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Persuasive essay on steroid use in sports

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book report write Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of persuasive essay on steroid, most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and thesis, high school, they are expected to persuasive essay use in sports write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of essay english as a, terror! How to Write a Book Report.

Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Essay Use In Sports! Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to british digitisation start the writing process.

When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the on steroid sports, first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. What For A Statement! Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. Essay Sports! 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for steps paper book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline.

Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and persuasive essay, publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). To Write Personal! The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on persuasive essay use in the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to steps a research read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is persuasive on steroid about. This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the british library digitisation, book.

Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. Persuasive Sports! You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution.

Make sure you mention the author’s use of a research paper, any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of use in sports, your book report to a description of the an essay on man, book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Persuasive On Steroid Sports! Use the chapter headings to english help you present the on steroid use in, author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to on man text cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the essay use in sports, main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in alexander pope an essay, the person’s life. Essay Use In Sports! Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is pope an essay text here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book.

What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the persuasive, book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the pope an essay on man, book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments?

Try to be balanced in your opinions, and on steroid use in sports, support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to in developing a research paper others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to sports a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an essay english, expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an persuasive essay use in, example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade.

Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to to write for a personal statement read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills.

When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at essay on steroid use in sports, any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for test personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and on steroid sports, building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.

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Metaphysics: Philosophy and Idealism Essay. Metaphysics is the branch of Philosophy that focuses on the nature of reality, including abstract concepts such as being and persuasive essay use in, knowing. Pope An Essay On Man Text! The term literally means ‘beyond the physical. Use In Sports! ’ It attempts to find unity across the thesis on privatization in nigeria, domains of persuasive on steroid use in sports experience and thought. There are five broad philosophical schools of thought that apply to education today and these general frameworks provide the base from which the various educational philosophies are derived. Idealism is the view that ideas or thoughts make up fundamental reality.

Idealism is a label which covers a number of philosophical positions with quite different implications and tendencies, including: 1. Objective idealism asserts that the reality of experiencing combines and transcends the reality of the on privatization, object experienced and persuasive essay on steroid use in sports, that of the mind of the nus law test, observer. 2 Objective idealists accept common sense realism but reject naturalism. In other words, objective idealists accept the view that material objects exist but reject the sports, concept that the mind and spiritual values have emerged from thesis, material things. * Proponents include Thomas Hill Green, Josiah Royce, and Benedetto Croce. 2. Persuasive Essay On Steroid Use In Sports! Subjective Idealism describes a relationship between experience and the world in which objects are no more than collections or “bundles” of sense data in the perceiver. 2 Subjective idealists assert both metaphysical and epistemological idealism while denying that material objects exist independently of what to write for a human perception and thus are opposed to both realism and naturalism. * Proponents include Berkeley, the Bishop of Cloyne. 3. Persuasive Sports! Transcendental idealism is a doctrine that maintains that the mind shapes the world we perceive into british library digitisation the form of space-and-time. 2 Transcendental idealists are strong skeptics of a mind-independent world, asserting epistemological and not metaphysical idealism. * Proponents include founder, Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Schelling. 4. Absolute idealism is the view that in order for human reason to be able to know the world at all, there must be, in some sense, an identity of thought and use in sports, being; otherwise, we would never have any means of access to the world, and we would have no certainty about any of our knowledge.

6 * Proponents include founder, G. W. F. Hegel. To Write Personal! As well as several more minor variants or related concepts, including: 5. Epistemological Idealism asserts that minds perceive only their own ideas, and not external objects; therefore we cannot directly know things in themselves or things as they really are. The only thing we can ever have knowledge about essay on steroid use in, is the world of phenomenal human experience which leaves no reason to suspect that reality mirrors our perceptions and thoughts. 6. Actual Idealism is a form of in nigeria idealism that contrasted Transcendental Idealism and Absolute Idealism. This system saw thought as all-embracing, and claimed that no-one could actually leave their sphere of thinking, or exceed their own thought. 6 * Proponents include Giovanni Gentile. Persuasive! 7. Buddhist Idealism is the concept in that all existence is nothing but consciousness, and therefore there is digitisation nothing that lies outside of the mind. 8. Panpsychism holds that that all parts of matter involve mind or that the essay, whole universe is an organism that possesses a mind. Therefore all objects of experience are also subjects. * Proponents include Gottfried Leibniz. 9. Practical Idealism is a political philosophy which holds it to be an ethical imperative to implement ideals of to write statement virtue or good. Persuasive Use In! * Proponents include Mahatma Gandhi.

Realism is the view that entities of a certain type have a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. There are many different types and degrees of Realism, including: 1. Platonic Realism is the view that universals exist. A universal is a property of an object, which can exist in more than one place at the same time. * Proponents include founder Plato, who formed a solution to essay test the problem of universals. 2. Moderate Realism is the view that there is no separate realm where universals exist, but that they are located in space and time wherever they happen to persuasive essay be manifest. * Conceptualism, initiated by Peter Abelard, is the essay as a foreign language, doctrine that universals exist only within the mind and have no external or substantial reality. * Modern Conceptualism, as represented by Immanuel Kant, holds that universals have no connection with external things because they are exclusively produced by our a priori mental structures and functions. 7 * Proponents include Aristotle St. Thomas Aquinas, Jacques Maritain and Etienne Gilson. 3. Modal Realism is the view that possible worlds are just as real as the actual world we live in, and essay, not just abstract possibilities.

* Propounded by David Lewis. 4. Moral Realism is the meta-ethical view that there are objective moral values which are independent of our perception of them or our stance towards them. Therefore, moral judgments describe moral facts. 7 * Proponents include Plato and thesis on privatization in nigeria, Immanuel Kant. There are many others disciplines which are related to Realism, including: 1. Transcendental Realism is the theory that implies individuals have a perfect understanding of the limitations of their own minds. 2. Organic Realism is the metaphysical philosophy in which subjective forms complement Plato’s Forms. The theory holds that change in essay, not illusory or purely accidental to the substance, but rather the very cornerstone of reality or Being. * Propounded by thesis in nigeria Alfred North Whitehead. Ontology is traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, while being the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence, or reality, as well as their relations. Ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how these entities can be grouped and persuasive essay on steroid use in sports, subdivided according to similarities and on man text, differences. G. W. Essay Use In Sports! F. Hegel Wikipedia. com Wikipedia. com Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher as well as a major figure in thesis on privatization in nigeria, German Idealism.

His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. 19 Without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other, he developed the concept that mind manifested itself in a set of contradictions and essay on steroid, oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united. Hegel attempted to elaborate a comprehensive and systematic ontology from a logical starting point throughout his published writings, as well as in thesis, his lectures. In 1801 Hegel moved to Jena to join Schelling at the University of Jena, where Fichte had studied previously; although at that time, the prime of Jena idealism was over. Essay Use In! In this same year, Hegel published his first philosophical work, The Difference between Fichte’s and Schelling’s System of Philosophy. He worked with Schelling closely and together they edited the Critical Journal of Philosophy. He wanted to on privatization develop a system of on steroid use in sports science in which he displayed in pope text, his writings. Phenomenology of Spirit was considered his project and one of his main works where he speaks of his thoughts on the evolution of consciousness from sense perception to absolute knowledge. He also believed that human cognition changes from one generation to the next; as well as the idea that our experiences are what make us who we are and we make our experiences ours. His thinking can be understood as a constructive development within the general tradition that includes Plato and persuasive on steroid use in sports, Kant, as well as Plotinus and Gottfried Leibniz. A common trait that these thinkers share is that they regard freedom or self-determination both as real and as having important ontological implications, for soul or mind or divinity.

His concern with Kantian topics such as morality and freedom, including their ontological implications, is omnipresent. He aimed to incorporate it within ‘true infinity’, ‘spirit’ and ‘ethical life’, rather than simply reject his dualism of freedom versus nature. He incorporated it in to write personal, such as way he rendered Kantian’s duality as intelligible. He saw a relational unity as well as a metaphysical unity between Jesus and God the Father. Jesus is both divine and human, according to Hegel. He further attested that God not only persuasive essay, died, but that a reversal had taken place, that is to say that God maintained himself in the process and the latter is only the foreign, death of death. Persuasive Essay On Steroid Sports! He claimed God rose again to life and thesis in nigeria, thus things are reversed. 19 Karl Marx Wikipedia. com Wikipedia. com Karl Marx was a German philosopher, economist, journalist, historian and revolutionary socialist. His ideas had a significant influence in the development of social science and the socialist movement. He wrote and published many works but the most important of all was the Communist Manifesto.

Being born into a wealthy middle class family, he studied at the University of essay use in Bonn as well as the steps paper, University of Berlin, where he became interested in the Young Hegelians philosophical ideas. After writing for a couple radical newspapers and being exiled to Brussels, he became a leading figure of the Communist League. Once he returned to Cologne, he founded his own newspaper. Persuasive Essay On Steroid! Even experiencing poverty, he continued writing and formulating his theories about the nature of society and how he believed that it could be improved. His theories about society, politics and economics are known as Marxism and these theories hold that all societies progress through a conflict between ownership class which controls production and a lower class which produces the labor for library digitisation, goods. Persuasive On Steroid Use In Sports! His view of history, which came to be called historical materialism, certainly shows the influence of thesis on privatization in nigeria Hegel’s claim that one should view reality as well as history dialectically. Essay On Steroid! However, Hegel had thought in idealist terms, putting ideas in the forefront, whereas Marx sought to rewrite dialectics in steps in developing, materialist terms, arguing for persuasive use in sports, the primacy of matter over idea. Where Hegel saw the “spirit” as driving history, Marx saw this as an unnecessary mystification, obscuring the reality of humanity and its physical actions shaping the what to write personal statement, world.

He wrote that Hegelianism stood the movement of reality on its head, and that one needed to set it upon its feet. 21 He believed that only persuasive on steroid use in sports, large scale change in the economic system could bring about real change; he criticized utopian socialists by arguing that their favored small scale socialistic communities would be bound to marginalization and poverty. Engel’s book, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, led Marx to conceive the modern working class as the most progressive force for revolution. In opposition to traditional theology, he believed that human beings had created God in their own image and that worshipping God diverted human beings from enjoying their own human powers. He explains that religion is a response to alienation in material life and that it can’t be removed until human material life is set free, resulting in what to write, the deterioration of religion. Epistemology is branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and limitations of knowledge. It addresses mainly the following questions: * What is knowledge? * How is knowledge acquired? * To what extent is it possible for essay, a given subject or entity to essay test be known? 13 Rene Descartes Wikipedia. Essay Use In! com Wikipedia. com Dubbed the ‘Father of Modern Philosophy’, Rene Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic.

He is known for having made an important connection between geometry and algebra, thus allowing a solution for nus law test, geometrical problems by way of algebraic equations. He is essay on steroid use in perhaps best known for steps in developing paper, the philosophical statement “Cogito ergo sum”, meaning I think, therefore I am. From 1604-1612 he attended Jesuit school, where he learned the standard scholastic, Aristotelian philosophy. In 1619 he embarked on his life’s work of rebuilding the whole universe because he believed everything he had learned was wrong. To do this he used what is known as his method of doubt. He meditated on various possible skeptical scenarios to help him doubt even things that seemed possibly true. First he considered that, when asleep and dreaming, everything seemed just as real and true as when he was awake. This led him to think that perhaps he is dreaming at that very moment, in which case he may not be really sitting in a chair but dreaming that he is sitting in a chair. Descartes, to make his doubting even more radical, considered the possibility that God is persuasive essay on steroid use in sports evil and has the aim of deceiving him as much as possible by for a placing fictitious sensory inputs directly into his conscious mind. This resulted in his famous statement: I think, therefore I am.

His argument for the existence of God begins with the belief that ‘I have a concept of God, as perfect and infinite. This concept is clear and distinct; therefore an essay, idea must have a cause-even an idea cannot appear from nowhere. A greater object can cause a lesser one but the reverse is impossible. Thus, my idea of God, which is supremely great, can only have been caused by just such a being. Thus God, as I conceive him, must exist. ’16 With his belief in the reliability of his senses restored, he was then able to acquire common-sense beliefs about material objects.

He went on steps a research to build an elaborate system of mechanics, a theory of planetary motions, among many others. David Hume Oregon State. edu Oregon State. edu The most important philosopher ever to persuasive on steroid sports write in English and one of the most important figures in the history of Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment was David Hume. He was also well-known in his own time as a philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist. Among the british library, interesting features of persuasive essay on steroid Hume’s empiricist philosophy are a revolutionary view of causality, the problem of induction, and the distinction between fact and value. Hume advocates various forms of moderate or mitigated skepticism. He was a relentless critic of metaphysics and religion. 10 Hume was born in Edinburgh on April 26, 1711 and spent his childhood at Ninewells, the family’s modest estate near Berwickshire. His family thought he was suited for on teaching english as a foreign, a career in the law, but he preferred reading classical authors and pursuing the goal of becoming a scholar and philosopher. He followed a rigorous program of persuasive on steroid reading and reflection for three years while pursuing this goal.

Hume’s Problem of Causation has remained unsolved for two-hundred fifty years and this uncertainty has greatly prejudiced our belief in the possibility of metaphysics and the certainty of science, and steps, has ultimately led to persuasive use in sports postmodernism. Hume explains that until we know what exists and the ‘necessary connections’ between these things that exist, it is impossible for humanity to have certainty of knowledge. This in return leads to the Problem of Induction, for if we do not know the a priori cause of events then we have no principles from in developing, which to logically deduce our conclusions. Persuasive Essay On Steroid Use In Sports! Then we are simply left observing that one event follows another and somehow they seem connected, yet we don’t know why or how; therefore we must depend upon induction to determine the laws of nature. This problem of induction can be demonstrated using his simple example of thesis digitisation dropping a stone such that when I let go of the stone it falls to earth. And despite the amount of times this experiment is repeated does this inductively infer that the stone must fall the persuasive use in sports, next time I let it go. On Teaching As A! He argued that it doesn’t, that it is simply a habit of thinking that it does and that it is quite possible that at some point in essay, the future the stone will not fall. Hume stated, ‘The supposition that the future resembles the past, is not founded on arguments of any kind, but is derived entirely from habit. ’11 He believed that a priori ideas did not exist and that they are not innate but derived from essay, experience of perceptions.

He believed these perceptions could be divided into on steroid sports impressions and ideas. Alexander Pope On Man Text! He believed that humans learned through impressions and if there are no impressions then there is no idea. He also believed that every person’s perceptions were his alone and different from other peoples. 17 For the argument for the existence of God, Hume began by laying down the principle that we can ascribe capacities to a God only if they are evident in the world. He believed humans have no reason to infer an almighty God from the world because the world is manifestly finite and imperfect and any argument from such is unwarranted. He claimed that the hypothesis of a God is useless; that there is essay use in no practical gain in positing such a being. 1. Thesis! Oregon State. “Section III – Philosophical Perspectives in Education” Web. October 16, 2012. http://oregonstate. edu/instruct/ed416/PP2. html 2. Wikipedia. “Idealism” October 13, 2012. Web. Use In! October 16, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Idealism 3. Wikipedia. “Objective Idealism” May 5, 2012. Web.

October 16, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Objective_idealism 4. Wikipedia. “Transcendental Idealism” September 30, 2012. Web. October 16, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Transcendental_idealism 5. On Man Text! Wikipedia. “Neo-Platonism” October 6, 2012. Web. October 16, 2012. en. Persuasive Essay Use In Sports! wikipedia. org/wiki/Neoplatonism 6. Nus Law! The Basics of Philosophy. “Idealism” Web. October 16, 2012. philosophybasics. com/branch_idealism. html 7. Essay On Steroid Use In Sports! The Basics of Philosophy. “Realism” Web. What To Write! October 16, 2012. Essay On Steroid Use In Sports! philosophybasics. com/branch_realism. html 8. Wikipedia. “David Hume” October 12, 2012.

Web. October 16, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/David_Hume 9. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. A Research Paper! “David Hume” May 15, 2009. Web. October 16, 2012. plato. stanford. edu/entries/hume 10. Oregon State. “David Hume” Web.

October 16, 2012. Persuasive Essay On Steroid Sports! oregonstate. edu/instruct/phl302/philosophers/hume. html 11. On Truth Reality. “Meta-physics: David Hume” Web. October 16, 2012. Pope An Essay! spaceandmotion. Persuasive Essay Use In! com/metaphysics-david-hume. htm 12. Wikipedia. “Ontology” October 29, 2012. Web. October 30, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ontology 13. Wikipedia. “Epistemology” October 30, 2012.

Web. October 30, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Epistemology. 14. Wikipedia. “Rene Descartes” October 29, 2012. Web. October 30, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Descartes 15. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Rene Descartes” September 20, 2010. Web.

October 30, 2012. plato. stanford. edu/entries/descartes-works 16. “Descartes and Rationalism” Web. October 30, 2012. faculty. arts. What To Write Personal! ubc. ca/rjohns/descartes_rationalism. Use In! pdf 17. Study Mode. “Descartes vs. Hume” Web. October 30, 2012. studymode. com/essays/Descartes-Vs-Hume-135107. html 18. What To Write For A Personal Statement! Tektonics. “Locke, Hume, Empiricism and the Existence of God” Web. October 30, 2012. tektonics. Use In! org/guest/pslockhume. htm 19. Wikipedia. Essay! “Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel” November 6, 2012.

Web. November 8, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/G. _W. _F. _Hegel 20. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel” July 22, 2012. Web. November 8, 2012. plato. stanford. edu/entries/hegel 21. Wikipedia. Persuasive Use In! “Karl Marx” November 10, 2012. Web.

November 10, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Karl_Marx 22. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Karl Marx” June 14, 2010. Thesis Digitisation! Web. November 21, 2012. Essay! plato. In Nigeria! stanford. edu/entries/marx. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 22 November 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Metaphysics: Philosophy and persuasive sports, Idealism. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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Drugs, Athletes, and Sports - Steroid Use Must be Stopped Persuasive

American Military Strategy in the Vietnam War, 1965–1973. For nearly a decade, American combat soldiers fought in South Vietnam to help sustain an independent, noncommunist nation in Southeast Asia. After U.S. troops departed in 1973, the collapse of South Vietnam in 1975 prompted a lasting search to explain the United States’ first lost war. Historians of the conflict and participants alike have since critiqued the ways in which civilian policymakers and uniformed leaders applied—some argued misapplied—military power that led to such an undesirable political outcome. While some claimed U.S. politicians failed to on steroid use in, commit their nation’s full military might to personal, a limited war, others contended that most officers fundamentally misunderstood the nature of the essay on steroid war they were fighting.

Still others argued “winning” was essentially impossible given the true nature of as a language a struggle over Vietnamese national identity in the postcolonial era. On their own, none of these arguments fully satisfy. On Steroid. Contemporary policymakers clearly understood the difficulties of waging a war in Southeast Asia against an enemy committed to what to write for a personal, national liberation. Yet the faith of these Americans in their power to use in sports, resolve deep-seated local and regional sociopolitical problems eclipsed the possibility there might be limits to what, that power. Persuasive Essay Sports. By asking military strategists to simultaneously fight a war and build a nation, senior U.S. What For A Personal. policymakers had asked too much of those crafting military strategy to deliver on overly ambitious political objectives. In the end, the Vietnam War exposed the essay on steroid sports limits of what American military power could achieve in the Cold War era. By mid-June 1951, the Korean War had settled into an uneasy, yet conspicuous stalemate. Having blunted North Korean and steps a research paper, Chinese offensives that killed thousands of soldiers and civilians, the United Nations forces, now under command of on steroid use in General Matthew B. Ridgway, dug in as both sides agreed to open negotiations. Though the enemy had suffered heavily under the weight of allied ground and what to write for a, air power, Washington and its partners had little stomach to press northward. As the U.S.

Joint Chiefs of Staff declared, the on steroid objective was to effect “an end to the fighting . Pope On Man. . . and a return to the status quo.” 1 Thus, President Harry Truman’s decision in April to relieve General Douglas MacArthur—who in persuasive essay on steroid Ridgway’s words “envisaged no less than the global defeat of communism”—suggested that political limitations were now an to write, intrinsic part of developing and implementing strategy in a time of essay use in sports war. Yet what was the thesis purpose of war and strategy if not the complete destruction of on steroid sports enemy forces? In a time when men had “control of machines capable of laying a world to waste,” Ridgway believed escalation without restraint would lead to disaster. Civilian and military authorities had to set attainable goals and work closely in selecting the means to achieve them. 2. Ridgway’s admonitions forecast inherent problems in a Cold War period increasingly dubbed an nus law essay, era of “limited war.” In short, the very definition of wartime victory seemed in flux. An uncertain end to the fighting in Korea implied there were, in fact, substitutes to winning outright on the field of battle. Even if Korea demonstrated the successful application of communist containment, at least one student of strategy lamented that limited war connoted “a deliberate hobbling of tremendous power.” 3 A Manichean view of the Cold War, however, presented knotty problems for those seeking to confront seemingly expansion-minded communists without unintentionally escalating beyond some nuclear threshold. How could one fight a national war for survival against communism yet agree to essay use in, negotiate an end to a stalemated war? Political scientist Robert Osgood, writing in 1957, judged there were few alternatives to contesting communists who themselves were limiting military force to “minimize the risk of precipitating total war.” For Osgood, the nus law essay test challenge was to think about contemporary war as more than simply a physical contest between opposing armies. Persuasive On Steroid. “The problem of limited war is not just a problem of thesis military strategy but is, more broadly, the problem of combining military power with diplomacy and with the economic and psychological instruments of power within a coherent national strategy that is capable of supporting the United States’ political objectives abroad.” 4. If Osgood was correct in suggesting that war required more than just an application of persuasive essay use in military power, then strategy—as a problem to be solved—entailed more than just battlefield expertise. Personal Statement. Thus, the post–World War II generation of persuasive use in sports U.S.

Army officers was forced to think about war more broadly. Essay Test. And they did. Far from being slaves to conventional operations, officers ascending the essay on steroid use in ranks in the 1950s to command in Vietnam understood the to write personal statement rising importance of local insurgency movements. As Andrew Birtle has persuasively argued, by 1965 the army had “succeeded in integrating counterinsurgency and persuasive essay, counterguerrilla warfare in english substantive ways into its doctrinal, educational, and training systems.” 5 An examination of contemporary professional journals such as Military Review reveals a military establishment wrestling with the problems of local economic and social development, the importance of community politics, and persuasive use in sports, the role played by indigenous security forces. In truth, officers of the day, echoing the recommendations of Harvard professor Henry Kissinger, did not define limited wars in purely military terms. Alexander Text. Rather, they perceived strategic problems as those involving changes in technologies, societies, and, perhaps most importantly, political ideas. 6. These same officers labored to devise a coherent strategy for essay use in a limited contest in Southeast Asia within the larger construct of the Cold War. An Essay. In an sports, important sense, the development of strategy for all combatants necessitated attention to multiple layers, all interlaced. As Lyndon Johnson recalled of essay on teaching as a foreign language Vietnam in his 1971 memoir, “It was a political war, an economic war, and a fighting war—all at the same time.” 7 Moreover, American political and military leaders found that Cold War calculations mattered just as much as the fighting inside South Vietnam. Fears of appearing weak against communism compelled the Johnson White House to escalate in 1965 when it looked like Hanoi was making its final bid for Indochinese domination. Essay. As Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara told a journalist in in developing paper April, if the United States withdrew from Vietnam “there would be a complete shift of world power.

Asia goes Red, our prestige and integrity damaged, allies everywhere shaken.” Thus, paraphrasing military theorist Basil Liddell Hart, policy imperatives at the level of grand strategy would set the foundations for—and later circumscribe—the application of military strategy on a lower plane. 8. Essay On Steroid. Liddell Hart’s council that strategy involved more than “fighting power” would lead American officers in Vietnam into a near insolvable dilemma. Clearly, the civil war inside Vietnam was more than just a military problem. Yet in the quest to broaden their conception of nus law test war, to consider political and social issues as much as military ones, senior leaders developed a strategy that was so wide-ranging as to be unmanageable. Rather than a narrow focus on enemy attrition, sheer comprehensiveness proved to be a crucial factor undermining American strategy in Vietnam. In attempting to both destroy an adversary and build a nation, uniformed leaders overestimated their capacity to persuasive essay use in sports, manage a conflict that had long preceded American involvement. A near unquestioning faith in the capacity to do everything overshadowed any unease with entanglement in in developing paper a civil war rooted in persuasive essay on steroid sports competing notions of national liberation and steps a research, identity. 9 In the end, senior U.S. policymakers had asked too much of essay those crafting military strategy to deliver on overly ambitious political objectives. Devising Strategy for a New Kind of War. By June 1965, General William C. Westmoreland had been serving in the Republic of Vietnam for eighteen months.

As the newly appointed commander of the U.S. Steps A Research. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), the former West Point superintendent was heir to a legacy of varied strategic initiatives aimed at sustaining an independent, noncommunist foothold in Southeast Asia. Use In Sports. Since the steps in developing a research paper division of persuasive Vietnam along the seventeenth parallel in 1954, an test, American military assistance and advisory group (MAAG) had been training local forces for a threat both externally military and internally political. 10 The image of North Korean forces streaming across an international boundary in essay on steroid sports 1950 surely weighed heavily on U.S. officers. Yet these same men understood the importance of a steady economy and secure social structure in combating the growing insurgent threat inside South Vietnam. Consequently, the U.S. advisory group focused on more than just advising the Army of the Republic of nus law essay test South Vietnam (ARVN) for conventional operations against the North Vietnam Army (NVA). 11. As advisers, however, the Americans could not dictate strategy to their Vietnamese allies. President Ngo Dinh Diem, struggling to gain popular support for his own social revolution, equally sought ways to secure the population—through programs like agrovilles and strategic hamlets—from a rising communist insurgency. Yet achieving consensus with (and between) Americans proved difficult. Staff officers debated how best to balance economic and persuasive on steroid, political development with population security and the training of South Vietnamese forces.

12 Was the threat more military or political, more external or internal? Were local paramilitary forces or the conventional army better suited to dealing with these threats? All the while, a shadow government competed for influence within the countryside. When MACV was established in February 1962, its chief, Paul D. A Research. Harkins, received the mission to “assist and support the Government of South Vietnam in its efforts to on steroid use in sports, provide for its internal security, defeat Communist insurgency, and resist overt aggression.” 13 Here was a tall order. Moreover, as military operations required a solid political footing for ultimate success, an unstable Saigon government further complicated American strategic planning. Library Digitisation. Following Diem’s overthrow and death in use in sports November 1963, the foundations on which the U.S. presence in in developing South Vietnam rested appeared shaky at best. Hanoi’s own escalation in 1964 did little to assuage concern. 14. Though cognizant of the difficulties ahead, American leaders felt they had little choice but to essay on steroid sports, persevere in South Vietnam. By early 1965, with the english Gulf of Tonkin Resolution authorizing him to “take all necessary steps, including the use of essay on steroid use in armed force” to assist South Vietnam, President Johnson believed he had little alternative but to escalate. He was in a difficult position.

Hoping to preserve his domestic agenda but stand strong against nus law test, communist aggression, Johnson initially hesitated on committing ground troops. Instead, he turned to airpower. Operation Rolling Thunder, launched in persuasive essay sports early March 1965, aimed at eliminating Hanoi’s support of the southern insurgency. Concurrently, Johnson hoped, in Michael Hunt’s words, to “bring a better life to the people of british library digitisation Vietnam—on American terms.” 15 The president would be disappointed on both counts. The punitive bombing of North Vietnam did little to persuasive on steroid sports, interfere with Hanoi’s support of the insurgents and nothing to resolve the internal political problems of South Vietnam. Moreover, military leaders complained that the president’s gradual response, of limiting the tempo and ferocity of the air campaign, unduly limited American military might. (Few worried as restlessly as Johnson about full-blown Chinese or Soviet intervention.) By the spring, it became clear the president’s policies in South Vietnam were failing. In June, Westmoreland officially requested additional troops “as a stop-gap measure to save the ARVN from defeat.” 16.

The decision to escalate in Vietnam persists as one of the paper most controversial in twentieth-century American foreign policy. Competing interpretations revolve around the persuasive on steroid use in sports question of purpose. Was escalation chosen as a matter of policy, of containing communism abroad? Was it used as a way to test American capacity in nation-building, of nus law essay expanding democracy overseas? Or did escalation flow from concerns about prestige and credibility, both national and essay on steroid use in sports, political? Clearly Johnson considered all these matters in what statement the critical months of essay on steroid use in early 1965, and steps in developing a research paper, it is plausible to argue that the essay use in sports president believed he had few alternatives given reports of South Vietnam being on the verge of collapse. Yet ultimately intervention was a matter of nus law essay test choice. Essay Use In. 17 Johnson feared the political ramifications and personal consequences of “losing” Vietnam just as Truman had “lost” China. Thus, when Westmoreland sent a cable to test, the Pentagon in early June requesting 40,000 combat troops immediately and more than 50,000 later, hasty deliberations in the White House led to support for MACV’s appeal. As McNamara later recalled, “South Vietnam seemed to be crumbling, with the only apparent antidote a massive injection of US troops.” 18. Persuasive Essay Use In Sports. The task now fell to Westmoreland to devise an offensive strategy to use these troops.

Realizing Hanoi had committed regular army regiments and battalions to South Vietnam, the MACV commander believed he had no choice but to contest this conventional threat. But he also had to provide security “from the guerrilla, the assassin, the terrorist and the informer.” 19 MACV’s chief intelligence officer drew attention to these diverse undertakings. As Phillip B. British Digitisation. Davidson recalled, Westmoreland “had not one battle, but three to fight: first, to contain a growing enemy conventional threat; second, to develop the Republic of essay on steroid use in Vietnam’s Armed Forces (RVNAF); and third, to pacify and protect the peasants in the South Vietnamese countryside. Each was a monumental task.” 20 Far from being wedded to a battle-centric strategy aimed at racking up high body counts, Westmoreland developed a comprehensive campaign plan for employing his forces that factored in more than just killing the enemy. Stabilization and security of South Vietnam formed the bedrock of Westmoreland’s “three-phase sustained campaign.” Phase I visualized the library thesis commitment of U.S. and persuasive, allied forces “necessary to halt the essay test losing trend by 1965.” Tasks included securing allied military bases, defending major political and population centers, and strengthening the RVNAF. In Phase II, Westmoreland sought to resume the offensive to “destroy enemy forces” and on steroid use in, reinstitute “rural construction activities.” In this phase, aimed to begin in alexander pope an essay on man text 1966, American forces would “participate in clearing, securing, reserve reaction and offensive operations as required to persuasive use in, support and in nigeria, sustain the resumption of pacification.” Finally, in Phase III, MACV would oversee the “defeat and destruction of the remaining enemy forces and essay on steroid use in sports, base areas.” It is important to note that Westmoreland’s plan included the term “sustained campaign.” 21 The general was under no illusions that U.S. On Teaching As A. forces were engaged in a war of annihilation aimed at the rapid destruction of the enemy. Attrition suggested that a stable South Vietnam, capable of resisting the military and political pressures of both internal and external aggressors, would not arise in a matter of months or even a few years. Persuasive. Hanoi’s political and military leaders equally debated the strategic concerns of steps in developing time, resources, and persuasive essay sports, capabilities. Johnson’s decision to commit U.S. combat troops forced Politburo members to reconsider not only the political-military balance inside South Vietnam, but also Hanoi’s relationship with its more powerful allies.

To be sure, national communists like Vo Nguyen Giap had discussed the role of on privatization in nigeria a “long-term revolutionary war” strategy and the importance of political education in military training. 22 By 1965, however, the massive American buildup complicated strategic deliberations. In December, Hanoi’s leadership, increasingly under the sway of First Secretary Le Duan, promulgated Lao Dong Party Resolution 12, which outlined a basic strategy to sports, defeat the Americans “under any circumstances.” The resolution placed greater emphasis on the military struggle as domestic priorities in the North receded into the background. As a result, Le Duan battled with senior military officials like Giap over the pace of military operations and the building of forces for a general offensive against the southern “puppets.” Escalation proved challenging for both sides. 23.

The strategic decision making leading to American intervention in Vietnam illustrates the difficulties of alexander pope an essay text developing and persuasive on steroid sports, implementing strategy for a postcolonial conflict in the nuclear era. Pope Text. Even from Hanoi’s perspective, strategy was not a straightforward process. A sense of contingency, of choices, and persuasive essay on steroid use in, of action and reaction permeate the critical years leading to nus law test, 1965. Why Johnson chose war, and the restrictions he imposed on the conduct of that war, remain contentious questions. So too do inquiries into the nature of the threat that both Americans and essay use in sports, their South Vietnamese allies faced. Finally, the relationship between political objectives and the strategy devised to accomplish those objectives offers valuable instruction to those researching the faith in, and limitations of, American power abroad during the Cold War. 24. From Escalation to thesis on privatization, Stalemate. In March 1965, the first contingent of U.S. Essay. Marines landed at Da Nang in alexander on man text Quang Nam province. Their mission, to defend American airbases supporting the bombing campaign against North Vietnam, called for setting up three defensive “enclaves” at essay use in, Phu Bai, Da Nang, and Chu Lai.

As the test summer progressed and additional army units arrived in essay on steroid use in country, Westmoreland sought authorization to expand beyond his airfield security mission. If South Vietnam was to survive, the general needed to have “a substantial and hard-hitting offensive capability . . . with troops that could be maneuvered freely.” 25 With the growing recognition that Rolling Thunder was not achieving desired results, the Pentagon gave Westmoreland the green light. The MACV commander’s desires stemmed largely from his perception of the enemy. To the general, the greatest threat to South Vietnam came not from the pope text National Liberation Front (NLF) insurgency but rather from main force units, both NLF and on steroid sports, NVA. A Research Paper. Westmoreland appreciated the long-term threat insurgents posed to Saigon, but he worried that since the enemy had committed larger combat units to battle, he ignored them at his peril. 26. On Steroid Sports. The Americans thus undertook offensive operations to provide a shield for the population, one behind which ARVN could promote pacification in the countryside.

By early October, the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division had expanded its operations into the Central Highlands, hoping to defeat the enemy and reestablish governmental control in the NLF-dominated countryside. Hanoi, however, had continued its own buildup and three North Vietnam Army regiments had joined local forces in nus law test Pleiku province near the essay Cambodian border. In mid-November, the cavalry’s lead battalion, using new techniques of helicopter insertion onto the battlefield, collided with the nus law essay test NVA. For two days the battle raged. Essay On Steroid Use In. Only the employment of in nigeria B-52 strategic bombers, called in for close air support, staved off defeat.

The battle of Ia Drang clearly demonstrated the necessity of conventional operations—Westmoreland could not risk NVA regiments controlling the critical Highway 19 and thus cutting South Vietnam in two. Essay Use In. But the clash raised important questions as well. Was Ia Drang an American victory? Would such battles truly impact Hanoi’s will? And how could MACV help secure South Vietnam if its borders remained so porous? 27.

Despite the attention Ia Drang drew—Westmoreland publicly called it an “unprecedented victory”—revolutionary development and nonmilitary programs never strayed far from MACV’s sights. Westmoreland continued to stress psychological operations and civic action, even in the aftermath of Ia Drang. To Write Statement. In December, he wrote the 1st Infantry Division’s commander detailing how the buildup of persuasive essay on steroid sports forces should allow for an increased emphasis on on teaching as a foreign pacification: “I am inviting this matter to persuasive sports, your personal attention since I feel that an effective rural construction program is essential to the success of our mission.” 28 Unfortunately, these early pacification efforts seemed to be making little progress as Hanoi continued infiltrating troops into South Vietnam and desertions from the South Vietnamese armed forces rose sharply. 29 Accordingly, Westmoreland requested an text, additional 41,500 troops. Persuasive Essay On Steroid Use In Sports. Further deployments might be necessary.

The request staggered the secretary of defense, who now realized there would be no rapid conclusion to the war. “The U.S. presence rested on a bowl of jelly,” McNamara recalled. His doubts, however, were not forceful enough to derail the president’s commitment to a secure, stable, and noncommunist South Vietnam. 30. When American and South Vietnamese leaders met at Honolulu in early February 1966, Johnson publicly reaffirmed that commitment. While Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky and nus law, Chief of State Nguyen Van Thieu pledged a “social revolution” in Vietnam, Johnson urged an expansion of the “other war,” a term increasingly used to essay, describe allied pacification efforts. 31 Concurrently, McNamara and Secretary of paper State Dean Rusk defined Westmoreland’s goals for persuasive on steroid use in the coming year. Thesis Digitisation. MACV would increase the South Vietnamese population living in sports secure areas by 10 percent, multiply critical roads and what personal statement, railroads by 20 percent, and increase the destruction of NLF and NVA base areas by 30 percent. To make sure the president’s directives were not ignored, Westmoreland was to persuasive essay on steroid sports, augment the pacified population by 235,000 and ensure the defense of political and population centers under government control. The final goal directed MACV to “attrite, by year’s end, VC/PAVN forces at on privatization in nigeria, a rate as high as their capability to persuasive sports, put men in the field.” 32. The Honolulu conference is a critical episode for understanding American military strategy in Vietnam.

The comprehensive list of strategic objectives presented by Rusk and McNamara forced American commanders to consider the war as an effort in both construction and destruction. The conference also reinforced the necessity of thinking about strategy in broader terms than simply battle. Attrition of enemy forces was only part of a much larger whole. In one sense, pacification of the countryside was a process of trying to create political space so the government of South Vietnam (GVN) could stabilize. (The New York Times reported in April that a “crisis in Saigon” was snagging U.S. efforts.) Yet MACV’s own definition of pacification—“the military, political, economic, and social process of steps in developing paper establishing or re-establishing local government responsive to and involving the participation of the people”—seemed problematic. 33 Critics wondered how foreigners could build a local government responsive to persuasive use in, its people. Furthermore, the expansive nature of pacification meant U.S. Essay On Teaching English As A Foreign. troops would be asked to fight an elusive enemy while implementing a whole host of nonmilitary programs. Thus, while Westmoreland and senior commanders emphasized the importance of winning both control over and support of the Vietnamese people, American soldiers wrestled with building a political community in persuasive essay a land long ravaged by war.

That they themselves too often brought devastation to nus law, the countryside hardly furthered the goals of pacification. 34. In important ways, waging battle—a necessity given Le Duan’s commitment to essay on steroid use in sports, a general offensive in South Vietnam—undermined U.S. nation-building efforts in 1966 and underscored the difficulties of coordinating so many strategic actors. This management problem long had been a concern of counterinsurgency theorists. British adviser Sir Robert Thompson, a veteran of the Malayan campaign, articulated the need to pope an essay on man text, find a “proper balance between the persuasive essay sports military and the civil effort, with complete coordination in all fields. Library Thesis. Otherwise a situation will arise in which military operations produce no lasting results because they are unsupported by civil follow-up action.” 35 The reality of South Vietnam bore out Thompson’s claims. Worried about persuasive on steroid use in sports Saigon’s political collapse, American war managers too often focused on short-term, military results. The decentralized nature of strategic implementation equally made it difficult to weave provincial franchises into a larger national effort. 36. This lack of coordination led to pressures for a “single-manager” to coordinate the increasingly vast American enterprise in South Vietnam. On Privatization. (By the end of 1966, more than 385,000 U.S. military personnel alone were serving in country.) In May, Westmoreland incorporated a new directorate into his headquarters—Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support.

While ostensibly a South Vietnamese program, CORDS redefined the essay use in sports allied pacification mission. 37 The directorate’s head, Ambassador Robert W. Komer, threw himself into the management problem and assigned each senior U.S. Nus Law Test. military adviser a civilian deputy for revolutionary development. MACV now provided oversight for all of the allied pacification-related programs: “territorial security forces, the persuasive essay whole RD effort, care and resettlement of refugees, the Chieu Hoi (“Open Arms,” or amnesty) program to to write for a statement, bring VC [Vietcong] to the GVN side, the police program, the attempts to stimulate rural economic revival, hamlet schools, and essay sports, so on.” 38 In short, CORDS assumed full responsibility for pacification. If CORDS could be viewed as a microcosm of Westmoreland’s comprehensive strategy, it also underscored the difficulties of implementing so many programs at once. Physically controlling the population did not guarantee allied forces were making inroads against the insurgency’s political infrastructure.

Improved security conditions did not necessarily win civilian “hearts and minds.” Revolutionary development tasks competed with other urgent operational commitments, further straining American commanders and their staffs. More importantly, pacification required a deeper appreciation of Vietnamese culture than most Americans possessed. An Essay. 39 Senior officers labored to persuasive use in, balance the competing requirements of attacking enemy units and essay, performing civic action in essay use in the hamlets and villages. On the ground, many American soldiers made few distinctions between friend and foe when operating in the countryside. On Privatization In Nigeria. The army’s personnel rotation policy, under which individual soldiers served for twelve months before returning home, only exacerbated these problems. With some units experiencing a 90 percent personnel turnover within a three-month period, the pacification process was erratic at best. 40. Use In Sports. As 1967 wore on, American journalists increasingly used words like “stalemate” and “quagmire” to describe the war in Vietnam. Early-year operations like Cedar Falls and to write personal, Junction City, though inflicting heavy damage on use in the enemy, failed to essay on teaching english, break Hanoi’s will. At most, pacification was yielding modest results. Political instability in Saigon continued to worry U.S. embassy officials.

Both the persuasive essay on steroid use in White House and MACV thus found it ever more difficult to convince Americans at home that their sacrifices were generating results. 41 Even Westmoreland struggled to assess how well his war was advancing. Nus Law Essay. Body counts told only a fraction of the essay on steroid story. A lack of fighting in a certain district could either mean the area was pacified or the enemy was in such control that battle was unnecessary. Two years into the war, American soldiers remained unsure of their progress. (MACV and the CIA even debated the number of soldiers within the what for a personal statement enemy’s ranks.) President Johnson, however, watched the growing domestic dissent with concern and, given the war’s ambiguities, called Westmoreland and Ambassador Bunker home in support of a public relations campaign. In three appearances in 1967 MACV’s commander reported to national audiences his views on persuasive use in sports the ongoing war. What To Write For A. Though guarded in his commentary, Westmoreland’s tone nonetheless was optimistic given the president’s desires to on steroid use in sports, disprove claims of a stalemated war. 42. Hanoi’s political and military leaders similarly deliberated their own progress in 1967. Because of the American imperialists’ “aggressive nature,” the Politburo acknowledged the southern insurgency campaign had stalemated in the countryside.

Still, to Le Duan in nus law test particular, an opportunity existed. A strategic offensive might break the impasse by instigating a popular uprising in the South, thus weakening the South Vietnamese–American alliance and persuasive on steroid, forcing the enemy to the negotiating table. A southern uprising might well convince the test international community that the persuasive on steroid sports United States was unjustly fighting against an internally led popular revolution. More importantly, a military defeat of the Americans, real or perceived, might change the political context of the entire conflict. 43. During the plan’s first phase, to be executed in late 1967, NVA units would conduct conventional operations along South Vietnam’s borders to draw American forces away from a research paper, urban areas and to persuasive essay, facilitate NLF infiltration into the cities. Le Duan planned the essay on teaching foreign language second phase for early 1968, a coordinated offensive by persuasive on steroid, insurgent and regular forces to attack allied troops and support popular uprisings in the cities and surrounding areas.

Additional NVA units would reinforce the uprising in the plan’s final phase by assaulting American forces and wearing down U.S. military strength in South Vietnam. 44. Though Le Duan’s desired popular uprising failed to materialize, the in developing a research general offensive launched in sports late January 1968 shocked most Americans, especially those watching the war at home. Commencing during the nus law essay test Tet holiday, communist forces attacked more than 200 cities, towns, and villages across South Vietnam. Though not completely surprised, Westmoreland had not anticipated the persuasive use in ability of Hanoi to essay foreign, coordinate an offensive of such size and scope. Persuasive Sports. The allies, however, reacted quickly and the communists suffered mightily under the weight of American and South Vietnamese firepower. Yet the damage to pope an essay on man, the U.S. position in Vietnam, some argued irreparable, had been done.

Even in the offensive’s first hours, senior CIA analyst George Carver predicted that “the degree of success already achieved in Saigon and around the country will adversely affect the image of the GVN (and its powerful American allies as well) in the eyes of the essay on steroid sports people.” 45 Indeed, Tet had taken a heavy psychological toll on the population. British Library Thesis. After years of U.S. assistance, the Saigon government appeared incapable of securing the country against a large-scale enemy attack. Any claims of progress seemed artificial at best, intentionally deceitful at persuasive on steroid, worst. Steps In Developing. News reports about Westmoreland’s late-February request for on steroid use in sports an additional 206,000 men, followed soon after by the president’s decision not to run for reelection, only reinforced perceptions of thesis on privatization stalemate. Secretary of on steroid use in Defense Clark Clifford, who replaced McNamara in test early March, wondered aloud how MACV was winning the war yet needed more troops. Public opinion mirrored growing doubts within Johnson’s inner circle. A 10 March Gallup poll found only 33 percent of Americans believed the United States was making progress in the war. Persuasive Essay Use In Sports. Thus, Johnson approved only 10,500 additional troops for Westmoreland and in late March suspended all air attacks over North Vietnam in hopes of opening talks with Hanoi. If the 1968 Tet offensive was not an outright turning point of the war—many historians still consider it to be—Hanoi’s assault and Washington’s response brought about a shift in American policy and strategic goals. Westmoreland, hoping for a change in pope an essay strategy that would expand operations into on steroid the Cambodian and Laotian sanctuaries and thus shorten the war, instead received word in late spring that he would be leaving Vietnam to become the Chief of Staff of the Army.

The best the general had been able to achieve was a long and bloody stalemate. 46. Historians have seized upon the Tet offensive and mid-1968 impasse as proof of a misguided military strategy crafted by nus law, a narrow-minded general who cared only for piling up high body counts. Such arguments should be considered with care. Far from being focused only on military operations against enemy main force units, Westmoreland instead crafted a strategy that took into account the persuasive sports issues of pacification, civic action, land reform, and the training of South Vietnamese units.

If Tet illustrated anything, it was that battlefield successes—both military and pope an essay, nonmilitary—did not translate automatically into on steroid use in sports larger political outcomes. Despite the on teaching as a foreign language wealth of manpower and resources Americans brought to South Vietnam, they could not solve Saigon’s underlying political, economic, and social problems. Moreover, Westmoreland’s military strategy could not answer the basic questions over which the war was fought. In a contest over Vietnamese national identity in the postcolonial era, the essay use in U.S. mission in South Vietnam could only alexander pope an essay on man text, keep Saigon from falling to persuasive on steroid, the communists. It could not convince the people a better future lay with an ally, rather than an enemy, of the United States. From Stalemate to what personal, Withdrawal. In June 1968, Creighton W. Abrams, a West Point classmate of Westmoreland, assumed command of MACV. Only a month before, the on steroid use in enemy launched a series of new attacks in South Vietnam.

Dubbed “mini-Tet,” the offensive sputtered out quickly but produced 125,000 new refugees inside a society already heavily dislocated by essay on teaching foreign language, years of fighting. Reporters were quick to highlight the differences between the outgoing and incoming commanders. But Abrams, in Andrew Birtle’s words, differed from Westmoreland “more in on steroid use in sports emphasis than in substance.” Stressing a “one war” concept that viewed the enemy as a political-military whole, the new commander confronted familiar problems. As one officer recalled, “By the time Abrams arrived on the scene, there were few options left for changing the character of the in developing a research war.” 47 Certainly, Abrams concerned himself more with pacification and ARVN training. These programs rose in importance, though, not because of on steroid some new strategic concept, but rather because the steps in developing a research paper American phase of the war had largely run its course.

From this point forward, the war’s outcome would increasingly rest on use in sports the actions of the Vietnamese, both North and South. While U.S. English. officials remained committed to essay use in sports, an independent, noncommunist Vietnam, peace had replaced military victory as Americans’ principal national objective. 48. British Library Thesis Digitisation. The inauguration of Richard M. Nixon in January 1969 underscored the diminishing role of South Vietnam in American foreign policy. The new president hoped to concentrate on his larger aim of improving relations with China and the Soviet Union. Persuasive Essay On Steroid. Such foreign policy designs hinged on reversing the “Americanization” of the war in in nigeria Southeast Asia while fortifying South Vietnam to withstand future communist aggression. As Nixon’s national security advisor Henry Kissinger recalled, the challenge was to withdraw American forces “as an on steroid, expression of policy and not as a collapse.” 49 Of course, Nixon, still the Cold War warrior, remained committed to british library thesis, opposing the expansion of communism. Withdrawal from Vietnam thus required maintaining an use in, image of strength during peace negotiations if the United States was to retain credibility as a world power and on privatization in nigeria, a deterrent to communist expansion. Nixon’s goal of sports “peace with honor” thus would hold crucial implications for military strategists inside Vietnam.

50. In truth, Nixon’s larger policy goals complicated the essay english foreign language process of persuasive on steroid use in sports de-Americanizing the war, soon dubbed “Vietnamization” by Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird. In shifting more of the war’s burden to the South Vietnamese, the pope an essay on man president was quietly redefining success. Realizing, in use in sports Nixon’s words, that “total military victory was no longer possible,” the new administration sought a “fair negotiated settlement that would preserve the independence of South Vietnam.” 51 (Both Nixon and paper, Laird believed flagging domestic support was limiting their options, long a concern of on steroid use in sports senior policymakers.) Abrams would preside over an American war effort increasingly concerned with reducing casualties while arranging for U.S. troop withdrawals. Moreover, the impending American departure did little to settle unresolved questions over for a personal, the most pressing threat to South Vietnam. In preparing to persuasive essay on steroid use in, hand over the war, should Americans be training the ARVN to defeat conventional North Vietnamese forces or a battered yet resilient insurgency?

52. After a detailed examination of the war led by Kissinger, Nixon formulated a five-point strategy “to end the war and win the peace.” The new policy depended first on alexander pope an essay pacification, redefined as “meaningful continuing security for the Vietnamese people.” Nixon also sought diplomatic isolation of North Vietnam and placed increasing weight on persuasive essay on steroid negotiations in Paris. Gradual withdrawal of U.S. What For A Personal Statement. forces was the fourth aspect of Nixon’s strategy. As the president recalled, “Americans needed tangible evidence that we were winding down the war, and persuasive, the South Vietnamese needed to be given more responsibility for their defense.” (Some ARVN officers balked at the insinuation that they hadn’t been responsible for their nation’s security.) The final element, Vietnamization, aimed at training and equipping South Vietnam’s armed forces so they could defend the country on in nigeria their own. Of note, political reform in Saigon, largely a task for Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker, accompanied the military side of Vietnamization. “Our whole strategy,” Nixon declared, “depended on whether this program succeeded.” 53. Persuasive On Steroid Sports. For Abrams, the problem now became one of synchronizing all facets of his “one war” approach.

Back in August 1968, MACV had to british library digitisation, fend off another enemy offensive, the third of the essay on steroid year. Without retreating from the thesis in nigeria conventional threat, Abrams turned increasing attention to pacification. Under the influence of the use in sports new CORDS chief William Colby, the GVN initiated an Accelerated Pacification Campaign at year’s end. The campaign endeavored to upgrade 1,000 contested hamlets to relatively secure ratings by the end of January 1969. To provide political space for the Saigon government, U.S. military operations increased dramatically to steps paper, keep the persuasive essay enemy off balance, further depopulating the countryside and creating more refugees. 54 In truth, the war under Abrams was no less violent than under Westmoreland. Still, the new MACV chief hoped to on privatization in nigeria, cut into the NLF infrastructure by boosting the number of those who would rally to Saigon’s side under the Chieu Hoi amnesty program, reinvigorating local defense forces, and use in, neutralizing the insurgency’s political cadre. 55 This last goal fell largely to “Phoenix,” an in developing a research paper, intelligence coordination program that targeted the essay on steroid use in NLF political organization for destruction by thesis on privatization, police and local militia forces.

MACV believed the defeat of the enemy infrastructure “essential to preclude re-establishment of an operational or support base to persuasive, which the VC can return.” 56. While media attention often focused on battles like the costly engagement at “Hamburger Hill” in May 1969, conventional combat operations overshadowed MACV’s larger efforts to improve and modernize South Vietnam’s armed forces. An Essay On Man Text. For Abrams, any successful American withdrawal was predicated on improvements in this key area of Vietnamization. In the field, U.S. Persuasive Essay On Steroid. advisers trained their counterparts on small-unit patrolling and coordinating artillery support with infantry and armor operations. In garrison, the Americans concentrated on improving the ARVN promotion system and alexander an essay text, building an effective maintenance program. Moreover, ARVN leadership and morale needed attention to help reduce desertion rates.

So too did intelligence, logistic, and persuasive essay on steroid use in sports, operational planning programs. Abrams also had to propose an on privatization, optimal force structure and help develop an operational approach best suited to ARVN capabilities. 57. Fundamental problems, though, faced Abrams in building up South Vietnam’s military forces. After Nguyen Van Thieu, South Vietnam’s president since the September 1967 election, announced a national mobilization in mid-1968, the size of the regular army and popular and regional forces increased substantially.

In two years, the total armed forces grew by 40 percent. Persuasive Essay On Steroid Use In. Finding competent officers during this rapid expansion proved nearly impossible. Additionally, capable ARVN leaders, of on teaching which there were many, too often found themselves and persuasive on steroid, their units still relegated to secondary roles during allied maneuvers. 58 These officers consequently lacked experience in coordinating multifaceted operations required for effective counterinsurgency. Problems within the british library digitisation enlisted ranks rivaled those among ARVN’s leadership. Newsweek offered a harsh appraisal of the typical South Vietnamese trooper who was “often dragooned into an army where he is poorly trained, badly paid, insufficiently indoctrinated about why he is fighting—and, for the most part, led by incompetent officers.” 59 Simply increasing the number of persuasive on steroid use in soldiers and supplying them with better weapons would not achieve the larger goals of Vietnamization. Moreover, the ultimate success of Vietnamization depended on resolving perennial problems. Test. Hanoi continued to send men and material into South Vietnam via the essay use in sports Ho Chi Minh Trail. North Vietnamese units still found refuge in sanctuaries along the Cambodian and Laotian borders. Thus, expanding the war into to write for a personal Cambodia offered an opportunity to give the essay on steroid GVN the breathing space it needed. From his first day in office, Nixon sought to “quarantine” Cambodia. Alexander An Essay Text. (Hanoi had taken advantage of the nominally neutral country by essay use in, building base areas from which NVA units could infiltrate into South Vietnam.) To Nixon and Kissinger, improvements in essay on teaching english as a foreign ARVN readiness and pacification mattered only if South Vietnam’s borders were secure.

On April 30, 1970, the president announced that U.S. troops were fighting in Cambodia. Persuasive Essay Use In. By expanding the war, Nixon was hoping to shorten it. While officials in Saigon and Washington heralded the operation’s accomplishments—Nixon stated that the essay on teaching english as a foreign “performance of the ARVN had demonstrated that Vietnamization was working”—the incursion into Cambodia left a mixed record. NVA units, though beaten, returned to their original base camp areas when American troops departed. By early June, the allies had searched only persuasive on steroid sports, 5 percent of the 7,000 square miles of what statement borderland despite having aimed to disrupt the enemy’s logistical bases.

Additionally, the ARVN’s reliance on American firepower did not augur well for a future without U.S. air and artillery backing. Essay On Steroid Use In Sports. 60. Worse, the Cambodian incursion set off a firestorm of political protest at home. After Ohio National Guardsmen fired into a demonstration at Kent State University on May 4, leaving four students dead, a wave of thesis in nigeria antiwar rallies swept the nation, closing nearly 450 colleges and universities. Less than four months earlier, the New York Times reported on the My Lai massacre. In March 1968, with the on steroid sports Tet offensive still raging, American soldiers on a search and destroy mission had summarily executed more than 300 unarmed civilians. Claims of civilian casualties prompted an informal inquiry, but army investigators covered up the story for nearly eighteen months. 61 While most congressional leaders still supported Nixon, many began openly questioning the war’s conduct. In early November, Mike Mansfield (D-MT) publically called Vietnam a “cancer.” “It’s a tragedy,” argued the Montana senator. “It’s eating out the heart of steps a research America. It’s doing us no good.” Senator George McGovern (D-SD) joined the chorus of dissenters, imploring Nixon to “stop our participation in persuasive on steroid use in sports the horrible destruction of this tiny country and its people.” The loss of support incensed the president. Nixon insisted that the pace of Vietnamization, not the what personal level of dissent, determine U.S. Persuasive. troop withdrawals.

Still, domestic events clearly were circumscribing Nixon’s strategic options abroad. 62. The discord at home seemed matched by text, discontent within the essay use in ranks of U.S. What To Write. troops remaining in persuasive South Vietnam. Though contemporary views of on teaching foreign a disintegrating army now appear overblown, clearly the strategic withdrawal was taking its toll on American soldiers. Persuasive Essay On Steroid Use In. By early 1970, with the english foreign first units already departed Vietnam and more scheduled to leave, officers worried how the withdrawal was affecting their soldiers’ capacity to fight. One journalist recounted how “talk of fragging, of hard drugs, of racial conflict, seems bitter, desperate, often dangerous.” 63 A company commander operating along the Cambodian border with the on steroid use in sports 1st Cavalry Division found declining motivation among his troops disrupting unit effectiveness. Foreign. “The colonel wants to make contact with the enemy and so do I,” reported the young captain, “but the men flat don’t.” 64 Few draftees wanted to be fighting in Vietnam in the first place and even fewer wanted to risk being killed in a war clearly that was winding down. In addition, Abrams increasingly had to concern himself with racial polarization inside his army. Persuasive Essay Use In. Politically conscious African-American soldiers not only mistrusted their often discriminatory chains of command, but also questioned the war’s rationale. An Essay On Man. Many blacks denounced the ideal of bringing democracy to South Vietnam when they were denied many freedoms at home. In short, the U.S.

Army in Vietnam seemed to essay on steroid, be unraveling. 65. By the end of 1970, U.S. strength dropped to some 254,800 soldiers remaining in country. Kissinger warned that unilateral withdrawals were weakening the bargaining position of the pope an essay on man text United States in Paris, but Nixon continued with the redeployments to prove Vietnamization was on track. 66 With the new year, however, came the realization that NVA logistical bases remained intact. While the Cambodian operation had denied Hanoi the use of the Sihanoukville port, the Ho Chi Minh Trail continued to persuasive essay use in sports, serve as a major infiltration route into South Vietnam. “An invasion of the Laos Panhandle,” one ARVN officer recalled, thus “became an attractive idea.” Such an operation would “retain the for a personal statement initiative for use in the RVNAF, disrupt the flow of enemy personnel and supplies to South Vietnam, and greatly reduce the british thesis digitisation enemy’s capability to launch an offensive in 1971.” 67 The ARVN’s spotty performance in the ensuing operation, Lam Son 719, further fueled speculations that Vietnamization might not be working as reported. Though Nixon declared the essay use in campaign had “assured” the next round of U.S. Alexander Pope On Man Text. troop withdrawals, Kissinger worried that Lam Son had exposed “lingering deficiencies” that raised questions over South Vietnam’s ability to essay, bear the what for a statement full burden of the ongoing war. 68. If Kissinger agonized over the need to balance negotiations with troop withdrawals and offensive operations to keep the enemy off balance, he was not alone.

Inside Hanoi’s Politburo, Le Duan equally pondered strategic alternatives in the aftermath of on steroid use in sports Lam Son 719. Though only sixteen U.S. maneuver battalions remained in South Vietnam by early 1972, on all fronts the war appeared deadlocked. Le Duan hoped a new invasion would “defeat the essay test American ‘Vietnamization’ policy, gain a decisive victory in 1972, and force the persuasive essay use in sports U.S. Steps Paper. imperialists to negotiate an end to the war from a position of defeat.” 69 Abrams remained unclear regarding enemy intentions. Was a large-scale invasion an act of desperation, as Nixon believed, or a way to gain leverage in negotiations by controlling South Vietnamese territory? North Vietnamese strategists certainly were taking risks but not out of desperation.

The 1972 Nguyen-Hue campaign aimed for persuasive essay on steroid use in sports a collapse of South Vietnam’s armed forces, Thieu’s ouster, and paper, the formation of a coalition government. Failing these ambitious goals, Le Duan envisioned the struggle continuing against a weakened ARVN. In either case, the Politburo believed its “actions would totally change the character of the war in South Vietnam.” 70. Essay On Steroid Use In. The subsequent “Easter Offensive,” begun on March 30, 1972, unleashed three separate NVA thrusts into South Vietnam. In some areas, the ARVN fought bravely; in others, soldiers broke and ran.

Abrams responded by throwing B-52 bombers into the battle as Nixon ordered resumption of bombing in the North and thesis, the mining of essay on steroid use in Haiphong harbor. Gradually, yet perceptibly, the offensive’s momentum began to slow. Although North Vietnam’s spring offensive had ended with no dramatic battlefield victory, it had met its goal of changing the character of the war. 71 U.S. officials proclaimed Vietnamization a final success given that the essay test ARVN had successfully blunted the enemy’s assault. Overwhelming U.S. air support, however, quite literally saved many units from being overrun and, more intangibly, helped sustain morale during hard months of fighting. Persuasive Essay Use In. Equally important, North Vietnamese leaders made several errors during the british library thesis digitisation campaign. The separate offensives into South Vietnam dissipated combat strength while placing overwhelming strain on logistical support capabilities.

Moreover, tactical commanders lacked experience in employing tanks and squandered infantry units in suicidal assaults. 72. By the end of June, only 49,000 U.S. troops remained in persuasive essay on steroid use in South Vietnam. Like his predecessor, Abrams was pulled to become the army’s chief of staff before the guns had fallen silent. Throughout the summer and british library thesis digitisation, fall, stalemated discussions in Paris mirrored the use in military standoff inside South Vietnam. In October, Kissinger reported to Nixon a breakthrough with the North Vietnamese delegation and in developing paper, announced an impending cease-fire. President Thieu fumed that Kissinger had conceded too much, allowing NVA units to remain in South Vietnam and refused to sign any agreement. The resulting diplomatic impasse, fueled by Thieu’s defiance and Hanoi’s intransigence, infuriated Nixon. On Steroid Use In. By December, the president had reached his limits and ordered a massive air campaign against North Vietnam to break the deadlock.

Nixon intended the bombing assault, codenamed Linebacker II, to induce both Hanoi and Saigon to return to the negotiating table. On December 26, the thesis on privatization in nigeria Politburo agreed to resume talks while Nixon pressed Thieu to support the armistice. The final settlement changed little from the principles outlined in October. One month later, on January 27, 1973, the United States, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the Provisional Revolutionary Government signed the Paris Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in essay use in Vietnam. To Write For A Personal. 73. In large sense, Nixon’s use of B-52 bombers during Linebacker II illustrated the essay sports limits of for a personal American military power in Vietnam. On Steroid Use In. The press reacted strongly, referring to the bombing of urban targets in North Vietnam as “war by tantrum” and an act of alexander an essay on man “senseless terror.” 74 But by late 1972, B-52s were the persuasive on steroid only tools left in Nixon’s arsenal. Despite years of effort and sacrifice, the best the Americans could achieve was a stalemate only temporarily broken by strategic bombing. Many senior military officers, perhaps unsurprisingly, would point to Linebacker II as proof of a mismanaged war. They argued that if only civilian policymakers had been less restrictive in setting unnecessary boundaries, those in on teaching uniform could have won much earlier and at much less cost.

Such arguments, however, tended to persuasive on steroid use in, discount the larger political concerns of presidents and their advisers hoping to limit a war that had become the centerpiece of American foreign policy and one that had divided the nation. 75. Others advanced a different “if only” argument regarding U.S. military strategy for Vietnam. To Write Personal. They posited that upon taking command of MACV, Abrams, deviating almost immediately from Westmoreland’s conventional methods, had changed the American approach to, and thus nature of, the war. This “better war” thesis found acceptance among many officers in whom a conviction endured that a better application of strategy could have yielded better political results. Yet senior American commanders, even before Westmoreland’s tenure at use in sports, MACV, tended to see the war as a comprehensive whole and devised their strategy accordingly. Despite frequent heavy-handedness in what to write for a personal applying military power inside South Vietnam, almost all officers recognized that the war ultimately was a contest for political power. Comprehending the complexities of strategy and effectively implementing it, however, were not one and essay on steroid, the same. Officers serving in an essay on man text Vietnam quickly found that strategy included much more than simply drafting a plan of political-military action.

The complexity of the threat, both political and persuasive, military, confounded U.S. analysts and staff officers. Westmoreland understood the important role played by southern insurgent forces but argued he could not stamp out these irregular “termites” without substantially eliminating the pope on man text enemy’s main force units. Even ascertaining enemy motives proved difficult. Not long after Abrams took command, MACV still faced a “real problem, following the Tet offensive, trying to figure out” the enemy’s overall military strategy. 76. Perhaps most importantly, senior U.S. On Steroid Use In. policymakers were asking too much of what statement their military strategists. Persuasive Essay On Steroid. In the alexander on man text end, the war was a struggle between and among Vietnamese.

For the on steroid United States, the foundation on on privatization in nigeria which American forces waged a struggle—one that involved both construction of an essay on steroid sports, effective host government and destruction of a committed communist-nationalist enemy—proved too fragile. Officers like Westmoreland and Abrams found that nation-building in a time of war was one of the most difficult tasks to ask of a military force. Yet American faith in the power to reconstruct, if not create, a South Vietnamese political community led to policies that did not address a fundamental issue—the internal contest to alexander an essay on man, define and come to persuasive, a consensus on Vietnamese nationalism and identity in the modern age. More than any other conflict during the Cold War era, Vietnam exposed the limits of American military power overseas. It was a reality that many U.S. citizens found, and on teaching english as a language, continue to find, discomforting. Use In. Yet if a perspective is to be gained from the essay as a foreign long American experience in on steroid use in sports Southeast Asia, it lies here. For A Statement. Not all problems can be solved by military force, even when that force is combined with political, economic, and essay on steroid sports, social efforts. The capacity of to write personal statement Americans to reshape new political and social communities may not, in fact, be limitless. Writing of persuasive sports his own experiences in an essay on man text the Korean War, Matthew Ridgway offered an persuasive essay sports, important conclusion while the war in Vietnam was still raging.

In setting foreign policy objectives, the library digitisation general advised that policymakers look “to define them with care and to make sure they lie within the range of our vital national interests and that their accomplishment is within our capabilities.” 77 For those seeking to understand the disappointments of American military strategy during the essay sports Vietnam War, Ridgway’s counsel seems a useful starting point. Discussion of the Literature. The historiography on the American experience in Vietnam remains a contentious topic. For a starting point, the best surveys are , which is more a diplomatic and political history, and thesis in nigeria, , which places the war in an international perspective. Essay On Steroid Sports. A solid textbook is An excellent collection of essays can be found in both ) and. Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999 Lloyd C. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for thesis on privatization Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995) Larry Berman has two very good works on LBJ: Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the War in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Persuasive. Norton, 1982 Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War: The Road to Stalemate in Vietnam (New York: W. Steps Paper. W. Norton, 1989). Brian VanDeMark’s Into the Quagmire: Lyndon Johnson and the Escalation of the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991) Robert Dallek, Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and essay on steroid use in, His Times, 1961–1973 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) The escalation of the war under Johnson is well covered. Among the most important works are ), and . ), and is also useful. , provides a balanced overview of the president’s struggles with the british library thesis digitisation war.

Gregory A. Daddis, Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) Harry G. Summers Jr., On Strategy: A Critical Appraisal of the Vietnam War (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1982) Jeffrey Record, The Wrong War: Why We Lost in persuasive essay Vietnam (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1998). Andrew J. Birtle, U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942–1976 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006). Lewis Sorley, a staunch admirer of the general, provides insights in Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968–1972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004) Mark Clodfelter takes on the air war in The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of pope on man text North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989). Thomas L. Ahern Jr. looks at the CIA in Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and persuasive sports, Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010). Robert Buzzanco, Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in the Vietnam Era (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996). The topic of U.S. military strategy is hotly debated. , offers a reinterpretation of those works in suggesting Americans were blind to the realities of the war. Samples of these latter works include: ; ; and More persuasive is Though Abrams left behind no written work on the war, . Finally, an often overlooked yet important work on senior military leaders is. What To Write Personal. Jeffrey Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998) Ronald H. Spector, After Tet: The Bloodiest Year in Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1993) James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004) Lewis Sorley’s A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999) On the war’s final years, see ; ; and . Persuasive On Steroid Sports. takes an overly sympathetic view of the Abrams’s years. James McCargar, Lost Victory: A Firsthand Account of America’s Sixteen-Year Involvement in Vietnam (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1989) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971) Henry Kissinger, Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America’s Involvement in and Extrication from the Vietnam War (New York: Simon Schuster, 2003) Robert W Komer, Bureaucracy at thesis digitisation, War: U.S.

Performance in persuasive essay on steroid use in sports the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) Robert S. McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978) Bruce, Palmer Jr., The 25-Year War: America’s Military Role in Vietnam (New York: Simon Schuster, 1984) William C. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976). Philip Caputo, A Rumor of War (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1977) David Donovan, Once a Warrior King (New York: Ballantine, 1986) Stuart A. Pope On Man Text. Herrington, Stalking the Vietcong: Inside Operation Phoenix: A Personal Account (Navato, CA: Presidio, 2004) Harold G. Persuasive Sports. Moore and Joseph L. For A Personal Statement. Galloway. We Were Soldiers Once . . . and Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993). Christian G. Appy, Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993) For memoirs from persuasive, senior leaders, students should consult William Colby with ; ; ; ; ; ; ; and for a, Among the best memoirs from persuasive, junior officers and soldiers are: ; ; ; and Less a memoir than an excellent collective biography of the enlisted soldier serving in Vietnam is. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random House, 1969) David Halberstam, The Making of a Quagmire: America and in nigeria, Vietnam during the Kennedy Era (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1964, 1988) Michael Herr, Dispatches (New York: Alfred A. Sports. Knopf, 1968) Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (New York: Doubleday, 1971) Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988). Peter Braestrup, Big Story: How the text American Press and Television Reported and Interpreted the Crisis of on steroid sports Tet 1968 in Vietnam and Washington (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1977). Journalists’ accounts were important in covering the American experience and in setting a foundation for steps a research paper how the war has been outlined in popular memory. Among the most indispensable of this genre are ; ; ; ; and Also useful is. Mark P. Bradley’s Vietnam at War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009) Andrew Wiest, Vietnam’s Forgotten Army Vietnam’s Forgotten Army: Heroism and Betrayal in the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008 Robert K. On Steroid Sports. Brigham, ARVN: Life and Death in the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006) Eric M. Pope. Bergerud, The Dynamics of persuasive on steroid Defeat: The Vietnam War in Hau Nghia Province (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991) Jeffrey Race, War Comes to Long An: Revolutionary Conflict in a Vietnamese Province (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972) James Walker Trullinger Jr., Village at War: An Account of Revolution in Vietnam (New York: Longman, 1980).

Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in to write for a Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). The South Vietnamese perspective often gets lost in American-centric works on the war but should not be disregarded. is an essay on steroid use in, excellent one-volume history of the war written from the thesis Vietnamese viewpoint. Both ) and , make an important contribution for understanding the U.S. Army’s most important allies. Three provincial studies also delve into the war inside South Vietnam’s villages: ; ; and For an argument on the cultural divide between allies, see. Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s’ Road to persuasive on steroid use in sports, the Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013) Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012) Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002 Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People’s Army of thesis in nigeria Vietnam, 1954–1975 , translated by Merle L. Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002) William J. Duiker, The Communist Road to Power , 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1996) Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Fight Them: The Viet Cong’s Big Unit War against the U.S., 1965–1966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011).

If the South Vietnamese perspective often is overlooked, the North Vietnamese also tends to get short shrift in persuasive essay on steroid American works. What For A Personal Statement. Relying on new research, the best among this group are ; ; ) and Ending the Vietnam War: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004); ; ; and. Bao Ninh, The Sorrow of War: A Novel of North Vietnam (New York: Riverhead, 1996) Josiah Bunting, The Lionheads (New York: George Braziller, 1972) Karl Marlantes, Matterhorn: A Novel of the Vietnam War (New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2010) Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990) Robert Roth, Sand in persuasive on steroid use in sports the Wind (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973). What To Write Personal Statement. Finally, students should not overlook the value of novels in understanding the essay on steroid war from the soldiers’ viewpoint. Among the best are ; ; ; ; and. Among the alexander an essay text best documentary collections are ), and essay use in sports, Also useful is For encyclopedias on the war, see ), and.

Researchers should also consult two still useful collections of documents: The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decision making on Vietnam, ed. Mike Gravel , 5 vols. (Boston: Beacon, 1971–1972), and William Conrad Gibbons, The U.S. Government and british thesis, the Vietnam War: Executive and persuasive essay, Legislative Roles and thesis, Relationships , 4 vols. (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986–1995). On Steroid Use In Sports. The U.S. Department of State has collected a wonderful array of documents in steps a research the Foreign Relations of the use in sports United States ( FRUS ) series. These resources can be found online at essay english foreign language, http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments. For researchers delving into primary sources, the persuasive essay sports best place to begin is the Virtual Vietnam Archive run by Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas.

This online archive houses more than four million pages of materials and is located at essay on teaching as a, http://www.vietnam.ttu.edu/virtualarchive/. On Steroid Use In Sports. The physical archive has much more additional material for researchers. For higher level strategic insights, the presidential libraries in Boston, Massachusetts (Kennedy), Austin, Texas (Johnson), and Yorba Linda, California (Nixon) have important archival holdings. Those seeking insights into the U.S. Army will find excellent resources at the U.S. Army Military History Institute in text Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, and the U.S.

Army Center of persuasive use in sports Military History at thesis on privatization in nigeria, Fort McNair, Washington, DC. The National Archives in College Park, Maryland, offers a vast amount of resources as well. Finally, for those wishing to focus on persuasive essay use in sports cultural issues within the region, researchers may wish to consult the John M. Echols Collection on Southeast Asia at Cornell University in steps Ithaca, New York. Researcher information can be found at http://asia.library.cornell.edu/ac/Echols/index. Anderson, David L., ed. The Columbia History of the Vietnam War . New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. Find this resource: Cosmas, Graham A. MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Escalation, 1962–1967. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006. Find this resource:

Cosmas, Graham A. MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Withdrawal, 1968–1973 . Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2007. Sports. Find this resource: Daddis, Gregory A. Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in the Vietnam War . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Find this resource: Elliott, David W. Pope An Essay On Man. P. On Steroid Use In Sports. The Vietnamese War: Revolution and essay on teaching english as a foreign language, Social Change in the Mekong Delta, 1930–1975. Armonk, NY: M. On Steroid Use In Sports. E. Sharpe, 2002. Find this resource: Herring, George C. America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950–1975 . 4th ed.

New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Find this resource: Hess, Gary R. Vietnam: Explaining America’s Lost War . Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. Find this resource: Hunt, Richard A. Thesis In Nigeria. Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds . On Steroid. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995. Find this resource: Kimball, Jeffrey. Nixon’s Vietnam War . Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998. Find this resource: Lawrence, Mark Atwood. The Vietnam War: A Concise International History . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Find this resource: Nguyen, Lien-Hang T. Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam . On Teaching English As A Foreign Language. Durham: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.

Find this resource: (1.) JCS quoted in Max Hastings, The Korean War (New York: Simon Schuster, 1987), 229. Hastings argued that the “Korean War occupies a unique place in history, as the first superpower essay of the nuclear age in the employment of limited force to achieve limited objectives,” p. 338. On the relationship of persuasive essay on steroid use in Korea to Europe, see Stanley Sandler, The Korean War: No Victors, No Vanquished (Lexington: University Press of alexander pope on man text Kentucky, 1999), 144. (2.) Matthew B. Ridgway, The Korean War (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967 ; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1986), 145, 232. (3.) Bernard Brodie, Strategy in the Missile Age (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959), 311 . For a broader context of this period, see Jonathan M. House, A Military History of the Cold War, 1944–1962 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012) . (4.) Robert E. Osgood, Limited War: The Challenge to American Security (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957), 5, 7 . (5.) Andrew J. Birtle, U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942–1976 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006), 278. See also Douglas Porch, Counterinsurgency: Exposing the Myths of the New Way of War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2103), 217 . For a counterargument on persuasive on steroid use in sports how U.S. Army officers shunned learning and thus lost the war in Vietnam, see John Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002). (6.) Henry A. Kissinger, Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy (New York: Harper Brothers, 1957), 139 . David Fitzgerald argues that senior MACV leaders “made a strong effort to understand the type of war [they] confronted.” Learning to Forget: US Army Counterinsurgency Doctrine and Practice from Vietnam to essay, Iraq (Stanford, CA: Stanford Security Studies, 2013), 38 . On multiple dimensions of persuasive on steroid sports strategy, see Colin S. Gray, “Why strategy is difficult,” in Strategic Studies: A Reader , 2d ed., ed. Thomas G. Mahnken and Joseph A. Maiolo (New York: Routledge, 2014), 43. (7.) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971), 241 . Alexander An Essay On Man Text. On larger Cold War issues, see John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of persuasive on steroid Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 240 . (8.) McNamara quoted in Gerard J. DeGroot, A Noble Cause? America and the Vietnam War (Harlow, UK: Longman, 2000), 135 . On enemy escalation and its impact, see David Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins of the Vietnam War (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000), 346 . B. H. Liddell Hart, Strategy , 2d rev. Pope On Man Text. ed. (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1954), 335–336. (9.) Neil L. Jamieson argues that “Vietnamese clung to and fought over their own competing and incompatible visions of what Vietnam was and what it might and should become.” In Neil L. Jamieson, Understanding Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), x . (10.) Ronald H. Spector, Advice and Support: The Early Years, 1941–1960 (Washington, DC: Center of on steroid Military History, 1983), 336 . In Developing. While early MAAG commanders realized the importance of persuasive essay sports economic development as part of an overall approach to essay, strategy, Lieutenant General Lionel McGarr, who took over on steroid use in, MAAG in August 1960, elevated the for a statement importance of counterinsurgency training within the ARVN ranks. Spector, Advice and Support , 365. See also Alexander S. Persuasive Essay Use In Sports. Cochran Jr., “American Planning for Ground Combat in Vietnam: 1952–1965,” Parameters 14.2 (Summer 1984): 65 . Steps In Developing Paper. (11.) Robert Buzzanco, Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in persuasive essay on steroid sports the Vietnam Era (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 65, 72–73 . In Nigeria. While sympathetic to Ngo Dinh Diem, Mark Moyar covers the American participation during the advisory years in Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006) . (12.) Agrovilles were supposedly secure communities to which rural civilians were relocated in hopes of separating them from NLF insurgents.

On Diem, development, and engineering a social revolution, see Edward Miller, Misalliance: Ngo Dinh Diem, the United States, and use in sports, the Fate of South Vietnam (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013) . For a competing interpretation, see James M. Carter, Inventing Vietnam: The United States and State Building, 1954–1968 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008). Steps In Developing A Research. On training of South Vietnam forces, James Lawton Collins Jr., The Development and Training of the South Vietnamese Army, 1950–1972 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975) . On Steroid. (13.) Graham A. Cosmas, MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Escalation, 1962–1967 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006), 35 . (14.) For the what for a statement North Vietnamese perspective, especially in the years preceding full American intervention, see Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013) , and William J. Duiker, The Communist Road to Power , 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview , 1996) . For a perspective of Diem somewhat at odds with Miller, and persuasive essay on steroid sports, especially Moyar, see Seth Jacobs, Cold War Mandarin: Ngo Dinh Diem and the Origins of America’s War in Vietnam, 1950–1963 (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2006) . (15.) Michael H. What For A Personal Statement. Hunt, Lyndon Johnson’s War: America’s Cold War Crusade in Vietnam, 1945–1968 (New York: Hill Wang, 1996), 94 . Essay On Steroid Use In Sports. On the air campaign, see Mark Clodfelter, The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989) , and Lloyd C. Gardner, “Lyndon Johnson and the Bombing of Vietnam: Politics and Military Choices,” in The Columbia History of the Vietnam War , ed. What To Write For A Personal. David L. Essay Use In. Anderson (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011). (16.) Westmoreland quoted in Larry Berman, Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the War in english language Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1982), 71 . For an example of senior officers blaming civilians for on steroid sports limiting military means to achieve political ends, see U.S. Grant Sharp, Strategy for Defeat: Vietnam in Retrospect (San Rafael, CA: Presidio, 1978) . Steps In Developing Paper. (17.) On the contentious topic of escalation, see Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of persuasive on steroid use in War in alexander an essay on man text Vietnam (Berkeley: University of on steroid use in California Press, 1999) , and foreign language, Lloyd C. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Persuasive Sports. Dee, 1995). David L. Di Leo offers a treatment of a key dissenter inside the Johnson White House in George Ball, Vietnam, and the Rethinking of Containment (Chapel Hill: University of british North Carolina Press, 1991). (18.) Robert S. McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995), 188. Essay On Steroid. (19.) Westmoreland’s assessment in The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decisionmaking in Vietnam, vol.

4, ed. Mike Gravel. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971–1972), 606. See also chapter 7, “Evolution of Strategy,” in William C. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976) . (20.) Phillip B. Davidson, Vietnam at War: The History: 1946–1975 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988), 354 . Nus Law. On MACV guidance in implementing this broad strategy, see John M. Carland, “Winning the Vietnam War: Westmoreland’s Approach in Two Documents,” Journal of Military History 68.2 (April 2004): 553–574 . (21.) U. On Steroid Use In. S. Grant Sharp and William C. Westmoreland, Report on the War in Vietnam (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969), 100 . The Pentagon Papers , Vol. 4, 296. (22.) Vo Nguyen Giap, People’s War, People’s Army: The Viet Cong Insurrection Manual for Underdeveloped Countries (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962), 46, 61 . On the evolution of alexander pope an essay Hanoi’s strategic thinking, see David W. P. Persuasive Essay On Steroid Sports. Elliott, “Hanoi’s Strategy in essay on teaching as a foreign the Second Indochina War,” in The Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American Perspectives , ed. Jayne S. Werner and Luu Doan Huynh (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1993) . Essay Use In Sports. (23.) The strategic debate is best outlined in Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012), 71 . See also Nguyen Vu Tung, “Coping with the United States: Hanoi’s Search for an Effective Strategy,” in The Vietnam War , ed. Peter Lowe (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), 46–48 ; and Hanoi Assessment of Guerrilla War in South, November 1966, Folder 17, Box 06, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 01-Assessment and Strategy, The Vietnam Archive, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas (hereafter cited as TTUVA). Resolution 12 in Communist Strategy as Reflected in Lao Dong Party and COSVN Resolutions, Folder 26, Box 07, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 06-Democratic Republic of Vietnam, TTUVA, p. 3. (24.) For a useful historiographical sketch on essay english foreign the debates over intervention and persuasive essay on steroid sports, American strategy, see Gary R. Hess, Vietnam: Explaining America’s Lost War (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2009) , chapters 3 and 4. (25.) Westmoreland quoted in Davidson, Vietnam at War , 313.

On early U.S. Army actions in Vietnam, see John M. Carland, Stemming the Tide: May 1965 to October 1966 (Washington, DC: Center of pope an essay Military History, 2000) , and Shelby L. Stanton, The Rise and Fall of an American Army: U.S. Ground Forces in Vietnam, 1965–1973 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1985) . (26.) Westmoreland explained his rationale for focusing on main force units in A Soldier Reports , 180. For a counterargument against this approach, see Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) . Essay On Steroid. (27.) The best monograph on the Ia Drang battles remains Harold G. Essay On Teaching English Language. Moore and Joseph L. Galloway, We Were Soldiers Once . . . and Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993) . Persuasive Sports. For a perspective from the enemy side, see Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Fight Them: The Viet Cong’s Big Unit War against the U.S., 1965–1966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011) , especially chapter 6. (28.) COMUSMACV memorandum, “Increased Emphasis on Rural Construction,” 8 December 1965, Correspondence, 1965–1966, Box 35, Jonathan O. Seaman Papers, U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania (hereafter cited as MHI). (29.) Westmoreland highlighted Hanoi’s continuing infiltration of forces into South Vietnam at on privatization, the end of 1965.

An evaluation of U.S. operations in early December underscored his concerns that “our attrition of their forces in South Vietnam is insufficient to offset this buildup.” In Carland, “Winning the persuasive essay on steroid Vietnam War,” 570. On the steps in developing media’s take on these early battles, see “G.I.’s Found Rising to persuasive use in, Vietnam Test,” New York Times , December 26, 1965. (30.) Memorandum to President Lyndon B. Johnson from for a personal statement, Robert S. Persuasive Essay Use In Sports. McNamara: Events between November 3–29, 1965, November 30, 1964, Folder 9, Box 3, Larry Berman Collection, TTUVA. On McNamara being “shaken” by the meeting, see Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988), 579–580 . Thesis In Nigeria. McNamara, In Retrospect , 221–222. (31.) “Presidential Decisions: The Honolulu Conference, February 6–8, 1966,” Folder 2, Box 4, Larry Berman Collection (Presidential Archives Research), TTUVA. Persuasive Essay On Steroid Sports. John T. Wheeler, “Only a Fourth of South Viet Nam Is Under Control of Saigon Regime,” Washington Star , January 25, 1966. (32.) “1966 Program to Increase the test Effectiveness of persuasive essay use in sports Military Operations and Anticipated Results Thereof,” February 8, 1966, in in developing a research paper The War in Vietnam: The Papers of William C. Westmoreland , ed. Robert E. Lester (Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1993) , Incl. 6, Folder 4, Reel 6. See also U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States , vol. 5, Vietnam, 1967 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002), 216–219 (hereafter cited as FRUS ). Persuasive. Westmoreland took to heart the importance of digitisation rural construction. See MACV Commander’s Conference, February 20, 1966, Counter VCI Folder, Historian’s Files, U.S.

Army Center of Military History, Fort McNair, Washington, DC (hereafter cited as CMH). (33.) Pacification defined in “Handbook for Military Support of Pacification,” February 1968, Folder 14, Box 5, United States Armed Forces Manual Collection, TTUVA. Seymour Topping, “Crisis in Saigon Snags U.S. Effort,” New York Times , April 5, 1966 . Essay On Steroid Use In Sports. Martin G. Clemis, “Competing and nus law essay test, Incompatible Visions: Revolution, Pacification, and the Political Organization of Space during the Second Indochina War,” paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Society for Military History, April 2014, Kansas City, MO. (34.) On Westmoreland’s approach to pacification, see Gregory A. Daddis, Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in persuasive essay sports Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) , chapter 5. For a counterargument that dismisses allied pacification efforts, see Nick Turse, Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2013). (35.) Sir Robert Thompson, Defeating Communist Insurgency: The Lessons of alexander pope on man Malaya and persuasive, Vietnam (New York: Frederick A. Nus Law Test. Praeger, 1966), 55 . For a contemporary argument of persuasive on steroid sports Malaya not being relevant to Vietnam, see Bernard B. Thesis. Fall, Viet-Nam Witness: 1953–66 (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), 272 . (36.) Thomas L. Ahern Jr., Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and persuasive essay use in sports, Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010), 171–175 . (37.) The best monograph on pacification remains Richard A. Hunt, Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995) . For a balanced treatment of Komer, see Frank L. Alexander On Man. Jones, Blowtorch: Robert Komer, Vietnam, and persuasive use in, American Cold War Strategy (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2013) . See also Robert W. Komer, Bureaucracy at War: U.S. Performance in the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) . On Privatization In Nigeria. A partial impetus for an increased emphasis on pacification stemmed from a March 1966 report known as PROVN, shorthand for “A Program for the Pacification and Long-Term Development of South Vietnam.” PROVN stressed nonmilitary means and argued that “victory” could be achieved only by “bringing the individual Vietnamese, typically a rural peasant, to support willingly the Government of South Vietnam (GVN).” Deputy Chief of sports Staff for Military Operations, “A Program for the Pacification and text, Long-Term Development of South Vietnam (Department of the Army, March 1966), 1, 3. The best review of this still hotly debated document is Andrew J. Birtle, “PROVN, Westmoreland, and the Historians: A Reappraisal,” Journal of Military History 72.4 (October 2008): 1213–1247 . (38.) Robert W. Komer, “Clear, Hold and persuasive essay on steroid sports, Rebuild,” Army 20.5 5 (May 1970): 19 . On CORDS establishment, see National Security Action Memorandum No. 362, FRUS , 1964–1968, vol. 5, 398–399. Though revolutionary development remained, at personal statement, least nominally, a South Vietnamese program, many observers believed the inability of the ARVN to take over persuasive on steroid use in sports, pacification in the countryside helped spur the establishment of CORDS.

Robert Shaplen, The Road from War: Vietnam, 1965–1970 (New York: Harper Row, 1970), 122 . As of March 31, 1967, 53 ARVN infantry battalions were performing missions in direct support of pacification. MACV Monthly Evaluation Report, March 1967, MHI, 13. (39.) For a contemporary discussion on the cultural divide between Americans and Vietnamese and how this impacted both military operations and the pacification program, see Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). Fitzgerald maintained that the “political and economic design of the Vietnamese revolution” remained “invisible” to almost all Americans, (p. Alexander An Essay On Man. 143). Persuasive Use In Sports. (40.) For competing tasks within CORDS, see Chester L. Cooper, et al., “The American Experience with Pacification in Vietnam, Volume III: History of Pacification,” March 1972, Folder 65, U.S. Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA, 271. In Nigeria. Journalist Ward Just reported that the real yardsticks of persuasive use in sports pacification’s progress were “the Vietnamese view of events, the Vietnamese mood, the Vietnamese will and the Vietnamese capability.” See “Another Measure of steps in developing a research Vietnam’s War,” Washington Post , October 15, 1967. On personnel turbulence, see Mark DePu, “Vietnam War: The Individual Rotation Policy,” http://www.historynet.com/vietnam-war-the-individual-rotation-policy.htm . (41.) As a sampling of contemporary journalist critiques of the war in 1967, see: Joseph Kraft, “The True Failure in Saigon—South Vietnam’s Fighting Force,” Los Angeles Times , May 3, 1967 ; Ward Just, “This War May Be Unwinnable,” Washington Post, June 4, 1967 ; and R. Persuasive On Steroid. W. Apple, “Vietnam: The Signs of Stalemate,” New York Times , August 7, 1967. On the war in 1967 being perceived as a stalemate, see Sir Robert Thompson, No Exit from essay on teaching foreign, Vietnam (New York: David McKay, 1969), 67 ; and Anthony James Joes, The War for South Viet Nam, 1954–1975, rev. ed. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001), 96 . On military operations early in 1967, see Bernard W. Rogers, Cedar Falls–Junction City: A Turning Point (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974, 2004) . (42.) On Johnson’s salesmanship campaign, see Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War: The Road to Stalemate in Vietnam (New York: W. On Steroid Use In Sports. W. Norton, 1989) , especially chapters 5–7. On the MACV-CIA debate, see James J. Wirtz, “Intelligence to Please? The Order of Battle Controversy during the Vietnam War,” Political Science Quarterly 106.2 (Summer 1991): 239–263 . An Essay. (43.) On Hanoi’s views and its policy for a decisive victory, see Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People’s Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975 , trans.

Merle L. Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002), 206–207 . On overriding political goals of Tet, see: Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002),116–126 ; James J. Wirtz, The Tet Offensive: Intelligence Failure in War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991), 10, 20–21 ; Ronnie E. Ford, Tet 1968: Understanding the essay use in Surprise (London: Frank Cass, 1995), 70–71 ; and Gabriel Kolko, Anatomy of british thesis a War: Vietnam, the United States, and the Modern Historical Experience (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 303 . (44.) If successful, Hanoi’s leaders also would be in a more advantageous position if forced into a “fighting while negotiating” phase of the war. Ford, Tet 1968 , 93. See also Merle L. Persuasive Sports. Pribbenow II, “General Vo Nguyen Giap and the Mysterious Evolution of the Plan for the 1968 T?t Offensive,” Journal of to write personal statement Vietnamese Studies 3 (Summer 2008): 1–33 . (45.) Carver quoted in Robert J. McMahon, “Turning Point: The Vietnam War’s Pivotal Year, November 1967–November 1968,” in persuasive on steroid sports Anderson, The Columbia History of the Vietnam War , 198. For a journalist’s account, see Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971) . Alexander Pope An Essay Text. For an accessible reference book, see William T. Allison, The Tet Offensive: A Brief History with Documents (New York: Routledge, 2008) . Persuasive On Steroid Use In Sports. (46.) Gallup poll results in the aftermath of Tet in Berman, Lyndon Johnson’s War , 185. Background on nus law essay test LBJ’s March 31 speech in Robert Mann, A Grand Delusion: America’s Descent into Vietnam (New York: Basic Books, 2001), 600–602 ; A. J. Langguth, Our Vietnam: The War, 1954–1975 (New York: Simon Schuster, 2000), 492–493 ; and Kolko, Anatomy of a War , 320–321. Decision on persuasive use in troop levels in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 576. (47.) Zeb B. Bradford, “With Creighton Abrams during Tet,” Vietnam (February 1998): 45 . Media reports in James Landers, The Weekly War: Newsmagazines and Vietnam (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2004), 145–146 . An Essay On Man. As examples arguing for essay sports a change in nus law strategy, see A. Sports. J. Langguth, “General Abrams Listens to a Different Drum,” New York Times , May 5, 1968 , and “A ‘Different’ War Now, With Abrams in Command,” U.S.

News World Report , August 26, 1968, 12. On Abrams’s “one-war” concept, see Lewis Sorley, A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and foreign, Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999), 18 . The Westmoreland-Abrams strategy debate remains contentious. In his admiration of Abrams, Lewis Sorley is most vocal in supporting a change in on steroid sports strategic concept. See as an example, Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968–1972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004), xix . Others are less certain. Phillip Davidson served under both commanders, as did Robert W. Komer—neither subscribed to thesis digitisation, a change in strategy under Abrams. Davidson, Vietnam at War , 512, and persuasive essay sports, Komer in The Lessons of Vietnam, ed. W. Scott Thompson and Donaldson D. Frizzell (New York: Crane, Russak, 1977), 79 . Andrew Birtle’s argument on the change being “more in emphasis than in substance” seems most compelling. “As MACV admitted in nus law test 1970, ‘the basic concept and objectives of pacification, to defeat the VC/NVA and to provide the on steroid use in people with economic and social benefits, have changed little since the first comprehensive GVN plan was published in nus law 1964.’” In U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine , 367. (48.) Andrew J. Goodpaster, Senior Officers Debriefing Program, May 1976, MHI, p. 40. On peace replacing military victory, see Daniel C. Hallin, The “Uncensored War”: The Media and Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 178 . Essay Use In Sports. (49.) On goals, see Richard Nixon, The Real War (New York: Warner Books 1980), 106 , and library digitisation, No More Vietnams (New York: Arbor House: 1985), 98.

Henry Kissinger, The White House Years (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979), 298 . See also Larry Berman, No Peace, No Honor: Nixon, Kissinger, and Betrayal in persuasive essay use in sports Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 2001), 50 . Steps A Research Paper. Jeffrey Kimball argues that de-Americanization “was a course made politically necessary by the American public’s desire to persuasive essay on steroid use in sports, wind down the steps a research paper war and doubts among key segments of the foreign-policy establishment about the persuasive essay use in possibility of winning the war.” The Vietnam War Files: Uncovering the Secret History of Nixon-Era Strategy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 12. (50.) On withdrawal not representing a defeat, see “Now: A Shift in nus law essay Goals, Methods,” U.S. News World Report , January 6, 1969, 16. Essay On Steroid. On global perspective, see Jeffrey Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998), 62 . Michael Lind argues that Nixon had to withdraw “in a manner that preserved domestic support for essay as a language the Cold War in other theaters.” Vietnam: The Necessary War (New York: Free Press, 1999), 106 . (51.) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978), 349 . On realizing limits to persuasive essay, U.S. power, see Lawrence W. Serewicz, America at the Brink of english language Empire: Rusk, Kissinger, and the Vietnam War (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007), 10 . On containing communism, see U.S. Embassy Statement, “Objectives and Courses of Action of the United States in South Viet-Nam,” FRUS , 1964–1968, vol. 7, 719 . See also Lloyd Gardner, “The Last Casualty? Richard Nixon and the End of the Vietnam War, 1969–75,” in A Companion to the Vietnam War , ed.

Marilyn B. Persuasive Essay On Steroid. Young and Robert Buzzanco (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002), 230 . (52.) On problems of different types of threats, see Viet-Nam Info Series 20: “The Armed Forces of the Republic of Viet Nam,” from Vietnam Bulletin, 1969, Folder 09, Box 13, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, ps. 8, 25. See also Richard Shultz Jr., “The Vietnamization-Pacification Strategy of 1969–1972: A Quantitative and Qualitative Reassessment,” in nus law essay test Lessons from an Unconventional War: Reassessing U.S. Strategies for Future Conflicts, ed. Persuasive Essay On Steroid Use In Sports. Richard A. Hunt and Richard H. Shultz Jr. (New York: Pergamon, 1982), 55–56 . Loren Baritz argues that the “Nixon administration abandoned counterinsurgency” since it realized the alexander pope on man text NLF no longer was a significant threat. Backfire: A History of How American Culture Led Us into on steroid Vietnam and Made Us Fight the Way We Did (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985), 279 . (53.) Nixon, No More Vietnams , 104–107. Definition of on privatization pacification on p. 132. On Steroid Sports. (54.) Pacification Priority Area Summary, September 3, 1968, prepared by CORDS, Folder 65, US Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA. Pope On Man. Countryside depopulation in Charles Mohr, “Saigon Tries to Recover from the Blows,” New York Times , May 10, 1968 ; and David W. P. Elliott, The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in on steroid sports the Mekong Delta, 1930–1975, concise ed. British Digitisation. (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2007), 331, 336 . On problems of measuring pacification security, see Gregory A. Daddis, No Sure Victory: Measuring U.S. Army Effectiveness and Progress in the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 118–122 . (55.) The Chieu Hoi (“Open Arms”) program, begun in 1963, aimed to “rally” Vietcong defectors to the GVN side as part of a larger national reconciliation effort. The plan sought to give former insurgents “opportunities for defection, an alternative to the hardships and deprivations of guerrilla life, political pardon, and in some measure, though vocational training, a means of earning a livelihood.” Jeanette A. Koch, The Chieu Hoi Program in South Vietnam, 1963–1971 (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1973), v . Persuasive Use In. (56.) Vietnam Lessons Learned No.

73, “Defeat of what VC Infrastructure,” November 20, 1968, MACV Lessons Learned, Box 1, RG 472, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland. See also Dale Andrade, Ashes to persuasive essay on steroid, Ashes: The Phoenix Program and the Vietnam War (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990) ; and Mark Moyar, Phoenix and the Birds of Prey: Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism in Vietnam (Lincoln: University of british thesis Nebraska Press, 1997, 2007) . (57.) For an example of the hard fighting still continuing during the Abrams years, see Samuel Zaffiri, Hamburger Hill: May 11–20, 1969 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988). On what U.S. advisers were doing as part of Vietnamization, see Jeffrey J. Clarke, Advice and Support: The Final Years, 1965–1973 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1988), 342–343 . (58.) On ARVN increases, see in Larry A. Niksch, “Vietnamization: The Program and Its Problems,” Congressional Record Service, January 5, 1972, Folder 01, Box 19, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, p. CRS-21. The best work on the South Vietnamese Army is Robert K. Brigham, ARVN: Life and Death in the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of sports Kansas, 2006) . In Developing A Research. (59.) “The Laird Plan,” Newsweek , June 2, 1969, 44. On ARVN lacking experience, see James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 51 ; and Samuel Zaffiri, Westmoreland: A Biography of General William C. Westmoreland (New York: William Morrow, 1994), 211 . (60.) Vietnamization working in Nixon, RN , 467. On enemy infiltration, see John Prados, The Blood Road: The Ho Chi Minh Trail and the Vietnam War (New York: John Wiley Sons, 1999) . On the on steroid incursion, see John M. Essay On Teaching English. Shaw, The Cambodian Campaign: The 1970 Offensive and America’s Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005) , and Keith William Nolan, Into Cambodia: Spring Campaign, Summer Offensive, 1970 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1990) . (61.) On My Lai, see Michael Bilton and persuasive essay use in, Kevin Sim, Four Hours in My Lai (New York: Viking, 1992) , and William Thomas Allison, My Lai: An American Atrocity in the Vietnam War (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012) . (62.) Mansfield and McGovern (both Democrats) quoted in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 645, 649. See also Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 76. For an introduction to the antiwar movement and its impact on on teaching as a foreign Nixon, see Melvin Small, Antiwarriors: The Vietnam War and the Battle for persuasive on steroid America’s Hearts and Minds (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002). (63.) Donald Kirk, “Who Wants to Be the Last American Killed in Vietnam?” New York Times , September 19, 1971 . See also “As Fighting Slows in english as a Vietnam: Breakdown in GI Discipline” U.S. News World Report , June 7, 1971, and George Lepre, Fragging: Why U.S. Soldiers Assaulted Their Officers in Vietnam (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2011) . “Fragging,” derived from fragmentation grenade, was the act of fratricide, usually against an officer in a soldier’s chain of command. Persuasive Essay On Steroid. For counterarguments to the claims of army dysfunctionality, see William J. Shkurti, Soldiering on in a Dying War: The True Story of the Firebase Pace Incidents and the Vietnam Drawdown (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011 ), and Jeremy Kuzmarov, The Myth of the Addicted Army: Vietnam and essay on teaching english foreign, the Modern War on Drugs (Amherst: University of persuasive on steroid use in sports Massachusetts Press, 2009) . (64.) Captain Brian Utermahlen, company commander, quoted in John Saar, “You Can’t Just Hand Out Orders,” Life , October 23, 1970, 32 . (65.) “The Troubled U.S.

Army in Vietnam,” Newsweek , January 11, 1971, 30, 34. On avoiding risks in a withdrawing army, see Saar, 31. Essay English Language. James E. Westheider, The African American Experience in Vietnam: Brothers in Arms (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2008) . (66.) Troop strengths in Shelby L. Stanton, Vietnam Order of essay on steroid Battle: A Complete Illustrated Reference to U.S. Army Combat and Support Forces in Vietnam, 1961–1973 (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 2003), 334 . Kissinger’s concerns in The White House Years , 971. (67.) Nguyen Duy Hinh, Lam Son 719 (Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1979), 8 . Alexander Pope Text. On Lam Son 719 being linked to continuing withdrawals, see Andrew Wiest, Vietnam’s Forgotten Army: Heroism and persuasive essay use in, Betrayal in the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008), 199 . Nus Law Test. (68.) Two new works cover the Lam Son 719 operation: James H. Essay. Willbanks, A Raid Too Far: Operation Lam Son 719 and Vietnamization in Laos (College Station: Texas AM University Press, 2014) , and steps in developing, Robert D. Sander, Invasion of Laos, 1971: Lam Son 719 (Norman: University of essay on steroid Oklahoma Press, 2014) . (69.) Politburo quoted in Victory in Vietnam , 283. On Hanoi’s strategic motives, see Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 324; Stephen P. Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons: Nixon, Kissinger, and the Easter Offensive (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), 28–29 ; and Ngo Quang Truong, The Easter Offensive of 1972 (Washington, DC: U.S.

Army Center of Military History, 1980), 157–158 . (70.) Politburo quoted in Victory in Vietnam , 283. On uncertainty over Hanoi’s intentions, see Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 124; Allan E. Goodman, The Lost Peace: America’s Search for a Negotiated Settlement of the Vietnam War (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1978), 117–118 ; and Anthony T. Bouscaren, ed., All Quiet on the Eastern Front: The Death of to write for a personal South Vietnam (Old Greenwich, CT: Devin-Adair, 1977), 44 . Sports. Nixon viewed the invasion “as a sign of desperation.” In RN , 587. (71.) The bombing campaign during mid-1972 was codenamed Operation Linebacker. On debates between the White House and MACV over the best use of what personal B-52s, see Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons , 119–120; Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 314–315; and H. R. Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House (New York: G. P. Putnam’s, 1994), 435 . Persuasive On Steroid Sports. On the campaign ending with “no culminating battles and to write personal statement, mass retreats, just the gradual erosion of NVA strength and the release of pressure against defending ARVN troops,” see Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons , 270. (72.) James H. Willbanks argues that “the fact U.S. tactical leadership and firepower were the key ingredients . . . was either lost in the mutual euphoria of victory or ignored by Nixon administration officials.” In The Battle of An Loc (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005), 166. (73.) Thieu’s defiance and Hanoi’s intransigence in Robert Dalleck, Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), 443 . Paris agreement in Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 366–368. See also Kimball, The Vietnam War Files , 276–277. (74.) Linebacker II goals in Kimball, Nixon’s Vietnam War , 364–365. Press quoted in ibid., 366 . (75.) Ronald B. Frankum Jr., “‘Swatting Flies with a Sledgehammer’: The Air War,” in Rolling Thunder in a Gentle Land: The Vietnam War Revisited , ed. Essay Sports. Andrew Wiest (New York: Osprey, 2006), 221–222. (76.) Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports , 180–181.

MACV staff in Sorley, Vietnam Chronicles , 9. (77.) Ridgway, The Korean War , 247. Department of History, United States Military Academy West Point.

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Ccot 1750 1914 Essays and essay on steroid use in Research Papers. Continuity Change Over Time ( CCOT ) Essay Europe 600- 1750 Taylor Question: analyze the social and economic continuities . and changes that occurred in Europe between 600 and 1750 . During the time period between 600 and 1750 , economic and english as a foreign language social continuities and sports changes impacted Western Europe immensely. One particular economic alteration was the steps in developing paper, decline of feudal manoralism, prevalent in use in sports, the early medieval era, as a result of the restoration of commerce following the Crusades. Another. Catholic Church , Europe , Middle Ages 1015 Words | 3 Pages. ? Basic Features at Beginning of Time Period Key Continuities Key Changes Basic Features at thesis on privatization end of Period Reasons for CCOT Global Trade Slave . Persuasive Essay Use In Sports. Trade(West Coast of Africa and Plantations in America Columbian Exchange Trade is important to dependent countries. Global Trade Exploded along with increasing globalization (age of exploration, colonies, etc Slave Trade and cotton, tobacco sugar European Exploration caused more trading of various crops Commercial Revolution (banking, loans, finance) Mercantilism. Africa , African slave trade , Arab slave trade 385 Words | 2 Pages.

sought economic gain and social mobility. Latin America became part of the paper, world economy as a dependent region. Thus, the use of persuasive essay sports, labor systems in Latin . America from the 1750 - 1914 was a process with tremendous impact on on privatization the people and on the world in general. Slavery was based on using the enforced labor of persuasive essay on steroid use in, other people . In the 1750 slavery was prevailing. On Privatization In Nigeria. The Atlantic slave trade predominated in economic affairs after the middle of the 17th century and promoted more slave movements. The forced removal. Africa , African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade 872 Words | 3 Pages.

Writing Prompts for a Ccot Essay in Ap World. CHANGE AND CONTINUITY OVER TIME ESSAY TOPICS AS GT EXERCISES Once students have completed studying at least two historical periods, they have the content . knowledge to accomplish the change and continuity over time ( CCOT ) essay. Nevertheless, the CCOT Essay is often more effectively taught in the second semester during the first six weeks and used as a review technique for the May AP Exam. Persuasive Essay Use In Sports. The topics below correspond to the themes in the AP World History Subject guide. 1. Trace the change and continuities. Asia , Eastern Europe , Europe 1096 Words | 4 Pages.

Sabrina Eierle CCOT Essay The Silk Roads were created when classical empires were established, and the scope of test, long distance trade . expanded, connecting much of sports, Eurasia. Throughout the Classical and post-Classical periods, the Silk Roads provided a way for not only goods to be introduced to new lands, but also ideas, religions and technology. The Silk Roads changed drastically due to expanding empires, new technology and diseases. Although the test, effects and empires with which the essay on steroid, Silk Road was. Black Death , Bubonic plague , China 1342 Words | 4 Pages. ?Benjamin Liang January 3, 2015 AP World History-P.2 CCOT During the pope an essay on man text, post-classical era the Silk Road was active and use in sports very important. In . Euriasia from 500-1500, the most dramatic changes due to expanding trade is the what statement, improvement of women status due to the spread of Islam and the further diffusion of essay on steroid use in sports, technologies and ideas from there nodal points. British Thesis. However, China has always been the main producer of silk in Eurasia from 500-1500. Essay Use In. Due to essay as a foreign, the spread of persuasive on steroid use in sports, Islam through expanding trade networks from steps in developing a research paper 500-1500. Central Asia , China , Civilization 856 Words | 2 Pages.

Europe 1750 -1900 Political * Change: systems of government o France shifts from a monarchy to a revolutionary republic to a authoritarian . Persuasive On Steroid Use In Sports. empire (which in turn only lasts until 1870) o During the british thesis, radical phase of the essay on steroid use in sports, French Revolution, Robespierre tried to centralize the on teaching as a foreign language, government o Socialism gains supporters in Germany by the 1880s * Reason: changes in on steroid use in sports, circumstances (such as economy and technology) * Change: shifts in power caused by rising movements of nationalism and liberalism o Around. Africa , Imperialism , Mahmud II 1091 Words | 4 Pages. should take a stance on level of change 3. Set up a three-column chart (or series of charts) with a beginning date, an on teaching english language, end date, and a reference point in . the middle. (If the persuasive essay use in, question spans multiple time periods, 1450- 1914 , for example, your time markers might be 1450, 1750 , 1914 ). There may be several reference 4. In this chart, list the on privatization in nigeria, status of the theme at the beginning of the time period given, at the middle marker, and at the end of the time period given. List at least two (preferably. Change , Continuity , Essay 789 Words | 5 Pages. Eugenia Bejar Period B April 5, 2011 Roles of Women in Latin America vs. Western Europe from 1750 - 1914 Women of . Latin America were far more influential than those of Western Europe before the on steroid, European period of conquest from the a research paper, 1500’s until 1750 . However, the time from 1750 to 1914 was a revolutionary period in Latin America, Western Europe, and throughout the rest of the world. Not only so, but it was during this time that the ideas of industrialism, imperialism, democracy, capitalism.

Europe , French people , French Revolution 674 Words | 2 Pages. ?Final Exam Essay Prep BELOW ARE THE POSSIBLE CC AND CCOT ESSAYS GOING BACK TO THE FIRST YEAR OF THE EXAM IN 2002. FOR EACH PART OF THE . FINAL EXAM, YOU WILL HAVE TWO CHOICES FROM AMONG THE FOLLOWING ESSAYS. Persuasive On Steroid Use In Sports. 2012 CCOT 2. Analyze continuities and changes in trade networks between Africa and Eurasia from circa 300 C.E. to 1450 C.E. CC 3. Compare demographic and steps environmental effects of the Columbian Exchange on the Americas with the Columbian Exchange’s demographic and environmental effects on. Asia , Central Asia , Indian Ocean 778 Words | 5 Pages. CCOT Chart 1450 to persuasive essay sports, 1750 CE 1. Interaction between humans and the environment a. Demography and Disease i. Smallpox completely . In Developing Paper. wipes out the Indian population in South America and Mexico ii. In Africa, men were being put into slavery more than women and children thus disrupting the persuasive, population iii. In Europe, population increases due to advanced medicine and technology iv.

Denser population centers meant exchange of disease was higher (example: South America) b. Migration i. Mfecane causes. Africa , Americas , Middle Passage 625 Words | 4 Pages. ? CCOT Cody Tavella P.3 When analyzing the commerce in the Indian Ocean Region from 650 CE to 1750 CE there were many . changes and continuities. A significant consistency was the use of the trade routes because the traders and economic groups in the region continued to use the area to complete their transactions of exports and imports. A large change that happened was the thesis in nigeria, increased involvement of the essay use in sports, Europeans.

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Africa , Asia , Europe 1550 Words | 9 Pages. Change in Women's Rights between 1750 CE and 1914 CE. The era spanning 1750 CE and 1914 CE was the era of use in sports, revolutions. What To Write Personal Statement. These revolutions were political, economic, and cultural, and . usually very drastic. Perhaps the most visible cultural change was that in working-class women's rights and conditions, which improved significantly during the era of revolutions. The most visible improvements in essay on steroid use in sports, women's rights were seen in Western Europe and China, where women gained many rights but remained under patriarchal authority and could not vote.

Western Europe. Equal Rights Amendment , Feminism , Human rights 524 Words | 2 Pages. From the essay on teaching language, 1800’s to present day, the Middle East has undergone many changes and persuasive essay on steroid continuities causing formation of their national identity, main factors that . contributed were social aspects on society, government structure, and the strong religious roots they possess. The majority of changes occurred through the society aspects with the treatment of pope an essay, women and the discovery of oil. In Middle Eastern history women have had limited rights and have always been unequal to men. Persuasive On Steroid Use In. Women have always remained. Arabic language , Asia , Christianity 823 Words | 3 Pages. European Hegemony during 1750-1914 CE.

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essay is shown below; following that, on the next two pages, are a sample continuity and change over time question, the directions that appear in the AP Exam . booklet, and a discussion of “What Good Responses Should Include.” Change-Over-Time ( CCOT ) Essay Generic Scoring Rubric |BASIC CORE (competence) |0-7 Points | |(Historical skills and knowledge required to show competence). Africa , Change , Continuity 1405 Words | 5 Pages. TRANSMITTER, INFRARED STROBE FIRE RESIST HOOD COLORED FLAG PATCH ACU BELT PRANK SODA CAN PT SHORTS PT SHIRTS PT PANTS 6. THIS CERTIFIES THAT THE ITEMS . Persuasive Use In. LISTED HERON ARE WITHIN THE SPECIFIED BOXES TYPED NAME AND TITLE SIGNATURE SPC GARCIA, VALERIE DD Form 1750 , Sep 70 MS Excel version provided by www.ArmyProperty.com PACKED BY 1. NO. BOXES 2a. REQUISITION NO.

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The Outbreak of on steroid, War in August 1914. ‘The outbreak of war in August 1914 was the logical conclusion of German military and expansionary plans confirmed by the September Program of . 1914 ’ How far do you agree with this judgement? Explain your answer using sources 1, 2 and essay on teaching english as a foreign 3 and your own knowledge of the issues related to persuasive essay on steroid, this controversy. (40 marks) According to the writer of on privatization in nigeria, Source 1, there is a fundamental flaw in Fischer’s assumption that Germany’s war aims already existed before the war and also caused it, he writes that if Fischer. Alfred von Schlieffen , German Army , German Empire 1172 Words | 3 Pages. Political Latin America 2-8-15 Many historical events were happening in the 16th century to middle 19th. For example, . Portugal began settling in Sao Tome, the Peasants’ War in Germany started, and Michelangelo started his one of his most well known sculptures, “David”. However, in an entirely different part of the persuasive essay use in sports, world, things were happening in equal importance to human history. Exploration of the “New World” was taking place, and many changes came from European explorers in thesis, the. Americas , Brazil , Colonialism 722 Words | 3 Pages. Prompt: CCOT Imperialism Evaluate the growth of Imperialism; its causes, expansion and effects on persuasive use in sports Europe, Asia, and Africa Essay: During . the 19th-20th centuries European powers extended their domains over Asia and Africa in a race for power.

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The invention of guns would forever change the persuasive, way wars were fought. Instead of swords, bows and nus law essay arrows, or lances, guns would emerge as the dominant global weapon. They were lighter than cannons and more efficient than bows and arrows. Cannon , Culture , Empire 939 Words | 3 Pages. Celine Khoo Tiner December 4, 2014 CCOT : The Silk Road The Silk Road was established during the 2nd century BCE, while not the first . network of persuasive essay on steroid use in sports, trade routes, it was one of the steps a research, most impactful, carrying goods, ideas, disease and conflict throughout Africa and persuasive essay use in sports Eurasia. The impact of the interactions impacted millions notably spreading both Buddhism and the Black Death.

The Silk Road was marked by a research the continued spread of essay on steroid use in, ideas and goods. Throughout the lifespan of the essay on teaching as a foreign, Silk Road, changes were seen. Byzantine Empire , Central Asia , Chang'an 800 Words | 3 Pages. ?Hannah Wang Mrs. Schmid WHAP 25 December 2014 Fall of Rome CCOT Rewrite A number of political transformations contributed to essay, continuities and . changes in the cultures of the Mediterranean region during the period circa 200 CE to essay on teaching english as a, 1000 CE. But perhaps the most significant political transformation was the fall of Rome in 476 CE. This political transformation lead to social continuities that dealt with social stratification and oppression of women, political changes like the development of feudalism. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Decline of the Roman Empire 932 Words | 3 Pages. Essay #1 ( CCOT ) The Atlantic world, including America, Europe and Africa went through some changes and some continuities when . they came in contact with among Europe from 1492- 1750 . Spanish and essay on steroid sports Portugal explorers brought new diseases the natives were not immune to when they arrived in thesis in nigeria, the Americas resulting in serious population loss. The use of slaves was also a change among the persuasive use in sports, natives and the Europeans.

The Europeans started to trade with the to write, Islam Empire, India, Africa, and on steroid sports now the. Africa , African slave trade , Arab slave trade 561 Words | 2 Pages. Comparing 600-1450 1450- 1750 Periods of time have always been changing and evolving. The 600 to 1450 era had some similarities to on man, the . following era, the 1450 to the 1750 ; though as said before, there were the on steroid sports, changes also. Many continuities and breaks occurred between both periods. Thesis On Privatization In Nigeria. There were the changes in their trading systems, the technology, their global interactions, urbanization, social systems, and their political government development. Persuasive. These events led to various inventions and some. Catholic Church , Counter-Reformation , Martin Luther 1009 Words | 3 Pages. Pre 1914 Prose Prose is the writing style of text such as a story and in this essay I will evaluate the use of the essay, writing style in pre . 1914 mystery prose and the way in which it is creates an effective atmosphere for the reader and how different to the modern, writing style of today. Persuasive Essay On Steroid Use In Sports. The four examples of pre 1914 prose which I will use to outline the use of mystery prose are The Red Room by H.G. Thesis. Wells, The Signalman by Charles Dickens, The Adventures of the Speckled Band by Sir Arthur.

Arthur Conan Doyle , Gerontology , Middle age 1222 Words | 4 Pages. British Imperialism in essay, India and essay as a foreign language Sub-Saharan Africa Between 1750 and 1914. benefits, such as industrialization and public education. Persuasive Essay On Steroid Use In. While imperialism proved beneficial, it also resulted in warfare, racism, economic discrimination, . and slavery. In Nigeria. Both India and sub-Saharan Africa were affected by European imperialism. On Steroid Use In. Between 1750 and 1914 , European imperialism in India and sub-Saharan Africa created a similar effect of poor treatment of natives, such as a decrease in jobs and thesis on privatization in nigeria economic instability. In contrast, India was influenced mainly by Britain, whereas multiple European countries.

Africa , British Empire , Colonialism 661 Words | 2 Pages. Europe Africa And The Americas In 1492 To 1750. ?Europe, Africa, and The Americas in 1492 to 1750 Throughout history, many changes have happened throughout the world. These changes shaped the . world to be what is it was and persuasive essay also lead to other changes. For example, advances in technology, such as the essay, creation of the magnetic compass, drastically changed exploration. Persuasive Sports. However, these changes these changes did not occur without continuities. Take the nus law essay test, bow for example, whether being used to hunt, wield in persuasive sports, battled, or just to showcase skill, man has been. Africa , Atlantic slave trade , Colonialism 1067 Words | 2 Pages. 1914 -World War 1 begins in Europe. (foreign) 1915-First long distance telephone service, between New York and steps in developing a research San Francisco, is demonstrated . (Jan. 25) (Domestic) 1917- Arthur Zimmermann sent a telegram to Mexico trying to persuade Mexico to persuasive essay sports, go against the United States (foreign) - A German secret telegram, that had a coded message from the German Foreign Secretary, Alfred Zimmermann, to the German minister in Mexico City. This pretty much told the minister to propose an alliance with Mexico.

1920s , Al Capone , National Football League 1247 Words | 4 Pages. How democratic was Britain by british thesis digitisation 1914? Britain by 1914 ? Britain was a democracy to a certain extent by 1914 . By a democracy we mean that there should be several . certain features present. These features consist of universal adult suffrage, equal constituencies, every adult being able to stand as a candidate, a secret ballot, regular elections, a choice of persuasive use in, political parties and alexander pope an essay text freedom of essay on steroid use in, speech/press. British Library Thesis Digitisation. There is a debate over when exactly Britain actually became a representative liberal democracy. Essay Use In. This essay will show that by essay as a foreign 1914 Britain. Conservative Party , Democracy , Elections 891 Words | 3 Pages. all the more curious.

To make sure Europe would not fight over the land they met in Berlin in 1884-1885. They decided that to divide up the land they would . Essay. claim it and show they had control over it. This is when everyone began grabbing the nus law essay test, land. By 1914 the only free countries were Liberia and Ethiopia. Soon after the colonization, Europe began building plantations that grew products anywhere from peanuts to rubber. They took tin and copper from the Congo, diamonds and persuasive sports gold from South Africa. In. 19th century , Africa , British Empire 1150 Words | 3 Pages.

Why War Broke Out in 1914 War broke out in language, 1914 for a multitude of on steroid sports, reasons. One reason was due to the Naval Race, this caused . a sense of competitiveness and ensured readiness. Personal Statement. Another cause of War was the Alliance System that broke out, this ensured that is persuasive on steroid sports, war arrived a large number of countries would get involved. A further reason was imperialism, countries were looking to expand their territories and thesis this caused a considerable amount of resentment. Persuasive Essay Sports. A growing sense of nationalism was another. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Austria–Hungary , Bosnia and Herzegovina 969 Words | 3 Pages. The colonies also developed a better sense of unity and identity because of many books, letter, and forms of writing and essay test art.

They were sort of used as . propaganda and a way to persuasive essay use in, convey the colonist to unite and create their own sense of identity. In 1750 when the on teaching as a, Boston massacre occurred where civilian casualties happened because of persuasive use in sports, miscommunication and taunting/ hostility from the crowd. This incident was depicted by a painting Paul Revere did showing British troops as hostile killers and the Bostonians. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , British Empire 1172 Words | 3 Pages. CHINA 1450- 1750 * China has outstanding naval capacity in the early 1400s (see the discussion of the steps in developing a research, Ming voyages in the unit Ming Voyages: . 1405-1433). * The Chinese political and social order is at its height in this late imperial period of the last two dynasties: the examination system has, from the Tang dynasty onward, created a strong centralized and fully functional civil service in place of an aristocratic elite with a territorial base of power. Scholar-gentry, residing at home as. China , Emperor of China , Han Dynasty 1320 Words | 4 Pages. Development of the American Identity Between 1750 and 1776. Keum Yong (Andrew) Lee DBQ – Score 8/9 (95) In what ways and to what extent did the “American identity” develop between 1750 and essay use in 1776? . Though the American colonists had not achieved a true, uniform sense of identity or unity by 1776, on the eve of Revolution, the a research, progress towards unity and the inchoate idea of an “American” between 1750 and persuasive use in sports 1776 is inevitable in both existence and significance. Previous to the French and Indian War, America as a whole had been, more or less, loyal mercantile-based. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , British Empire 932 Words | 3 Pages.

Progressive movement who wanted to in nigeria, eradicate drugs, he proposed a two measure system to prohibit the on steroid use in sports, introduction and nonmedical use of drugs as well as . regulate the production of drugs in the United States. This became known as the thesis, Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914 . The provisions of the Harrison Act imposed licensing requirements on essay sports those who manufactured, distributed, sold, imported, produced, compounded and dispensed narcotic drugs. These parties must register with the director of the Internal Revenue Service. Cocaine , Drug , Drug addiction 812 Words | 3 Pages. Health and Medicine Between 1750 and 1900. Target: try to focus a little more on paper social groups not affected to show diversity To What Extent Had Life Changed for People Between 1750 . and 1900 (Prevention of Diseases) The Industrial Revolution between 1750 and 1900 brought on major advances in medicine, especially in the fields of hygiene and essay vaccinations for previously deadly diseases.

Scientists started thinking more logically about preventing disease and infection and, during this time, managed to greatly influence the health practices. Disease , Emil Adolf von Behring , Epidemiology 882 Words | 3 Pages. AP World History, How to write CCOT Essay. ?AP WORLD HISTORY Continuity and Change Over Time Essays A CCOT question is similar to a comparative one, the key difference being . Essay. instead of comparing between two places during the same time, one is on steroid sports, comparing between two times, often in the same place. The structure for a CCOT thesis is simpler than for thesis, a comparative thesis, but shares the following elements: 1. Persuasive On Steroid Use In. It is clear – it clearly responds to the question and is on british thesis digitisation topic. Persuasive On Steroid Use In Sports. 2. It is comprehensive – it addresses the whole prompt. Buddhism , China , Confucianism 1033 Words | 5 Pages.

Ccot Impact of Industrialization on Russia. The Impact of Industrialization on Russia ( 1750 - 1914 ) In the steps a research, late 19th century, Russia began its process of industrialization . following its defeat at the hands of Western nations in the Crimean War. Russia's Industrial Revolution was further helped along by its growing population and an increasing labor force. Use In. As the industrial process continued, it sprang forth new jobs in mining, factory work, and railroad construction. This influx of library digitisation, jobs was taken by an influx of persuasive essay on steroid sports, people, come from the country. Crimean War , Factory , Industrial Revolution 573 Words | 2 Pages. discovery greatly altered the what statement, lives of Native Americans, forcing them to live with colonists and people they had never been in contact with. Persuasive Sports. Meanwhile, . Prince Henry’s expeditions opened up new opportunities for on teaching english as a foreign language, trade in Africa.

Through the period of 1492- 1750 , many things changed but parts of life stayed the same such as the European domination and the presence of essay, trade in Africa. On Privatization. New contacts among Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas, however, led to on steroid sports, interaction that has evolved greatly over steps in developing a research the span. Caribbean , Christopher Columbus , Europe 692 Words | 3 Pages. Eveline by James Joyce ( 1914 ) 1. Persuasive On Steroid Sports. How is steps in developing, Eveline presented in the story? Use quotation from the text to explain and justify your . response. This story is a portrait of an adolescent girl in Dublin and reflects how she thinks about persuasive essay use in her domestic life in in nigeria, the past, in the present and the possibility of a new married life abroad.

In the first paragraph, the author introduces us to the character of Eveline as “She sat at the window watching the evening invade the essay on steroid use in sports, avenue. Her head was leaned against. A Story , A Wonderful Life , Buenos Aires 2525 Words | 7 Pages. Break Out In 1914 ? There are several reasons why war broke out in 1914 . For A Personal Statement. Reasons such as revenge and jealousy influenced the . outbreak of war majorly and in the important events leading up to the war such as the Moroccan crises, the Bosnian crisis and the Balkan Wars, the persuasive on steroid, concepts Nationalism, Militarism, Imperialism and british library Alliances were seen. Use In. These events could either be categorised into short term or long term causes.

An example of alexander pope, a short term cause that led to the outbreak of war in 1914 is the Assassination. Balkan Wars , Bosnia and Herzegovina , First Balkan War 1287 Words | 4 Pages. Disillusion, Defiance, and Discontent (1914-1946) Unit 5: Disillusion, Defiance, and Discontent ( 1914 -1946) “We asked the cyclone to go around our barn but it didn’t hear us.” -Carl . Sandburg from The People, Yes Carl Sandburg was an American writer, best known for his poetry during modernism. The quote means people like to think they are in control and persuasive on steroid then something like this happens, and they realize that they're not.

The themes of the test, work is implied not stated Timeline The most significant ten year period is from essay use in sports 1920 to 1930 because. 1930s , Adolf Hitler , Ernest Hemingway 786 Words | 4 Pages. in a 2:1 ratio. In a CCOT essay, be mindful to set up the prior events so as to properly explain the changes and continuities that have . occurred. What is on privatization, most important is to make a link between your analysis, the historical evidence, and the answer to the prompt. I will also attach an AP rubric. It is to your benefit to on steroid, look it over to ensure that you include all components. What. As a result of new contacts among Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas from 1492 to use in, 1750 , social and essay economic transformations. Africa , Atlantic Ocean , Atlantic slave trade 1081 Words | 3 Pages.

“The survival of the tsar regime in Russia between 1906 and 1914 was due to the weaknesses of its opponents” How far would you agree this . verdict? I agree to a certain extent as I believe that there are many other factors which helped the use in sports, tsar survive 1906- 1914 . Russia in 1905 was a nightmare; it was a bubbling pot that the tsar was trying to control which just wasn’t working. Some historians feel that the tsar survived the 1905 revolution because he didn’t face united opposition so it wasn’t. Coup of June 1907 , Farmer , Nicholas II of Russia 874 Words | 3 Pages. Demographic Changes in alexander pope, America (1607-1914) Demographic Changes in America (1607- 1914 ) Historical records of American demography start with the settlement of Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. On Steroid Use In Sports. . Puritans landed in Plymouth and made a home for nus law essay, themselves with the essay use in sports, help of Native Americans. In Nigeria. These first immigrants in the colonies (British, Dutch, and German), moved to America between the early 17th and late 18th centuries in what was known as Old Immigration.

During the colonial period, the birth rate was high but the life expectancy was low. It was. American Civil War , Demography , Georgia 1173 Words | 5 Pages. ?CHANGE OVER TIME THEME COMPARISON BY REGION: GENDER STRUCTURES REGIONS Paleolithic and Neolithic Periods Foundations 4500 BCE To 600 CE Post-Classical . Essay Use In Sports. 600 – 1450 CE Early Modern 1450 – 1750 CE Modern 1750 – 1914 CE Contemporary 1914 - Present SOUTHWEST ASIA Paleolithic Societies: Generalized gender equality. Women gathered but they often did hunt. Women could be leaders and sat in council. Men/women both raised children and nus law provide for the social groups as life was subsistence. Neolithic.

Feminism , Gender , Gender role 1320 Words | 2 Pages. to 1750 CE due to migration primarily to North America, Latin America, and Europe as laborers. Persuasive Sports. This was a result of the slave trade, in which . Europeans forced many Africans into slavery and traded them as if they were valuable goods. Adult males were more likely to be chosen as slaves and sent away, creating an unbalanced population in most African societies. The mass movement of the African population easily spread diseases across trading routes. In regards to new technology in british library digitisation, the 1450- 1750 period.

Africa , African people , Atlantic slave trade 688 Words | 2 Pages.