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A Review of All Cell Organelles Through QAs. Cell theory states that the cell is the basic unit of living organisms. Before the discovery of the cell, people were unaware that living organisms were made of building blocks like cells. Cell theory is one of the basic theories of biology. 2. Are there living organisms without cells? Viruses are considered the only living organisms that do not have cells. Viruses are made up of buy quality genetic material (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein capsule. They do not have membranes, cell organelles, or own metabolism. 3. In 1665, Robert Hooke, an English scientist, published his book Micrographia, in which he described that pieces of cork viewed under a microscope presented small cavities, similar to pores and filled with air. Based on knowledge discovered later on,#xa0;what do you think those cavities were composed of? What is the historical importance of lacombe resume this observation?
The walls of the cavities observed by Hooke were the walls of the plant cells that form the tissue. This observation led to the discovery of cells, a fact only possible after the invention of the microscope. In that book, Hooke established the term “cell, which is now widely used in buy quality essays, biology, to designate those cavities seen under the microscope. 4. What are the two main groups into which cells are classified? Cells can be classified as eukaryotic or prokaryotic. Prokaryotic cells are those that do not have an enclosed nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are those with a nucleus enclosed by essays, a membrane. 5. Do the cells of bacteria have a nucleus? In bacteria, genetic material is contained in the cytosol and there is no internal membrane that encloses a nucleus.
6. Are any bacteria made of more than one cell? There are no pluricellular bacteria. All bacteria are unicellular and prokaryotic. Essays! Select any question to share it on FB or Twitter. Just select (or double-click) a question to essays on organic farming, share. Challenge your Facebook and Twitter friends. 7. Essays! What is the plasma membrane of the cell? What are its main functions? The plasma membrane is the outer membrane of a cell, it encloses the writing self cell itself, maintaining specific conditions for buy quality, cellular function within the cite an essay style cell. Since it is selectively permeable, the plasma membrane plays an important role in the entrance and exit of substances. 8. What chemical substances compose the plasma membrane?
The main components of the buy quality plasma membrane are phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules that are regularly organized in the membrane according to their polarity: two layers of phospholipids form the lipid bilayer, with the polar part of the phospholipids pointing to the exterior part of the layer and the non-polar phospholipid chains toward the interior. Proteins can be found embedded in the lipid bilayer. Cite Harvard! In addition, there are also some carbohydrates bound to essays, proteins and to phospholipids in the outer surface of the membrane. 9. What is the pay to difference between a plasma membrane and buy quality essays a cell wall? A plasma membrane and a cell wall are not the same thing. The plasma membrane, also called the on organic cell membrane, is the outer membrane common to all living cells, made of a phospholipid bilayer, embedded proteins and some bound carbohydrates. Because cell membranes are fragile, in some types of cells, there are also external structures to support and protect the membrane, like the cellulose wall of plant cells and the chitin wall of some fungi cells. Most bacteria also have an outer cell wall made of peptidoglycans and other organic substances. Cell Structure Review - Image Diversity: cell wall.
10. What are the main respective components of cell walls in bacteria, protists, fungi and plants? In bacteria, the cell wall is made of peptidoglycans; among protists, algae have cell walls made of cellulose; in fungi, the cell wall is made of chitin (the same substance that makes the exoskeleton of arthropods); and in plants, the cell wall is also made of cellulose. 11. Are membranes only present as the outside of cells? Lipid membranes do not only form the outer layer of cells. Essays! Cell organelles, such as the Golgi complex, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, the endoplasmic reticula and the nucleus, are also enclosed by membranes. Cell Structure Review - Image Diversity: cell nucleus. Ap English 3 Essay Rubric! 12.
Which type of cell evolved first, the eukaryotic cell or the prokaryotic cell? This is an interesting problem of biological evolution. The most accepted hypothesis claims that the essays simpler cell, the do school prokaryotic cell, appeared earlier in evolution than the more complex eukaryotic cell. The endosymbiotic hypothesis, for example, claims that aerobic eukaryotic cells appeared from the mutualistic ecological interaction between aerobic prokaryotes and buy quality primitive anaerobic eukaryotes. 13.
Regarding the presence of the nucleus, what is the difference between animal and essays on organic bacterial cells? Animal cells (the cells of buy quality essays organisms of the kingdom Animalia) have an interior membrane that encloses a cell nucleus and are therefore eukaryotic cells. Lacombe! In these cells, the genetic material is located within the nucleus. Bacterial cells (the cells of living organisms of the kingdom Monera) do not have organized cellular nuclei and are therefore prokaryotic cells. Buy Quality Essays! Their genetic material is found in the cytosol.
14. What are the three main parts of a eukaryotic cell? Eukaryotic cells can be divided into three main parts: the cell membrane that physically separates the intracellular space from the outer space by enclosing the cell; the do school assignment cytoplasm, the interior portion filled with cytosol (the aqueous fluid inside the buy quality essays cell); and the nucleus, the membrane-enclosed internal region that contains genetic material. 15. What are the main structures within the nucleus of a cell? Within the nucleus of a cell, the main structures are: the introduction nucleolus, an optically dense region, sphere shaped region, which contains concentrated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) bound to proteins (there may be more than one nucleolus in a nucleus); the chromatin, made of DNA molecules released into the nuclear matrix during cell interphase; and the#xa0;karyotheca, or nuclear membrane, which is the membrane#xa0;that encloses the nucleus. 16. What substances is chromatin made up of? What is the difference between chromatin and a chromosome?
Chromatin, dispersed in the nucleus, is a set of filamentous DNA molecules attached to buy quality essays, nuclear proteins called histones. Each DNA filament is a double helix of DNA and pay to assignment therefore a chromosome. 17. What is the essays fluid that fills the nucleus called? The aqueous fluid that fills the nuclear region is called karyolymph, or the nucleoplasm. This fluid contains proteins, enzymes and other important substances for nuclear metabolism. 18.#xa0;What substances make up the nucleolus?#xa0;Is there a membrane around the nucleolus? The nucleolus is a region within the nucleus made of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins.
It is not enclosed by a membrane. Cite An Essay! 19. What is the name of the membrane that encloses the nucleus?#xa0;Which component of buy quality cell structure is contiguous to this membrane? The nuclear membrane is also called the karyotheca. The nuclear membrane is contiguous to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. 20. What are the main structures of the cytoplasm present in lacombe resume, animal cells? The main structures of the cytoplasm of a cell are centrioles, the buy quality cytoskeleton, lysosomes, mitochondria, peroxisomes, the Golgi apparatus, the writing essay endoplasmic reticula and buy quality essays ribosomes. How To An Essay! 21. What are cytoplasmic inclusions?
Cytoplasmic inclusions are foreign molecules added to buy quality, the cytoplasm, such as pigments, organic polymers and crystals. They are not considered cell organelles. How To An Essay! Fat droplets and glycogen granules are examples of cytoplasmic inclusions. 22. Where in the cell can ribosomes be found? What is the main biological function of ribosomes? Ribosomes can be found unbound in the cytoplasm, attached to the outer side of the essays nuclear membrane or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane that encloses the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes are the structures in which protein synthesis takes place.
Cell Structure Review - Image Diversity: ribosomes. 23. What is the difference between the ap english 3 essay rubric smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum? The endoplasmic reticulum is a delicate membrane structure that is contiguous to the nuclear membrane and which is present in the cytoplasm. Essays! It forms an extensive net of channels throughout the cell and is classified into rough or smooth types. The rough endoplasmic reticulum has a large number of ribosomes attached to the external side of its membrane. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not have ribosomes attached to its membrane. The main functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are the synthesis and storage of proteins made in the ribosomes. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum plays a role in lipid synthesis and, in writing introduction essay, muscle cells, it is important in carrying out of contraction stimuli. 24.
A netlike membrane complex of superposed flat saccules with vesicles detaching from its extremities seen is observed during electron microscopy. What is the observed structure called? What is its biological function? What is being observed is the Golgi complex, or Golgi apparatus. This cytoplasmic organelle is essays, associated with chemical processing and the modification of proteins made by writing self, the cell as well as with the storage and marking of these proteins for later use or secretion. Buy Quality Essays! Vesicles seen under an electronic microscope contain materials already processed, #xa0;and which are ready to pay to do school, be exported (secreted) by the cell. The vesicles detach from the buy quality Golgi apparatus, travel across the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane, secreting their substances to the exterior. 25. Lacombe Resume! Which organelle of the cell structure is responsible for intracellular digestion? What is the chemical content of buy quality essays those organelles? Intracellular digestion occurs through the the importance in daily action of lysosomes.
Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes (hydrolases) that are produced in essays, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and stored in 3 essay, the Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes are hydrolase-containing vesicles that detach from the Golgi apparatus. Buy Quality Essays! 26. Why are lysosomes known as “the cleaners” of cell waste? Lysosomes carry out autophagic and heterophagic digestion. Introduction Essay! Autophagic digestion occurs when residual substances of the cellular metabolism are digested. Heterophagic digestion takes place when substances that enter the cell are digested.
Lysosomes enfold the substances to be broken down, forming digestive vacuoles or residual vacuoles, which later migrate toward the plasma membrane, fusing with it and buy quality essays releasing (exocytosis) the digested material to the exterior. Cell Structure Review - Image Diversity: lysosomes. 27. What are the morphological, chemical and functional similarities and differences between lysosomes and peroxisomes? Similarities: lysosomes and peroxisomes are small membranous vesicles that contain enzymes and enclose residual substances of an internal or external origin to break them down. Differences: lysosomes have digestive enzymes (hydrolases) that break down substances to be digested into writing introduction essay smaller molecules whereas peroxisomes contain enzymes that mainly break down long-chain fatty acids and amino acids, and which inactivate toxic agents including ethanol. In addition, within peroxisomes, the enzyme catalase is essays, present. Pay To Assignment! It is responsible for the oxidation of organic compounds by hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) and, when this substance is present in excess, it is responsible for the breaking down of the peroxide into water and molecular oxygen.
28. Which cell organelles participate in cell division and in the formation of the buy quality essays cilia and flagella of some eukaryotic cells? The organelles that participate in cell division and in the formation of the cilia and flagella of some eukaryotic cells are centrioles. Some cells have cilia (paramecium, the bronchial ciliated epithelium, etc.) or flagella (flagellate protists, sperm cells, etc.). These cell structures are composed of microtubules that originate from the centrioles. Centrioles also produce the aster microtubules that are very important for cell division. 29. What are mitochondria? What is the basic morphology of these organelles and in which cells can they be found? Mitochondria are the organelles in which the most important part of cellular respiration occurs: ATP production.
Mitochondria are organelles enclosed by two lipid membranes. The inner membrane invaginates to the interior of the organelle, forming the cristae that enclose the internal space known as the mitochondrial matrix, in which mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), mitochondrial RNA (mt RNA), mitochondrial ribosomes and respiratory enzymes can be found. Mitochondria are numerous in eukaryotic cells and writing introduction essay they are even more abundant in cells that use more energy, such as muscle cells. Buy Quality Essays! Because they have their own DNA, RNA and ribosomes, mitochondria can self-replicate. 30. Harvard Style! Why can mitochondria be considered the power plants of aerobic cells? Mitochondria are the buy quality essays “power plants” of aerobic cells because, within them, the final stages of the cellular respiration process occur. Cellular respiration is the process of using an organic molecule (mainly glucose) and oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and the importance of chemistry energy.
The energy is stored in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) molecules and is later used in other cellular metabolic reactions. In mitochondria, the two last steps of cellular respiration take place: the Krebs cycle and the respiratory chain. 31. What is the endosymbiotic hypothesis regarding the origin of mitochondria? What molecular facts support this hypothesis? To which other cellular organelles can the hypothesis also be applied? It is presumed that mitochondria were primitive aerobic prokaryotes that were engaged in mutualism with primitive anaerobic eukaryotes, receiving protection from these organisms and providing them with energy in buy quality essays, return. This hypothesis is called the endosymbiotic hypothesis of the origin of mitochondria. This hypothesis is strengthened by some molecular evidence, such as the fact that mitochondria have their own independent DNA and protein synthesis machinery, as well as their own RNA and ap english 3 essay rubric ribosomes, and that they can self-replicate. The endosymbiotic theory can also be applied to chloroplasts. It is assumed that these organelles were primitive photosynthetic prokaryotes because they have their own DNA, RNA and ribosomes, and can also self-replicate.
32. What are the main components of the cytoskeleton? The cytoskeleton is a network of very small tubules and filaments distributed throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Buy Quality Essays! It is made of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Microtubules are formed by molecules of a protein called tubulin.
Microfilaments are made of actin, the ap english same protein that is involved in the contraction of essays muscle cells. Intermediate filaments are also made of protein. 33. What are the functions of the cytoskeleton? As the name indicates, the cytoskeleton is responsible for maintaining of the an essay harvard style normal shape of the cell. Buy Quality! It also facilitates the transport of substances across the cell and the movement of cellular organelles. For example, the pay to interaction between actin-containing filaments and the protein myosin creates pseudopods. In the essays cells of the john lacombe phagocytic defense system, such as macrophages, the cytoskeleton is responsible for the plasma membrane projections that engulf the external material to be interiorized and attacked by the cell.
34. What are chloroplasts? What is the essays main function of chloroplasts? Chloroplasts are organelles present in the cytoplasm of plant and algae cells. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts have two boundary membranes and many internal membranous sacs. Within the organelle, DNA, RNA ribosomes and also the pigment chlorophyll are present. The latter is#xa0;responsible for john lacombe resume, the absorption of the light photic energy used in photosynthesis.
The main function of chloroplasts is photosynthesis: the buy quality essays production of writing self essay highly energetic organic molecules (glucose) from carbon dioxide, water and light. 35. What is the molecule responsible for the absorption of light energy during photosynthesis? Where is that molecule located in photosynthetic cells? Chlorophyll molecules are responsible for the absorption of light energy during photosynthesis. These molecules are found in the internal membranes of buy quality essays chloroplasts. 36. What colors (of the electromagnetic spectrum) are absorbed by plants? What would happen to in daily life, photosynthesis if the buy quality essays green light waves that reach a plant were blocked? Chlorophyll absorbs all other colors of the electromagnetic spectrum, but it does not absorb green. Green is reflected and such reflection is the essays on organic reason for that characteristic color of plants.
If the green light that reaches a plant was blocked and exposure of the plant to other colors was maintained, there would be no harm to the photosynthesis process. This appears to be a paradox: green light is not important for photosynthesis. There is a difference between the optimum color frequency for the two main types of chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and essays the chlorophyll B. Chlorophyll A has an absorption peak at ap english rubric, a wavelength of approximately 420 nm (indigo) and chlorophyll B has its major absorption at a wavelength of 450 nm (blue). 37. What path is followed by the energy absorbed by plants to be used in photosynthesis? The energy source of photosynthesis is the sun, the unique and essays central star of our solar system. In photosynthesis, solar energy is transformed into chemical energy, the energy of the chemical bonds of the produced glucose molecules (and of the molecular oxygen released). The energy of glucose is style, then stored as starch (a glucose polymer) or it is used in the cellular respiration process and buy quality transferred to in daily life, ATP molecules. ATP is buy quality essays, consumed during metabolic processes that require energy (for example, in active transport across membranes). On Organic Farming! 38. What substance are plant cell walls made of?
Which monomer is this substance made of? Plant cell walls are made of cellulose. Cellulose is buy quality essays, a polymer whose monomer is glucose. There are other polymers of glucose, such as glycogen and starch. 39. What is the function of plant cell walls? Plant cell walls have structural and ap english protective functions. They play an important role in limiting cell size, and stopping cells from bursting, when they absorb a lot of buy quality water.
40. What are plant cell vacuoles? What are their functions? What is the covering membrane of vacuoles called? Plant cell vacuoles are cell structures enclosed by membranes within which there is an john lacombe resume aqueous solution made of various substances such as carbohydrates and proteins. Buy Quality! In young plant cells, many small vacuoles can be seen; within adult cells, the majority of the internal area of the cell is occupied by a central vacuole. Essays Farming! The main function of vacuoles is the osmotic balance of the intracellular space.
They act as “an external space” inside the cell. Vacuoles absorb or release water in essays, response to the importance essay, cellular metabolic necessities by increasing or lowering the concentration of osmotic particles dissolved in the cytosol. Vacuoles also serve as a place for the storage of some substances. The membrane that encloses vacuoles is called the tonoplast, named after the osmotic function of the structure. Now that you have finished studying Cell Structure, these are your options: Review this subject, read all QAs again. Study the next subject: go to Cell Membrane. Choose another QA sequence to study by using the subject menu. Give access to Biology QAs to someone you like.
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Lumbar spinal stenosis: a brief review of the buy quality nonsurgical management. The purpose of pay to, this brief narrative review is to summarize the evidence derived from randomized controlled trials pertaining to the nonsurgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). The MEDLINE (January 1950 to essays, the fourth week of January 2010) and EMBASE (January 1980 to 2009, week 53) databases, the introduction essay MESH term “spinal stenosis”, and the key words, “vertebral canal stenosis” and “neurogenic claudication”, were searched. Buy Quality Essays? Results were limited to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted on john lacombe resume human subjects, written in English, and buy quality, published in peer-reviewed journals. 3 Essay? Only RCTs pertaining to buy quality essays, nonsurgical treatment were considered.
Studies comparing conservative and on organic farming, surgical management or different surgical techniques were not included in buy quality essays, the review. The search criteria yielded 13 RCTs. Ap English? The average enrolment was 54 subjects per study. Blinded assessment and sample size justification were provided in 85% and 39% of buy quality, RCTs, respectively. The available evidence suggests that parenteral calcitonin, but not intranasal calcitonin, can transiently decrease pain in patients with LSS. In the setting of epidural blocks, local anesthetics can improve pain and function, but the farming benefits seem short-lived. Buy Quality? The available evidence does not support the addition of steroids to local anesthetic agents. Cite Harvard Style? Based on buy quality the limited evidence, passive physical therapy seems to provide minimal benefits in LSS. The optimal regimen for active physiotherapy remains unknown.
Although benefits have been reported with gabapentin, limaprost, methylcobalamin, and epidural adhesiolysis, further trials are required to validate these findings. Because of their variable quality, published RCTs can provide only limited evidence to formulate recommendations pertaining to an essay style, the nonsurgical treatment of LSS. In this narrative review, no study was excluded based on factors such as sample size justification, statistical power, blinding, definition of intervention allocation, or clinical outcomes. This aspect may represent a limitation as it may serve to overemphasize evidence derived from essays, “weaker” trials. Further well-designed RCTs are warranted. La stenose du canal lombaire: une courte synthese de la prise en charge non chirurgicale. L’objectif de cette courte synthese narrative consiste a resumer les donnees probantes provenant des essais comparatifs randomises se rapportant au traitement non chirurgical de la stenose du canal lombaire (SCL).
Les bases de donnees MEDLINE (de janvier 1950 a la quatrieme semaine de janvier 2010) et EMBASE (de janvier 1980 a 2009, semaine 53), le terme MESH « spinal stenosis » et les mots cles « vertebral canal stenosis » et « neurogenic claudication » ont ete utilises. Les resultats ont ete limites a des essais comparatifs randomises (ECR) menes chez des sujets humains, rediges en anglais et publies dans des publications evaluees par les pairs. Seuls les ECR se rapportant au traitement non chirurgical ont ete consideres. Essays On Organic Farming? Les etudes comparant les approches conservatrice et chirurgicale ou les etudes comparant differentes techniques chirurgicales ont ete exclues de cette synthese. Les criteres de recherche ont permis d’identifier 13 ECR. Le taux de participation moyen etait de 54 sujets par etude. L’evaluation en aveugle et la justification de la taille des echantillons etaient fournies dans 85 % et 39 % des ECR, respectivement. Les donnees probantes disponibles suggerent que la calcitonine administree par voie parenterale, et non par voie intranasale, peut reduire de maniere transitoire la douleur chez les patients atteints de SCL. Buy Quality Essays? Dans le cadre d’une anesthesie epidurale, les anesthesiques locaux peuvent reduire la douleur et ameliorer la capacite fonctionnelle, mais leurs bienfaits semblent etre de courte duree.
Les donnees probantes disponibles n’appuient pas l’ajout de steroides aux anesthesiques locaux. Il existe des donnees limitees en faveur d’avantages minimes de la physiotherapie passive en cas de SCL. Essays On Organic? Le programme optimal de physiotherapie active demeure inconnu. Bien que certains avantages aient ete notes lors de l’utilisation de la gabapentine, du limaprost, de la methylcobalamine et de la lyse d’adherences epidurales, d’autres essais sont necessaires afin de valider les resultats. En raison de leur qualite variable, les ECR publiees ne peuvent offrir qu’une quantite limitee de donnees probantes en vue de formuler des recommandations se rapportant au traitement non chirurgical d’une SCL. Dans le cadre de cette synthese narrative, aucune etude n’a ete exclue en raison de facteurs tels que la justification de la taille des echantillons, la puissance statistique, l’insu, la definition de l’attribution d’intervention ou les resultats cliniques. Essays? Cet aspect peut constituer une limite puisqu’il peut etre utilise pour amplifier l’importance des donnees provenant d’essais « plus faibles » . In Daily Essay? D’autres ECR bien concus sont necessaires.
First described more than one hundred years ago, 1 lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is buy quality essays characterized by narrowing of the spinal canal with encroachment on neural structures by the surrounding soft tissues and bones. 2 Although LSS can be congenital, it is more often the result of degenerative phenomena, such as spondylolisthesis and age-related changes (loss of intervertebral disc height, disc bulging, infolding of ligamentum flavum, facet joint osteoarthritis/ hypertrophy/ osteophyte/ cystic formation). 3 Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most common indication for back surgery in geriatric patients. 4 - 6 In 1994, it was estimated that one billion dollars was spent annually in writing introduction, the United States alone to provide surgical decompression for LSS. Buy Quality? 7 However, in elderly patients, surgery is john not devoid of complications.
4 Thus conservative management is essays often tried first, and includes physical therapy, pharmacotherapy, as well as ancillary measures, such as manipulation, bracing, traction, and how to style, electrical stimulation. Buy Quality Essays? 8 Epidural injection of on organic farming, steroids can also be used for pain control. 9. The last five years have seen the publication of ten review articles of variable quality pertaining to LSS. 10 - 18 In all cases, recommendations stemmed from the combined results of non-randomized as well as randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and scrutiny of the reference lists reveals the essays omission of RCTs (Appendix). Furthermore, 30% of the available trials were published in the last two years (2008-2009) and, to date, they have not been incorporated in a review article. How To Cite Harvard Style? 19 - 22 Accordingly, using a comprehensive literature search for level 1 evidence (RCTs), we decided to buy quality essays, produce a brief and up-to-date narrative review focusing exclusively on the nonsurgical management of LSS. Search strategy and article selection criteria.
The literature search for this review was conducted during the pay to fourth week of January 2010, using the essays MEDLINE (January 1950 to the fourth week of January 2010) and EMBASE (January 1980 to 2009, week 53) databases. The MESH term, “spinal stenosis”, as well as the key words, “vertebral canal stenosis” and writing self introduction, “neurogenic claudication”, were searched. Buy Quality Essays? Results were limited to RCTs pertaining to how to an essay, nonsurgical treatment conducted on human subjects, written in buy quality essays, English, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Self Essay? We excluded trials that investigated the buy quality essays impact of assignment, interventions on parameters measured in vitro (nerve root blood flow) without assessing the clinical response of patients. Randomized controlled trials published in the form of essays, abstracts or correspondence were also discarded. John Lacombe? Furthermore, the RCTs needed to buy quality essays, deal exclusively with LSS. We excluded trials that enrolled patients suffering from LSS and essay, other spine pathologies (such as radiculopathy due to disc herniation) and that indiscriminately pooled results from all subjects. However, studies providing data specific to LSS were considered in this review. For trials that included both a randomized cohort and a concurrent observational cohort of buy quality essays, patients who declined to undergo randomization, only assignment, results pertaining to essays, the former were kept. The Importance Life Essay? Studies comparing conservative and buy quality, surgical management or different surgical techniques were not included in pay to, the review.
After selecting the initial articles, we examined the reference lists as well as our personal files for additional material. No RCTs were excluded based on factors such as definition of intervention allocation or primary and secondary (clinical) outcomes. However, non-randomized studies, observational case reports, and cohort studies were excluded to avoid potential biases introduced by institutional practices. Pharmacological treatment trials related to lumbar spinal stenosis. Blinded Assessment/Sample Size justification. Number of Patients/Groups. Primary Outcomes and Duration of Follow-Up. SC calcitonin (100 units) vs placebo every other day for 4 wks.
Pain (VAS), walking distance, jumping time until 12 wks after start of treatment. Compared with baseline, greater decreases in static and dynamic pain scores in calcitonin for buy quality essays duration of essays on organic, 3 months. Crossover after 2-month washout period. No differences in essays, walking distance and 3 essay rubric, jumping times. Podichetty et al . 26 (2004) Daily nasal calcitonin (400 units) vs placebo for 6 wks.
Pain (VAS), walking distance, walking time, physical and emotional functional assessment (SF-36) until 6 wks after start of treatment. Daily nasal calcitonin (200 units) vs placebo for 3 wks. Pain (VAS), walking distance, ODI, LBOS until 4 wks after start of treatment. 4-month course of gabapentin (starting daily dose of 900 mg; weekly increments of 300 mg until maximum of essays, 2,400 mg) combined with conservative management (physical therapy, corset, NSAIDs) vs conservative management alone. Pain (VAS), walking distance, sensory deficits, motor deficits until 4 months after start of treatment. Gabapentin: greater walking distance (2 nd , 3 rd , and 4 th months), lower pain scores (3 rd and 4 th months), and assignment, lower incidence of sensory deficits (4 th month) Matsudaira et al . 21 (2009)
Limaprost (15 ?g po tid ) vs etodolac (400 mg po bid ) for essays 8 wks. SF-36 at 8 wks after start of treatment. Limaprost: greater improvements in the importance essay, SF-36 subscales of physical function, role physical, bodily pain, vitality, and essays, mental health. Limaprost: greater walking distance, subjective improvement, satisfaction, and do school assignment, improvement in leg numbness. 6-month course of methylcobalamin (0.5 mg po tid ) vs control. Pain, limitations of spinal motion, walking distance, neurological exam (sensorimotor functions, DTR, SLR) until 2 yrs after start of treatment. Methylcobalamin: greater walking distance at buy quality 6, 12, and 18 months. No other intergroup differences. bid = bis in die (twice daily); DTR = deep tendon reflexes; LBOS = Low Back Outcome Score; N = no; NSAIDs = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; ODI = Oswestry Disability Index; po = per os; SC = subcutaneous; SF-36 = Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36; SLR = straight leg raise test; tid = ter in die (three times a day); VAS = visual analogue scale; wk = week; Y = yes.
Trials pertaining to epidural block and writing introduction essay, adhesiolysis for lumbar spinal stenosis. Blinded Assessment/Sample Size justification. Number of Patients/Groups. Primary Outcomes/Duration of buy quality essays, Follow-Up. Series of 2 non fluoroscopy-guided epidural injections: NS vs 1% M 8 mL vs 1% M 8 mL and methylprednisolone 40 mg. Walking distance until 3 months after treatment. Both treatment groups: greater walking distance at 1 wk. No intergroup differences at 1 and ap english, 3 months. No differences between 2 treatment groups. Control vs physiotherapy (2-wk course) vs fluoroscopy-guided interlaminal epidural (0.5% B 15 mg and triamcinolone 60 mg)
Pain (VAS), walk test, sit-to-stand test, weight-carrying test, RMDI, NHP until 6 months after treatment. Epidural: greater improvement in buy quality essays, VAS, RMDI, and life essay, NHP than control at 2 wks. No differences between 2 treatment groups. Interlaminar epidural with 1 % P 5 mL and NS vs methylprednisolone 80 mg. Success (75 % improvement in pain compared with baseline) until 13-30 months after treatment. No difference in short term (24 h) and long term (13-30 months) success. Manchikanti et al. 19 (2008)
Fluoroscopy-guided caudal injection: 0.5% L 10 mL vs 0.5% L 9 mL and buy quality essays, betamethasone 6 mg (injections could be repeated based on clinical response) 40/2 (Preliminary results of ongoing trial aiming to recruit total of 120 patients) Pain (NRS) until 1 yr after treatment. No intergroup differences in john lacombe, NRS, ODI, employment status, opioid intake at 3, 6, and buy quality essays, 12 months. Manchikanti et al. 20 (2009) Fluroscopy-guided caudal (catheter threaded to S3 and injected with 5 mL 2%, 6 mL NS and essays, 6 mg betamethasone) vs adhesiolysis (catheter threaded to level of defect, adhesiolysis performed and catheter injected with 2% 5 mL, 10% 6 mL sodium chloride solution and buy quality, betamethasone 6 mg) (treatments could be repeated based on clinical response) 50/2 (Preliminary results of rubric, ongoing trial aiming to buy quality, recruit total of essays farming, 120 patients) Pain (NRS) until 1 yr after treatment. Adhesiolysis: lower NRS and ODI at 3, 6, and 12 months. No differences in employment status and opioid intake.
B = bupivacaine; L = lidocaine; M = mepivacaine; N = no; NHP = Nottingham Health Profile; NRS = Numeric Rating Scale; NS = normal saline; ODI = Oswestry Disability Index; P = procaine; RMDI = Roland Morris Disability Index; wk = week; Y = yes; Yr = year. Trials pertaining to essays, physical therapy for lumbar spinal stenosis. Blinded Assessment/Sample Size justification. Number of writing, Patients/Groups. Primary Outcome and Duration of buy quality, Follow-Up. Control vs PT (2-wk course of hot pack, TENS, and US application) vs fluoroscopy-guided interlaminal epidural (B and triamcinolone)
Pain (VAS), walk test, sit-to-stand test, weight-carrying test, RMDI, NHP until 6 months after treatment. PT: no differences compared with control. Epidural: greater improvement in cite an essay harvard style, VAS, RMDI, and buy quality, NHP than in how to an essay harvard, Control at 2 wks. Twice weekly, 6-wk regimen: lumbar flexion exercise/ walking program/ US (Gp I) vs manual therapy/ exercise/ walking program (Gp II) GRC until 1 yr after start of buy quality, treatment. Gp II: higher perceived recovery (GRC ? 3) at 6 wks. No difference in ap english 3 essay, perceived recovery at essays 1 yr. No differences in ODI, NPRS, SSS Satisfaction Subscale, walking distance. Twice weekly, 6-wk regimen: cycling vs treadmill ambulation with body weight support. ODI until 6 wks after start of treatment.
No differences in ODI, RMDI, VAS, perceived benefit and ability to walk ? 800 m. B = bupivacaine; Gp = group; GRC = global rating of change; N = no; NHP = Nottingham Health Profile; NPRS = numeric pain rating scale; ODI = Oswestry Disability Index; PT = physiotherapy; RMDI = Roland Morris Disability Index; SSS = spinal stenosis scale; TENS = transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; US = ultrasound; VAS = visual analogue scale; wk = week. Overall, the harvard style quality of the buy quality essays RCTs was variable. The average enrolment was 54 subjects per how to an essay style, study. Blinded assessment and buy quality essays, sample size justification were provided in 85% and 39% of how to cite an essay harvard style, RCTs, respectively. Essays? The duration of symptomatic LSS prior to essays farming, enrolment was provided in buy quality, 77% of studies and varied from 12.0 weeks to 11.4 years. Pain was the most commonly studied endpoint (69% of trials); patient follow-up varied from in daily life, 4.0 weeks to 2.5 years.
Calcitonin has received considerable interest in the management of LSS because of its direct analgesic properties (through release of ?-endorphin). 24 Alternately, calcitonin can decrease the vascular supply to buy quality, the bone by rubric, lowering its metabolic activity, thus allowing more blood to reach the buy quality essays compromised neural tissues. 25 To date, four RCTs have investigated the use of introduction, calcitonin in LSS. In 1992, Eskola et al . 25 conducted a double-blind, crossover RCT on 39 patients suffering from LSS. The subjects initially received a subcutaneous injection of calcitonin or placebo every other day for four weeks. After a two-month washout period, the alternate solution was administered for another four weeks. Buy Quality Essays? When comparing with baseline levels, these authors observed that statistically greater decreases in static and dynamic pain scores were seen in the calcitonin group for pay to assignment up to three months irrespective of the buy quality order of administration. However, increases in pay to, walking distance and jumping time did not survive the buy quality essays crossover. Furthermore, at one year, none of the do school assignment two groups experienced residual benefits. 25 In 2004, Podichetty et al . Buy Quality? 26 recruited 47 patients and compared a six-week regimen of intranasal calcitonin with placebo. At six weeks, no differences in pain, walking distance, walking time, and physical or emotional function were found between the treatment and control groups.
Subsequently, in farming, 37 subjects with LSS, Tafazal et al . 27 compared a four-week regimen of intranasal calcitonin with placebo. Again, no intergroup differences were noted in buy quality essays, terms of pain and walking distance. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and rubric, Low Back Outcome Score were also similar between the two groups. Voltage-sensitive calcium and sodium channels accumulate at sites of axonal injury. Buy Quality Essays? 28 By binding to the ? 2 delta subunit of these channels, gabapentin has been thought to modulate neural transmission and provide analgesia. 29 , 30.
In 2007, Yaksi et al . 31 randomized 55 patients with LSS to a four-month regimen of gabapentin combined with conservative management or conservative management alone. Writing Essay? The latter included physical therapy (lumbar flexion, pelvic traction, and buy quality essays, strengthening of abdominal muscles), the use of a lumbosacral corset, and pharmacological treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Throughout the trial, these authors observed a greater walking distance in the gabapentin group. Furthermore, pain scores were also significantly lower in how to cite an essay harvard style, the latter at essays the end of the third and 3 essay, fourth months (3.6 ± 2.2 vs 4.8 ± 2.2; P = 0.039; and 2.9 ± 2.6 vs 4.7 ± 2.2, respectively; P = 0.006). After four months, a greater reduction in sensory deficits was seen with gabapentin compared with conservative management (decrease of 28.6% vs 7.4%, respectively; P = 0.04). 31. The pathogenesis of LSS may be multifactorial. Mechanical compression of the spinal cord can lead to a decrease in the vascular supply of buy quality, neural tissues. 32 Limaprost, an pay to, alprostadil (prostaglandin E1) analogue, possesses vasodilatory, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective properties. 33.
In 66 patients, Matsudaira et al . Essays? 21 compared limaprost with etidolac, a NSAID. After eight weeks, subjects receiving limaprost displayed better scores pertaining to essays farming, Standard Form-36 (SF-36) subscales of physical function, physical role, bodily pain, vitality, and mental health. Buy Quality? Furthermore, greater improvements were also noted in terms of walking distance, leg numbness, and patient satisfaction. However, the two groups did not differ in terms of ap english, low back and leg pain. 21. Since high doses of vitamins, such as B6, have been used in nerve entrapment syndromes, 34 Waikakul et al . Buy Quality? 35 set out to investigate the role of an essay style, methylcobalamin, a methyl-vitamin B12, in buy quality, LSS. These authors randomized 152 patients to a six-month regimen of methylcobalamin or control. All subjects also received patient education, core strengthening exercises, physiotherapy, oral analgesics, NSAIDs, muscle relaxants, and supplemental vitamins. Cite Harvard? During the entire study period (two years), there were no intergroup differences observed in terms of buy quality essays, pain, limitations of motion, straight leg raise test, or neurological findings. Life? However, patients receiving methylcobalamin experienced greater improvement in ambulation at buy quality six, 12, and 18 months.
35. The available evidence suggests that parenteral calcitonin, but not intranasal calcitonin, can lead to transient benefits (? three months) in patients with LSS. Lacombe Resume? Although gabapentin, limaprost, and methylcobalamin have been shown to improve parameters, such as analgesia, walking distance, or sensory deficits, further trials are required to validate these findings because of the small number of RCTs involved. Epidural blockade and adhesiolysis. In LSS, pain may be due to transient ischemia of the cauda equine. Buy Quality? 36 Thus, epidural injection of local anesthetics is commonly used to 3 essay, provide sympathetic blockade and buy quality, vasodilation, thereby increasing blood flow to neural tissues. The Importance Of Chemistry In Daily Essay? 37 Furthermore local anesthetic agents can also exert beneficial effects by curtailing pain-induced neuronal sensitization and release of neurotransmitters involved in pain pathways. 38 - 41 Alternately, administration of corticosteroids in the epidural space is thought to reduce inflammatory edema of the injured nerve root, 42 decrease sensitization of the dorsal horn neurons, 43 and essays, suppress the transmission of nociceptive C fibres. Do School? 44 In clinical practice, both agents are often combined.
37. To date, two RCTs have compared epidural injection of local anesthetics with placebo or conservative management (NSAIDs, physiotherapy). Buy Quality? In 53 patients suffering from john resume, LSS, Fukusaki et al . 37 performed a series of two non fluoroscopy-guided interlaminar epidural injections and buy quality, randomized the injectate to the importance in daily, saline, local anesthetic, and local anesthetic with steroid (methyprednisolone). Compared with placebo, these authors observed a greater walking distance at buy quality essays one week in both treatment groups (87-92 ± 58-66 vs 23 ± 19 m; P 0.05). However, this beneficial effect did not persist, as no differences were found at one and three months. Interestingly, steroids did not add any clinical benefits. 37 In 2009, Koc et al. How To Cite An Essay Harvard? 22 randomized 29 subjects with LSS to control, physiotherapy (two-week course of hot pack, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and essays, ultrasound application), or fluoroscopy-guided interlaminar epidural injection (bupivacaine and triamcinolone). In addition, all patients received a six-month home-based exercise program of muscle stretching/ strengthening and a two-week course of diclofenac. Pay To Assignment? Intergroup analysis revealed that, compared with controls, epidural injection resulted in a greater improvement in pain intensity, Roland Morris Disability Index, and essays, Nottingham Health Profile at two weeks.
22. In addition to Fukusaki et al .’s study, 37 two other RCTs have investigated the role of steroids in epidural blockade. In 1985, Cuckler et al . 45 randomized 37 patients to pay to, an epidural injection containing procaine combined with saline or methylprednisolone. Success was defined as a 75% improvement compared with baseline. Buy Quality Essays? No difference in success rates was found between the two groups at the 24 hr (17.7-25.0%) and the 13-30 month follow-ups (10.5-25%). In 2007, Manchikanti et al. set out to 3 essay, recruit 120 subjects with LSS. Essays? The intended goal was to assignment, compare fluoroscopy-guided caudal injection of local anesthetic (lidocaine) with or without corticosteroid (betamethasone). In 2008, these authors published their preliminary findings in 40 patients (20 per group). Essays? Manchikanti et al. 19 observed that the addition of betamethasone to lidocaine did not improve analgesia, employment status, ODI scores, and opioid intake after three, six, and how to style, twelve months.
In 2006, Manchikanti et al . Essays? set out to essays, recruit 120 subjects with LSS. The intended goal was to compare fluoroscopy-guided caudal injection of lidocaine and betamethasone with percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis. In 2009, these authors published their preliminary findings in 50 patients (25 per essays, group). Manchikanti et al . 20 observed that patients receiving adhesiolysis exhibited lower scores for pain and ODI at the importance of chemistry in daily life essay three, six, and essays, twelve months. Pay To Do School Assignment? Furthermore, after adhesiolysis, the average duration of relief was also longer for patients with back pain (12.3 ± 10.9 vs 3.2 ± 3.7 weeks; P 0.05) and leg pain (12.5 ± 11.0 vs 3.1 ± 3.8 weeks; P 0.05). However, no intergroup differences in opioid intake and employment status were found. Although epidural injection of local anesthetics has been shown to improve pain and function in LSS, these benefits seem short-lived ( one month). The available evidence does not support the addition of steroids to buy quality essays, local anesthetic agents.
Despite promising early results, further studies are required to validate the use of epidural adhesiolysis in LSS. Passive physical therapy has been studied in one trial. Koc et al . Of Chemistry Life? 22 randomized 29 subjects with LSS to control, physiotherapy (two-week course of hot pack, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and ultrasound application), or epidural injection (bupivacaine and triamcinolone). Buy Quality? In addition, all patients received a six-month home-based exercise program of muscle stretching and strengthening as well as a two-week course of essay, diclofenac. No difference was found between the physiotherapy and control groups. In contrast, as previously stated, compared with controls, epidural injection resulted in a greater improvement in buy quality, pain intensity, Roland Morris Disability Index, and Nottingham Health Profile at two weeks. 22. To date, two RCTs have attempted to cite an essay, determine the optimal regimen for (active) physical therapy. Buy Quality Essays? In 2006, Whitman et al. Of Chemistry In Daily Essay? 46 randomized 55 patients with LSS to two six-week physiotherapy regimens. The first group (Group I) received lumbar flexion exercises, a progressive treadmill ambulation program, and subtherapeutic pulsed ultrasound.
The second group (Group II) received manual physical therapy (spine, pelvis, and lower extremities), exercises (designed to improve mobility, strength and coordination), and a body weight-supported treadmill ambulation program. In addition, all subjects received a home exercise program, and essays, they were asked to take a daily walk. John? Whitman et al . Essays? 46 defined perceived recovery as a global rating of farming, change score ? 3. At six weeks, Group II presented a higher rate of perceived recovery (79 vs 41% of patients; P = 0.0015). However, no statistical differences were found at one year and on long-term telephone follow-up (27.4-29.0 months). Furthermore, throughout the study period, the authors reported no intergroup differences in terms of pain, walking distance, ODI, and Spinal Stenosis Scale Satisfaction Subscale scores. 46 In 2007, Pua et al. 47 randomized 42 patients to a six-week physiotherapy regimen of cycling or treadmill ambulation with body weight support. All subjects also received a home exercise program of flexion/ neural mobilization exercises. At three and six weeks, no differences were found in terms of disability (ODI, Roland Morris Disability Index) and pain. 47. The limited evidence available suggests that passive physical therapy provides minimal benefits.
The optimal regimen for active physiotherapy remains unknown. Although the combination of manual therapy/ exercise/ body weight-supported ambulation results in a higher rate of buy quality, perceived recovery than the combination of flexion exercise/ progressive treadmill ambulation/ ultrasound, these benefits did not persist beyond six weeks and did not translate into an improvement of essays, objective indices. Furthermore, no differences were found between cycling and essays, treadmill ambulation with body weight support. In terms of pharmacological treatment, the available evidence suggests that parenteral calcitonin, but not intranasal calcitonin, can transiently decrease pain in patients with LSS. Although benefits have been reported with gabapentin, limaprost, and methylcobalamin, further trials are required to validate these findings. In the setting of epidural blocks, local anesthetic agents can improve pain and function, but the in daily life benefits seem short-lived. The available evidence does not support the addition of steroids to local anesthetics. Essays? Despite promising results, further studies are required to validate the self use of epidural adhesiolysis for buy quality patients with LSS.
Based on the limited evidence available, passive physical therapy seems to john lacombe, provide minimal benefits in essays, LSS. The optimal regimen for active physiotherapy remains unknown. A critical survey of the cite style available RCTs can provide an effective tool to establish focused recommendations pertaining to the nonsurgical treatment of buy quality essays, LSS. For instance, in this review, no evidence was found to support the essays on organic use of epidural steroid injection (ESI). Essays? This is stark contrast with recently published review articles. Using the pooled results of in daily life essay, case series, observational trials and RCTs, 70% of the latter recommended ESI. Furthermore, despite the unclear benefits and limited efficacy associated with active and passive physiotherapy, respectively, 90% of recent reviews advocated the use of physiotherapy. Buy Quality? Alarmingly, a device that can be potentially harmful (through muscle deconditioning), such as a stabilization brace, was recommended for occasional use by how to cite, 40% of reviews despite the buy quality essays absence of RCTs (Appendix). Pay To Do School? Since our review article incorporated RCTs missing from buy quality, previous publications, new and how to an essay, promising therapeutic modalities (limaprost, methylcobalamin, and epidural adhesiolysis) have also been identified. Although the limited evidence available does not permit their clinical implementation at this time, further investigation is buy quality certainly warranted. For practical reasons, a decision was taken to limit this review to RCTs published in the English language.
Although such a restriction may constitute a methodological limitation, we believe that its impact on ap english 3 essay the paper’s conclusions is small, since expansion of our search criteria (using the same databases and time periods) to buy quality, languages other than English yielded only three additional RCTs. 48 - 50 No attempt was made in pay to, this review to produce a meta-analysis. In our view, given the wide array of modalities used for pharmacological and physical therapy, patient enrolment would have been insufficient to support a systematic pooling of data. For interventional treatments, the heterogeneity in techniques (palpation- vs fluoroscopy-guided epidural block vs adhesiolysis) would have constituted an obstacle. In this narrative review, no RCT was excluded based on factors such as sample size justification, statistical power, blinding, definition of intervention allocation, or clinical outcomes.
This may represent a limitation to our article, as it may serve to overemphasize evidence derived from essays, “weaker” RCTs. In Daily Life Essay? Most importantly, if trials lacked sample size justification, provided limited enrolment, and buy quality, found no difference between study groups, we cannot exclude the possibility that they were inadequately powered to answer the do school question they sought to buy quality essays, investigate. Nonsurgical management strategies warranting further clinical investigation. • Efficacy of acetaminophen, NSAIDs, selective COX 2 inhibitors, and pay to do school assignment, opioids. • Confirmatory trials for gabapentin, methylcobalamin, and buy quality essays, limaprost. • Pregabalin vs gabapentin. • Optimal regimen for active physical therapy. • Palpation- vs fluoroscopy-guided interlaminal epidural injection of LA. • Fluoroscopy-guided interlaminar vs transforaminal vs caudal epidural injection of LA. • Confirmatory trials for epiduroscopic adhesiolysis.
• Efficacy of multimodal treatment. • Best combination for multimodal management. COX = cyclooxygenase; LA = local anesthetic agent; NSAID = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Recently published reviews of lumbar spinal stenosis. Authors (reference number) (year) Focused on Treatment. Restricted to on organic farming, RCTs. Inclusion of buy quality essays, All Contemporary RCTs* Pertaining to Nonsurgical Treatment. Contemporary RCTs Pertaining to Nonsurgical Treatment Not Included in Review (reference numbers) Recommended Nonsurgical Treatment.
25, 26, 27, 31, 35, 46, 47. Stabilization brace (occasional), PT (core-strengthening exercises), pharmacotherapy (acetaminophen, NSAIS, mild opioid), ESI. Rest, restricted movement, stabilization brace (occasional), PT (massage, heat, cold, US, TENS, core-strengthening exercises), acupuncture, exercises (bike, treadmill, aquatic ambulation), balance training, patient education, biofeedback, relaxation training, pharmacotherapy (acetaminophen, aspirin, NSAID, tramadol, opioid, muscle relaxant, antidepressant, anticonvulsant), ESI. Rest, PT (flexion-based exercises), aquatic training, exercise, patient education (posture, ADL), pharmacotherapy (aspirin, NSAID, muscle relaxant, antidepressant, oral corticosteroid, calcitonin), ESI. PT, exercise, patient education, analgesics. Stabilization brace (occasional), PT, weight loss program (if overweight), exercises (bicycle, aquatic therapy, inclined treadmill), pharmacotherapy (NSAID, oral steroid), ESI. PT (core-strengthening exercises), exercises (bicycle, aquatic therapy, inclined treadmill), pharmacotherapy (acetaminophen, NSAID, anticonvulsant, oral corticosteroid) 25, 26, 35, 37, 45, 46. Stabilization brace (occasional), PT (back/ leg lengthening exercises, US, TENS), weight loss program (if overweight), exercises (bicycle, walking), pharmacotherapy (NSAID, muscle relaxant), ESI.
25, 27, 31, 35, 37, 45, 46, 47. No clear recommendation. 25, 27, 31, 35, 37, 45, 46, 47. PT (back/ leg lengthening exercises, mobility training, US, TENS), pharmacotherapy (NSAID, muscle relaxant), ESI. 19, 25, 26, 27, 31, 35, 45, 47. PT (manual PT, body weight-supported treadmill). No clear recommendation pertaining to ESI. ADL = activities of self, daily living; ESI = epidural steroid injection; N = no; NSAID = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PT = physiotherapy; RCT = randomized controlled trial; TENS = transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; US = ultrasound; Y = yes. * A contemporary RCT is defined as a RCT published no later than the essays year prior to the publication of the review article. De Q. H. Tran 1 Email author Silvia Duong 2 Roderick J. Pay To? Finlayson 1 1. Department of Anesthesia,Montreal General Hospital McGill University Montreal Canada 2. Faculty of essays, Pharmacy University of Toronto Toronto ON Canada. Published in cite harvard style, cooperation with.
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