha writes, “is an ap bio, enunciative category; opposed to relativistic notions of cultural diversity, or the exoticism of the university essay ‘diversity’ of cultures” (85). I interpret this to mean that for national subjects who find themselves outside of cultural identity norms, they must not only enunciate their difference for themselves but do so in a way that counteracts any attempts by the dominant culture to enunciate an identity for essay them. I will go into greater detail about sat, this troublesome negotiation between the dominant culture and the Nisei in essay 1995 the next part of this essay, but I want to begin by written sat, first discussing Ichiro’s attempts to enunciate his cultural difference – his identity – on his own terms. On his way home, Ichiro passes by ap bio 1995, a group of African American men who have moved into the neighborhood during internment. They taunt him with a chant of “Jap-boy, To-ki-yo; Jap-boy, To-ki-yo” (5), illustrating the common attitude toward the Japanese as irreversibly foreign. Even to black Americans, a group already so accustomed to usyd thesis, racism and oppression, there is no difference between the bombers of Pearl Harbor and an American citizen like Ichiro.
Ichiro takes note of this, describing the taunts from the black men as “[p]ersecution in the drawl of the ap bio persecuted” (5). These men have not only replaced the Japanese residents in the neighborhood but simultaneously represent the dominant ideologies that now hold them down. They cannot challenge the dominant ideology to essays, achieve social equality for their own racial group, but they can certainly assimilate in other ways, primarily by ap bio, participating in the oppression and usyd thesis, ridicule of ap bio essay, those beneath them on the racial hierarchy. Ichiro’s fellow Nisei take a similar approach. Eto Minato, an old acquaintance, stands beside him on a street corner, dressed in his green army-fatigue trousers to show off his military service. What begins as a friendly exchange between the two immediately sours when Eto realizes that Ichiro is a no-no boy. To Eto, Ichiro not only betrayed the United States with his responses but acted against the common good of the entire community, which continues to struggle for recognition as loyal American citizens, an impossible enough task without supposed traitors like Ichiro standing among them.
Ichiro may excuse Eto’s response, finding “a release to his own naked tension” (4) in Eto’s anger, but the novel itself is hardly as forgiving. Except Eto’s military attire, nothing truly separates him from Ichiro. Would the on writing application essay ebook black men on essay, Jackson Street have curbed their taunts had Eto passed by them instead? Doubtful. No-No Boy remains just as much a statement against Nisei like Eto, who would rather spit on their fellow Japanese in an attempt to elevate their own statuses as Americans, as it is against the socio-political power structure (i.e. whites) that wrongly persecuted them in the first place. A2 Sociology! In either instance – in ap bio essay 1995 dealing with the taunts of the black men or with Eto – Ichiro cannot defend himself from accusations by simply declaring himself an American. The difficulty he experiences admitting his no-no boy status is understandable, but his inability to declare himself an American is baffling – especially since that is what he desires most. Never is his internal conflict more evident than when he finally arrives home where his traditionalist mother, who still insists on a Japanese victory, welcomes him. In her son’s refusal to serve, Ma sees her own unwavering loyalty to Japan. Dissertation Chair! Ichiro, however, is essay far more divided on the matter. He thinks to himself: [W]e were Japanese with Japanese feelings and Japanese pride and application, Japanese thoughts because it was all right to be Japanese and feel and think all the things that Japanese do even if we lived in America.
Then there came a time when I was only half Japanese because one is not born in American and raised in ap bio American and madison university essay, taught in America… without becoming American and loving it. Ap Bio 1995! (15-16) He wants to be recognized as an American so badly, yet he cannot extend that same recognition to himself. Instead, he references his American upbringing and education as if they are somehow separate from him, each of them superior to thesis binding, himself as a whole. The novel also mentions the fact that the United States was at ap bio 1995 the same time at war with Italy and essay written, Germany, but citizens of Italian or German ancestry, it illustrates, could blend back into the populace with greater ease than Ichiro, whose crime against the country becomes known after one glance at his face. Due to his physical traits, he is immediately set apart as an inassimilable foreigner and automatically suspected of treason. Gary, an essay, old friend and fellow no-no boy, states that those who enlisted, however better they feel compared to no-no boys, will still find. themselves getting passed up for jobs by white fellows not quite so bright but white. James University Essay! They’ll take a trip up to some resort, thinking this is ap bio essay God’s green land of written, democracy for which I killed a dozen Krauts, and get kicked in the face with the ap bio 1995 unfortunate mistake about the reservation story because he’d signed the letter Ohara and the guy at the resort thought it was good old Irish O’Hara. Question Real! (227) Here, Okada openly addresses the arbitrariness of race relations in ap bio essay America, where something as serendipitous as an apostrophe makes all the difference. Recognition as a fellow American will never be extended to the Japanese.
Ohara, a Japanese citizen, cannot amount to the good old Irish O’Hara, no matter how many Krauts he killed on duty or how vehemently he pledged allegiance to America. This is a stark contrast to the treatment of citizens of German or Italian ancestry. Okada describes the sat presiding judge in Ichiro’s court case as an essay, “Italian [with] a German last name” (32), explicitly proving this point. This detail becomes even more significant when we consider that this is the only description we are given of the essay question real judge’s appearance. Ichiro fails to realize that his position in post-war America is no different than those same Nisei who exert the painstaking efforts to ap bio 1995, torment him. He cannot bring himself to answer question real, articulate – even to himself – that he is an American citizen and one worthy of recognition as such. His status as a no-no boy not only affects how others within and outside the ap bio essay 1995 Japanese community view him, but, as evidenced by essay question, his constant internal back-and-forth, also distorts how he views himself. Emi, who blossoms into a close friend as the novel progresses, sees right through Ichiro, though. She implores him to recall how proud they felt as young students singing “The Star Spangled Banner” and pledging allegiance to 1995, the flag at school assemblies. She wants Ichiro to dissertation, realize that his mistake is “no bigger than the mistake [his] country made” (96) against ap bio him, but in the process, she ignores the simple fact that the United States possesses much more power than Ichiro, leaving Ichiro to bear the brunt of harsh consequences for his mistake whereas the United States can easily proceed into written the future, unscathed, for its treatment of the Japanese. The topic of 1995, Ichiro’s “mistake” ultimately concludes when he shrugs off Emi’s efforts by stating, quite matter-of-factly: “It was different then” (96).
Spurred on by what effect her words might yet have on him, Emi responds “Only because you think so” (96). A2 Sociology Essays! But she seems to place full blame on Ichiro for his predicament. Things are as they are, she is ap bio 1995 stating, solely because he “thinks so.” She not only overlooks the reality of white racism that Ichiro is dissertation chair up against, but also the ap bio splintered and bullying Nisei community that refuses to welcome him home, to fight on james madison, his behalf. She means well, but her efforts are misleading and steeped in ignorance. She is undeniably the type of character, though, that 1950s readers were drawn to: a minority woman who still believes in the American Dream, who is willing to overlook the past for 1995 a brighter future. However, Okada doesn’t seem to know how to deal with Emi’s perspective, perhaps having it thrust upon him by possible publishers, and it shows in his characterization of her, one-dimensional at dissertation chair best. She comes across as nothing more than the essay wholesome, patriotic woman helping Ichiro realize his American-ness, but since she is so criminally underdeveloped as a character, suggesting Okada’s lack of a2 sociology essays, commitment in her creation, how seriously can Ichiro – or the readers – take her encouragement?
The text itself illustrates that if Nisei identity should be defined through what it is not (i.e. not white, not black, not even American), all Nisei who enlisted in the military, such as Eto and ap bio essay 1995, Bull, would insist that their identity be non-no-no boy, as well. The veterans’ attempt to remove the no-no boys from the community is a goal that, although affecting Ichiro in the most negative way imaginable (since it pertains to his exclusion by departure or death), is essays one he consistently supports. Ap Bio Essay 1995! Since he cannot prove his American-ness to himself, lacks the ability to chair, enunciate it even in his thoughts and wants nothing to do with being a Japanese loyalist like his mother, he sees no further purpose to his life. He admits as much when he decides that he would happily trade places with Kenji, a pre-wartime friend who lost a leg in combat. In an attempt to prove that Ichiro’s troubles (unlike his own) may eventually be overcome, Kenji explains the doomed future he faces. Ichiro, however, remains impervious to his argument, opting to trade place with the essay 1995 doomed Kenji rather than live a life of constant struggle and essay real, inner turmoil: “Kenji had two years, maybe a lifetime if the thing that was chewing away at him suddenly stopped. But he, Ichiro, had stopped living two years ago” (64).
Ichiro ceased living when he failed to capitalize on 1995, his opportunity to prove his loyalty and the college application essay, serve in the military. To Ichiro, military service precedes American-ness for all Japanese citizens of service age. He remains oblivious to the fact that these are the essay terms of Americanization that his fellow Nisei also want him to subscribe to since it bolsters their own claims of American-ness, when in reality they all remain interchangeable in the eyes of everyone outside of their ethnic community. Yogi points to the final scene as proof that America, although not as Ichiro imagined, is still within reach (74). However, the ending, purposefully ambiguous, leaves Ichiro’s future very much in question. As he leaves the bar, he is best said to be chasing “that faint and elusive insinuation of promise as it continued to take shape in mind and in heart” (251). Essay 1995! We are led to best written sat, believe, through Okada’s suggestive prose, that it is only a matter of time until that promise of America is realized. But before this, Ichiro is ap bio essay said to be “thinking, searching, thinking and probing,” revealing the amount of thesis binding, effort he must exert in simply pursuing this “faint and elusive insinuation” (252).
Although we must ultimately understand the long process ahead of Ichiro, we cannot overlook the ap bio 1995 fact that by novel’s end, he is still unable to declare himself an American. The promise of question real, that moment is there, but it is presumptuous to assume that it will be realized beyond that. Although Yogi and essay 1995, others have concluded that the ending leaves readers with a sense of hope, Ichiro himself is madison university question far more ambivalent about the matter. He isn’t sure what he is feeling, but he refrains from ap bio 1995, calling it hope. The narrator asks on answer question, Ichiro’s behalf, “A glimmer of hope – was that it?” (250). In this closing scene, Ichiro is ap bio essay seemingly convincing himself that what he feels is hope (thereby assuring readers in the process), because what else could it possibly be? “It was there,” the narrator continues, “someplace” (250). Here, Okada directs Ichiro away from a hybridized cultural identity and instead propels him solely toward an affiliation with America - all without resolving the issues of identity and citizenship that the novel brings under discussion in the first place. Dissertation Chair! The narrative ends with the conflict between the essay no-no boys and best, the Nisei veterans culminating in violence. The no-no boy Freddie attempts to flee, and in doing so, loses control of his car and dies. Bull, the veteran, asserts to ap bio 1995, anyone around that he is glad for what happened before he sobs uncontrollably.
We leave Ichiro, not long after his failed attempts to console Bull, wandering aimlessly into the night, neither heading home nor initiating wholeness for himself or for the Nisei community. He is, it is said, merely in answer essay question real pursuit. Expanding upon one of Walter Benjamin’s central points in his essay “Theses On the Philosophy of History,” Bhabha contends that a state of emergency, like the ap bio situation faced by chair, the Nisei in post-WWII America, always yields a state of emergence (59). Ap Bio Essay 1995! This struggle, Bhabha writes, “not only binding changes the direction of [history], but challenges its historicist idea of time as a progressive, ordered whole” (59). Thus, Ichiro’s emerging identity – presented in the novel strictly along Manichean lines as either American or Japanese, trustworthy citizen or suspicious foreigner – would thrust him beyond the wartime tensions that he feels inherently exists between the American and Japanese communities, as well as within the 1995 Japanese community itself. Unfortunately, though, Ichiro’s emergency yields no “emergence” since he himself cannot articulate his own emergence as either Japanese or American by the novel’s end, and chair, cannot seem to ap bio essay 1995, think along the lines necessary to achieve the hybridized identity of Japanese-American. To him, these terms remain exclusive at best and at dissertation worst fatally antagonistic. Individual Identity vs. Social Type. In his 2000 essay, “Assumed Identities,” David Palumbo-Liu differentiates between “identity,” granted at 1995 the individual level, and “social type,” the dissertation selected recognition bestowed upon entire groups of people.
He explains that when the line between the two is blurred or completely overlooked, the parties involved are doomed to experience “profoundly destructive outcomes” (767). The “destructive outcomes” Palumbo-Liu references manifest themselves two-fold in essay 1995 No-No Boy , the binding first of these being how white Americans view and treat Nisei individuals. It is, after all, the perception of essay, those outside of the usyd binding Japanese community that most affects how successful the Nisei will be in their pursuit for recognition. As such, this particular “destructive outcome” leads to the second: how members of the Nisei generation come to view themselves. Ap Bio Essay! Almost all characters in Okada’s text are guilty of subscribing to a definition of “American” that will forever exclude them to a certain point since they will never be white and of European descent. The guiltiest of the college essay ebook, parties – and one may argue that this is because they feel that they have the best claim at American-ness – are the veterans. And it is in essay 1995 their insistence of American-ness that they turn against their own. The Nisei we encounter in No-No Boy remain too splintered to challenge the dominant culture’s notions of identity and citizenship. Thus, Ichiro’s state becomes analogous to that of his entire generation. On Writing The College Application Ebook! Even someone like Kenji, the only war veteran we encounter in the text who does not partake in no-no boy persecution, has no consoling words regarding the essay 1995 state of Japanese people in America. He says: “Go someplace where there isn’t another Jap within a thousand miles.
Marry a white girl or a Negro or an Italian or even a Chinese. Anything but a Japanese. After a few generations of that, you’ve got the thing beat. Am I making sense?” (164). Dissertation Selected! Kenji’s advice is to simply leave it alone. There will be no change in ap bio essay the foreseeable future of how whites view their Japanese counterparts.
Similarly, there will be no difference in james essay question how the veterans, who blindly subscribe to white America’s definition of ap bio, citizenship, treat the no-no boys. Palumbo-Liu explains how frequently (and with remarkable ease) social type can supplant individual recognition. To most other Americans, the Nisei veterans – despite their badges of honor for having served – remain one and the same with the no-no boys who they detest so much. And in a narrative where racist, white America is entirely non-existent, the usyd thesis binding Nisei veterans believe it is perfectly in essay their place to act as substitutes; as such, they can determine what the Nisei “social type” should become . Best Written Sat! The veterans cannot dictate how white Americans will view them. Having served in the war, proving beyond a doubt where their loyalties lie, the veterans believe that their only true power rests in how the Nisei community can present itself going forward. Essay 1995! This adds to the barriers already faced by Ichiro, who repeatedly proves himself incapable of declaring himself Japanese or American at a time before it was socially acceptable to be both. Moreover, as Daniel Y. Kim points out, Ichiro also returns home from imprisonment with a sense of compromised masculinity, all because he never enlisted (69).
But this is faulty logic on the part of Ichiro. The veterans, for all their “brutal, chauvinistic, and unthinking” (Kim 70) mannerisms, will never achieve the masculinity they value most: namely the one afforded to usyd, members of the dominant culture, where being in the war (as well as being white) translates to ap bio 1995, a manliness that no Nisei can ever fully grasp. This argument, as Kim presents it, also explains the ambiguous ending we encounter. Since the Nisei men are doomed to be unsatisfied both in their pursuit for American-ness and western masculinity, it should make perfect sense that the narrative should yield no resolution for Ichiro or any other Nisei character. Essays! Throughout the text, we glimpse instances of the veterans essentially washing their hands of their no-no boy counterparts. In the closing scene, Bull declares “I wasn’t’ fightin’ my friggin’ war for ap bio shits like you” (247, author’s emphasis). Essays! This reveals how Bull’s military service was for ap bio essay 1995 his own good alone and not for the benefit of the Japanese or American communities. We can easily argue that the Nisei veterans didn’t take anyone else into written account until after the war ended, when it became clear that their military service wasn’t sufficient and that more would be needed for them to achieve the recognition they craved. But in fighting against Japan, the country of his ancestry – and one may certainly deduce, given the nature of ap bio essay, both Kenji’s and Ichiro’s family, the likely country of the college essay ebook, his parents’ childhood – was it truly Bull’s war he was fighting?
As Ichiro acknowledges throughout his monologues, the war pitted the half of him that was American against the half of him that was Japanese, an observation altogether lost on essay, Bull, who not only upholds the racist status quo in his treatment of the no-no boys, but insists on partial ownership of a war effort that was forced upon him. Question! Would he have enlisted had he not been interned by the government? If not, is he any less American? “Jap,” as we see in the text, is the harshest label for many Nisei. For them, no easier choice exists than deciding between being Japanese or American. Ap Bio 1995! Their decision just so happens to not be enough. It requires recognition from Americans outside their ethnic community, more specifically whites since they alone comprised the socio-political power structure at the college application essay this point in 1995 history, but the madison essay question only recognition the Nisei receive is that of social type, of Jap, unworthy of even living in America, let alone being recognized as fellow citizens. Judith Butler has argued that before recognition may be extended, the individual must first fulfill the qualifications of being a subject (2). Although she relates this to 1995, her ruminations on gender, I find that it easily translates to the themes of race and identity that Okada tackles in No-No Boy . The Nisei struggle for recognition is doomed, since following what Butler points out, no Nisei individual is first acknowledged as being worthy. They do not “fulfill the qualifications” of being acknowledged as American, since within the world that the novel depicts, one cannot look Japanese and claim American-ness. And in application ebook Ichiro’s case, one certainly cannot refuse to enlist and claim Amercan-ness, either. But, as both Butler and Okada argue, the world is not nearly as clean-cut as any paradigm would indicate.
Race, much like gender in Butler’s argument, is a social construct, which maintains a strict set of guidelines “inscribed on anatomically differentiated bodies, where those bodies are understood as passive recipients of an inexorable cultural law” (Butler 11). In No-No Boy , we witness the shedding of passivity on the part of all Nisei who refuse to be nothing more than receptacles to oppression. Their relinquished passivity, however, is ultimately for naught since, lacking the organization and social power to turn against 1995 their true oppressors, they instead fight amongst themselves. The actions and behaviors of the veterans, who are quick not only to mention their service but also to deride anything remotely Japanese, prove this point single-handedly. Even no-no boys, American by birth and by culture, are nothing but “goddamned Japs” as far as the veterans are concerned. On Writing! The tension between the two groups – vets and ap bio 1995, no-no boys – is immediately apparent at Club Oriental, the local Nisei hangout, when Bull and james university essay, Ichiro first meet: “Goddammit,” [Bull] said aloud, “brand new suit. Damn near got it all cruddy.” There was a ripple of laughter and Ichiro turned and ap bio, looked at the crowd without wanting to. Someone said something about “No-no boys don’t look so good without the striped uniform” and that got a loud, boisterous laugh from the corner where a group of james madison essay question, young Japanese who were too young to drink sat drinking. (74) Achieving individual recognition is a Herculean task in itself for ap bio essay any Nisei in post-war America.
The fact that the dissertation Nisei community remains at war with itself only complicates these efforts, but one cannot simply declare himself a war veteran and expect results. He must also affiliate himself with white America to be validated by it in return. For this reason alone, Bull flaunts the attractive blonde woman with him because he believes she elevates his status. Ap Bio 1995! Ichiro, however, recognizes Bull’s efforts for what they are, thinking to himself: Bull’s mind was about as thick and unpliable as a brick and essays, the meanness which had prompted him to make a spectacle of him was less to blame than the dull, beastly desire to feel the approval of the essay crowd, which had laughed with him for a moment instead of at chair selected him. The blonde was a compensation for his lack of acceptance also. 1995! Somehow he had managed to date her but, before the night was done, Bull would be looking stubbornly for her while someone else took her to bed. Madison University Question! (80-81) Nisei Japanese knew that Americans outside of the Japanese community still viewed them as foreigners, as the enemy that bombed Pearl Harbor and fought them throughout the Pacific, which was why it was paramount that the Nisei generation, on behalf of its entire ethnic community, projected a positive, patriotic image. Essay 1995! This, along with Ichiro’s own individual pursuit for identity, rests at the heart of written, No-No Boy . Ronald Takaki states it best in ap bio 1995 saying, “The problem, the Nisei saw… was profoundly cultural, involving the binding very definition of who was an American” (220-221). The Japanese-American community is at war with itself, and the war does nothing but distract its members from challenging those who are truly responsible for their persecution.
The novel reflects a world in which the essay 1995 reality of white racism, though an everyday obstacle, is channeled through the Nisei veterans, many of whom wanted to feel the privileges of being white, even if the the college application only privilege they acquire is hatred toward their own. Ap Bio Essay 1995! Ichiro Yamada fails to achieve the status of American on best written, two fronts. First, he fails to do so in the terms set by the dominant culture, which insists that in ap bio order for a Nisei to be considered American, he must have first enlisted. Dissertation! His failure to achieve American-ness by these terms is only accentuated by his failure to achieve American-ness by any other term he may have ultimately set for ap bio himself. His inability to usyd binding, enunciate a cultural identity, which persists throughout the novel, keeps him from taking that first step toward pursuing it. He remains crippled by the overbearing perspective of the dominant culture, especially as it is enforced by his fellow Nisei. Even when confronted by the taunts and accusations of his oppressors – his fellow Nisei, acting on behalf of the ap bio essay dominant culture – he proves himself incapable of declaring himself anything. He cannot do so without feeling like a fraud, since in enunciating himself as either Japanese or American, he would lament the half of him that goes unacknowledged. He thinks: it is not an usyd binding, easy thing to discover suddenly that being American is a terribly incomplete thing if one’s face is not white and essay 1995, one’s parents are Japanese of the country Japan which attacked America. It is like being pulled asunder by a whirling tornado and one does not think of a slide rule though that may be the thing which will save you. (54) Ichiro’s “whirling tornado” reflects Okada’s inability to properly address the “slide rule” of madison essay question, a hyphenated cultural identity. As Lisa Lowe points out, culture stands as a repository for 1995 our collective memory and history (22).
In remembering the injustices of the a2 sociology past, we employ culture to achieve resolution. It is through culture, Lowe insists, and ap bio essay, not government that “alternative forms of subjectivity, collectivity, and essay written sat, public life are imagined” (22). With No-No Boy , Okada attempts to provide not only this alternate subjectivity to the Nisei but also overdue reconciliation. Yet despite his reimagining, he does not resolve the very socio-political inequalities he set out to essay, overcome. This, however, is less a reflection of Okada’s shortcomings as a writer than it is a reflection of the dissertation narrow scope he encountered when getting No-No Boy published. As Jinqi Ling illustrates, American readers in the 1950s weren’t as receptive to tales of emerging hybridity as they are today. Instead, readers preferred straightforward success tales about a member of a marginalized class (whether racial, cultural or economical) overcoming the odds and assimilating into the dominant culture (Ling 361). The most fascinating aspect about this – something Ling overlooks – is how the novel fails to fully conform to the requirements of an assimilationist novel, thereby underlying Okada’s true artistic intentions.
The end scene does not deliver the reconciliation and conclusion that Ichiro wants for himself and that John Okada wants for the entire Japanese-American community. The narrative here does not extend beyond “the faint and elusive insinuation of ap bio 1995, promise” (251) within Ichiro, and although its mere existence is meant to question, inspire hope for Ichiro’s future, we find it difficult given how fragmented and conflicted an individual Ichiro remains. Ichiro is not even said to have emerged from the alleyway, harkening back to Bhabha, but instead is merely in the midst of a chase. Okada’s word choice here indicates the lengthy process Ichiro still has ahead of ap bio 1995, him. Culture, in proving itself as the site of on writing the college application essay ebook, socio-political reconciliation as Lowe contends, provides Okada with the proper platform to address the injustices faced by the Japanese during and after WWII. In this sense, it is appropriate to compare Okada with Paul Klee’s “Angelus Novus,” particularly in how it is interpreted by Walter Benjamin.
Benjamin views the essay 1995 portrait as that of the angel of history. The angel wants desperately to right the wrongs of the past but is instead thrust forward by a2 sociology, the winds of progress, pushed into the future while the essay past is left in whatever demoralized state we left it. As Benjamin writes, “[w]here we perceive a chain of a2 sociology essays, events” – as the bombing of Pearl Harbor initiated the interment of Japanese citizens, who were then forced into captivity to declare allegiance to either the 1995 United States or Japan, thereby damaging the entire Japanese community – Okada can be said to best written, see “one single catastrophe which keeps piling wreckage upon wreckage” (257). Caught between the complex tale of a splintered ethnic identity and a public demand for essay 1995 assimilation stories, Okada only essay goes halfway with No-No Boy : insinuating hope, albeit one that is neither realized on the page nor immediately after and unwilling (or, more accurately, unable) to deliver anything further. Ap Bio Essay! Okada tries to steer Ichiro solely toward an American affiliation – just as readers and publishers would have wanted him to – but he cannot completely forsake his artistic vision and do so. Essay! Instead, Ichiro remains neither Japanese nor American and cannot foresee an identity for himself that conjoins these two halves. His inability to achieve American-ness in the world of the text – in both the essay 1995 standards imposed by the dominant culture, as well as any standard he could have enunciated for himself – reflects the question true nature of his cultural identity: hyphenated (or, as Bhabha might insist, hybridized) to give equal weight to his Japanese and American affiliations. With the novel, Okada wanted to wage war against ap bio those responsible for the unjust persecution of the Japanese. He wanted to wage war against the Nisei responsible for turning their backs on their no-no boy brethren. A2 Sociology! Originally conceived as a reconciliatory gesture, the ap bio novel instead becomes another casualty to white America that either silences the Japanese, as it did during the war, or modifies their stories to their liking. Ancheta, Angelo N. Race, Rights, and the Asian American Experience . Answer Question! New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2006.
Print. Bhabha, Homi K. Ap Bio Essay! The Location of answer essay, Culture . New York: Routledge, 1994. Print. Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations . New York: Schocken Books Inc, 1968. Print. Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble . 1990. New York: Routledge, 2008. Print.
Kim, Daniel Y. “Once More, with Feeling: Cold War Masculinity and the Sentiment of Patriotism in John Okada’s No-No Boy.” Criticism: A Quarterly for Literature and the Arts 47.1 (Winter 2005): 65-83. Web. 2 December 2011. Ling, Jinqi. “Race, Power, and Cultural Politics in John Okada’s No-No Boy.” American Literature 67.2 (June 1995): 359-381. Web. 2 December 2011.
Lowe, Lisa. Immigrant Acts . Essay! 1996. Essays! Durham: Duke University Press, 2004. Print. Okada, John. No-No Boy . Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1976. Print. Palumbo-Liu, David. “Assumed Identities.” New Literary History 31.4 (2000): 765-780.
Web. Ap Bio! 1 December 2011. Takaki, Ronald. Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans . New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1989. Print. Thesis Binding! Yogi, Stan. Ap Bio Essay! “‘You had to Be One or the Other’: Oppositions and Reconciliation in a2 sociology essays John Okada’s No-No Boy.” MELUS 21.2 (1996): 63-77. Web. 1 December 2011.
Delgado, Francisco. “Neither Japanese Nor American: Identity and ap bio essay, Citizenship in John Okada’s No-No Boy”. Trespassing Journal: an madison university essay, online journal of trespassing art, science, and philosophy 1 (Spring 2012). Web. ISSN: 2147-2134. Francisco Delgado lives with his wife in Queens, New York, where he has taught at several colleges.
In the fall, he will begin his doctorate studies at Stony Brook University, where he plans on pursuing his interests in Asian and Native American literatures, Modernism and Postmodernism.
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How to ap bio essay 1995, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is telling the main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the steps to writing a great summary: Read the article, one paragraph at a time. For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence). Thesis Binding. If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of essay paper. When you finish the article, read all the underlined sentences. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Start the essay sentence using the name of the ap bio 1995 author and title of the article (see format below).
Continue writing your summary by writing the james university question other underlined sentences in your own words. Remember that you need to change both the ap bio essay 1995 words of the best written sat sentence and the word order. For more information, see video below. Don't forget to use transition words to link your sentences together. See my list of transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to 1995, read. Make sure you include the name of the author and article and use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about what the author said and not your own ideas. Madison Essay. Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough?
Your summary should be as short and ap bio essay concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and the author. Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to a2 sociology essays, the punctuation): In “How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article “How the Civil War Began, says that the ap bio real reason. How the Civil War Began, by historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the main point of the article. It should answer the question: What is this essay about? (thesis). Example:
In How the Civil War Began by John Jones, the author argues that the question real reason for the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the clash of cultures and greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is essay 1995 going to best, give the reasons and evidence for that main statement. In other words, what is the 1995 main point the writer is trying to answer essay real, make and what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to ap bio essay 1995, prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is a sample sort of essay sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in ap bio essay 1995, “( article's title) ” by ( author's name) . The thesis of this essay is ___________ . The author’s main claim is ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . University Essay. The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author?
While you don't have to use an author tag in every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and when you are saying your own ideas. In general, you want to ap bio, be sure that you always use the author's name and question the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the essay 1995 author's ideas. In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and answer real Women in Conversation: Example response essay to Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the ap bio communication signals of the opposite gender. Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by a college English class about an james madison, article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of ap bio essay 1995 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written?
Who is the audience? Is it effectively written for that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to analyzing other texts. You will want to consider what is effective and ineffective. Chair Selected. You will analyze what the author does that works and what doesn't work to essay, support the author's point and madison essay question persuade the audience to ap bio, agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to essay, start. It may help you to use a thing called TRACE when talking about the ap bio essay 1995 rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to understand.
When writing the analysis, you need to thesis, think about what kind of text it is and what the author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe. The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the article fits into the history of ap bio 1995 discussion of that issue, the historical moment in time when the article is written, and the moment in time when a person reads the article. In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the large idea down into question real, these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from three to all five of these elements. Each of the following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis. You can answer the ap bio questions to dissertation chair, help you generate ideas for essay 1995, each paragraph.
To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and Reader. How is the essay organized? What is effective or ineffective about the answer question organization of the essay? How does the author try to interest the essay 1995 reader? How well does the essays author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical?
Do the ap bio essay support and usyd evidence seem adequate? Is the support convincing to the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the point the author is trying to make? Who is the author? What does he or she know about essay 1995 this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience? How does the author try to dissertation chair selected, relate to ap bio, the audience and establish common ground?
Is it effective? How does the binding author interest the audience? Does she or he make the reader want to know more? Does the author explain enough about the 1995 history of this argument? Is anything left out?
Who is the reader? How would they react to these arguments? How is answer question this essay effective or ineffective for this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in ap bio essay, this moment in time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and also check out Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of your tools of literary analysis, including looking at the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of selected arguments, tone, style, and use of essay 1995 language. Example: The organization of essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is shown by ___________ . University Essay Question. The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is ap bio essay constructed logically/illogically by ___________.
The essay is organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the essay written description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is effective or ineffective in proving the point ). Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the author’s life affects his or her writing. You can do the same for this sort of analysis. For example, in my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to ap bio, current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out.
Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by on writing application essay ebook, ___________ . The author's bias is shown in ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . He/She establishes common ground with the audience by ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at ap bio essay the text from the viewpoint of other sorts of readers. For example, Readers are interested in this issue because of the exigence of ___________. Constraints on dissertation selected, the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to this argument by essay, ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is effective. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is adequate/inadequate and best written is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim.
What do you think? Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to summarize and analyze. Your response will also be evident to the reader by the tone that you use and the words you select to talk about the ap bio essay 1995 article and writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and specific. It will use the information you have already provided in your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about this article. Most of the answer question time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and back your agreement up with logic or personal experience.
You will disagree with the author because of your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the author's position). You will agree with part of the author's points and disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the ap bio author but feel that there is chair a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in ap bio essay 1995, addition to what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to use it? Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about your response: What is your personal reaction to on writing application essay, the essay? What common ground do you have with the author?
How are your experiences the same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in the essay is ap bio essay 1995 new to you? Do you know of any information the article left out that is relevant to the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the answer essay real ideas in the essay? How much of your response is related to ap bio, your personal experience? How much is related to sat, your own worldview?
How is this feeling related to the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay? What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to the questions above to help you formulate your response. Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of this, my reaction to this essay is ___________. Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . Ap Bio Essay. What was new to me is ___________.
This essay makes me think ___________. I like/dislike ___________ in the essay. I will use this article in my research essay for usyd binding, ___________. Summary Analysis Response to ap bio essay 1995, Men and Women in dissertation, Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example.
by Virginia Kearney 0. How to Write a Summary of an Article. by Virginia Kearney 18. 100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 10. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics.
by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for your guide.
Is it necessary to include the author's examples in ap bio 1995, an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. I hope you will continue to use my other guides and sample papers to complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago. Thank you so much for making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on on writing essay ebook, writing summary on different research papers, based on the filed of International Business.
Thank you so much! I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of ap bio essay 1995 assignment you've been given.
Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to on writing the college application ebook, put the 1995 information exactly in the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words. I'm guessing that with the title, the article has a number of question reasons why we should allow the drugs. If the reasons can be grouped, into 1995, 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique. For example, I can image that the reasons to james madison essay question, allow performance enhancing drugs are probably:
We can't prevent athletes from getting around the rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the right to ap bio 1995, tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the thesis binding reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in ap bio 1995, sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of james madison university them. What structure would i put the ap bio essay paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and i have an usyd thesis, actual format to follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad!
You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to believe. The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the ap bio pros and cons of other ideas about that claim. On Writing The College Application. I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Ap Bio 1995. Look at the links to the side or search for them on best essay written, Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from essay 1995 United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the the college essay same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about something that happened to you, you need to see my article on How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays.
Search for it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 @gmail.com 5 months ago. How can I write a story of a personal encounter in 1995, an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to university essay question, use that article in your research paper. You might want to see my article on How to 1995, do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Glad this is helpful to you Flor.
I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here. Are you interested in doing tutoring online? I would love to have the opportunity to be tutor by you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and a2 sociology examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. All of this explaining is a great source for anything.
You have to love everything about this site. Essay. This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to university essay question, a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and ap bio 1995 the different sides of the argument. Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is answer question real good or bad. Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use?
Does just raising the issue of burial change the ap bio essay conversation about abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from United States. Thanks for letting me know Seza! This type of essay is not very well explained in many textbooks and that is answer essay real what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at essay 1995 writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the best essay written thinking you do while writing these essays is what prepares you for doing good research.
This post has been of great help for ap bio essay 1995, me and my friends. Essay. Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. Essay. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. Written. I especially liked the chart. However, please change adjective to adverbs. Thanks for ap bio essay 1995, the information. Very good insight on analysis description.
I want to thank you for james university question, your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from essay 1995 United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and use to best sat, teach has helped people all over ap bio essay the world.
I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from usyd Singapore! It's for literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of writing over the years and essay 1995 I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of your post writing. It's very rare to find something like this.
This my second semester in a2 sociology essays, the university and I have to write. Ap Bio 1995. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. University Essay. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from ap bio essay United States. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in real, 2008, I've been amazed to see people from all over ap bio essay the world reading my work and being helped by the information I've developed for my students at application essay college here in the United States. Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. I am glad to be able to provide help for free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from ap bio essay turkey.
My first time to write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school. Dissertation. This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you. Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by 1995, writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources.
In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne. I have to write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point? By the on writing the college application essay ebook way the topic is dealing Information Technology. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for your comment. As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking. You've helped me lots!
Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in essay, University right now and james madison university essay I have to ap bio, write response papers so often. This article is extremely useful for me so im going to make sure to save it and look back on it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from dissertation chair Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the instructions. greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States.
Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to ap bio 1995, organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly. A2 Sociology Essays. In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from ap bio essay Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. Sat. I need to digest this information and ap bio essay start applying this in my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after. Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts.
Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in essay, my English class this semester. Organization is key in writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in ap bio, Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to me. Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to university essay question, people in other parts of the essay world! Good luck on your college career. I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. Essays. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting.
Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to the U.S. to go to college and play American football. The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the ap bio essay bottom of ebook AUS) Thanks for a great hub. Just about to ap bio, go back to college after 20 years and am a little nervous about essay sat having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to essay, be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.
How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and I love doing technology and usyd thesis science papers with my class in ap bio essay, the second semester. Best Essay Written Sat. I will have to think about ap bio 1995 doing some more topic ideas for science classes. I'm doing this for science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to connect to others. Congratulations on a job well achieved. I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.
B. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to be to the college application essay ebook, texts. Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into a responsive reading. You've reminded me that I need to essay 1995, add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of usyd thesis binding going to 4th of July celebrations to my links. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and helpful hub.
I have bookmarked it. I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from 1995 United States. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to a2 sociology essays, do this paper.
I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped. Essay 1995. This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of question hits, so I think that many people have trouble on ap bio essay, these essays and james madison the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks Virginia..you made things a lot simpler for me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from essay 1995 United States. johnsdfd--good question.
Yes--I should add that to the hub. You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from james university essay question United States. Glad I helped you nico! My class is just starting on this essay now and so I was looking at essay my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the chair selected class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it. Guess there are a lot of other people out ap bio essay there needing help!
Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to organize them. James University Question. I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to ap bio essay 1995, figure out how to teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written.
I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of james question their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and ap bio others.
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AP Biology - CSUN
Texas AM Requirements for Admission. What are Texas AM's admission requirements? While there are a lot of ap bio, pieces that go into a college application, you should focus on only a few critical things: In this guide we'll cover what you need to get into Texas AM and build a strong application. School location: College Station, TX. This school is also known as: AM, TAMU, Texas AM University. If you want to get in, the first thing to look at is the acceptance rate. This tells you how competitive the school is and how serious their requirements are. The acceptance rate at Texas AM is dissertation chair, 66% . For every 100 applicants, 66 are admitted.
This means the school is essay, moderately selective . The school expects you to meet their requirements for GPA and SAT/ACT scores, but they're more flexible than other schools. Thesis? If you exceed their requirements, you have an excellent chance of ap bio 1995, getting in. But if you don't, you might be one of the unlucky minority that gets a rejection letter. Many schools specify a minimum GPA requirement, but this is thesis binding, often just the ap bio essay bare minimum to submit an best written sat, application without immediately getting rejected. The GPA requirement that really matters is the GPA you need for a real chance of getting in. For this, we look at the school's average GPA for its current students. (Most schools use a weighted GPA out of 4.0, though some report an unweighted GPA. Ap Bio Essay? This school did not officially report its average GPA, but we've estimated it here using data from over 1,000 schools.) With a GPA of 3.55, Texas AM requires you to be around average in on writing essay ebook your high school class. Essay 1995? You'll need a mix of A's and B's, and very few C's. Usyd? If you have a lower GPA, you can compensate with harder courses like AP or IB classes.
This will help boost your weighted GPA and essay show your ability to take college classes. If you're currently a junior or senior, your GPA is hard to change in time for college applications. If your GPA is at best essay sat, or below the school average of 3.55, you'll need a higher SAT or ACT score to compensate . This will help you compete effectively against other applicants who have higher GPAs than you. Each school has different requirements for standardized testing. Most schools require the essay 1995 SAT or ACT, and many also require SAT subject tests. You must take either the SAT or ACT to submit an a2 sociology, application to ap bio 1995, Texas AM. More importantly, you need to question, do well to have a strong application. Many schools say they have no SAT score cutoff, but the truth is ap bio, that there is a hidden SAT requirement. Essay Written? This is ap bio essay, based on the school's average score. The average SAT score composite at Texas AM is a 1741 on chair, the old 2400 SAT scale. On the new 1600 SAT , this corresponds to an average SAT score of 1250 . This score makes Texas AM Competitive for SAT test scores.
Texas AM SAT Score Analysis (New 1600 SAT) The 25th percentile New SAT score is ap bio essay 1995, 1130, and the 75th percentile New SAT score is 1360. In other words, a 1130 on the New SAT places you below average, while a 1360 will move you up to above average . Our experts' guidance in getting tutoring in Houston and beyond can help the Texas AM fans out there raise their chances of becoming Aggies themselves. Here's the breakdown of new SAT scores by section: Texas AM SAT Score Analysis (Old 2400 SAT) The 25th percentile Old SAT score is written, 1560, and 1995 the 75th percentile SAT score is 1920. In other words, a 1560 on a2 sociology essays, the Old SAT places you below average, while a 1920 puts you well above average . Here's the breakdown of old SAT scores by section: The Score Choice policy at your school is an important part of your testing strategy. Texas AM has the Score Choice policy of All Scores.
This means that Texas AM requires you to send all SAT scores you've ever taken to their office. This sounds daunting, but most schools don't actually consider all your scores equally. 1995? For example, if you scored an 1800 on one test and essays a 2100 on another, they won't actually average the essay 1995 two tests. More commonly, the best sat school will take your highest score on a single test date. Ap Bio? Even better, some schools form a Superscore - that is, they take your highest section score across all your test dates and combine them. Some students are still worried about submitting too many test scores. They're afraid that Texas AM will look down on too many attempts to raise your score.
But how many is too many? From our research and talking to admissions officers, we've learned that 4-6 tests is a safe number to submit . On Writing Essay? The college understands that you want to 1995, have the best chance of chair, admission, and retaking the ap bio 1995 test is a good way to do this. Within a reasonable number of tests, they honestly don't care how many times you've taken it. They'll just focus on your score. If you take it more than 6 times, colleges start wondering why you're not improving with each test. They'll question your study skills and ability to improve.
But below 6 tests, we strongly encourage retaking the test to essay written sat, maximize your chances. If your SAT score is currently below a 1741, we strongly recommend that you consider prepping for the SAT and retaking it . You don't have much to ap bio essay 1995, lose, and you can potentially raise your score and significantly boost your chances of essays, getting in. Download our free guide on the top 5 strategies you must be using to essay, improve your score. This guide was written by Harvard graduates and SAT perfect scorers. If you apply the strategies in this guide, you'll study smarter and make huge score improvements. Just like for the SAT, Texas AM likely doesn't have a hard ACT cutoff, but if you score too low, your application will get tossed in the trash. The average ACT score at Texas AM is 27. This score makes Texas AM Moderately Competitive for ACT scores. The 25th percentile ACT score is 25, and the 75th percentile ACT score is 30. Even though Texas AM likely says they have no minimum ACT requirement, if you apply with a 25 or below, you'll have a harder time getting in, unless you have something else impressive in on writing application essay your application.
If you're taking the ACT as opposed to the SAT, you have a huge advantage in how you send scores, and this dramatically affects your testing strategy. Here it is: when you send ACT scores to colleges, you have absolute control over ap bio essay 1995 which tests you send. You could take 10 tests, and thesis binding only send your highest one. This is essay, unlike the SAT, where many schools require you to send all your tests ever taken. This means that you have more chances than you think to improve your ACT score. Best? To try to aim for the school's ACT requirement of 27 and above, you should try to take the ACT as many times as you can.
When you have the final score that you're happy with, you can then send only ap bio, that score to all your schools. By and large, most colleges do not superscore the ACT. (Superscore means that the school takes your best section scores from written, all the test dates you submit, and then combines them into the best possible composite score). Thus, most schools will just take your highest ACT score from 1995, a single sitting. We weren't able to find the school's exact ACT policy, which most likely means that it does not Superscore. Binding? Regardless, you can choose your single best ACT score to send in to ap bio 1995, Texas AM, so you should prep until you reach our recommended target ACT score of 27. Download our free guide on the top 5 strategies you must be using to improve your score.
This guide was written by Harvard graduates and ACT perfect scorers. If you apply the strategies in this guide, you'll study smarter and make huge score improvements. SAT/ACT Writing Section Requirements. Both the SAT and ACT have a Writing section that includes an essay. Texas AM hasn't reported their stance on SAT/ACT Writing, but most likely they consider it to be optional. Thus you don't need to worry too much about Writing for this school, but other schools you're applying to may require it. Schools vary in their SAT subject test requirements. Typically, selective schools tend to require them, while most schools in the country do not. We did not find information that Texas AM requires SAT subject tests, and so most likely it does not . Dissertation Chair Selected? At least 6 months before applying, you should still doublecheck just to ap bio 1995, make sure, so you have enough time to take the university essay test. We did more detailed research into this school and found the following information. There are three ways to be admitted to ap bio essay 1995, Texas AM: Automatically admitted if you live in Texas and are in the top 10% of your class at best sat, the time of your application.
Automatically admitted if you complete all of ap bio, Texas AM's required coursework, rank in the top 25% of your class at the time of application, and essay have an SAT score of at ap bio 1995, least 1300 (Math and Critical Reading) with each component at binding, least 600, or an ACT composite of 30 with at least a 27 in English and Math. 3. If you don't meet either of the above, but meet the State of essay 1995, Texas Uniform Admission Policy (SAT of at james madison university question, least 1500 total, ACT of at least 18 English, 22 Reading, 22 Mathematics and 23 Science, plus successful completion of ap bio, recommended high school classes), your application will be reviewed holistically, in other words, your essays, extracurriculars, and other information will all be considered. Because this school is moderately selective, strong academic performance will almost guarantee you admission . Scoring a 1920 SAT or a 30 ACT or above will nearly guarantee you admission. Because the school admits 66% of all applicants, being far above average raises the admission rate for you to nearly 100%. If you can achieve a high SAT/ACT score, the madison university essay rest of your application essentially doesn't matter. You still need to meet the rest of the application requirements, and your GPA shouldn't be too far off from the school average of 3.55.
But you won't need dazzling extracurriculars and ap bio essay breathtaking letters of recommendation to the college application ebook, get in. You can get in ap bio based on the merits of your score alone. But if your score is a 1560 SAT or a 25 ACT and best written below, you have a good chance of being one of the ap bio unlucky few to be rejected. Here's our custom admissions calculator. Plug in your numbers to see what your chances of application ebook, getting in ap bio essay 1995 are. How would your chances improve with a better score? Try to take your current SAT score and add 160 points (or take your ACT score and add 4 points) to the calculator above. Answer Essay Real? See how much your chances improve? At PrepScholar, we've created the leading online SAT/ACT prep program. We guarantee an improvement of 160 SAT points or 4 ACT points on your score, or your money back. Here's a summary of why we're so much more effective than other prep programs:
PrepScholar customizes your prep to your strengths and ap bio 1995 weaknesses . You don't waste time working on dissertation chair, areas you already know, so you get more results in less time. We guide you through your program step-by-step so that you're never confused about ap bio 1995, what you should be studying. Dissertation Chair? Focus all your time learning, not worrying about what to learn. Our team is ap bio, made of national SAT/ACT experts . PrepScholar's founders are Harvard graduates and SAT perfect scorers. You'll be studying using the strategies that actually worked for best them. We've gotten tremendous results with thousands of students across the country.
Read about our score results and reviews from our happy customers. There's a lot more to PrepScholar that makes it the essay best SAT/ACT prep program. Real? Click to learn more about our program, or sign up for our 5-day free trial to ap bio, check out PrepScholar for yourself: Every school requires an application with the bare essentials - high school transcript and essays GPA, application form, and other core information. Many schools, as explained above, also require SAT and ACT scores, as well as letters of recommendation, application essays, and interviews. We'll cover the exact requirements of ap bio 1995, Texas AM here. Application Requirements Overview.
Common Application Not accepted Universal Application Not accepted Electronic Application Available Essay or Personal Statement Required for all freshmen Letters of Recommendation Interview Not required Application Fee $75 Fee Waiver Available? Available Other Notes Apply Texas application, minimum SAT math score of 550 or ACT math score of a2 sociology, 24 for the Dwight Look College of Engineering recommended for some freshmen. SAT or ACT Required SAT or ACT Writing None SAT Subject Tests Scores Due in essay Office December 1. Subject Required Years English 4 Math 3 Science 3 Foreign Language 2 Social Studies 3 History 1 Electives 5. Offered?
Deadline Notification Regular Admission Yes December 1 Rolling Early Action No Early Decision No. We did more detailed research into this school's admissions process and found the following information: Texas AM has two required essays and an optional third -- it's recommended you do the third if you won't be automatically admitted. You will choose a major when you apply, but that will not affect the admissions decision. Note the application deadline is December 1 to start in the fall, about a month earlier than is standard. If you're interested in essays Texas AM, you'll probably be interested in these schools as well. We've divided them into 3 categories depending on how hard they are to essay 1995, get into, relative to Texas AM. These schools are more selective and have higher scores than Texas AM.
If you improve your SAT score, you'll be competitive for james madison university essay these schools. Same Level: Equally Hard to essay 1995, Get Into. If you're competitive for the college ebook Texas AM, these schools will offer you a similar chance of ap bio 1995, admission. Safety Schools: Easier to Get Into. If you're currently competitive for Texas AM, you should have no problem getting into these schools. If Texas AM is currently out of your reach, you might already be competitive for these schools. Our experts have written hundreds of useful articles on improving your SAT score and getting into college. Madison Essay? You'll definitely find something useful here. Subscribe to our newsletter to get FREE strategies and guides sent to your email. Learn how to ace the ap bio essay SAT with exclusive tips and insights that we share with our private newsletter subscribers.
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Against Human Cloning Essays and Research Papers. Cloning in general has been a rising debate across the globe since before Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1996. The success of being able to 1995, . Essays! clone an animal brought scientists to wonder about a more challenging task, cloning humans . This consideration is morally wrong and should not be stood for. Some people seem not to realize the negative aspects that cloning would bring into a world which is already suffering. Religious standpoints, the growth of the population, and ap bio essay each human's individuality are. Cloning , Hominidae , Human 985 Words | 3 Pages. is a mammal, her successful cloning seemed to open the Pandora’s Box of the essay potential for human cloning , especially . when a scientific breakthrough occurred in 2004 when a team of South Korean and American scientists successfully cloned some human tissue. We, as people are much divided on essay 1995 the issue of human cloning . Because science has advanced so quickly, we all have very mixed views about this cloning process, and the question still remains, “Should we clone humans ?” You can’t play God!
Some of. The College Ebook! Bone marrow , Cloning , Dolly 1085 Words | 3 Pages. 1995! In the past few years, human cloning has gone from a laboratory fantasy to a global debate. There are many arguments supporting . On Writing The College Essay! both negative and ap bio 1995 positive effects of human cloning . Usyd Binding! Human cloning raises a lot of challenging questions about ap bio essay human liberty, dignity, and identity. Will human cloning be a great step for man, or will it lead to moral abyss? This question is asked all the time. With great research one would realize that with the implementation of human cloning , there would be a huge medical.
Cloning , Hominidae , Human 2096 Words | 6 Pages. “Hitler Clone’s and playing G-d?” “Hitler Cloning ” and “scientists playing God” are statements used to describe human . Essay Sat! cloning . When it comes down to the truth of the matter, human cloning is a scientific breakthrough that has a higher chance of helping society than hurting it. There are many people who are skeptical, believing that a world full of genetically reproduced miniature Hitler’s will be created through human cloning . Ap Bio Essay 1995! They imagine a second Holocaust starting as the best sat cloned Nazi. Christianity , Cloning , Embryo 1274 Words | 4 Pages. Human Cloning Toni Rasmussen PHI 103 Informal Logic Stephen Carter September 20, 2010 Abstract: In this day and age . cloning seems to be one of the most debatable concerns. Scientists seem to get incredibly wound up thinking about all the potential that human cloning can present. Scientists also believe it is only a matter of time before humans are productively cloned. Some people, to some extent, are uncomfortable about ap bio essay 1995 human cloning and typically people tend to agree that cloning is morally. Cell , Cloning , Dolly 2074 Words | 6 Pages. Controversial Issues Paper Topic: Human Cloning Issue # 5 John A. A2 Sociology Essays! Robertson, Human Cloning and . the Challenge of essay, Regulation, The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. Selected! 339, no.
2 (July 9, 1998), pp. 119-122. George J. Annas, Why We Should Ban Human Cloning , The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 339, no. 2 (July 9, 1998), pp. Ap Bio Essay! 118-125. 10-16-00 In the article that I chose there are two opposing viewpoints on the issue of Should Human Cloning Ever Be Permitted? John A. Cloning , Embryo , Genetic disorder 1857 Words | 6 Pages.
Cloning on Humans Over my years here at college, I have learned a lot about a2 sociology humans and how our bodies . function. Ap Bio Essay 1995! One of the classes that really stuck out to me and caught my interest was genetics. I enjoyed learning about our DNA and how it worked in terms of answer essay, reproduction. A topic that we covered during the essay 1995 course of this class was on cloning . A2 Sociology Essays! I learned about the different types of cloning and when the focus on our in ap bio, class discussions was on reproductive and therapeutic cloning , I. Best Essay Written Sat! Cell , Cloning , Embryonic stem cell 1736 Words | 5 Pages. 1995! Human Cloning Doctor Jerome Kassirer once said, “I’m willing to hold off completely on answer any . kind of human cloning , but I’m not willing to hold off on ap bio essay research that could yield enormous therapeutic benefit.” Human cloning is a controversial topic in a2 sociology, science and medicine. While some are all for human cloning , others disregard the idea all together because they see the con’s before they can understand the major advantages of pros.
But what exactly is ap bio essay 1995 human cloning . Biotechnology , Cell , Cloning 1842 Words | 5 Pages. Human Cloning A Review on its effects Sreekanth Adepu Hari babu Annem English Prof. Cynthia Day November 24, . Thesis! 2009 | | |Over the past 8 years since the development of first human clone human cloning is a controversial issue. According to Douglas coupland “ Cloning is great. If God made the | |original, then making. Ap Bio Essay! Cell , Chromosome , Cloning 1287 Words | 6 Pages.
Speech Title: Arguments for Human Cloning Specific Purpose: The purpose of this speech is to inform my audience about the . arguments given by supporters of human cloning . Thesis: “Those who support human cloning make several claims of fact, value and policy to on writing the college, argue their case for human cloning .” I. Ap Bio 1995! Introduction II. The majority of the population fears cloning only because they are uneducated and believe the a2 sociology misconceptions spread by ap bio essay, the popular media. a. Cloning is answer question easier than most people. Ap Bio Essay! Bone , Bone marrow , Cancer 608 Words | 3 Pages. Human Cloning (Excerpts from “ Human Cloning : Right or Wrong?” by Eryl Davies) The Raelian sect . University! was founded in France in 1973 by a journalist, Claude Vorilhon (Rael.) Active in eight-four countries, the sect claims over 60,000 members. The Raelian sect formed a cloning company called: Clonaid. For a heterosexual couple, perhaps it is the essay 1995 death of their child or a desire to take precautionary measures in case their child dies young or unexpectedly. The precaution would be to preserve samples.
Cell , Chromosome , Cloning 1406 Words | 5 Pages. of the American society sees human cloning as only binding, science fiction, but what they don’t know is how close to reality it actually . is. With the ap bio 1995 technology that is available today, it does not seem crazy that human cloning could happen within my own lifetime. Cloning could have a very beneficial effect to our world, possibly one that we can’t even fathom because the a2 sociology essays idea of human cloning is so complicated. 1995! After completing my research, I have concluded that human cloning should not continue to be researched. Real! Biotechnology , Cell , Cellular differentiation 1702 Words | 6 Pages. Human Cloning Human Cloning comes with two dangerous processes, reproductive cloning . (the creating of a new organism) and the therapeutic cloning (the creation of a new tissues or “other biological products”) which affects the ethics of human society. Scientists perceive cloning benefits all men and women, while religious leaders stress the idea of cloning to be an unethical process. Although human cloning serves as an aid to the children and essay 1995 parents with conflicts, cloning is essays completely unacceptable. Cloning , Human , Human cloning 1039 Words | 3 Pages. The Legal Future of Human Cloning. Ap Bio 1995! The Future of Human Cloning in answer essay, America: A Legal Perspective On July 6, 1996, a historical bookmark in modern science was . Ap Bio Essay! placed as scientists successfully cloned Dolly the Sheep.
Dolly was the first mammal to ever be cloned, and from her existence grew several very real concerns, most notably the usyd thesis possibility of humans also being cloned in a laboratory. This new possibility brought up the ethical implications of cloning a human being and President Bill Clinton quickly passed an ap bio essay 1995, executive memorandum. Cloning , Human cloning , President of the United States 1691 Words | 5 Pages. ?DEFINITION Human cloning is the process of creating a genetically identical copy of a human / human . University Essay! part. CONS (anadid o cambiad cosas si queries/ podeis) Unpredictable outcomes – The greatest risk presented by human cloning is the ap bio 1995 unpredictability of the essay development of intelligence in the clones. Ap Bio! There is a possibility of faster aging - Because an older cell is often being used to answer essay real, create a human clone, this could result in premature aging issues or premature death.
There is a reduced sense. Ap Bio 1995! Ageing , Cloning , Death 705 Words | 3 Pages. Biology Should human cloning be allowed? Questions started with a sheep named Dolly. Usyd Binding! Dolly was a clone sheep born on February . Ap Bio! 12th 1997. Ever since Dolly has existed scientist across the globe have been studying cloning and we are now presents with the best sat question, should human cloning be allowed? In order to debate the ap bio essay potential of human cloning , we must first consider how it ties in to certain aspects of essays, human society.
In society today, public opinion about human cloning is divided. The supporters. Cell , Cloning , Embryo 1253 Words | 4 Pages. The Debate on Human Cloning In the past decade, there has been no slackening of the pace of ap bio essay, scientific research and james question discovery. . On a daily basis, scholarly publications and mass media divulge new and profound discoveries that seem to open doors that no one knew existed. Through their research, scientists have relentlessly attempted, time and time again, to penetrate into the very core of the universe and to unveil the essence of what constitute human beings. Few breakthroughs in research epitomize. Bioethics , Cloning , Embryo 1472 Words | 4 Pages. Legalizing Human Cloning Laura Johnson Philosophy 103 May 10, 2010 Part I: Thesis We are in a technological and . medically advanced age to where anything is possible. Technology and ap bio essay medical advances combined us as a people have the ability to best sat, gain from each opportunity that we invent.
For example, we now have the capability at ap bio essay 1995 our fingertips to connect with friends and family through the World Wide Web, this in which is given to us by way of thesis, technological advances. Essay! Through medical. Cloning , Dolly , Domestic sheep 1547 Words | 5 Pages. Human Cloning: Is It Dangerous to Human Beings? Cloning is the on writing method that produce an exactly identical genetic of another one. Essay! It has been studied and researched for more than ten years with . vegetables and animals. The first success with living thing was a sheep named Dolly and that was one of the on writing the college essay experiments that show how far human can get to the high stage of scientific technologies. Since then, the idea of human cloning was conceived. Some people think that human cloning should be permitted because it can brings great benefits to ap bio 1995, mankind. Adolf Hitler , Barack Obama , Cloning 1043 Words | 3 Pages. Human Cloning – A Moral Issue Alex Correa Ms.
Coveney ENG 110 September 21, 2011 Essay 2 The topic of . A2 Sociology Essays! human cloning has become one of the most debated topics in the world since 1997 when Dr. Ian Wilmot revealed he had successfully cloned an adult sheep named Dolly. Since the cloning of essay 1995, Dolly, there has been ongoing discussions regarding the morally right and morally wrong of human cloning . Essay Question! According to essay, the Gallup Polls, by Gallup, Inc., as of May, 2010 – 63 percent of. Cloning , Dolly , Embryo 719 Words | 3 Pages. Human Cloning , Is it Ethical Human cloning is and has been the subject of moral debate in the . United States and around the world, and because of this it has raised many ethical questions.
One thing that I do have in common with our previous president Bush is his principle that it is unethical to create human life for destroying it. I never thought about human cloning and its relevance until I watched the movie, called The Island. The Island is a sci-fi action thriller that reportedly cost about. Cell , Chromosome , Cloning 1440 Words | 4 Pages. Cloning Storm Cloning is one of the controversial topics in this day and age, and with the media and technology . implanting the idea of cloning in our psyche by using it in various films and fiction novels some people started to develop right and left views on ebook this purely scientific topic as some believe that cloning is destructive and will lead to bad consequences to our nature as humans while other people believe that cloning is something that we will likely benefit from and 1995 can help. Dissertation Selected! Cloning , Human , Human cloning 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Ap Bio 1995! What Are the Ethical Issues of Human Cloning. regarding the issue of human cloning in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and james Australia which have made . attempts or have done research in reproductive cloning . Countries like Australia have prohibited human cloning in 2006. (NHMRC, 2007) Advocates who involve congress members, editorial writers, fertility specialists. and so on gave benefits of human cloning , yet not enough to justify the ap bio essay moral and ethical issues underlying the essays controversy. Human cloning refers to the creation. Bioethics , Cloning , Dignity 1463 Words | 5 Pages. Human cloning is and has been the essay 1995 subject of moral debate in the United States and around the world, and usyd thesis because of this it has . raised many ethical questions. Such as, should it be done?
Could the clone survive? If human cloning technology were safe and widely available, what use would they have for it and what reasons would they have to ap bio, use it? If scientists were capable of cloning without failure, what would the welfare of the clones be like? Would the clone be its own person or would it be an. Cell , Cloning , Dolly 2408 Words | 6 Pages. Selected! The Evils of ap bio, Human Cloning About a decade ago, Scientist at Roslin Institute from Scotland surprised the entire world when the . Essay! announced that they have cloned an adult sheep on February 22, 1997, “Dolly”, (Dudley 9). Scientists shocked the ap bio 1995 world because many believed that it was impossible to produce a clone from a donor cell taken from an adult rather than an, embryo, many resulting embryos had died before (Dudley 11). Dolly was created because, scientist at essay sat the Roslin Institute wanted to essay, research.
Childbirth , Cloning , DNA 2230 Words | 6 Pages. Human Cloning : Fact or Fiction? Good or bad? Jeremy Parks 08/05/13 Microbiology Unit 6 Assignment 1 July 5th, 1996, Dolly . the Sheep was “born”. Dolly was the first animal to be cloned that survived as a healthy organism. This event opened a proverbial “can of madison, worms” . The possibility of cloning and the excitement of it all was evident in movies of the time. Ap Bio 1995! Jurassic Park, Mulitplicity and Invasion of the madison question Body Snatchers to ap bio 1995, just name a few. Dolly was a great scientific achievement and set the. Cloning , Dolly , Human 1331 Words | 4 Pages. English 100 12/14/12 Position Paper Clone Wars Cloning in biology is the usyd process of essay, producing similar populations of genetically identical . individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually.
Essentially it is the production of an exact copy of an original. Cloning has the real potential to save human lives by providing needed organs for transplant, expand the scientific advantages of research in genetics and fertility, as well as cure genetic. Biotechnology , Cell , Cloning 2134 Words | 6 Pages. Philosophy: Human Cloning; Humanity's Folly. Humanity’s Folly Due to the psychological characteristics of humanity, and all humans ’ universal inability to continually adhere to a . universally agreed form of ethics, our species has no other option but to proclaim that further experimentation at this time in the science of human cloning is immoral. Before it can be addressed whether or not the benefits would outweigh the consequences, it must first be established what those prominent consequences are and since it is ap bio not possible to usyd binding, determine. Biotechnology , Cloning , Developmental psychology 2163 Words | 5 Pages. Biotechnology - Human Cloning: Should It Be Done? vBiotechnology – Human Cloning Should it be done? Biotechnology is a field of biology that involves the use of living things . in engineering, technology, medicine and other useful applications. Ap Bio Essay 1995! The concept of this field includes a range of binding, procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purposes.
One major subject in biotechnology is human cloning . This is the asexual creation of a genetically identical copy of a human , human cell or a human tissue. It is a controversial issue. Cell , Cloning , Embryo 1151 Words | 4 Pages. Ap Bio 1995! Lam Dang Reading and Writing 108 June 24, 2012 Outline: Banning Human Cloning I. James University! Introduction ? Succeeded on ap bio 1995 . animal, Dolly sheep = on human = treat diseases, especially infertile couples. Dissertation Selected! ? However, I oppose to clone on human because: 0 Uncontrolled results 0 Expensive costs: to do research and treat 0 Ethical/ moral concerns II. Support 1. Uncontrolled results: ? How long to live = short life (Ex: Dolly only can live 6-a half years). Cloning , Dolly , Domestic sheep 862 Words | 4 Pages. Cloning Humans for ap bio 1995 Organs: Introduction: On June 26, 2000, scientists involved in the Human Genome Project . University Essay Question! announced their success in mapping the human genome. This has created an enormous controversy over property rights in ap bio essay, human tissue. With advances in biotechnology and the advent in james madison essay, cloning , it seems likely that these issues will continue to cause controversy in the years to come.
As the shortage of organs available for transplantation continues to grow, new methods of obtaining organs and. Biotechnology , Cell , Cloning 1937 Words | 6 Pages. Essay! Human Cloning: the Negative Effects on Society. Human Cloning : The Negative Effects on Society Human cloning is possible but also dangerous to . society. One day during an essays, assembly in essay 1995, March 1977, a heated debate began over the topic of human cloning . Both sides were getting very involved in the argument.
Suddenly a group of protestors stormed the stage. They were protesting human cloning while chanting, We shall not be cloned! During the protest the group held up a sign that said: We will create the perfect race ? Adolf Hitler (Lester and. Clonaid , Cloning , Dolly 1576 Words | 4 Pages. Reconstructive Human Cloning, Ethical Issue. Is Reconstructive Human Cloning Unethical? Since the beginning of the mid-20th century people were trying to university essay question, progress the ap bio 1995 . Answer Question! human era and ap bio essay thus begin a new era of humanity. Many of these theoretical approaches and trials have failed due to lack of experience and the technology. Usyd! One of the first ones to experiment with an ultra- humans or super humans were Germans during the essay 1995 Second World War under the command of Adolf Hitler. “Experiments on twin children in the college ebook, concentration camps were created to ap bio, show the.
Cloning , Health , Human 1453 Words | 4 Pages. The Ethics of Human Cloning In the beginning, God created Earth, thus creating man and woman. Or at least that is a2 sociology essays what some . Ap Bio! believe. However, over thousands of years, history, culture, and technology has slowly laid out the foundation of usyd, life; the human age and civilization went through a metamorphosis. Now, in essay, modern day and age, technological advances persist daily, and the world does not stop evolving. We, as people, continue to learn more about ourselves, about our planet, about the stars. Cloning , Human , Human cloning 1071 Words | 3 Pages. Application Ebook! SAR: Human Cloning – Is It a Viable Option? The topic of cloning has grown in recent years due to essay 1995, the steady . increase in technology and essay written sat innovation. Ms.
Angela A. Boatwright writes a very interesting and informative essay regarding human cloning . 1995! After reading her article, I recognize that my personal viewpoint on binding this subject is essay fairly close to what Boatwright has clearly communicated in her paper. The concept of cloning and the experiments involved should never include human life as a subject. Cloning , Hominidae , Human 973 Words | 3 Pages. Ethics of human cloning has become an outstanding issue in the past few years. Even though both sides agree that . cloning technology is one of the greatest achievements, they still have a big gap in accepting its ethnicity. On one hand, a number of a2 sociology essays, people have extremely appreciated human cloning because this might be the last chance or even the only way for them to ap bio essay 1995, preserve the priceless images from their lovers. On the other hand, many others have claimed that cloning human beings would seriously. Ethics , Hominidae , Human 1633 Words | 3 Pages. Under what conditions (if any), should human reproductive cloning be permitted? Kubiak, J.Z. and essays Johnson, M.H. (2001). . Human Infertility, Reproductive Cloning and ap bio 1995 Nuclear Transfer: a Confusion of Meanings.
Bioessays, 23(4), 359-64. This article argues that confusions in the semantic meanings of human reproductive cloning may hinder future scientific progressions to discover an ethically viable solution to infertility treatments. Kubiak and on writing essay ebook Johnson postulates that the term “nuclear transfer”. Clone , Cloning , Dolly 1669 Words | 5 Pages. Is Human Cloning Acceptable in Today's Society?
Is Human Cloning Acceptable in Today’s Society ? INTRODUCTION In my paper I will be talking about ap bio essay 1995 cloning , how . scientists are trying to essays, clone humans and if it acceptable in today’s society and should it be. I will also be informing the reader about how scientists try to do it and why. Cloning is the process of producing populations of genetically-identical individuals that occurs in ap bio, nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually (amphibians are the best examples) . Cloning , Dolly , Domestic sheep 1228 Words | 4 Pages. Cloning (advantages and disadvantages) On our planet, today everything is dissertation chair possible and 1995 . humans made it that way. We have wide ranged opened sources and we apply those sources in madison university essay question, our everyday life and we make something that helps us and whole planet. With making this we also sometimes make some problems with making even it will help us one of the examples of that is ap bio 1995 cloning which is really helping us but also it makes a huge trouble for people. Cloning is process. Animal , Cloning , Dolly 1326 Words | 3 Pages. possible to achieve cloning of an adult mammal by nuclear transfer. In this process, the nucleus from the cell of an adult mammal is inserted . into an ennucleated ovum, and a2 sociology essays the resulting embryo develops following the complete genetic code of the mammal from ap bio, which the inserted nucleus was obtained. But some scientists and much of the public were troubled or apparently even horrified at the prospect that if adult mammals such as sheep could be cloned, then cloning of adult humans by the sameprocess would.
Cloning , Dolly , Embryo 2373 Words | 7 Pages. Starting in 1997, when the very first mammal ever cloned-a sheep named Dolly-there have been many debates over cloning and genetic mapping. . The act of cloning and genetic mapping that occurs both in humans and in animals is morally wrong as both researchers and non-researchers tend to take advantage of these very touchy situations. There are many risks involved in reproductive cloning such as; failure resulting in death or mutations, people “playing god” by adjusting the way there babies look or. Cloning , DNA , Dolly 1611 Words | 4 Pages. James University Question! The benefits of human cloning to our society.
Benefits of ap bio 1995, Cloning to our Economy and Society Have you wished that there were two of you? This question is usyd one that everyone has asked himself . Ap Bio Essay 1995! or herself that some point in their lives. a group of Scottish scientist had this in mind back in the tail end of the nineties when they cloned the first living clone in existence. That clone was named Dolly the sheep; dolly’s existence was topic of such debate on both the scientific and religious aspects of our society. To the point that human cloning was outlawed. Thesis Binding! Bill Clinton , Cloning , Dolly 1237 Words | 5 Pages. definitely be bizarre watching yourself grow up all over essay, again.
In order to thesis binding, obtain that copy of yourself, human reproductive . cloning would have to take place. Human reproductive cloning is the process of taking genetic material from ap bio 1995, a person, and using it to make an embryo, in university, the hopes that it will develop properly, and in the end become a child. The beginnings of what we today refer to as cloning , actually go back to the early part of the twentieth century?1901 to be exact. Hans Spemann (1869-1941). Abortion , Cloning , Dolly 1778 Words | 5 Pages. Cloning - is the technique of making an identical copy of something. DNA () - stands for ap bio deoxyribonucleic acid, is defined as a nucleic . acid that contains the essay written genetic code. Ap Bio 1995! Cell () is the smallest part of a man, animal or plant that is able to function independently. Stem cell ( ) is a type of cell that can produce other cells which are able to develop into any kind of cell in the body. Embryonic cell ¹4 Cloning In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar. Cell , Cloning , DNA 854 Words | 3 Pages.
2003 Disadvantages of Human Cloning - Loss of Human Identity Cloning has always been a subject . whose thoughts both fascinates and frightens the world. On February 27, 1997, a stunning announcement appeared in the British journal Nature that rocked the answer question scientific world: for the first time ever recorded, a mammal- a lamb named Dolly had been successfully cloned from an ap bio 1995, adult cell. James Madison Essay Question! Coinciding with this shocking proclamation, scientist reported the successful cloning of a rhesus monkey, a primate. Bioethics , Cloning , Dolly 1977 Words | 6 Pages. Cloning Technology Cloning technology is defined as the ap bio creation of an organism that is genetic copy from essay written sat, another this is . Essay! mean that every single bit of DNA is the same between the two, the james essay Biotechnological DNA cloning combine the technology to ap bio 1995, produce multiple copies will producing a group of genetically identical cells or clone and all from single ancestor. Cloning process of reproduction in plant and micro cells are called reproductive organism, this is now as “vegetative reproduction” because. Agriculture , Cell , Cloning 1514 Words | 4 Pages.
Risk and Challenges of Human Cloning . Now that a dog and a sheep has been cloned, can human . cloning be that far behind? How is cloning important to future therapeutic medical advances, such as safe organ transplant? Human cloning research holds the answer to these questions. But still, the development of human cloning are slow and tough as it faces great challenges from the society that concern about essay moral and ethical abuse that the fallout of human cloning may produce. According.
Bioethics , Cloning , Ethics 1415 Words | 5 Pages. Positives and Negatives of Cloning. Pros and Cons of Cloning The process of cloning has remained one of the most controversial topics as debates continue about the . pros and cons of Cloning . Essay! Cloning which is the process of duplicating DNA or living stem cells can be dated back to over 200 years ago. The two most common types of usyd thesis, cloning are Therapeutic Cloning and Reproductive Cloning . Therapeutic cloning is ap bio essay a process that specifies the use of cloning stem cells for the treatment of an illness or disability (Ham, 2007). Reproductive. Cell , Cloning , Human 1304 Words | 4 Pages. The Moral Implications of Cloning.
Outside the lab where the madison university question cloning had actually taken place, most of us thought it could never happen. Oh we would say that perhaps at some . Ap Bio! point in the distant future, cloning might become feasible through the selected use of sophisticated biotechnologies far beyond those available to us now. Ap Bio Essay! But what we really believed, deep in thesis, our hearts, was that this one biological feat we could never master. Dr. Lee M. Silver, 1997. On February 23, 1997, Doctor Ian Wilmut successfully cloned the world's first mammal. Cloning , Human , Human cloning 2001 Words | 6 Pages.
The advantages and disadvantages of cloning. process of cloning . It is simply a form of asexual reproduction. Essay 1995! Cloning is a big issue in best essay, todays world of ap bio essay 1995, science because of the . potential benefits, the risks involved, and medical, ethical and religious conflicts. Plants and animals have already been cloned and stem cell research is already going ahead, and maybe one day science will be able to clone a human . The division of opinion on cloning will require many forums of discussion to cover all aspects. There are serval types of cloning , Reproductive. Cell , Cloning , DNA 1613 Words | 5 Pages. Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues. Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the answer question Ethical Issues Pro and Con In Dan W. Brock's essay, Cloning . human beings: an assessment of the ethical issues pro and con, Brock tries to essay, take a neutral stance on the subject and give both the positives and negatives of cloning human beings. While doing this he talks about the usyd thesis binding individual and societal repercussions, what it means to be an individual and human rights.
He takes a strict secular approach to both sides of the ap bio essay argument and madison university essay question doesn't involve. Cloning , Ethics , Human 900 Words | 3 Pages. Essay! Preventing a Brave New World; Cloning of Human Embryos. Abstract Leon Kass’s provides a compelling article on why the world should ban cloning . Usyd! Kass’ article, “Preventing a Brave New World”, . provides Kass’ theories of if society progresses on its current path, society would start to turn to ap bio essay, cloning as an essays, alternative to typical reproduction. Ap Bio! Cloning offers a way to design an usyd binding, offspring rather than the typical experience of essay, child raising. Kass believes if cloning is not banned, society will be more dependent upon technology and thesis be at technologies. Cloning , Ethics , Human 944 Words | 3 Pages. “What is the ap bio 1995 world’s view on cloning ?” 1. Bob Sullivan, “Religious little consensus on cloning ”; 2006, October 4, 2007 Bluford . library Summery- This article is about some religious views of cloning . Sullivan explains, how the religious groups say that it’s ok in a way to clone. Analysis- Do I think cloning meddles with god’s universe… No, I believe we were in this universe for a reason; a reason to discover and on writing the college application essay explore. In the Muslim, Jew community both are not in favor of fertilizing embryos.
Cloning , Dolly , Domestic sheep 1244 Words | 4 Pages. most people think of cloning , they think of a scientist that uses DNA to make an exact replica of someone . Cloning is a lot more . complicated and more controversial than that . According to the American Heritage Dictionary Cloning is defined as “A group of cells, or organism that is descended from and ap bio genetically identical to a common ancestor , such as a bacterial colony whose members arose from a single original cell . Ever since August,1,2001 Cloning had been banned . Cloning was banned for many. On Writing Application Essay Ebook! Cloning , Disease , Dolly 2008 Words | 6 Pages. Cloning Should Not be Legalized Human cloning has been a very controversial issue for ap bio a number of years. In . order to understand cloning better is important to recognize what cloning is. A clone is an exact genetic replica of a DNA molecule, cell, tissue, organ, or entire plant or animal. This may be done through reproductive cloning or therapeutic cloning known as stem cell cloning . (Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research) Human cloning raises the issues of whether or not a cloned. The College Application Ebook! Cloning , DNA , Dolly 2444 Words | 7 Pages. Brave New World and the Implications of Cloning.
Cloning is no longer a thing of ap bio 1995, science fiction- it is the present's most controversial issue. Best Essay Sat! Cloning is complex and ap bio 1995 involves . many people and machines. First, a suitable embryo donor must be found. James University Question! Once a doctor has obtained the egg, he or she will give it to an expert in cloning who will develop the fetus, or underdeveloped baby from the DNA of a live animal, in a laboratory and finally clone it. Cloning , if legalized, would be used primarily for medical purposes. In particular, cloning humans . Aldous Huxley , Brave New World , Cell 1309 Words | 4 Pages. The negative points of cloning greatly outweigh the positive. This is proved by the fact that cloning is currently illegal in . Ap Bio Essay! Australia, so other people must feel the same way. With plant cloning , the genetic makeup is the same for each clone made from the same DNA.
If the original DNA has a disease, all of the clones will have it too. Plant clones will also be vulnerable to the same diseases and essay written environmental factors as the original plant. Ap Bio Essay! This means that if all the cloned plants are in one area. Cloning , Evolution , Gene 749 Words | 3 Pages. Usyd Binding! Starting with an explanation of what cloning is and the two main types of the technology: reproductive cloning and therapeutic . cloning , this paper goes on essay 1995 to explore the essay ramifications these technologies may have in different areas of our society with respect to government, funding issues for research, religious views, education for our children on cloning issues and essay 1995 lastly the publics response to cloned animal produce. Sociological Impacts of Cloning Cloning is the production of one or more individual. Cloning , Embryo , Human 1913 Words | 5 Pages. Biotechnology in Cloning Brian Hopkins South University Online BIO1020 Unveiled to the world’s press by Ian Wilmut and colleagues at a2 sociology the . Roslin Institute in Midlothian, Scotland on February 22, 1997, Dolly the sheep was the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell. She was actually born a few months earlier on July 5, 1996. The world was certainly awed when the first superstar sheep Dolly was introduced. It was that date in history when the ap bio essay 1995 world first heard about on writing the college essay successful.
Cloning , Dolly , Domestic sheep 1011 Words | 3 Pages. Should Cloning Be Banned Completely, Regulated, or Fully Legal? Should Cloning be banned completely, regulated, or fully legal? When it comes to the topic of cloning , many writers embrace . different views on the use of this technology. Ap Bio Essay! Zabludoff the writer of “ Cloning : Is It Inevitable?” is against ebook, the practice of cloning because according to him cloning would not entirely work, as there is no such thing as a cloned human , hence, the practice of cloning is pointless.
On the other hand, Krauthammer also encompasses similar views as Zabludoff in his article “¬Of.
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Education in Microscopy and essay Digital Imaging. In transmitted light microscopy, the a2 sociology essays specimen quality does not always lend itself to easy observation and image recording with excellent contrast in simple brightfield imaging mode. Investigations dealing with inherently low-contrast specimens, such as unstained bacteria, thin tissue slices, and adherent live cells, rely on essay 1995 specialized contrast-enhancing techniques to assist with imaging these virtually transparent samples. In the dissertation chair selected course of examining unstained specimens, poor light absorption by ap bio essay 1995 the specimen results in usyd extremely small variations in the intensity distribution difference between the ap bio 1995 specimen and answer the background. When the ap bio 1995 background is bright, the human eye requires local intensity fluctuations of at least 10 to 20 percent to be able to recognize specimen details.
Unfortunately, this level of modulation is seldom seen with transparent specimens, which are usually rendered almost invisible against a background of similar intensity. The term transmitted light , when used in optical microscopy, refers to any imaging modality where light is best essay sat, passed from the illumination source on ap bio 1995 the opposite essays, side of the specimen to the objective (thus, illumination is transmitted through the specimen). The contrast-enhancing techniques described in this section represent a variety of methods in sample preparation as well as optical tricks that generate intensity changes which are useful for observation and imaging. Methods that enhance contrast include differential interference contrast ( DIC ), polarized light, phase contrast, Hoffman modulation contrast, and darkfield microscopy (examples are illustrated in Figure 1). Several of these techniques are limited by light originating in regions removed from the focal plane when imaging thicker plant and animal tissues, while polarized light requires birefringence (usually not present to a significant degree in animal cells) to generate contrast. Illustrated in Figure 1 are a variety of popular contrast-enhancing techniques that are commonly employed in transmitted light microscopy. The thin tissue section in Figure 1(a) reveals a human basal cell carcinoma stained with eosin and hematoxylin to ap bio essay 1995, generate color contrast in brightfield imaging mode.
Figure 1(b) shows living HeLa cells in a plastic tissue culture vessel imaged with phase contrast. A fixed culture of Indian Muntjac cells mounted in an aqueous medium are presented in the college differential interference contrast image in Figure 1(c). A fresh tissue section of mouse heart muscle bathed in aqueous saline solution is ap bio 1995, displayed in the Figure 1(d) panel, where contrast is chair selected, generated using Hoffman modulation (or ZEISS VAREL) contrast, an oblique illumination technique. The brilliant bright-on-dark contrast observed with darkfield illumination is shown in ap bio essay 1995 Figure 1(e) using an Obelia hydroid specimen. Finally, rabbit skeletal muscle fibers (Figure 1(f)) are among the biological specimens that are birefringent and demonstrate contrast in polarized light.
One of the primary and favorite techniques used in all forms of a2 sociology essays, optical microscopy for the past three centuries, brightfield illumination relies upon changes in light absorption, refractive index, or color for generating contrast. As light passes through the specimen, regions that alter the direction, speed, and/or spectrum of the ap bio essay wavefronts generate optical disparities (contrast) when the rays are gathered and focused by the objective. Resolution in a brightfield system depends on both the objective and condenser numerical apertures, and an immersion medium is a2 sociology, required on ap bio essay 1995 both sides of the specimen (for numerical aperture combinations exceeding a value of best sat, 2.3). Digital cameras provide the wide dynamic range and spatial resolution required to capture the information present in a brightfield image. In addition, background subtraction algorithms, using averaged frames taken with no specimen in the optical path, increases contrast dramatically. Simple brightfield imaging, with the microscope properly adjusted for Kohler illumination, provides a limited degree of information about the cell outline, nuclear position, and the location of larger vesicles in unstained specimens. Contrast in brightfield imaging depends on differences in light absorption, refractive index or color.
Optical disparities (contrast) are developed as light passes through the specimen altering the direction, speed or spectral characteristics of the imaging wavefront. The technique is more useful with specimens stained with visible light absorbing dyes (such as eosin and hematoxylin; see Figure 1(a)). However, the general lack of contrast in brightfield mode when examining unstained specimens renders this technique relatively useless for serious investigations of living cell structure. First described by the Dutchman Frits Zernike in 1934, phase contrast earned its discoverer the Nobel Prize for physics in 1953 while revolutionizing basic biomedical research on living cells. The technique is ideal for thin unstained specimens (such as culture cells on glass), which are approximately 5 to 10 micrometers thick above the nucleus, but less than a micrometer thick at the periphery. Such specimens barely exhibit any light absorption in the visible portion of the spectrum and the human eye cannot detect them in ap bio brightfield and darkfield illumination. Phase contrast (as illustrated in Figure 1(b)) employs an optical mechanism to translate minute variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude, which can be visualized as differences in image contrast. The microscope must be equipped with a specialized condenser containing an answer essay, annulus or a series of annuli matched to a set of objectives containing phase rings (designed Ph ) in the rear focal plane (phase contrast objectives can also be used with fluorescence, but with a slight reduction in transmission). Phase contrast is an excellent method to increase contrast when viewing or imaging living cells in culture, but typically results in ap bio essay 1995 halos surrounding the outlines of edge features. These halos are optical artifacts that often reduce the visibility of boundary details.
The technique is not useful for thick specimens (such as plant and animal tissue sections) because shifts in phase occur in regions removed from the a2 sociology focal plane that distort image detail. Furthermore, floating debris and other out-of-focus phase objects interfere with imaging adherent cells on coverslips. As presented in Figure 2, very small differences exist between the ap bio essay refractive indices of the cells and their surrounding aqueous solutions and within the cells between the essay question real cytoplasm (Figure 2(b)) and ap bio essay the cell nucleus (Figure 2(c)). No significant refractive index difference occurs in the coverslip and surrounding medium (Figure 2(a)). Phase contrast makes these tiny differences visible by the use of optical manipulation as, for on writing the college application essay, example, it translates them into differences in intensity that can be visually observed and recorded. The optical effect employed in this case consists of a shift of phase relationships between light wavefronts traveling through different portions of the specimen. During their journey through cell nuclei, cytoplasm, or water, the light waves are shifted (retarded) by small degrees, since these media have slightly different refractive indices (the higher the ap bio refractive index of a medium, the smaller the speed or velocity of light in thesis the medium). As a result, a light wave that has passed through a cell nucleus lags behind the light waves that only had to pass through water (compare Figure 2(a) and 1995 Figure 2(c)). The College Essay? The amount of lag is called a phase shift. Before their entry into the specimen, the waves are still in phase (wavefronts beneath the coverslip), but this is no longer the case when they have passed through the various materials having different refractive indices. The amount of the phase shift depends on ap bio what media (refractive index) the usyd waves have passed through on their paths, and how long the paths were through these media.
The human eye cannot see these phase shifts in the microscope image, it is only able to distinguish between different intensities and colors. Therefore, the phase contrast technique uses optical tricks to translate phase shifts into grey values. In phase contrast microscope configuration, the ap bio 1995 condenser aperture diaphragm is replaced by a phase stop (the size of which depends upon objective and condenser numerical aperture) that illuminates the specimen via the condenser optical components in a hollow cone of essay question, light fashion, as illustrated in Figure 3(a). These wavefronts enter the objective and an image of the phase stop is created in the rear focal plane (the objective pupil). Positioned within the objective rear focal plane is a phase ring or plate that not only attenuates the bright, direct light originating from the phase stop in the condenser, but also adds a constant phase shift to this light. If the specimen contains sub-structures that have mixed refractive indices, these entities guide the light from the direct waves into new paths (red dotted line in Figure 3(a)). Wavefronts diffracted by 1995 the specimen (in effect, those containing structural information) will not pass through the phase ring in the objective, meaning that they will not be attenuated or retarded.
All of the chair selected wavefronts are ultimately recombined to ap bio essay 1995, form the intermediate image by the tube lens. The wavefronts that have all been retarded to varying degrees by james university essay details in essay 1995 the specimen are superimposed in the intermediate image over the shifted and james university attenuated wavefronts where they amplify or attenuate each other (depending on ap bio essay 1995 the phase), forming the final phase contrast image observed in the eyepieces. These interference processes in the intermediate image create bright and dark areas of the various structures having refractive index (and/or thickness) variations in the specimen. Optimum contrast is answer real, created by selecting the correct retardation and attenuation values, which is a function of the essay optical properties of the on writing application phase ring in the objective aperture. A major artifact of ap bio essay, phase contrast imaging is the bright halos of light that appear on the borders surrounding the specimen. Halos occur in phase contrast microscopy because the circular phase-retarding (and neutral density) ring located in the objective phase plate also transmits a small degree of diffracted light from the specimen (it is not restricted to passing surround waves alone).
The problem is compounded by the fact that the width of the answer real non-diffracted light (zeroth-order) surround wavefront projected onto the phase plate by essay 1995 the condenser annulus is smaller than the actual width of the phase plate ring. Thick specimens, often exhibiting highly overlapping structures, produce severe halo artifacts. On Writing Ebook? Therefore, phase contrast is ap bio essay, a method that is only recommended for very thin specimens where several structures are not physically lying on top of each other. In a thick specimen, details may be blended into the college application essay ebook an image that, in the final analysis, is no longer legible. Phase contrast requires special objectives that are equipped with a phase ring near the pupil or rear aperture. They are easy to ap bio essay, recognize by the green inscription that denotes the best essay written size of the corresponding condenser phase stop: Ph1 , Ph2 , or Ph3 . If you hold such an objective against the light and ap bio 1995 look into the pupil from the threaded end, you will be able to see the grey/transparent phase ring. The College Application? The condenser requires one, two, or three phase stops, depending on the phase contrast objectives that are attached to the microscope nosepiece. The required ring diameter increases with the numerical aperture (high apertures require the maximum diameter ( Ph3 ), for example 0.9 in air or 1.3 with oil immersion). Three sizes are available and are sufficient for all objectives (Figure 3(b)). If you use phase contrast with only one ring size, an essay, easily attachable and removable plug-in stop for the condenser will suffice.
A turret disk with several mounts is more convenient, since it contains all three phase stops and enables very fast changeover during imaging. Additional openings are available for james, the aperture iris necessary in brightfield illumination and for the darkfield diaphragm. The phase stops must be centered after they have been installed in the condenser so that the image of the phase stop in the objective pupil corresponds exactly with the position of the ap bio essay 1995 phase ring in the beam path (see Figure 4(c)). Centering is performed using two small wrenches (or screwdrivers, depending upon the college, the microscope model) on the turret disk of the condenser. Ap Bio? If you want to be particularly precise, use a centering telescope to observe the objective rear aperture for making these adjustments, as illustrated in Figure 4. This small accessory looks like an thesis, eyepiece and is inserted into the observation tube in place of an eyepiece. Ap Bio 1995? When the telescope is focused on the pupil (rear aperture) of the objective, the position of the phase stops can be clearly observed. Again, look into the objective pupil and bring the best bright image of the condenser phase stop into coincidence with the phase ring of the objective. Essay 1995? This is on writing application essay, clearly shown in Figure 4. In Figures 4(a) and 4(b), the phase stop is not aligned with the objective phase plate, while the stop and phase plate are in perfect congruence in ap bio essay Figure 4(c).
The image of a specimen in phase contrast can be influenced by appropriately selecting the retardation of the direct (non-diffracted) beam through careful selection of the phase ring in the objective. A2 Sociology? Depending on the retardation value selected, objects with a higher refractive index than their surroundings appear either brighter or darker than their surroundings. This is also called either positive or negative phase contrast. In modern microscopes, positive phase contrast is standard, where the darkness of object features increases with their refractive index. The effect simulates absorption to the observer's eye in areas where a higher refractive index produces high contrast features.
This impression is considered the optimum, particularly with cells and tissue in aqueous media because cell nuclei and organelles, for example, appear darker than the cytoplasm. For some applications, such as examining sperm cells, negative phase contrast may produce more specimen detail than the traditional positive phase contrast. back to top ^ Differential Interference Contrast. Differential interference contrast microscopy ( DIC ; Figure 1(c)) requires plane-polarized light and additional light-shearing (Nomarski) prisms to exaggerate minute differences in specimen thickness gradients and ap bio refractive index. Lipid bilayers, for example, produce excellent contrast in DIC because of the difference in refractive index between aqueous and lipid phases of the cell.
In addition, cell boundaries in relatively flat adherent mammalian and plant cells, including the plasma membrane, nucleus, vacuoles, mitochondria, and stress fibers, which usually generate significant gradients, are readily imaged with DIC. Best? In plant tissues, the birefringent cell wall reduces contrast in DIC to a limited degree, but a properly aligned system should permit visualization of nuclear and vacuolar membranes, some mitochondria, chloroplasts, and condensed chromosomes in essay 1995 epidermal cells. Differential interference contrast is an madison university, important technique for imaging thick plant and ap bio animal tissues because, in addition to the increased contrast, DIC exhibits decreased depth of field at wide apertures, creating a thin optical section of the thick specimen. This effect is also advantageous for imaging adherent cells to minimize blur arising from essays floating debris in the culture medium. The differential interference contrast optical system is based on the polarized light contrast technique as far as many of the components utilized are concerned. DIC for a modern transmitted light microscope is essay, different than that in reflected light because two birefringent prisms are used (see Figure 6), and the specimen's optical path difference is determined by the product of the thesis binding refractive index difference (between the specimen and its surrounding medium) and the thickness (geometrical distance) traversed by a light beam between two points on the optical path (Figure 5). Images produced in differential interference contrast microscopy are characterized by a distinctive shadow-cast appearance, as if they were illuminated from a highly oblique light source originating from a single azimuth. Essay 1995? Unfortunately, this effect, which often will render a specimen in a pseudo three-dimensional relief (Figure 6(d)), is frequently assumed by madison uninformed microscopists to 1995, be an indicator of actual topographical structure. Figure 6 illustrates the differential interference contrast beam path that is similar to that of polarized transmitted light.
In DIC (as compared to polarized light), the two birefringent prisms (Figure 6(b)) are inserted into the optical train, one in the condenser and the second near the a2 sociology objective pupil. The condenser prism performs a vectorial decomposition of the previously linearly polarized light (Figure 6(c)) into two vibration directions that are perpendicularly polarized to essay, each other, and laterally shifts these partial beams in such a way that a small lateral displacement of the wavefronts occurs where regions of thickness or refractive index vary. Chair Selected? If the ap bio two partial beams now pass through exactly the same structures, no further path difference will occur in the specimen (Figure 5(a) and Figure 5(c)). However, if the binding two partial beams see slightly different conditions, each of them will experience a slightly difference pathlength that accompanies it on the remaining trip to the intermediate image plane (Figure 5(b)). As discussed, the split DIC light beams enter and pass through the specimen where their wave paths are altered in ap bio accordance with the dissertation chair selected specimen's varying thickness, slopes, and essay refractive indices.
These variations cause alterations in the wave path of both beams passing through areas of any specimen details lying close together. When the parallel beams enter the objective, they are focused above the rear focal plane where they enter a second DIC prism that combines the two beams at a defined distance outside of the prism itself. This removes the on writing essay ebook shear (distance between the ap bio essay 1995 waves) and usyd binding the original path difference between the beam pairs. As a result of having traversed the ap bio essay 1995 specimen, the paths of the parallel beams are not of the same length (optical path difference) for differing areas of the sat specimen. In order for the beams to interfere, the vibrations of the beams of ap bio, different path length must be brought into the same plane and axis. This is accomplished by placing a second polarizer (analyzer) above the upper DIC beam-combining prism. The light then proceeds toward the eyepiece where it can be observed as differences in intensity and color. The design results in one side of a specimen detail appearing bright (or possibly in color) while the other side appears darker (or another color). This shadow effect bestows the pseudo three-dimensional appearance to the specimen that was described above.
There are numerous advantages in DIC microscopy as compared to phase contrast microscopy. With DIC, it is possible to make fuller use of the numerical aperture of the system and to provide optical staining (color). DIC also allows the microscope to achieve excellent resolution. Use of full objective aperture enables the essay real microscopist to focus on a thin plane section of a thick specimen without confusing images from above or below the plane. Annoying halos, often encountered in phase contrast, are absent in 1995 DIC images, and suitable achromat and fluorite objectives can be used for best written, this work. It is important to keep in mind, however, since DIC is based on polarized light principles, highly birefringent specimens or those embedded in birefringent materials should not be observed under DIC. back to top ^ Hoffman Modulation and VAREL Contrast. Often metaphorically referred to as poor man's DIC, Hoffman modulation contrast ( HMC ) is an oblique illumination technique that enhances contrast in living cells and tissues by detection of optical phase gradients (see Figure 1(d)). The basic microscope configuration includes an optical amplitude spatial filter, termed a modulator, which is inserted into the rear focal plane of the objective. Light intensity passing through the modulator varies above and below an average value, which by definition, is then said to be modulated. Ap Bio Essay? Coupled to the objective modulator is an essay real, off-axis slit aperture that is placed in the condenser front focal plane to direct oblique illumination towards the specimen.
Unlike the phase plate in phase contrast microscopy, the Hoffman modulator is ap bio essay 1995, designed not to alter the phase of james madison essay question, light passing through; rather it influences the principal zeroth order maxima to produce contrast. Hoffman modulation contrast is not hampered by the use of ap bio, birefringent materials (such as plastic Petri dishes) in the optical pathway, so the technique is more useful for examining specimens in containers constructed with polymeric materials. On the downside, HMC produces a number of on writing the college application ebook, optical artifacts that render the technique somewhat less useful than phase contrast or DIC for live-cell imaging on glass coverslips. A newly developed contrasting technique, in ap bio essay which phase contrast is a2 sociology essays, combined with inclined unilateral illumination (similar to essay 1995, HMC), has been developed for the examination of living cells in culture vessels. James Essay? An additional stop shaped like a ring sector is used on the illumination side, permitting unilateral inclined illumination. Three illumination modes, unilateral darkfield, VAREL (variable relief) contrast, and inclined brightfield (similar to oblique illumination or HMC) are set by shifting the stop in the radial direction from the outside to the inside (see Figure 7) and a segment of a matching annulus is ap bio, moved into position. James Question? This slit directs the source illumination to pass through a second ring of high absorption on the objective aperture's periphery, which suppresses its intensity by an amount dependent upon the density of the outer ring. 1995? The diffracted orders of light pass through the objective without being suppressed by james essay the VAREL ring. You can also manipulate the ap bio position of the slit if you want to best essay, vary the essay extent the source illumination is suppressed.
Orientation is easy to achieve and maintain because of the concentric nature of the slit. Furthermore, because of the on writing application essay ebook VAREL ring's location in the objective, VAREL and phase contrast rings can be combined in essay 1995 the same objective. This makes for a very low-price method of imaging cells in culture vessels. The problems of dissertation selected, imaging in ap bio 1995 both traditional and routine tissue culture applications can be resolved with this method, it is the college essay, a successful option for the examination of living objects (micromanipulation), and a range of structures with varying optical thickness are easily imaged with VAREL. Ap Bio? Even culture vessels with a curved bottom allow a useful image to be produced. Phase contrast alone sometimes fails in such cases because a curved chamber base acts like a lens and impairs the superimposition of phase rings. Best Essay Written? A slider contains two of the essay mentioned sectors to essays, allow illumination to be performed from the left or right, as required. This makes it possible to contrast cells even near the essay 1995 edges of the holes in microtiter plates. The methodology surrounding darkfield microscopy, although widely used for imaging transparent specimens throughout the 19th and 20th Centuries, is limited in use to physically isolated cells and organisms (as presented in Figure 1(e)). Dissertation? In this technique, the 1995 condenser directs a cone of chair selected, light onto the specimen at high azimuths so that first-order wavefronts do not directly enter the objective front lens element.
Light passing through the specimen is ap bio 1995, diffracted, reflected, and/or refracted by optical discontinuities (such as the cell membrane, nucleus, and internal organelles) enabling these faint rays to enter the objective. The specimen can then be visualized as a bright object on a2 sociology an otherwise black background. Unfortunately, light scattered by objects removed from the focal plane also contribute to the image, thus reducing contrast and obscuring specimen detail. This artifact is compounded by the fact that dust and debris in the imaging chamber also contribute significantly to the resulting image. Furthermore, thin adherent cells often suffer from ap bio essay 1995 very faint signal, whereas thick plant and animal tissues redirect too much light into the objective path, reducing the effectiveness of the technique. Recently, a renewed interest in transmitted darkfield microscopy has arisen due to its advantages when used in combination with fluorescence microscopy. Darkfield microscopy is a specialized illumination technique that capitalizes on oblique illumination, as described above, to enhance contrast in specimens that are not imaged well under normal brightfield illumination conditions.
An artificial dark background is created in the microscope using an annular stop in the condenser (see Figure 8). Although the condenser optics then illuminate the sample, they do so with a hollow inverted cone of light that passes through the specimen at james essay question, extremely oblique angles at all azimuths so that only the light interacting with specimen features is able to enter the microscope objective to form a bright image of the specimen superimposed onto a dark background. To create the ap bio 1995 high angles, it is necessary for selected, the objective aperture to be smaller than the inner aperture of the illuminating light cone (see Figure 8(a)). However, objectives with an integrated variable iris diaphragm are also available to shutter out the indirect light even if it falls into the aperture cone of the objective (as illustrated in Figure 8(b)). Essay? This permits the use of very high apertures for darkfield illumination. Darkfield microscopy is an excellent tool for biological and a2 sociology essays medical investigations. It can be effectively used at high magnifications to image living bacteria, or at low magnifications to view and image cells, tissues, and whole mounts. Polarized light microscopy is a contrast-enhancing technique that dramatically improves the quality of an essay 1995, image acquired with birefringent materials when compared to other techniques such as brightfield and darkfield illumination, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, and Hoffman modulation contrast.
Polarized light microscopes possess a high degree of sensitivity and university essay question can be used for both qualitative and quantitative studies targeted at a wide range of anisotropic specimens. Qualitative polarizing microscopy is essay 1995, quite popular in practice, however, the quantitative aspects of polarized light microscopy, which are principally applied in crystallography, represent a much more difficult subject that is primarily used by mineralogists, geologists, and chemists. The steady advances achieved over the past few years in highly sensitive polarized light microscopy have allowed biologists to examine the usyd binding birefringent character of several anisotropic sub-cellular assemblies. Polarized light microscopy (Figure 1(f)) is conducted by ap bio viewing the specimen between crossed polarizing elements inserted into chair selected the optical train before the condenser and ap bio essay 1995 after the objective. Assemblies within the cell having birefringent properties, such as the selected plant cell wall, starch granules, and the mitotic spindle, as well as muscle tissue, rotate the plane of light polarization, appearing bright on a dark background. The rabbit muscle tissue illustrated in Figure 1(f) is an example of polarized light microscopy applied to living tissue observation. Ap Bio Essay 1995? Note that this technique is limited by the occurrence of birefringence in living cells and on writing application essay ebook tissues, and ap bio essay 1995 has yet to on writing the college application ebook, be fully explored. Essay? As mentioned above, differential interference contrast operates by usyd thesis binding placing a matched pair of opposing Nomarski prisms between crossed polarizers, so that any microscope equipped for DIC observation can also be employed to examine specimens in plane-polarized light simply by removing the prisms from the essay 1995 optical pathway. There are two polarizing elements in a polarizing microscope (see Figure 9).
The first polarizer is thesis, placed beneath the specimen stage with its vibration azimuth fixed in the East-West direction. Note most of these elements in ap bio commercial microscopes can be rotated through 360 degrees. Another polarized (the analyzer), which is usually aligned with a vibration direction oriented North-South (but again rotatable on some microscopes), is placed above the objective and can be moved into and out of the chair light path as needed. When both the polarizer and analyzer are inserted into the optical path, their vibration azimuths are positioned at right angles to ap bio essay, each other. In this configuration, the polarizer and a2 sociology analyzer are crossed, with no light passing through the optical system and a dark background present in the eyepieces (Figure 9(a)). Ap Bio Essay? Linearly polarized light waves are generated by polarizers that filter out james question a privileged plane from the statistical confusion of ap bio essay 1995, vibrational directions prevailing in natural light. The two orthogonal components of light (ordinary and extraordinary waves) travel at different speeds through the specimen and, as a result, observe different refractive indices, a phenomenon known as birefringence (derived from the answer essay real terms double or bi refraction ). A quantitative measurement of birefringence equals the numerical difference between the wavefront refractive indices.
The faster wavefront emerges first from the specimen to generate an optical path difference with the slower wavefront. The analyzer recombines components of the two wavefronts traveling in the same direction and vibrating in the same plane. This polarizing element ensures that the two wavefronts have the same amplitude at the time of recombination for maximum contrast. The appropriate arrangement for polarized light imaging is relatively easy to ap bio essay 1995, implement on james madison essay virtually any microscope. The polarizer beneath the condenser (near the aperture diaphragm) ensures that the specimen is illuminated with linearly polarized wavefronts that pass through the condenser (refer to Figure 9(a)). Ap Bio? The analyzer (a second polarizer), which is oriented with the azimuth arranged at an angle of 90 degrees to that of the polarizer, is located behind the application essay objective. The tube lens forms the intermediate image, which is projected through the eyepieces or onto a camera imaging plane.
If no specimen is ap bio essay, placed on the college the microscope stage, the ap bio essay scene observed through the eyepieces will remain completely dark. Essays? When illuminated, many specimens turn the vibration direction of the ap bio 1995 polarized light out of the plane produced by the polarizer. Such specimens consist mainly of birefringent materials, in which the refractive index depends on the vibration direction of the incident light. This is on writing application, mainly the case with crystals, such as starch or minerals (Figure 9(c)), but also occurs with fibers (Figure 9(d)) and polymers. If such materials are viewed under the polarization microscope between the crossed polarizer and the analyzer, bright areas can be seen in the image because light is partially transmitted by the analyzer. The polarized light microscope optical train can also include an ap bio essay 1995, auxiliary element known as a lambda or retardation plate (Figure 9(a) and 9(b)) that is used in quantitative analysis. In polarized light, this lambda plate converts contrast into colors. As in phase contrast, optical path differences give rise to colors, although this time with polarized light and usyd birefringent material in the specimen. The path differences generated leads to ap bio 1995, an extinction of certain wavelengths in the light through interference (only certain colors remain from the white light and create beautiful, colored pictures). Polarizing microscopy offers an immense amount of information about the composition and three-dimensional structure of a range of samples.
Practically unlimited in its scope, the technique can reveal information about thermal history and the strains to which a specimen was subjected during formation. Usyd? Valuable in manufacturing and research, polarizing microscopy is relatively inexpensive and an accessible research and quality control tool that can provide information unavailable with any other technique. Rudi Rottenfusser - Zeiss Microscopy Consultant, 46 Landfall, Falmouth, Massachusetts, 02540. Erin E. Wilson and Michael W. Essay? Davidson - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Dr., The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310.