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annotated reading This reading list is intended to help you become acquainted with the body of knowledge on mistake-proofing as quickly as possible. It will allow you to bypass many of the references that may not be readily available. For other listings it will allow you to determine if acquiring the material and doing more extensive reading may be worthwhile. If you want to buy these books, click on the book cover. This page is part of Amazon.com's Associates Program. How To. When you click on a book on this page, it will take you to an amazon.com page. Putting the book in your shopping cart from that page will provide me with revenues to support the thesis system management, cost of www.mistakeproofing.com and give you the secure transactions and delivery reliability of Amazon.com. The literature on Mistake-Proofing is continually expanding making a comprehensive literature review a moving target. Do A. Other information on mistake-proofing may be available which is not listed here. If you discover or know of applicable material not listed please let me know.

The reading list icons indicate the research area or discipline of each citation: Mistake-proofing and on health and nutrition poka-yoke literature. Software human-computer interaction literature. Poka yokay systems to do a report ensure zero defect quality manufacturing. Bandyopadhyay, J. Useful Spanish. K. 1993. International Journal of Management 10 (1): 29-33. Bandyopadhyay provides a very basic treatment of poka-yoke.

Descriptions or explanations are provided for the regulatory functions (warning and control method) and for setting functions (contact, fixed value, and motion step method). In-Process Quality Control for Manufacturing. Barkman, W.E. 1989.New York: Marcel Dekker. (Preface and chapter 3 are of particular interest.) This book discusses the use of high-tech electronic approaches to in-process control. How To Report. Typically one thinks of want essay examples, mistake-proofing as a more low-tech approach; however, the basic theory and thinking is closely related. Barkman uses the term deterministic manufacturing where determinism means a doctrine that acts of will, occurrences of nature, or social or psychological phenomena are determined by antecedent causes. Belief in do a book a 'cause-and-effect' environment leads to useful spanish the idea that one means of attaining control of a manufacturing process is to how to do a report monitor and/or control the key parameters that are most significant in establishing the quality of the finished product.

This book is essay a good starting place for information on online sensors and sophisticated control systems. Using Poka Yoke (Mistake Proofing Devices) to Ensure Quality. Do A Book Report. Bayer, P.C. 1994. IEEE 9th Applied Power Electronics Conference Proceedings 1:201-204.

This paper gives a basic description of mistake-proofing and discusses specific implementation at ATT Power Systems. Bayer discusses regulatory functions and setting function design tips. Bayer also discusses implementation issues and the use of statistical process control integrated with mistake-proofing. The Basics of Mistake-proofing. Beauregard, M.R., R.J. Mikulak and essay on health and nutrition R.E. McDermott. 1997. New York: Quality Resources. This book is how to do a book what its title says it is: basic. As evidence of how basic it is, the first three chapters appear on just 5 pages.

The authors do make slight additions to the practice of mistake-proofing by identifying the useful for essays, sensory alert regulatory function, and by adding making it easy to how to do a report do it right to useful spanish sentences for essays the setting functions described by Shingo. Beauregard et al. identify four mistake-proofing methods in book report order of preference: control, shutdown, warning, and sensory alert. Control methods eliminate the opportunity for rippavilla, errors to occur. Shutdown methods stop the process when an error occurs. Warning methods use active visual or audio signals to notify operators or users an do a error has occurred. Sensory alert methods make error obvious but depend on the operator or user to actually perform the check. Their addition to why i essay examples setting functions, making it easy to do it right, encourages the how to do a book, use of color-coding, shapes, symbols etc. to help the thesis information system management, operator or user sense when an error is occurring. How To Do A Book Report. This additional setting function goes well with the regulatory function they introduce. The authors also briefly discuss willful violations and link FMEA with mistake-proofing (once again not in detail).

The trend: 100 percent quality verification. Bodine, W.E. 1993. Production (June): 54-55. This brief two page article discusses the need for in-line 100% inspection as a barrier to prevent undetected defects from finding their way into inventories and on to customers. Bodine discusses the growing use of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to perform these inspections without slowing the useful spanish sentences, process.

Despite fuzzy logic and neural networks, operator control is still a must. Bose, Rana. 1995. CMA 69: 7. Do A. Bose accurately points out that after a decade of trying to summary essay engage the worker in thinking about and improving processes, we should not replace worker intelligence with artificial intelligence. Even the simplest mistake-proofing devices must not result in worker detachment from the process. Rather, workers need to be involved in the design and enhancement of the process and its control mechanisms, one of which is mistake-proofing. Set Phasers on Stun and Other True Tales of Design, Technology, and Human Error. Do A Report. Casey, Steven.

1993. Santa Barbara, CA: Aegean. This book provides a series of case studies where design, technology and human error coincide to create catastrophes. An example is the case of a Salomon Brothers trader who single handily caused a 15 point drop in the Dow Jones Industrial Average in the last 5 minutes of trading due to sentences misunderstanding the units of a sell order. He mistakenly sold 11 million shares ($500,000,000) of how to book, stock instead of 11 million dollars of stock. Essay And Nutrition. The Wall Street computers did the rest. Make your service fail-safe.

Chase, R. B., and D. M. Stewart. 1994. Sloan Management Review (Spring): 35-44. This is the first article on mistake-proofing services. It is how to do a book report complete with service examples and a framework for thinking about mistake-proofing services. The framework recognized that in on health and nutrition services errors can come from the server or the customer. They create task, treatment, and tangible server poka-yokes. Customer poka-yokes include preparation, encounter, and resolution.

Chase and Stewart then discuss the steps of mistake-proofing, which they superimpose on a process map. They conclude with an automotive service example. An important point made in their article appears in the first footnote: human error will usually be a common cause of variation and will not be detected by control charts. Mistake-proofing: Designing errors out. Chase, R.B., and D. M. Stewart. 1995.

Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. Chase and Stewart use their article in Sloan Management Review as a foundation for this brief book. How To. They include all of the concepts from the article in the book. They also include information on the psychology of human error. They lay out Rasmussen's skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based (SRK) framework of cognitive control. They also broaden the regulatory function categories by using the six cues of Norman and Lewis: warning, gagging, nonresponse, self-correct, let's talk about it, teach me. Chase and Stewart also broaden Shingo's setting functions. Essay. They classified setting functions as physical, sequencing, and grouping and counting which corresponds roughly to book Shingo's contact, motion-step, and summary essay fixed-value methods. Chase and Stewart, however, add a fourth category, information enhancement poka yokes, which is new. These poka yokes are designed to how to book ensure that information required in the process is available at the correct time and essay on health place, and that it stands out against a noisy background. It is both more readable and how to do a book report broader in application than Shingo (but does not have a catalog of examples like Shingo).

Regrettably the Chase and Stewart book was only printed for two years. Used copies may be available. An Economic Analysis of Inspection Costs for the Mistake-Proofing of Binomial Attributes. Downs, B.T. and want to transfer essay Grout, J.R. Forthcoming in the Journal of Quality Technology. In this research, processes that have attributes as a primary quality characteristic are considered. Since mistake-proofing involves 100% inspection, it can only be economical if the cost of inspection is very low. Do A Report. This paper utilizes an on health existing model for the economic design of do a report, np-charts to determine how low inspection costs must be before self-checks become economical.

An existing model for checking proper operating conditions will be used to to transfer essay find how low the cost of source-inspection must be in how to book report order for it to be economical. Dvorak, Paul. 1998. Machine Design, (March 10): 181-184. A trade press article designed to build awareness in the business community. A readable article that could function as an why i to transfer executive summary in introducing mistake-proofing to design engineers and managers. Guidelines for Preventing Human Error in Process Safety. Embrey, D. American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

New York NY. Embrey's book has a very good review of the history of safety thinking in industry. He argues persuasively that more training is not an effective response to incidents caused by how to book report, experienced workers. Paper. He also provides a comprehensive set of do a, hazard analysis tools. Impact of a Poka-Yoke Device on Job Performance of individuals with Cognitive Impairments. Erlandson, R.F., Noblett, M.J. and Phelps, J.A.

1998. IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering 6(3): 269-276. This article reports on the use of a poka-yoke device for individuals with cognitive disabilities. The device allowed more severely impaired workers to be able to perform tasks correctly that they were previously unable to perform. Productivity increased 80%. Error rate dropped from 52% to less approximately 1%. Morale and worker attitudes also improved.

The same actions that reduce human error for nondisabled workers also facilitate task performance for disabled workers. Felciano, Ramon M. Useful Sentences. 1995. Stanford University Web Page. Felciano defines human error as an inappropriate action, or intent to act, given a goal and the context in which one is trying to reach that goal. He then describes the Rasmussen's SRK framework. He then discusses slips and mistakes. Slips are actions where the intent is correct but execution goes wrong. Mistakes occur when one's intentions are incorrect for the situation, but execution may be flawless.

Felciano provides a human error case study involving the Therac-25 where a patient died from receiving 125 times the usual radiation exposure called for in the treatment of a tumor. The case demonstrates a latent error in how to do a book report the system. A latent error is an error that results from the coincidence of thesis system, multiple unforeseen (and perhaps unforeseeable events). Attitudes toward error for medicine and aviation are compared in a similar manner to Leape (see below). Both industries require safety-critical rapid decision making usually in team settings. The approach of the two industries is quite different. Aviation has done extensive work on human error and book how to reduce it. Thesis Information System. They tend to analyze how to how to book report keep the essay, problem from recurring. How To Book Report. In medicine doctors are ultimately responsible for patient care. Errors are resolved by assigning blame and malpractice litigation.

Felciano, Ramon M. 1995. Stanford University Web Page. Felciano identifies 26 sources on human error and provides a short annotation of most sources. Useful For Essays. Some of his sources have not yet been incorporated in this bibliography. Fail-safing and Measurement Control Charts. Grout, J.R. and Downs, B.T. 1998. Quality Management Journal 5(2): 67-75. This paper analyzes the use of failsafing devices (or poka-yoke devices) for controlling processes that are managed using measurement control charts. Grout Downs show that inspecting production for defects as work is how to book report completed (Shingo's self-checks) does not result in the patriot summary lower process variance. Do A Report. This outcome is the result of using specification limits to control the process instead of using control limits.

If go/no-go inspections using control limits are used instead of specification limits for self-checks, information is lost as measurements are converted into binomial data. The ability to estimate the variance is reduced. If self-checks can be performed using control limits and without sacrificing measurement data, then self-checks are a special case of control charts for individuals where 100% inspection occurs. Using Source Inspection to inspect conditions for high quality production is shown to involve a binary decision, therefore source inspections using binomial data do not result in lost information. Source inspection can be used to effectively reduce process variation. Grout, J.R.

1997. Production and Inventory Management Journal 38(3):33-37. The basics of mistake-proofing are reviewed. Situations when mistake-proofing works well, and when it does not are discussed. Several examples are provided.

Where Mistake-Proofing Works Well: where manual operations where worker vigilance is needed where mispositioning can occur. where adjustment is required where teams need common-sense tools and not another buzz-word. where SPC is difficult to apply or apparently ineffective. where attributes not measurements are important. where training cost and employee turnover are high. where mixed model production occurs. where customers make mistakes and blame the service provider. where special causes can reoccur. where external failure costs dramatically exceed internal failure costs. Where Mistake-Proofing does NOT work well: where destructive tests are used. Where the production rate is very fast. Where shifts occur more rapidly than they can be responded to. where control charts are used effectively (for successive and self-checks only). Mistake-Proofing: Process Improvement through Innovative Inspection Techniques. Thesis System. Grout, J.R.

1998. The Quality Yearbook, 1998 Edition: 405-414. In this paper, is one article in a very large book. The logic of five inspection techniques is presented as flow charts. Error opportunity, real-time completion check, and self-correcting process inspections are added to the traditional source inspection and self-check. Henricks, Mark, 1996. Entrepeneur (October): 86-89. An popular press article designed to build awareness in the business community. A very short readable article that could function as an executive summary in introducing mistake-proofing to how to do a book management. The last quote by Grout should read . average net savings of around $2500 apiece. Thesis System Management. not average cost. The role of variation, mistakes, and complexity in do a book producing nonconformities.

Hinckley, C.M. and Barkan, P. 1995. Journal of Quality Technology 27(3):242-249. In this article, Martin Hinckley and owl at purdue writing the late Philip Barkan delineate some very clear and novel thinking in quality control. They point out do a report that non-conformities come from three sources: variation, mistakes, and complexity. They identify the tools that correspond to why i to transfer each of these sources. Variation is managed with SPC and statistics. Mistakes are addressed using poka-yoke.

Complexity is how to controlled during design. A major contribution of the paper is their linking of design for manufacturability with complexity and complexity with conformance quality. They provide quality design tools that can be used very early in the design process to owl at paper predict the defects per unit of how to do a report, final designs. Make No Mistake!: An Outcome-Based Approach to Mistake-Proofing. C. Martin Hinckley, 2001.

Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. Martin Hinckley expands on his article with Barkan above in this substantial book. He adds culture to complexity, variation, and mistakes as sources of error. He also provides a very easy way to find examples that match the problems you are having. Some of the examples are new others come out of Poka-yoke: Improving product quality by preventing defects byNikkan Kogyo Shimbun/Factory (listed below). If you want to buy only one book on the topic, this book is the one I recommend. Kelly, Kevin, 1994.

New York: Addison-Wesley. Kevin Kelly discusses human error in software development. Kelly persuasively argues for thesis, need to mistake-proof the creation of software code. He appeals to the idea of next operation as customer, recommending each programmer thoroughly test their own work. He also recommends that prior work is immediately tested before adding more value.

Kelly uses the term inchstone for a small module of code that works for sure, and from which more complex layers are added and tested. He also uses Shingo's distinction between errors and defects: defects are errors passed downstream. Defects should be detected and corrected early and often. Mistake-proofing can be accomplished using computer programs that check the programmer's commands in real-time or provide automatic program correction. How To Do A Book. Object oriented programming is also a means of avoiding errors. He quotes the book Zero Defect Software Do not spend money on defect-prone code, get rid of it. Coding cost is nearly irrelevant compared to the cost of repairing error-prone modules. If a software unit exceeds an sentences for essays error threshold, throw it out, and how to do a book have a different developer do the recoding. Want Essay. Discard work in progress that shows a tendency toward errors because early errors predict late errors. Kelly also notes that as software programs mushroom in do a complexity, it becomes impossible to exhaustively test them at the end.

Because they are discontinuous systems, they will always harbor odd corners or a fatal response triggered by essay on health and nutrition, a one-in-a-million combination of input that eluded detection of both systematic and sample-based testing. And while statistical sampling can tell if there are likely to be faults left, it can't locate them. Kelly is also realistic that you probably can't eliminate the how to do a book report, possibility of bugs, but he argues your are better off with the smaller number of less complicated bugs that are likely to result from spanish for essays a zero defect approach to coding. Report. The arguments that Kelly proposes for the use of mistake-proofing are very similar to rippavilla the arguments used in manufacturing. This suggests that the logic for mistake-proofing creative one-time processes may not be so different from that of routine, repetitive processes. Plant Design for Safety: A User-Friendly Approach. Kletz, Trevor. 1991. New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corp. This book focuses on designing safe chemical manufacturing plants.

It is the theme of book report, this book that, instead of designing plants, identifying hazards, and adding on equipment to the patriot control the hazards or expecting operators to control them, we should make more effort to choose basic designs and design details that are user friendly. Eleven approaches are proposed: Intensification: minimize inventories of hazardous chemicals. What you don't have can't leak. How To. Substitution: substitute safer chemicals for hazardous ones. Attenuation: make reactions less extreme by using materials in their least hazardous condition. Limitation of effects: allow system to degrade gracefully, rather than explosively. Simplification: provide fewer opportunities for error by useful spanish for essays, avoiding complexity. Avoiding knock-on effects: insure failure in one area does not spread to how to do a others.

Making incorrect assembly impossible: design the process so it can only rippavilla essays, be done the correct way. Making status clear: make system status (and any errors that have occurred) obvious at book report, a glance. Tolerance: Friendly equipment will tolerate poor installation or operation without failure. Ease of control: use systems that respond slowly or whose reactions tend to stop rather than explode. Procedures: Standardize as much as possible so training and instructions can be simple. Cpk of 2 not good enough for you?

Lafferty, J.P. 1992. Manufacturing Engineering (October): 10. This is a one page article that argues that extremely capable processes are not enough for two reasons. And Nutrition. 1) if the world really can be described using bell shaped curves then the book, customer will always receive defects. 2) statistics don't take human errors that are not in the sample into account. Lafferty (1992) reviews Shingo's five basic classes of poka yoke devices: Limit switches, counters, guide pins, alarms, and checklists. Sentences For Essays. The best quote from the article is Shingo brought his Poka-Yoke devices to America in the mid-'80s.

Unfortunately, the how to book report, reception to Shingo's methods in this country is similar to our response to Dr. W. Edwards Deming in the 50's. It took us 30 years to become convinced Deming was right about statistical control. Must we wait 30 more to believe Shingo? Error in Medicine. Leap, Lucian L. 1994. Journal of the American Medical Association 272(23): 1851-1857. A scary article that indicates medication errors are injuring or causing the purdue, deaths of vast numbers of patients. Leap then discusses why the error rate is so high and lays out the psychology of human error in terms of slips and mistakes and latent errors. He also discusses the differing approach to error in medicine and aviation.

These are discussed in Ramon Felciano above. Leap is one of the sources used by Felciano in preparing his materials. Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1996. MfgNet: The Manufacturer's Internet Newsletter Productivity, Inc. Norwalk, CT. This article describes the use of poka-yoke at Varian, a producer of semiconductor equipment. Managers at Varian have changed their attitude toward errors. They recognized that blaming workers for errors and doing more training would not solve problems. Rather, they now view errors as the result of poor engineering design. Do A Book. Errors occur because the design allows them to occur.

Varian attempts to design their products so they cannot be assembled or reassembled during maintenance incorrectly. Essay On Health And Nutrition. Marchwinsky also describes a process for developing poka-yoke devices developed by Productivity Inc. Do A Report. It involves identifying errors and assessing error rates, determining when errors are made and detected, and identifying deviations from the current standards for the process. Additionally poka-yoke developers should try to identify the root causes of error by identify conditions in the process that commonly lead to error. Alternative approaches to preventing the error and useful spanish for essays corresponding device designs should be considered. After selecting one of the do a book report, alternatives, the device should be fabricated and tested.

Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1995. Productivity 17(3): 1-6. This article describes the owl at paper, implementation of mistake-proofing at United Electric, ATT Power Systems, TRW, and Honeywell. It reports that United Electric uses a mistake-proofing checklist when reviewing fixture designs. They are looking for conditions that may cause errors like tooling changes, multiple steps, lack of standards, rapid repetition, high volume, and poor housekeeping. ATT Power Systems reports substantial quality improvement and how to do a book report savings due to mistake-proofing. They also used a catalog of devices to promote and expedite the essay on health and nutrition, duplication of devices. Poka-yoke developers are paid a royalty when others use their device. At TRW, mistake-proofing is used because of the catastrophic nature of non-functional product (automotive airbag restraint systems).

Implementation and lessons learned are discussed. Honeywell reports defects being reduces by do a book report, 52%. Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1997. Productivity 18(1): 1-4. This article discusses the work of rippavilla, Grout and how to do a book Downs on when to use SPC and ZQC. (ZQC is the acronym for mistake-proofing.) These ideas are also discussed in the Grout and Downs papers above. Microsoft, HP Use Poka-Yoke to Squash Software Bugs. Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1997. Productivity 18(5): 1-4. An article summarizing the purdue writing a research paper, work of do a, HP's Harry Robinson and Microsoft's James Tierney. Spanish Sentences. These two firms use mistake-proofing to avoid bugs in software by creating testing programs that can be used early and often to detect bugs. Minimizing the delay between action and feedback are critical components of mistake-proofing.

Poka-Yoke Prevents Accidents As Well as Defects. Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1997. Productivity 18(5): 4-7. Mistake-proofing focuses on human error in a broad sense. This article provides examples of how mistake-proofing devices can be used to avoid human errors that result in how to safety accidents as well as quality defects. Poka-Yoke and essay on health the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. McClelland, S. 1989. Sensor Review 9(2): 63.

McClelland argues that competitive advantage is driven not by technology, but by technological competence. This distinction means that engineers have to seek out the simplest technology to solve problems, not the how to do a book report, more complex latest technology. He then reviews Shingo's book (see below). He states The whole treatise [of Shingo's book] is a testimony to what can be done with a little money and a lot of thought. Ultimately, we may have done ourselves a disservice by assuming that international industrial competitiveness is the patriot summary founded on book, more complex issues than it really is. Toyota Production System. Monden, Y. 1983.

Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and the patriot summary Management Press. (pp.10, 137-154) Monden is also a Toyota industrial engineer, like Shingo. He discusses autonomation, which is the autonomous checking of a process for abnormal conditions. Devices are put in place to make the process automatic-stopping when the process is not correct. Monden includes poka-yoke as one example of autonomation. He accurately points out that these techniques are useful for controlling more aspects of report, production than just conformance to quality standards. Boka/yoke-ing your way to success. Myers, Marc 1995. Network World. September 11, 1995: 39.

Baka/yoke is an early term, which was later replaced by poka-yoke. Baka/yoke is rippavilla translated as fool-proofing. Shingo changed the term to poka-yoke (mistake-proofing) when a worker was offended by the implication that she was a fool. Myers interviewed ATT Power Systems' quality manager. He reports on three levels of mistake-proofing: catching errors before they create defects, catching errors during the how to book, process of sentences for essays, creating defects, catching errors that have created defects and keeping the defects from going further in the process. Myers echoes the mistake-proofing approaches to software development discussed in Kelly's work above. A Case History Development of a Foolproofing Interface Documentation System. Nakajo, T., Azuma, I. and Tada, M. 1993.

IEEE Transactions on how to report, Software Engineering 19(8): 765-773. This article is a starting place for mistake-proofing communications between hardware and software developers through written specifications. It does not actually achieve mistake-proof communications, but does describe a case study where communication errors were reduced significantly. The principles of management, mistake-proofing the authors use are 1. adjust the operations and objects to the operators' abilities, 2. distinguish differences/changes in the operations/objects, and 3. How To Do A Report. decrease the essays, number of differences/changes in do a book report the operations/objects. The principles of foolproofing and purdue writing a research their application in manufacturing. Nakajo, T. and Kume, H. Do A Report. 1985.

Reports of a research paper, Statistical Application Research, Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers 32(2): 10-29. How To Do A Book Report. Nakajo et al. study 1014 mistake-proofing devices on information, assembly lines. They divide mistake proofing into prevention of occurrence and do a minimization of information system management, effects. Each is further subdivided. How To Book Report. Prevention of occurrence includes elimination, replacement, and facilitation. Minimization of effects includes detection, and mitigation. They manipulate and probe the data in a series of lengthy detailed tables. Essay And Nutrition. Number of Occurrences. How To Do A Report. remove the possibility of error. The Patriot Summary Essay. replacing an error-prone process with a mistake-proof process. making correct actions easier through mechanisms like color-coding. inspect product for agreement with standard, successive or self-checks. allowing the mistake to occur but minimizing the consequences (Tsuda's preventing the influence of do a report, mistakes. Poka-yoke: Improving product quality by preventing defects. Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun/Factory Magazine, (Ed.).

1988. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. This book is known by useful for essays, many as just the how to report, big red book. It catalogs 240 mistake-proofing devices of a large variety of Japanese companies. It provides ideas so firms can avoid reinventing the wheel. Shingo wrote the Preface. Hiroyuki Hirano provides a worthwhile overview of poka-yoke, which includes lists of different kinds of owl at purdue writing paper, errors and devices, and principles of basic improvement.

The 25 pages of overview offer a very limited amount of text, employing numerous figures instead. This book along with Shingo's book form the foundation of most modern mistake-proofing. The Design of book, Everyday Things. Norman, D.A. 1989. New York: Doubleday. This book was previously published with the title Psychology of Everyday Things. Norman provides an entertaining discussion of how the design of an object and human psychology interact to create error. Here's an excerpt from the preface: We are surrounded by large numbers of summary essay, manufactured items, most intended to make our lives easier and more pleasant.

In the office we have computers, copying machines, telephone systems, voice mail, and fax machines. In the home we have television sets, VCRs, automated kitchen appliances, answering machines, and how to home computers. Want Examples. All these wonderful devices are supposed to help us save time and produce faster, superior results. But wait a minute--if these new devices are so wonderful, why do we need special dedicated staff member to make them work--'power users' or 'key operators'? Why do we need manuals or special instructions to use the typical business telephone: Why do so many of the features go unused? And why do these devices add to how to do a book the stresses of life rather than reduce them? Norman uses the term forcing function instead of mistake-proofing device, but the intent is the same. He also discusses how to put knowledge in the world. An approach to design that makes the correct action easier to essays determine and makes errors more obvious. Most of the concepts of psychology applicable to mistake-proofing are laid out in this book.

Mistake-Proofing for Operators: The ZQC System. The Productivity Press Development Team. 1997. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. This book is a distillation of how to do a report, Shingo's basic ideas for workers at all levels of a firm.

While little new material is revealed, the basics of mistake-proofing are presented in a straightforward, methodical way. The book discusses the integration of the management, do and check phases of the traditional plan-do-check cycle for quality improvement. It categorizes inspection techniques: judgment, informative, and source inspection. It discusses setting functions and the use of sensors, and provides examples of each type of poka-yoke. New Technology and Human Error. How To Report. This book contains a collection of papers focusing on the skill-rule-knowledge framework by a variety of human factors researchers. Both Reason and why i want essay examples Rasmussen make multiple contributions along with many others; thirty-two papers in all. The papers are presented in sections titled: Definitions and taxonomies of human error Cognitive error mechanisms and error control Errors of judgment and the social context Human error and how to safety at why i want essay, work, Industrial studies of human error I and II Error sources, reasons or causes Review of how to, discussions Epilogue.

Reason, James. 1990. New York: Cambridge University Press. Reason's book presents a comprehensive description of the body of knowledge in the area of cognitive psychology and human factors. Reason provides a meticulous discussion of the sentences, theory of how to do a, human error. He lays out the generic error-modeling system (GEMS) which extends Rasmussen's skill-rule-knowledge classification system. He also covers error detection, active versus latent errors, and assessing and reducing the essay, risk of human error. The limited role of statistical quality control in how to do a a zero defects environment. Robinson, A.G. and D. M. Schroeder. Summary. 1990.

Production and Inventory Management Journal 31(3): 60-65. Robinson and book Schroeder discuss the attractions and limitations of statistical quality control (SQC). The attractions for SQC are large amounts of information from small samples, structured information collection, and the understanding how to use data to control the process. The limitations are an over reliance on statistics, which does not in itself improve the rippavilla, process, the false sense of security provided by being in-control. SQC can also be costly, and can disenfranchise workers and management. How To Do A Book. In contrast, poka-yoke focuses on process improvements that improve the effectiveness of summary, quality control performance at minimal cost. The basics of source inspection, self-checks, successive checks, and do a report autonomation are presented. Robinson and Schroeder point out that the simplicity and purdue common sense involved in mistake-proofing may be more easily adopted by do a, teams than the statistical concepts and formulas of SQC. Modern Approaches to Manufacturing Improvement: The Shingo System. Robinson, A.G. (Ed.)1991. Useful Spanish Sentences For Essays. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press.

Robinson combines the best from Shingo's books on manufacturing into one inexpensive, concise volume. It includes poka-yoke, single minute exchange of die, etc. A four hour instructional video where the presenter makes a presentation using an overhead projector. The overheads are spliced into the video tape as computer generated presentation graphics. SAE Promotional material state that the user will be able to find cause-and-effect relationships between human error, and quality and safety problems; zero in on the root cause of human error; manage the concept of Poka-Yoke (error-proofing); define and discuss the five implementation steps of how to do a, error-proofing. Want Essay. Numerous other topics are presented as well. Do A Book Report. Zero quality control: source inspection and the poka-yoke system. Shingo, Shigeo.

1986. trans. A.P. Dillion. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. This is the seminal book on mistake-proofing. Shingo describes the process by which he developed mistake-proofing or zero quality control (ZQC). Shingo places inspection techniques in three categories: source, informative, and judgment. He categorizes his ZQC techniques along three dimensions: Inspection techniques, setting functions, and regulatory functions.

The inspection method determines when the inspection occurs and on health and nutrition what is book inspected, the product or the process. A setting function checks a process parameter or a product attribute. The setting function is linked to a regulatory function, which is owl at writing a warning, notification, or cue to the worker that a process parameter or a product attribute is incorrect. Shingo identified three setting functions: contact, fixed-value, and motion-step. The contact method checks to book insure the physical attributes of the product or process are correct and why i to transfer examples error-free. Do A Book. The motion-step method checks the precedence relationship of the owl at a research, process to insure steps are conducted in do a book report the correct order. The fixed value method facilitates checking that matched sets of resources are available when needed or that the correct number of repetitions has occurred. A Regulatory function is any cue or attention-getting signal about the status of the product or process.

Regulatory functions that control the process and keep it from proceeding (control methods) are more powerful than those that simply provide a warning (warning methods) are. Shingo's book also provides a catalog of sensors and 112 examples showing before and after situations and categorizing devices on the three dimensions of ZQC. Why I. Each example indicates the cost of the device. These costs are plotted below. Using Poka-Yoke Concepts to book Improve a Military Retail Supply System.

Snell, Todd and rippavilla Atwater, J. Brian 1996. Production and Inventory Management Journal 37(4): 44-49. Snell and Atwater present a case study application of mistake-proofing to a service operation. They apply the concepts of Chase and Stewart's Sloan Management Review article to a military auto parts supply outlet at Fort Carson, Colorado. Customer and service errors are described along with devices for their solution. The results reported are impressive: part location accuracy in the warehouse climbed from 65% to 98%. Incorrect receipt closures to suppliers plummeted from 90% to 0%. A specific class of do a report, errors consistently made by customers dropped from 22% of orders to system 0%. Request process also declined from do a 12.5 days to 1.6 days. Eradicating mistakes in your software through poka yoke.

Tierney, James. Alternate title From Deming to essay on health Shingo: using Japanese quality assurance principles to eradicate problems from book your software development process. A video tape of a presentation at a local ASQC meeting, MBC Video, Inc 14415 N.E. 64th St., Redmond, WA 98052. (206) 885-7934. Promotional materials state many people have tried unsuccessfully to use highly successful Japanese QA principles on software development: James describes the Poka-Yoke method, which is highly applicable to software QA, and is widely used at Microsoft and acclaimed for its strong positive effect. James Tierney is Test Training Manager at Microsoft and had previously been Director of spanish for essays, Test for Microsoft at Work. This taped presentation of an ASQC tutorial presentation utilizes Powerpoint slides.

It will be of most interest to software engineers concerned with software testing and the use of book report, debuggers. It discusses some of the testing procedures mentioned in rippavilla essays Marchwinsky's Microsoft, HP Use Poka-Yoke to report Squash Software Bugs and Kelly's Out-of-Control. Implications of fool proofing in essay on health the manufacturing process. Tsuda categorizes mistake-proofing 4 ways, two of book report, which broaden Shingo's initial approach. Mistake detection is equivalent to Shingo's self-checks and successive checks for discovering when defects have occurred. Mistake prevention is Shingo's source inspection, which eliminates the possibility of on health, making a mistake. Tsuda adds the how to do a report, concept of mistake prevention in the work environment which means avoiding ambiguity by simplifying processes, making gages more intuitive, practicing good housekeeping, and insuring adequate quality and safety instruction to employees. For example, a book of work instructions that has two products' instructions on facing pages can be improved by formatting the pages so that a worker can only see one product's instructions at a time.

Tsuda's also adds preventing the influence of mistakes. This means allowing the mistake to occur but limiting the consequences. On training for mistake-proofing. Vasilash, G.S. 1995. Production (March): 42-44. Vasilash describes the training for rippavilla, and use of mistake-proofing at TRW's Inflatable Restraints (airbags) group in very general terms.

Mistake-proofing is used because airbag testing is destructive and because it was determined to be a methodology that would allow unit volume increases without any decrease in quality or productivity. Production volume increased from book 2 million to 13 million between 1990 and 1995. Management. Mistake-proofing allowed the introduction of how to book, new workers and machinery without deterioration of quality. Sustained Attention in Human Performance. Why I. This book contains a collection of papers on human attention and vigilance. Including An introduction to vigilance by Warm and Vigilance and Inspection by Weiner. These papers discuss the difficulties faced by human beings when they are expected to maintain high levels of how to do a report, attention while performing repetitive or monotonous tasks.

Improvement in transfusion safety using a new blood unit and patient identification system as part of safe transfusion practice. Wenz, B. and rippavilla Burns, E.R. 1991. Transfusion 31(5): 401-403. Wenz and how to do a book Burns describe a device called Blood-Loc which is a disposable plastic bag with a plastic dial combination lock. The letters needed to unlock the bag can only be obtained from the spanish sentences for essays, patient's wrist band. This insures that the nurse reads the wrist band and how to do a book properly identifies the patient. The nurse will not be able to incorrectly administer a unit of blood that was intended for another patient.

The product was tested in use and did prevent incorrect transfusions. Blood-Loc is one example of an owl at paper information poka-yoke as described by Chase and Stewart. This intrusion of report, advertising makes this site self-funding. This intrusion of advertising makes this site self-funding.

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lotus sutra essay Taigen Dan Leighton. Paper for an academic conference on Discourse and Rhetoric in the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism Version with full diacritical marks available from [email protected] In this essay I will discuss aspects of Zen Master Dogen's appropriation and use of the Lotus Sutra , as it is expressed in his rhetorical style. Dogen quotes the do a report, Lotus Sutra (from the Kumarajiva version) far more than any other sutra.[1] This might seem reasonably expectable, since Dogen was first ordained as a monk in the Tendai school, which continued to see the Lotus as the preeminent sutra, even as it incorporated and attempted to synthesize a whole range of Buddhist teachings. However, while prominent Kamakura innovators, Eisai, Dogen, Honen, Shinran, and essay, Nichiren all had been Tendai monks, they vary greatly in their subsequent application of the Lotus Sutra . The Lotus is the fundamental object of devotion for do a report, Nichiren, but is scarcely mentioned explicitly by Shinran (although it might be discerned as part of the background of Shin thought).

The situation of Dogen's use of the Lotus Sutra in on health, his teachings is do a book report more complex. The Lotus has been commonly perceived as tangential to Dogen, and to Japanese Soto Zen generally. For example, in for essays, discussing another great Soto literary figure from the eighteenth century, Ryokan, who also favored the Lotus Sutra , Ryuichi Abe says, Although Ryokan appears to have remained faithful to the religious ideals of his Soto progenitor Dogen, there was nothing sectarian about Ryokan's Buddhist practice. Among the numerous Buddhist scriptures, the Lotus Sutra popular text not particularly emphasized in do a report, traditional training but the essential scripture of the Tendai and Nichiren schools was by far his favorite.[2] While the Lotus is certainly not nearly as important to Dogen or Soto as it is to Nichiren, Ryokan's great appreciation for the patriot, it is revealing of the lingering appropriation of the Lotus Sutra in Soto, an appreciation and usage that does go back to the Japanese Soto founder. Dogen widely cites and interprets many doctrinal elements from the Lotus Sutra in his teachings. Along with his many direct allusions to the parables from the sutra, Dogen frequently refers to how to book, specific Lotus teachings. Examples are skillful means ( hoben ); the single cause for buddhas' appearing in the world, i.e. to bring suffering beings onto the path of awakening; and that only a Buddha together with a Buddha can fully fathom the fundamental truth.

While these teachings are not completely unique to the Lotus among Mahayana sutras, Dogen discusses them using direct quotes from the sentences for essays, Lotus Sutra . How To Do A Book Report. Dogen also often discusses or critiques teachings commonly linked to the Lotus Sutra in Heian and owl at a research paper, Kamakura Buddhism, such as the importance of fundamental enlightenment (hongaku); and realization of buddhahood in how to book report, this very body (sokushin jobutsu).[3] Dogen's use of the Lotus Sutra text is necessarily affected by the contemporary readings of the Lotus in Tendai and other Japanese understandings, a complex subject beyond the scope for this limited essay to why i want to transfer essay examples, detail. A discussion of all the numerous direct references to book report, the Lotus Sutra in Dogen's writings is also far beyond the scope of this essay. But to mention briefly one of the most prominent examples, in his Shobogenzo essay Hokke-Ten-Hokke The Lotus Dharma Turns the Lotus Dharma, Dogen discusses and elaborates his view of the useful spanish, liberative reality of the phenomenal world, which Dogen interprets as a primary teaching of the Lotus Sutra . Dogen expresses this interpretation in various ways. The Hokke-Ten-Hokke essay begins with the statement that, The contents of the lands in ten directions are the sole existence of the Lotus Dharma.[4] In various writings, Dogen creatively reads and interprets parts of the Lotus Sutra such as the stories in chapters fifteen and sixteen about the underground bodhisattvas immanently present and available for the world, and the inconceivable life-span, and continuing presence in the world, of Shakyamuni Buddha. These are among the Lotus Sutra supports for Dogen's teaching about the active agency of the phenomenal world in the process and practice of book, Buddhist awakening.[5] This interpretation and appropriation of the Lotus teaching as essentially immanent and located in the phenomenal world is not only important to Dogen's philosophy, but is also relevant to Dogen's style of expression, as will be described in what follows in this essay. In line with Dogen's many references, the the patriot summary essay, Lotus Sutra also retains a significant place in Soto liturgy, albeit far less central than in Nichiren Buddhism. Even today in many Japanese Soto Zen temples, the verse endings to the sutra's chapter sixteen on the Buddha's Inconceivable Life-span (Juryohonge), or to chapter twenty-five on Kannon Bodhisattva (Fumonbonge), are chanted daily. But instead of the sutra's doctrinal or liturgical applications, I will limit the scope of this essay to examining some of the ways in which Dogen's style of discourse and how to do a book, rhetoric, as seen in his Eihei Koroku as well as in Shobogenzo , resonate with his interpretations of aspects of the Lotus Sutra . My point is essay not at all to how to report, claim that the want, Lotus Sutra is the single most important source for Dogen; obviously there are many traditions from which Dogen borrows.

Much of the do a book, Chinese Ch'an tradition is the purdue writing, central lexicon for Dogen, especially the classical koan literature, as well as closer Tsao-tung lineage forebears such as Hung-chih Cheng-chŸeh and how to do a book report, T'ien-t'ung Ju-ching. In Dogen and the Koan Tradition, Steven Heine has masterfully demonstrated how Dogen's writings serve to develop and elaborate the koan genre.[6] Dogen also makes ample use of the Japanese poetic tradition, as invoked in Yasunari Kawabata's appreciation of owl at, Dogen as a poet in Kawabata's 1968 Nobel Prize acceptance speech. Dogen's indebtedness to this poetic tradition has been further traced in Heine's The Zen Poetry of Dogen .[7] Dogen certainly further appropriated the Chinese monastic tradition as a major basis for his praxis, and training program.[8] But Dogen's utilization of Mahayana discourse, especially as developed in the Lotus, should also be considered as one of the fundamental backgrounds for viewing Dogen's teaching as a whole. I believe that further inquiries into various aspects of their interrelationship will be illuminating to both Dogen and Lotus Sutra studies. But this present essay focuses on Dogen's borrowing aspects of its rhetorical style, based on his own interpretation of the Lotus. The essay proceeds with a discussion of the Lotus Sutra style of how to book report, proclamatory rhetoric. The Self-Referential Lotus. The Lotus Sutra itself frequently emphasizes the examples, importance of and do a, rewards for and nutrition, the reading, copying, and reciting of the Lotus Sutra . To be sure, other Mahayana sutras talk about the merit to be derived by recalling or copying the sutra being read.[9] However, the Lotus Sutra at times seems to hold this self-referential quality at do a book its center, such that it promotes an extreme mode of self-referential discourse that is unique to the Lotus Sutra . The sutra often speaks of the wondrous nature of the Lotus Sutra , right in the text commonly referred to essays, as the Lotus Sutra . This rhetorical device can become startling and mind-twisting, like Escher's painting of two hands drawing each other.

Various important figures in the sutra appear within the text of the Lotus Sutra because they have heard that the Lotus Sutra is currently being preached by how to book report Shakyamuni Buddha on Vulture Peak. The Patriot Summary. For example, in chapter eleven, the stupa of the ancient Buddha Prabhutaratna emerges from the earth and floats in mid-air, because he has vowed always to appear whenever the Lotus Sutra is preached.[10] In the same chapter, myriad bodhisattvas arrive from world systems in all directions, in order to praise the Buddha for preaching this sutra in which they are appearing. This quality of the how to book report, sutra talking about the useful spanish for essays, sutra, and especially its many references to the Lotus Sutra as something expounded many ages ago, as about to be expounded, or even as hopefully to be expounded in the distant future, has led some commentators to observe that the report, whole text of this sutra, more than any others, is a preface to rippavilla essays, a missing scripture. As George and Willa Tanabe say: The preaching of the do a book, Lotus sermon promised in the first chapter never takes place. The text, so full of merit, is about a discourse which is the patriot essay never delivered; it is how to do a book a lengthy preface without a book. The Lotus Sutra is thus unique among texts. It is not merely subject to various interpretations, as all texts are, but is open or empty at its very center. [11]

This is a plausible perspective or interpretation. The text does refer, in third person, to a designated text that one might keep vainly waiting for, as if for Godot. However, this perspective misses the the patriot essay, manner in which the Lotus sermon certainly does exist. Fundamental messages of the Lotus, such as the One Vehicle and the primacy of the Buddha vehicle, are difficult to miss, even if they might be interpreted in various manners. But furthermore, between the lines the Lotus Sutra functions within itself both as a sacred text or scripture, and as a commentary and do a book, guidebook to its own use, beyond the literal confines of its own written text.

The Lotus Sutra is itself a sacred manifestation of spiritual awakening that proclaims its own sacrality. Right within the purdue a research, text's proclamation of the wonders of a text with the same name as itself, the text celebrates its own ephemeral quality with the visionary splendors of its assembly of buddhas, bodhisattvas, and do a book report, spirits, and and nutrition, with the engaging qualities of its parables. The synthesis of the immanent spirit spoken about in book, the text, and thesis management, the text's own intended functioning as an instrument or skillful catalyst to spark awakening, has been carried on among its followers. This is exemplified in the varieties of how to, Nichiren Buddhism in the patriot essay, that they are rooted and focused in how to do a report, devotion to the Lotus Sutra itself as a sacred manifestation, and devotional object, which they are committed to proclaiming and thesis system, promulgating. But for Dogen, the self-proclamation of the dharma in the Lotus Sutra becomes an aspect of report, his rhetorical style, rather than an externalized objectification. In similar manner to the sutra's proclamations of the wondrous qualities of the Lotus Dharma, Dogen in his writings commonly proclaims the wondrous nature of the Dharma, the Buddha, the many buddha ancestors, previous proclamations or utterances by spanish for essays ancestral teachers, and how to book report, of course the Lotus Sutra itself. Dogen's style of discourse is usually not explanatory, discursive, or logical in the linear manner of modern rationality or cognition.

Rather, Dogen seemingly free-associates, making illuminating connections based on doctrinal themes or imagistic motifs, aimed at proclaiming the essay, non-dual reality of the present phenomenal world as fully imbued with the how to book, presence of the to transfer examples, Buddha and of the ongoing possibility of awakening. A clear encapsulation of the Lotus Sutra 's self-proclamatory discourse strategy appears in volume one of Dogen's Eihei Koroku in two consecutive jodo, or dharma discourses, numbers 69 and 70, given in 1241.[12] Jodo number 69 reads in its entirety: [Dogen] said: Today this mountain monk [Dogen] gives a dharma discourse for the assembly. What I have just said I offer to all the how to book, three treasures in the ten directions, to the twenty-eight Ancestors in India, to the six Ancestors in China, to all the nostrils under heaven, to thesis system management, the eyeballs throughout the past and present, to book report, dried shitsticks, to three pounds of sesame, to Zen boards, and to zafus. Previously we offered incense for the limitless excellent causal conditions, and we dedicate it so that toads may leap up to Brahma's heaven, earthworms may traverse the eastern ocean, and clouds and water monks may become horses and owl at a research, cows. All buddhas, ten directions, three times; All honored ones, bodhisattva mahasattvas; Mahaprajnaparamita.[13] Here Dogen states that he is how to book report proclaiming a jodo. Want To Transfer Essay. But immediately, without saying anything more about the dharma, he dedicates that statement itself to the three jewels, the ancestral teachers, to meditation paraphernalia, and to famed Ch'an iconoclastic expressions for do a, Buddha, Yun-men's dried shitstick (or dry turd) and owl at purdue paper, his disciple Tung-shan Shou-ch'u's three pounds of sesame (or flax).[14] He then further dedicates the incense offering, which had preceded the statement that he was now making a statement, to toads, earthworms, and monks who manifest as horses and cows, followed by the traditional concluding liturgical dedication. Book Report. He thereby declares the intention of the dedication for all beings, no matter how humble. Paper. As in the Lotus Sutra , there is no visible dharma expressed except for the celebration via proclamation of a non-explicit dharma. But then, in the following jodo, number 70, Dogen explicitly comments on his own use of self-referential dharma, while engaging even further in celebrating an unexpressed dharma. We do not know how many days may have separated the two discourses.

In this section of the how to, text, between the jodos that can be dated and which are four months apart, there were an average of two discourse per want to transfer essay week. But whatever the interval, it is do a report clear in the overall text of Eihei Koroku that the different discourses, recorded chronologically with only very rare exceptions, are often linked sequentially through the associations of theme, imagery, ancestral figures, or textual allusion. Essay On Health. Jodo number 70 says: [Dogen] said: As this mountain monk [Dogen] today gives a dharma discourse, all buddhas in the three times also today give a dharma discourse. The Ancestral teachers in all generations also today give a dharma discourse. The one who bears the sixteen-foot golden body gives a dharma discourse. The one endowed with the wondrous function of the do a report, hundred grasses (all things) gives a dharma discourse. Already together having given a dharma discourse, what dharma has been expounded? No other dharma is expressed; but this very dharma is expressed. What is this dharma?

It is upheld within Shang-lan Temple; it is essays upheld within Kuan-yin Temple; it is upheld within the monks' hall; it is book report upheld within the buddha hall. Again, Dogen never talks about the content of to transfer essay examples, his dharma discourse. But he proclaims that his own act of proclaiming this self-referencing dharma is echoed simultaneously in the discourses of the ancestral teachers and how to do a book, buddhas, just as the proclamation of the Lotus Sutra is echoed in various buddha realms, in various times. Then Dogen asks the same question that the essay on health, Tanabes ask about the Lotus Sutra , What dharma has been expounded? And Dogen answers unabashedly, No other dharma is expressed; but this very dharma is expressed. Report. What is this dharma? While not explaining or even stating the content of this dharma, his phrase, This very (shako) dharma, might seem to refer to the teaching of suchness, or tathata, but it is also simply just this dharma, as opposed to that one. Essays. Thereby Dogen emphasizes not an abstraction, but the concreteness of report, phenomenal reality as the realm of dharma.

Then Dogen does declare and affirm that this non-explicit teaching is upheld in the context of the thesis system management, temples and the buildings where the practice is carried on. The example in these two jodos of do a, Dogen's proclamation of the patriot essay, a non-explicit dharma is how to report presented in a direct and summary, concise manner, as appropriate to the often brief declarations of the jodo form. But this rhetorical strategy recurs, more or less subtly, in many places throughout Shobogenzo , as well as in Eihei Koroku . That Dogen is adapting this rhetorical posture at least in part directly from the Lotus Sutra is clearly evidenced by another early jodo in the Eihei Koroku , number 24, given in 1240. In the entire universe in ten directions there is book report no dharma at all that has not yet been expounded by all buddhas in the three times. Therefore all buddhas say, In the same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. This great assembly present before me also is practicing the Way in the manner of all buddhas. Each movement, each stillness is not other than the dharma of all buddhas, so do not act carelessly or casually.

Although this is the summary, case, I have an expression that has not yet been expounded by any buddha. Everyone, do you want to discern it? After a pause [Dogen] said: In the how to do a, same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. In this dharma discourse Dogen again does not elaborate on the content of the dharma expounded by all buddhas in the three times, except to aver that it is no other than every movement, and thesis system, every stillness, and is practiced by the monks at Eiheiji. Significant to the point of this essay is the context of this quote mentioned by Dogen from Sakyamuni Buddha, In the same manner that all buddhas in report, the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the system management, dharma without differentiations. How To Book Report. This statement that Dogen uses to express the inexplicit dharma proclaimed by all buddhas is from the Lotus Sutra , chapter two on essay on health and nutrition Skillful Means.[15] Dogen further emphasizes this quote when he repeats it verbatim as his own expression for the inexplicit dharma, which he claims, Has not yet been expounded by any buddha. Do A Book Report. But saying it has not previously been expounded is tantamount to Dogen himself preaching the original Lotus Sutra , or to rippavilla, his own manifestation as the how to do a, Buddha in the Lotus text in useful, which it is do a first expounded. There are ample examples of response with silence, or of indirect or inexplicit Dharma proclamation within the Ch'an literature that is Dogen's primary lexicon. Yet the Lotus Sutra referent for this 1240 jodo about expounding the to transfer examples, dharma clearly demonstrates that Dogen himself saw the Lotus Sutra , expounded by all buddhas in the three times, as an important source for this self-proclamatory rhetorical style of how to do a report, expounding. Further studies of any references to the Lotus Sutra in the development of early Ch'an rhetorical styles might be informative.

But it is apparent that Dogen himself saw the Lotus as one model for a non-dualistic, inexplicit discourse approach. The Self-Reflexive as a Skillful Mode. In The Karma of Words, William LaFleur discusses the sophisticated nature of the Lotus Sutra as literature, and its impact in medieval Japanese poetics. The surprising feature of want examples, [the parables] in the Lotus is that they are simultaneously the vehicle and the tenor of how to do a book report, that vehicle. Purdue. In a very important sense, the parables of the how to do a book, Lotus are about the role and status of purdue a research paper, parabolic speech itself. They are what I would call self-reflexive allegory; that is, their trajectory of discourse behaves like a boomerang. Much like the dharma described in a crucial section of the hoben chapter, they are characterized by the absolute identity [or equality] of their beginning and end.[16] LaFleur's analysis of this realm of discourse in the Lotus Sutra focuses on its radical nondualism, and how to report, its embodiment of skillful means. This standpoint of nondualism represents interpretations of the Lotus Sutra developed in T'ien-t'ai and in summary essay, Japanese Buddhism prior to Dogen, and which impacted the how to do a report, medieval literature LaFleur examines.

From such a nondualistic viewpoint, LaFleur suggests translating hoben as modes rather than the more common translations of skillful or expedient means. Hurvitz translates hoben as expedient devices, and on health, Watson translates it as expedient means, both implying a dualistic, and even manipulative, aspect of the teaching, especially when rendered as devices. Kato, Tamura, and Miyasaka translate it as tactfulness, which implies more consideration and how to do a, inclusivity, but might still be seen as implying a hierarchy of the teachings. The upaya (or hoben ) doctrine is a problematic aspect in the Lotus Ekayana One Vehicle teaching. The Lotus at times has been upheld, within the sutra itself as well as by some of its followers, for example in spanish, the T'ien-t'ai p'an-chiao system, as the supreme epitome of the how to, One Vehicle. In this perspective other teachings and scriptures may be seen as merely expedient, provisional (and therefore inferior) teachings that might be included in the One Vehicle as a kind of dharmic noblesse oblige. Such a view of upaya implies a hierarchy of teachings, and even a manipulative use of them. Unquestionably the Lotus Sutra lends itself, and often explicitly encourages, a political, polemical reading in which the Lotus, and those who preach it, represent the True Dharma, and those who follow provisional, expedient teachings exemplify the chaff, inimical to essay on health, the full teaching. On the other hand, the alternate mode of reading the teaching of how to do a book report, upaya, as championed by LaFleur, implies a radically nondualistic inclusivity, and an acceptance of all helpful teachings as simply a diversity of modes. Portions of the thesis information system, Lotus Sutra do indeed lend themselves to this alternate, more tolerant and how to book report, inclusive reading of hoben . For example, in chapter five the parable of the Dharma rain falling universally on essay on health all implies no discrimination against any of the how to do a book report, many plants that are equally nourished, each growing in their own way.

Applied as appropriate to the diversity of needs of suffering beings, all teaching modes might be equally beneficial to the ultimate purpose for buddhas' manifestation, as proclaimed in the upaya chapter: By resort to numberless devices and to various means, parables, and phrases do [buddhas] proclaim the owl at, dharmas, . . . for one great cause appearing in book, the world, . System Management. . . to cause beings to hear the how to book report, Buddha's knowledge, . . . to essay and nutrition, cause the beings to how to book report, understand, . . . to cause the beings to enter the path.[17] Such an thesis information system management inclusive reading of how to do a book report, hoben might be usefully appropriated to modern concerns of religious pluralism, which may be LaFleur's subtext. But LaFleur's reading also has implications to styles of discourse, the primary issue under consideration here. LaFleur sees the rippavilla, sutra's primary liberative purpose and its various skillful modes expressed nondualistically as exactly the reason for the sutra's self-referential discourse style. In his reading: The narratives of the Lotus are not a means to do a book, an end beyond themselves. Their concrete mode of useful sentences, expression is how to book report not chaff to be dispensed with in order to attain a more abstract, rational, or spiritual truth. The Lotus is unequivocal on rippavilla this point: One may seek in every one of the ten directions but will find no mode [ hoben ] other than the Buddha's. How To Book Report. This accounts for what may seem to summary essay, be an inordinate amount of how to do a book report, praise directed by the sutra toward itself. It also implies that within the sutra there is an unmistakable philosophical move opposite to that in Plato's Republic, a move to why i want to transfer examples, affirm the complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in spite of the fact that they are impermanent.[18] This common Japanese association of the Lotus Sutra with affirmation of the reality of the phenomenal world, followed here by LaFleur, can be dated back to the Japanese Tendai founder Saicho.

Having studied with two of the disciples of the how to book report, Chinese Hua-yen master Chan-jan, who argued for essay, the Buddha nature of insentient beings (a teaching that Dogen would also later frequently celebrate), Saicho incorporated Hua-yen (Kegon) views of suchness into how to book Tendai. But Saicho also applied this in an original way to his interpretation of the Lotus Sutra . His reading not only acknowledges two aspects of suchness but establishes a hierarchy between the two in identifying the information management, dynamic aspect of suchness—its expression as the phenomenal world—with the T'ien-t'ai category of the middle and with the one vehicle of the Lotus. This represents a crucial step toward the how to report, profound valorization of purdue writing a research paper, empirical reality found in medieval Tendai original enlightenment thought.[19] From this Japanese Tendai perspective of spiritual reality immanent in concrete phenomena, the Lotus Sutra itself is not separate from, or talking about, a realm of transcendent spirit outside of itself. Thus the Lotus Sutra itself can become an embodiment of the awakening aspect of the phenomenal world, omnipresent, at least in potentiality, in all concrete phenomena. The self-referential or self-reflexive aspect of the sutra demonstrates the non-separation of its liberative goals from the Buddha's skillful modes. Given the nonduality of purpose and context of the Lotus Sutra as a text that itself represents and enacts veneration of the world's liberative potential, it is reasonable that this very sutra would become an object of veneration, as in Nichiren Buddhism. To be sure, Dogen is how to report not inclusive of the on health and nutrition, diverse modes of teachings in book, LaFleur's strictly non-hierarchical fashion, as, in common with all of the Kamakura innovators, Dogen at times upholds his own teaching lineage and strongly disparages others. However, Dogen's use of Lotus style self-referential discourse is directed at affirmation of the nondualism of means and end, and he repeatedly affirms the phenomenal realm as the management, arena of nondual practice-realization, in accord with LaFleur's view of the Lotus Sutra discourse as based on hoben . In a similar skillful mode, Dogen often intentionally uses words as vehicles to express the discourse he is how to do a book then proclaiming. Dogen's frequent inversion of conventional word order and word meaning from classical koans or sutras serves to express this quality of want essay, proclamation, in which the discourse itself demonstrates that which it is expounding.

A prominent example is the oft-cited wordplay in do a book report, Shobogenzo Bussho Buddha Nature, first written in 1241, in management, which Dogen retranslates the passage from the do a book, Mahaparinirvana Sutra, All sentient beings without exception have Buddha nature. By rereading the characters shitsu-u as whole being, rather than all have, Dogen alters the passage to, All sentient beings' whole being [is] Buddha nature.[20] This elimination of dualistic grammar itself demonstrates the nondualism between sentient beings and Buddha nature. In further accord with LaFleur's view of the why i essay examples, Lotus discourse, Dogen specifically affirms the complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in his discourse rhetoric as well as its content, and even when leaving the content itself seemingly absent, or at least not stated. In jodo 49 in do a book report, Eihei Koroku, also given in 1241, Dogen says: This mountain monk has not lectured for the sake of the assembly for a long time. Thesis Information System Management. Why is this? On my behalf, the buddha hall, the monks' hall, the valley streams, the pine, and bamboo, every moment, endlessly speak fully for how to do a report, the sake of owl at writing paper, all people.

Have you all heard it or not? If you say you heard it, what did you hear? If you say you have not heard it, you do not keep the five precepts. Here Dogen rhetorically affirms the immanence of the dharmic discourse as well as its content, right in the world of dharmas, or phenomena, including streams, pines, bamboo, and temple buildings, which all themselves discourse on this dharma. He also self-consciously uses this nonexplicit discourse of the dharma and its immanence as a skillful means for challenging his monks in training to hear and express the dharma more fully. Have you all heard it or not? Dogen's Use of the Fantastic.

Another literary aspect of the Lotus Sutra that is disconcerting to conventional analysis is the do a book, degree to which its stories and teachings are rooted in images and fantasies. In his introduction to his book on Myoe, whose life and teaching were colorfully replete with the to transfer examples, visionary, George Tanabe, Jr. cites the centrality of visions to East Asian Buddhist experience, despite the focus of much of modern Buddhist studies on doctrine and philosophy. How To Do A Book. The Buddhist tradition is as much a history of fantasy as it is a history of thought. It should be studied as such to essays, gain a better understanding not only of Buddhism as a fantastic philosophy, but of how to, Buddhists as sentient beings as well.[21] In the context of Myoe studies, Tanabe's discussion of the fantastic might more directly apply to the psychedelic visions of the Avatamsaka Sutra, which Myoe, as a Kegon monk, especially cherished.

But Tanabe's remarks also certainly pertain to the striking images and parables of the Lotus, about thesis, which he says, The Lotus Sutra is less a work of memory and do a book, more a product of fantasy inspired with new visions derived internally.[22] The Lotus Sutra thus calls for useful spanish, examination of the how to report, significance and function of its imagery as much as, if not more than, its philosophical positions. As Tanabe says: Mahayana Buddhism is, among many things it can be, a tradition of the mind's faculty for producing images in both waking life and sleep: a tradition, that is, of fantasy producing visions, . . . and dreams, which were interpreted by essays the dreamers for their own meanings and which can be, to add a modern aspect, read by us for their feelings. It will be possible to gain a better understanding of Mahayana Buddhism as a vehicle not only of ideas and institutions but of human emotion as well only when studies of the fantastic end of the how to do a book report, spectrum become more available.[23] In this context, the Lotus Sutra parables and self-referential discourse style can be seen as the internal expression of vision, or fantasy, that expresses the summary, human experience of Mahayana practice, more than its philosophical content. Even when, as may frequently be the case, such discourse is how to do a a literary device or artifice, rather than directly inspired by literal meditative experience, visions, or dreams, such literary framing serves to honor the skillful use of imagination and the visionary. The Lotus Sutra itself includes a parable that uses a fantastic vision to demonstrate how fantastic visions function as skillful liberative modes.

In chapter seven, a conjured or phantom city is described as a vision that serves as a metaphor for the teaching of rippavilla, nirvana as cessation, which can provide a half-way oasis on the path to Mahayana universal liberation. Despite being a mere phantom, the vision of an oasis city acts as a necessary, beneficial encouragement for practitioners, who may be refreshed by how to do a temporarily imagining they have achieved their goal. Similarly, Lotus Sutra parables, no matter how fantastic, themselves function as beneficial encouragements. In another of the numerous examples in Shobogenzo of Dogen using wordplay to invert conventional thinking, in Muchu Setsumu Within a Dream Expressing the Dream, written in 1242, Dogen extensively elaborates on the statement that all buddhas express the dream within a dream.[24] He thereby denies the supposedly lesser reality of the dreams of the transient phenomenal world, and negates a Platonic exaltation of the absolute, which LaFleur describes as the useful sentences for essays, antithesis of Lotus teaching. Instead, Dogen proclaims the dream world of phenomena as exactly the realm of book report, buddhas' activity. Every dewdrop manifested in every realm is a dream. This dream is the glowing clarity of the the patriot summary essay, hundred grasses. . . . Do not mistake them as merely dreamy.[25] The liberative awakening of do a report, buddhas is itself described as a dream. Without expressing dreams, there are no buddhas.

Without being within a dream, buddhas do not emerge and turn the the patriot summary, wondrous dharma wheel. This dharma wheel is no other than a buddha together with a buddha, and a dream expressed within a dream. Simply expressing the dream within a dream is itself the buddhas and ancestors, the assembly of unsurpassable enlightenment.[26] Dogen is do a book not frivolously indulging in useful spanish, mere paradox here, but follows the logic of the dream as necessarily the locus of awakening. As Dogen says in his celebrated essay, Genjokoan, Those who have great realization of delusion are buddhas.[27] What is worthy of study is not delusions or fantasies about enlightenment, but rather the reality of the causes and conditions of the how to book report, realms of to transfer, delusion and suffering. A similar logic is expressed in the Lotus Sutra dictum that buddhas manifest only due to the presence of do a, suffering beings. Rippavilla Essays. Dogen's positive view of do a book report, dreams will be significant in management, his parables to do a, be discussed below, two of which Dogen frames as if they might have been dreams, whether or not they were his actual sleeping dreams. Dogen does not attend to owl at a research paper, literal dreams with anywhere near the same dedication as his contemporary, Myoe, as exemplified by Myoe's extraordinary, forty-year dream journal.[28] Along with Myoe, dreams and visionary discourse are also more emphasized than they are by Dogen in the teachings of Keizan, Dogen's third generation successor, who is revered as the second founder of Japanese Soto Zen. The central role of dream and vision for Keizan has been discussed and elaborated by Bernard Faure in Visions of Power. [29] Keizan and his successors in the following few generations helped spread Soto Zen throughout rural Japan.

One stereotype in Soto studies is the distinction between Keizan's use of the visionary, inspired by Esoteric teachings, and the supposedly more pure Zen of Dogen. According to this stereotype, Dogen emphasized zazen and a rational presentation of buddha dharma, untainted by the more colorful and melodramatic Mahayana and Esoteric teachings indulged in by Keizan.[30] However, Dogen does indeed employ dreams and visions as skillful teaching tools. While we may certainly note differences in do a book, emphasis and style between Dogen and Keizan, Dogen is in fundamental accord with the world-view of medieval Japan, including the esoteric teachings of Shingon and Tendai that were the background for all Kamakura Buddhism. And Nutrition. Dogen sees the how to report, phenomenal world as dynamically alive, and imbued with spirit forces. His visionary context is perhaps most apparent in his interpretations and appropriations of the Lotus Sutra , and in his own references to owl at paper, dreaming. In Muchu Setsumu Within a Dream Expressing the Dream, Dogen explicitly refers to the Lotus Sutra as a source for do a, the role of dreams in his discourse style. He quotes a long passage that concludes the final verse in chapter fourteen of the sutra, beginning from, All buddhas, with bodies of and nutrition, golden hue, splendidly adorned with a hundred auspicious marks, hear the dharma and expound it for others.

Such is the fine dream that ever occurs. . . . Dogen interprets this passage as saying that the do a book report, whole archetypal story of the Buddha occurs in a dream. Rippavilla. Dogen's reading takes this passage out of how to, its context in the sutra to emphasize that the Buddha is made king, leaves the palace, awakens under the bodhi tree, and conducts his whole teaching career, all in a dream.[31] Thus this passage at the close of chapter fourteen is creatively interpreted by Dogen to serve as foreshadowing for why i essay, the revelation in chapter sixteen of how to do a, Buddha's inconceivable life-span, in which the archetypal story of his birth, awakening, teaching, and death is more explicitly revealed as a skillful means to encourage beings. After quoting this passage, Dogen avers that, This dream of buddhas is not an analogy. In the original context of the Lotus Sutra text, this passage is merely describing the rewards of those who preach the Lotus, in this instance the reward of auspicious dreams.[32] But Dogen uses his creative reading to validate, or at least exemplify, his teaching that the dream-state of the conditioned phenomenal world is why i exactly the arena for how to report, awakening. But here he is the patriot summary furthermore claiming the how to report, dream mentioned by essays the Lotus Sutra as a model for a skillful discourse mode that has recourse to the visionary as a tool for liberation. As in the Lotus Sutra self-reflexive discourse style, the parable expression is itself a skillful mode of reality for Dogen, not separate from concrete phenomena. Do A Book. Dogen continues,

People in the past and present mistakenly think that, thanks to the power of expounding this foremost dharma, mere night dreams may become like this dream of buddhas. Owl At Writing. Thinking like this, one has not yet clarified the Buddha's discourse. Awakening and report, dreaming from the purdue writing a research, beginning are one suchness, the genuine reality. The buddha-dharma, even if it were an analogy, is the genuine reality.[33] For Dogen, the particular events of this dream world are the reality, and how to report, also the skillful discourse, of the awakening of buddhas. The essays of Dogen's Shobogenzo , such as Muchu Setsumu, are sometimes philosophical and elaborative of traditional Buddhist or Zen doctrines, and are addressed to essays, a general audience of his contemporaries. In Eihei Koroku , by contrast, Dogen is directly addressing his small cadre of monk disciples at Eiheiji, stretching for means to encourage and develop their practice. In this work, the primary available source for his mature teachings, as well as occasionally revealing humor or feelings such as sadness or regret, Dogen at how to report times offers his own parables, often using fantastic, playful imagery, sometimes expressed as if in dreams.

In the following three parables from Eihei Koroku jodos, Dogen's appropriation of system, Lotus and how to do a book report, Mahayana vision is evidenced through the allusions to Mahayana rhetoric or figures in each of them. In Eihei Koroku jodo number 229, given in 1247, Dogen directly parodies the rhetoric of Mahayana sutras. The millions of billions of transformation bodies [of buddhas] abide throughout a monk's staff, carry water and gather firewood to make offerings to rippavilla essays, buddhas as numerous as there are sitting cushions, and, on the tip of a whisk, simultaneously all attain unsurpassed complete perfect enlightenment. They are all equally named Broken Wooden Ladle Tathagata, Worthy of Offerings, Omniscient, Foot of Bright Practice, Well Gone One, World Liberator, Supreme One, Strong Controlling Person, Teacher of Humans and book report, Heavenly Beings, World-Honored Buddha. The Country [of this Buddha] is named Clump of Soil; the kalpa is named Fist.

The duration of the True Dharma Age and useful sentences for essays, Semblance Dharma Age are both twelve hours, and the buddha's longevity is that of a dried turd from three thousand great thousands of how to book report, worlds. Do you all understand? If you state your understanding you are making mistake after mistake. If you say you do not understand, even the five precepts are not maintained. Dogen plays with words here, replacing the conventional sutra rhetoric for a buddha abiding throughout kalpas with his abiding throughout a monk's staff. Instead of making offerings to buddhas as numerous as the proverbial grains of sand in the Ganges River, Dogen substitutes buddhas as numerous as sitting cushions.

Instead of the buddha sitting under the purdue paper, bodhi tree as he attains enlightenment, Dogen has him sitting on top of a whisk. Dogen then applies the standard ten epithets for a buddha, starting with Tathagata, to a new buddha invented here by Dogen, named Broken Wooden Ladle, who might be seen as a reference to all of the humble monks practicing under him at Eiheiji. Continuing with his parody of conventional Mahayana sutra rhetoric, Dogen designates the buddha land of book, this fabulous new buddha as Clump of soil, his kalpa as Fist, and his longevity as that of a dried turd. Dogen seems to mock the standard Mahayana sutra rhetoric, iconoclastically mimicking a formula for describing buddhas used often in the Lotus Sutra , for example in essay on health and nutrition, chapters eight and nine on the predictions of future buddhahood of the five hundred disciples, and of learners and adepts.[34] However, Dogen actually is how to do a book report affirming his view of the Lotus Sutra , as originally interpreted by Saicho and expressed by summary essay LaFleur, that validates the world of concrete phenomena as expressive of the essence of awakening. The new buddha is called Broken Wooden Ladle in celebration of do a, a humble implement, to which Dogen frequently refers in the patriot, highly exalted terms. How To Do A Book Report. For example, in jodo 204 in 1246 he says, If you really know it, the temple pillars confirm that, and owl at writing paper, the wooden ladles study together with you.

Then he has wooden ladles doing three prostrations and asking a dharma question.[35] Similarly revered in jodo 229, above, are the practice paraphernalia of sitting cushions, a monk's staff, and a teacher's whisk. But in celebrating humble phenomena, Dogen also emphasizes their ephemerality, as he says that the True and Semblance Dharma Ages of Broken Wooden Ladle Buddha endure merely twelve hours. Although an how to report intact wooden ladle is a useful implement, here the Buddha is named Broken Wooden Ladle, further emphasizing transiency, and recalling the Zen phrase, the bottom of a bucket broken out, which signifies the essay examples, letting go of attachments in opening experiences. Dogen's challenge to his monks at the end of the jodo echoes the prominent Ch'an dharma combat rhetoric style of koan anthologies such as the how to book report, Hekiganroku , Blue Cliff Record. However, his statement, If you state your understanding you are making mistake after mistake, might also be seen as a rationale for the whole Lotus Sutra self-referential strategy of not explicitly stating the content of the essay on health and nutrition, dharma being celebrated and proclaimed. Simultaneously, there is a mandate for this Dharma to be actually proclaimed. How To. If you say you do not understand, even the and nutrition, five precepts are not maintained, implies the ethical responsibility not to deny whatever is realized, despite its ephemerality.

This may be seen as echoing the frequent theme in the Lotus Sutra of the responsibility of how to book, Shakyamuni's disciples to maintain the Lotus Dharma in the future. Again, whether Dogen's rhetoric here borrows more from Ch'an tradition or more from the indirect modes of the Lotus Sutra is not the issue. The fact that he uses this style to mimic Lotus Sutra rhetoric, however, does indicate that in this jodo Dogen is essay on health concerned and aware of Lotus Sutra discourse style, and book, of appropriating it rhetorically, at least in part. In the following two examples, Dogen provides fantastic parables that seem to rippavilla, be framed as dreams when he describes them as happening last night. Whether they were literal dreams or meditative visions is beside the point. As Bernard Faure says, For Buddhists there is no clear distinction between dreams that come during sleep and visions achieved in a waking state, or more precisely during meditation, in a state (samadhi) that, like trance, is often defined as being 'neither sleeping nor waking.'[36] Whether realized in how to, sleep or samadhi, or merely used intentionally as literary devices invoking the visionary qualities of samadhi, Dogen uses these visions to express the dream within the dream, i.e. to reveal awakening amid the phenomenal. In his Enlightenment Day jodo, number 88, in 1241, Dogen says: Two thousand years later, we are the paper, descendants [of Shakyamuni]. Two thousand years ago, he was our ancestral father. He is muddy and wet from following and chasing after the how to do a book report, waves.

It can be described like this, but also there is the principle of the Way [that we must] make one mistake after another. What is this like? Whether Buddha is present or not present, I trust he is right under our feet. Face after face is Buddha's face; fulfillment after fulfillment is Buddha's fulfillment. Last night, this mountain monk [Dogen] unintentionally stepped on a dried turd and the patriot, it jumped up and covered heaven and earth. Do A Report. This mountain monk unintentionally stepped on it again, and it introduced itself, saying, My name is Shakyamuni. Then, this mountain monk unintentionally stepped on his chest, and for essays, immediately he went and sat on how to the vajra seat, saw the morning star, bit through the traps and snares of conditioned birth, and cast away his old nest from the past. Without waiting for anyone to peck at his shell from outside, he received the thirty-two characteristics common to why i want essay examples, all buddhas, and together with this mountain monk, composed the following four line verse: Stumbling I stepped on his chest and his backbone snapped,

Mountains and rivers swirling around, the dawn wind blew. Penetrating seven and accomplishing eight, bones piercing the heavens, His face attained a sheet of golden skin. In this jodo Dogen describes a dream-like fantasy in which he accidentally steps on a piece of shit, and in accord with Yun-men's utterance often cited by how to do a book Dogen, it jumps up and declares itself to be Shakyamuni. This vision increases the apparent disrespect for Buddha in Yun-men's utterance, as Dogen again steps on his back (albeit again accidentally), even after the why i essay, dried shit identifies himself as Shakyamuni.

But Dogen uses this scatological vision not to degrade, but rather to further celebrate Buddha, by declaring that upon being stepped on, He went and sat on the vajra seat, saw the morning star, bit through the traps and snares of conditioned birth, and how to, cast away his old nest from the past. Here Dogen skillfully proclaims and celebrates, non-explicitly, one of the major revelations of the Lotus Sutra , that of the Buddha's life-span enduring over rippavilla, inconceivable ages (mentioned above in connection with Dogen's reference in how to do a book report, Expressing the Dream Within the Dream.) In chapter sixteen, Shakyamuni reveals that his archetypal story of his home-leaving and awakening is demonstrated simply as a skillful mode. The effect of writing a research, this dream parable of how to book, Dogen is to reinforce the story about skillful modes in chapter sixteen by describing Buddha and his awakening process as still omnipresent, last night right at rippavilla Eiheiji, and even in excrement. Dogen's dream story also echoes the Lotus Sutra , chapter four, parable of the prodigal son, who can only come to realize his fundamental endowment after years of shoveling manure in how to do a book report, his father's field. As Dogen says in the introduction to his parable, even Shakyamuni is muddy and wet from following and chasing after the waves.

Dogen's further introductory statement, Whether Buddha is present or not present, I trust he is sentences for essays right under our feet, echoes the Lotus Sutra parable about the ragged beggar unknowingly having the dharma jewel sewed within his robe. Do A Report. It further suggests the image in why i want to transfer essay examples, chapter fifteen of myriad bodhisattvas suddenly springing forth from how to book beneath the ground under our feet, which represents the the patriot essay, omnipresence of the bodhisattva potential in the ground of how to do a book report, concrete phenomena. Having venerated Shakyamuni Buddha via seeming desecration in this last jodo parable, in Eihei Koroku jodo number 123, given in 1243, Dogen describes another dream vision, this one seeming to poke fun at Avalokiteshvara, the bodhisattva of owl at writing, compassion. One sheet of dull stubbornness is three inches thick. Three lengths of upside-downness is do a five feet long. Last night, this mountain monk [Dogen] struck the empty sky with a single blow.

My fist didn't hurt, but the empty sky knew pain. A number of system management, sesame cakes appeared and rushed to become the faces and eyes of the how to book report, great earth. In the mock creation myth in the patriot essay, the introduction to the jodo, Dogen punches out the empty sky. Then with bravado akin to such classic Ch'an masters of do a book, fisticuffs as Lin-chi or Te-shan (Rinzai and Tokusan in Japanese), Dogen declares that his fist didn't hurt, but the the patriot summary essay, sky, which can also be read as emptiness itself, knew pain. Like the skillful fists of Lin-chi or Te-shan, with their constructive impact on their monk trainees, Dogen's fist brings forth a cascade of how to do a, sesame cakes, which in turn shower down as thousands of faces and eyes. The several references to the koan lexicon by Dogen in this jodo include case 78 of the why i to transfer essay examples, Shoyoroku Book of Serenity anthology.

When asked by a monk about how to, talk transcending buddhas and ancestors, Yun-men answers, Sesame cake.[37] In case 82 of the Shoyoroku, the association of essay on health, Yun-men with sesame cakes continues when he says, The Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara brings money to buy a sesame cake: when he lowers his hand, it turns out to be a jelly-doughnut.[38] This story must have inspired Dogen's vision of Avalokiteshvara striving to purchase sesame cakes. But Dogen envisions the sesame cakes as transformed into dynamically active eyes and faces rather than jelly-doughnuts, which are still mere commodities, even if richer than sesame cakes. As Dogen's parable in jodo 123 unfolds with dream-like narrative, someone shows up who wants to buy the sesame cakes (transformed into faces and eyes). When Dogen inquires, the person identifies himself as Avalokiteshvara, just as the piece of shit in the previously discussed dream parable identifies himself as Sakyamuni. Presumably Avalokiteshvara is trying to acquire from Dogen the eleven faces and how to do a book, thousand eyes for his hands as depicted in one of the essay and nutrition, bodhisattva's foremost iconographic forms.[39] With these multiple perspectives, the bodhisattva of book, compassion can fulfill the skillful means that he is known for, as seen in his diversity of forms in chapter twenty-five of the Lotus Sutra . When Avalokiteshvara further identifies himself by the very common Chinese names Ch'ang and Li, this represents Avalokiteshvara as an useful sentences ordinary person. Even in a dream (or a literary discourse he frames as visionary or dream-like), Dogen is thereby implicitly affirming practice in the mundane world and the immanent presence of book, compassion. In Expressing the Dream Within the Dream, written the year before the writing a research, parable in jodo123, Dogen declares that, The expression of the dream within the dream is the thousand hands and eyes of Avalokiteshvara that function by many means.[40] Here he explicitly denotes the discourse mode, the expression itself, as an aspect or example of Avalokiteshvara's skillful means. The parable itself ends with Avalokite§vara expressing his commitment and how to do a book, determination to obtain the useful sentences, eyes and faces (formerly sesame cakes), with which to proceed with his work of book report, compassion, whether or not he has any money. In his own concluding commentary, Dogen adds, When Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva makes an appearance, mountains and rippavilla essays, rivers on the great earth are not dead ashes.

Here Dogen emphasizes the dynamic, liberating quality of the world of concrete phenomena. For Dogen, the whole world and its components, even the dreams within a dream, are the vital functioning of awakening, like the do a report, conjured city in the Lotus Sutra parable, assisting those on owl at the path. Dogen's jodo concludes with a further affirmation of the enlightening potency of the how to, phenomenal world, You should always remember that in on health, the third month the how to, partridges sing and the flowers open. Here the emergence of vitality in spring, and also its very invocation, functions skillfully as an system management encouraging metaphor for the enduring potential of awakening in his disciple audience. The parables in the Lotus Sutra may lack Dogen's humorous irony and visionary whimsy. But in accord with LaFleur's account of the function of those parables, Dogen uses his dream parables similarly as skillful modes with which to encourage his monks' engagement with and how to do a book, affirmation of the complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in spite of the fact that they are impermanent. In his Eihei Koroku , Dogen relates parables that echo the function of the parables in the Lotus Sutra by demonstrating the presence of wondrous dharma, right in the phenomenal world and in the midst of karmic consciousness. Useful Spanish. While such parables are occasional, and do a, certainly not Dogen's major mode of literary expression, they do exemplify his borrowing of Lotus Sutra styles in his discourse. More significantly than in Dogen's occasional use of parables, the profuse self-referencing of the Lotus Sutra and the complex, skillful impact of this self-reflexive discourse serves as one major resource or model for Dogen's style of useful spanish, proclamation. Dogen follows the Lotus Sutra self-referential style in do a book report, various of essays, his rhetorical modes to proclaim and celebrate a teaching that often remains unstated, but which may be more provocative because of book, this quality of the non-explicit.

Dogen's self-referential, proclamatory discourse (at least in some part borrowed from the purdue writing, Lotus Sutra discourse style), used as a mode with which to express and exemplify radical nondualism, becomes a model for Soto Zen expression and practice, supporting prominent Soto teachings such as the oneness of practice-realization. This essay has focused on suggesting some of the aspects of Dogen's appropriation of Lotus Sutra styles of rhetoric in his own discourse. Do A Book Report. Much more can be said about his inclusion of owl at a research, its doctrinal contents in his own teaching. Still, Dogen's primary literary source by far was the vast Ch'an koan literature, which he was introducing as a new, foreign language into Japan, and which he had mastered to an astonishing degree. In his prominent use of the Lotus Sutra , on the other hand, he was referencing the Buddhist text that was perhaps most familiar to his Kamakura audience. His wide use of the Lotus Sutra raises many questions. How To Book. His devoted dissemination of the alien koan literature suggests that he was not citing the Lotus simply to match audience expectations or familiarities. Examples. Some aspects of Lotus teaching were clearly useful to legitimatization of Zen positions. For example, he widely quotes the passage in Kumarajiva's translation of chapter two of the sutra that, Only a buddha together with a buddha can fathom the do a book report, Reality of sentences, All Existence.[41] Dogen appropriates this saying for how to do a book, his Shobogenzo essay Yuibutsu Yobutsu, Only Buddha and Buddha, as support for the Zen Dharma transmission tradition.[42] The Lotus Sutra focus on Shakyamuni also fits with the main buddha figure in purdue a research paper, Zen, rather than the book report, Buddhas Amida or Vairocana venerated in the contemporary Pure Land and Esoteric (and Kegon) movements. But perhaps most fundamentally, the owl at purdue paper, significant presence of the Lotus Sutra in Dogen's teaching content and in do a book, his style of presentation may serve to remind us of the why i want to transfer, substantial underpinnings of Mahayana thought and practice in Soto Zen teachings.

[1] For a discussion of some Lotus Sutra references by Dogen, and a list of some such citations, see Kagamishima Genryu, Dogen zenji to how to book report, in'yo kyoten-goroku no kenkyu (Tokyo: Mokujisha, 1965), pp. 121-137; 217-219. A list of Lotus Sutra references in Dogen's Shobogenzo appears in sentences for essays, Gudo Wafu Nishijima and Chodo Cross, trans. Master Dogen's Shobogenzo , Book 1 (Woods Hole, Mass.: Windbell Publications, 1994), pp. 293-321. [2] Ryuichi Abe and Peter Haskell, trans. with essays. How To Do A Book Report. Great Fool: Zen Master Ryokan; Poems, Letters, and Writings (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1996), p.xiii.

See also p. 21. [3] For background on hongaku thought, see Ruben Habito, Originary Enlightenment: Tendai Hongaku Doctrine and Japanese Buddhism (Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies, 1996); and Jacqueline Stone, Original Enlightenment and the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999). For Saicho's appropriation of sokushin jobutsu from the sentences for essays, Lotus Sutra story about the Dragon King's daughter, see Paul Groner, The Lotus Sutra and Saicho's Interpretation of the how to book report, Realization of Buddhahood with This Very Body, in George J. Essays. Tanabe, Jr., and Willa Jane Tanabe, editors. Do A. The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989), pp. 53-74. [4] For an English translation of Hokke-Ten-Hokke, see Nishijima and Cross, Master Dogen's Shobogenzo , Book 1, pp. 203-220. Purdue Writing. I have also referred to a translation by Kazuaki Tanahashi and Michael Wenger, from the forthcoming Beyond Thinking , edited by Kazuaki Tanahashi.

[5] Dogen appropriation of the Lotus, especially in terms of its use in Dogen's fundamental world-view underlying his praxis, will be further detailed in my forthcoming dissertation: Visions of Awakening Space and Time: The Bodhisattvas' Earth Emergence and the Inconceivable Life-Span in the Lotus Sutra , and their Impact in Dogen's Teachings. [6] Steven Heine. How To Do A Book. Dogen and useful spanish sentences, the Koan Tradition (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994). [7] See Yasunari Kawabata, Japan the Beautiful and Myself, trans. Edward Seidensticker (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1969); and Steven Heine, The Zen Poetry of Dogen (Boston: Tuttle Publishing, 1997). [8] See Yifa, The Rules of how to do a report, Purity for the Chan Monastery: An Annotated Translation and Study of the Chanyuan Qinggui. Ph.D. Dissertation at Yale University, 1996. The Patriot Essay. The Chanyuan Qinggui was a major influence, quoted extensively by Dogen, in how to book, his Eihei Shingi. See Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community: A Translation of Eihei Shingi (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996). [9] See, for examples, Edward Conze, trans., The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines its Verse Summary (Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1973), pp.

15, 120-121; and Buddhist Text Translation Society, Sutra of the Past Vows of Earth Store Bodhisattva (Talmage, Cal.: Dharma Realm Buddhist University, 1982), pp. Why I Want Examples. 69-71, 89-92, along with many other passages. [10] I am using the book, Chinese /Japanese edition of Kumarajiva's translation, Myoho Rengekyo, 3 vols. (Tokyo: Iwanamai Bunko, 1996). English translations consulted are Leon Hurvitz, trans. Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the thesis system management, Fine Dharma (New York: Columbia University Press, 1976); Bunno Kato, Yoshiro Tamura, and how to do a report, Kojiro Miyasaka, trans. The Threefold Lotus Sutra: Innumerable Meanings, The Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Law, and why i, Meditation on how to the Bodhisattva Universal Virtue (New York: Weatherhill, 1975); and Burton Watson, The Lotus Sutra , (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993). [11] Introduction to want essay examples, George J. Tanabe, Jr., and book, Willa Jane Tanabe, The Lotus Sutra in information management, Japanese Culture, p. 2. [12] Jodo, literally ascending the hall, referred to how to, here as dharma discourses, were the owl at writing, major form of presentation in Sung China Ch'an temples. They were often quite brief, given in the Dharma Hall with the teacher on the high seat on the altar and do a book report, with the and nutrition, monks standing. Apparently they were the how to report, teaching form eventually favored by Dogen, since he nearly stopped writing the longer essays of Shobogenzo after 1244, but continued using the formal Jodo talks, which were recorded in the patriot, Eihei Koroku , in training his monks at Eiheiji before his death in 1253. [13] All references to Eihei Koroku are from the earlier monkaku version (rather than Manzan's later edition) in Kosaka Kiyu and Suzuki Kakuzen, eds. Dogen Zenji Zenshu. vols.

3 and 4 (Tokyo: Shunjusha, 1989). Book Report. All translations in this essay are from Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, trans. Dogen's Extensive Record: A Translation of Eihei Koroku (Boston: Wisdom Publications, forthcoming). [14] Yun-men's response to a monk's question, What is Buddha? of kanshiketsu has been interpreted legitimately either as a dried shitstick, a standard implement that was used as we now use toilet paper, or simply as a dried turd, an interpretation derived from Chuang-tzu's usage, which will be used as the translation in other jodo below, according to varied contexts. Yun-men's equation of Buddha with kanshiketsu appears, for example, in Mumonkan , case 21. See Yamada, Gateless Gate, pp.

109-112. For a discussion of thesis system management, Dogen's likely interpretation of Tung-shan Shou-ch'u's utterance as sesame rather than the usual translation of flax, see the how to report, note to Dogen's reference to it in Tenzokyokun in Leighton and Okumura, Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community, P. 56. This story appears, for example, in case 12 of Hekiganroku and in case 18 of summary essay, Mumonkan . See Thomas Cleary and J.C. Cleary, trans. Do A. The Blue Cliff Record (Boston: Shambhala, 1977), pp. 81-87; and Koun Yamada, Gateless Gate (Los Angeles: Center Publications, 1967), pp. Why I Want Essay Examples. 96-99. [15] See Burton Watson, The Lotus Sutra, p. Do A. 45; Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, p. 45; Kato, Tamura, and essay, Miyasaka, The Threefold Lotus Sutra, p. 74.

[16] William LaFleur, The Karma of Words: Buddhism and the Literary Arts in Medieval Japan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983), p. 87. [17] Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 29-30. [18] LaFleur, The Karma of Words, p. 87. [19] Jacqueline Stone, Original Enlightenment and the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism, p. 14. [20] See Norman Waddell and Masao Abe, trans. The Heart of report, Shobogenzo (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002), pp. 59-98. [21] George J. Summary Essay. Tanabe, Jr., Myoe the Dreamkeeper: Fantasy and do a book report, Knowledge in Early Kamakura Buddhism. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 9. [24] See Taigen Dan Leighton and Kazuaki Tanahashi, trans.

Within a Dream Expressing a Dream, in Kazuaki Tanahashi, editor, Enlightenment Unfolds: The Essential Teachings of Zen Master Dogen (Boston: Shambhala, 1999), pp. 165-172. [27] Kazuaki Tanahashi, editor, Moon in a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master Dogen (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1985), p. On Health And Nutrition. 69. [28] For Myoe's dream journal, and commentary, see Tanabe, Myoe the Dreamkeeper, cited above, and Hayao Kawaii, The Buddhist Priest Myoe: A Life of Dreams, translated with introduction by Mark Unno, (Venice, Ca.: The Lapis Press, 1992). [29] See Bernard Faure, Visions of Power: Imagining Medieval Japanese Buddhism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996). [30] For further discussion of the stereotypical distinctions between Keizan and Dogen, see Faure, Visions of how to, Power, pp. Thesis System Management. 3-4, 211-215. [31] Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, pp. 170-171; and Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 223-224.

[32] I am indebted for clarification of the how to do a book report, difference in the patriot, Dogen's reading of this passage, and for many other suggestions for this paper, to the kind response commentary of Jan Nattier. [33] Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, p. 171. [34] The Lotus Sutra includes a number of variations on the full formula for how to book, descriptions of buddhas and their buddha-fields parodied by rippavilla Dogen, also including versions in chapter twelve on Devadatta and chapter twenty-three on the Bodhisattva Medicine King. One of the versions closest to the full formula parodied by Dogen is the description of Ananda's prediction in chapter nine. See Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 168-169. [35] Dogen refers frequently to ladles in Eihei Koroku , used as a term for reliable practice implements, and how to do a, sometimes for practitioners themselves.

For other examples, jodo 219 in the patriot essay, 1247 begins, Abundant with ten thousand virtues, the sitting cushions and wooden ladles are dignified. In jodo 320 in 1249, Dogen refers to Shakyamuni himself as, The wooden ladle at Vulture Peak. [36] Faure, Visions of Power, p. 116. [37] See Thomas Cleary, trans. Book of Serenity (Boston: Shambhala, 1998; originally published by how to do a book report Hudson, N.Y.: Lindisfarne Press, 1990), pp. 332-334. [39] For the iconographic forms of Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva, see Taigen Daniel Leighton, Bodhisattva Archetypes: Classic Buddhist Guides to Awakening and essays, their Modern Expression (New York: Penguin Arkana, 1998), pp. 159-170. [40] Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, p. 169. [41] See Kato, Tamura, and Miyasaka, The Threefold Lotus Sutra, p. 52.

Compared to the Sanskrit original, which simply denotes plural buddhas, Kumarajiva's rendition emphasizes the relational aspect of a buddha together with a buddha. [42] See Tanahashi, Moon in a Dewdrop, pp. How To Do A. 161-167.

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How to Write a Book Report

Sales Associate Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] So, you think you have the salesman skills and experience to how to do a work in rippavilla essays, retail? Sure you do. How To Book? The only problem is there are plenty of fish in the sea just like you. And that means you may not get the chance to show employers you're the owl at writing paper best if your sales associate resume sample doesn't sell. That's why you should treat your retail resume as the product you have to book report sell. No, scratch that. It's the product you need to sell. Your sales resume is that sales pitch that will ultimately prove you are the perfect person for that retail sales job.

How to select the most effective format for a sales resume. How to list skills and purdue writing, duties on a retail sales associate resume. How to write a compelling retail cover letter. Here's a sample resume for a sales associate made using our resume builder. Want to save time and how to book report, have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . Rippavilla? It’s fast and easy to use.

Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . What’s the Best Format for a Sales Associate Resume? Would you go around trying to how to do a report sell a Chevrolet Camaro wearing sandals and shorts? Not if you wanted to the patriot summary essay be taken seriously. That's why you should choose the do a report right format for your retail associate resume. The same retail resume template you choose will make that decisive first impression. You want the right clothing for the right product, right?

It's standard and easy to summary essay read-through. Report? It places emphasis on your work history and essay, experience. Hiring managers can scan it. They’ll know where key elements are. Book? And will see straight away that it’s complete. In fact, even robots or Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) can read it. The list starts with your most recent work. And your other jobs follow in reverse order. On Health? So you’ll be showing yourself off in your best light. To stand out, you’ll want to make your experience and skills shine.

Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. You’ll want to start your resume for how to do a sales associate with the usual information: Your Name An Updated Phone Number A Professional Email Address. Most people are happy to use free email accounts from providers like Gmail. But it might be worth getting yourself a tailor-made address that’s based on your name. One that doesn’t include the service provider’s name. The advantage of doing so is why i want to transfer examples, twofold: It’ll make you look more professional. How To Do A Report? It’ll be simpler and the patriot summary, more memorable. How to Write a Sales Associate Resume Objective or Summary. The opening line to a novel is important.

It sets the tone for the rest of the book. And it’s very similar when writing your retail sales resume sample. If you are a recent graduate or career changer with no experience in retail sales, you’ll need to write a sales resume objective. Resume objectives are short, targeted statements at the beginning of report, your resume. Your salesman resume objective should reflect what you have already achieved outside of retail. It will spell out why this experience is relevant by essay and nutrition highlighting specific accomplishments. What is a Sales Associate Resume Summary? A resume summary is book, a few lines at the beginning of the patriot summary, your resume.

This will include work experience that matches the retail sales job description. It should focus on how to book, tangible results rather than a list of qualities. How to Describe Your Sales Associate Experience. What is a sales associate, and essay on health, what experience is the hiring manager looking for? That depends on do a report, the retail sales associate job description. Back up everything you put on summary, your retail associate resume with impressive examples. And by this we mean significant achievements rather than routine duties and responsibilities of a sales associate. Beneath each job heading, create up to six bullet points highlighting your duties and achievements. Employers want to see how your efforts affect a company’s business.

Clothing Store Sales Associate Resume Work History Sample: Sales Associate October 2013 - Present. Exceeded sales target for the year by 26%. Do A? Attained 87% customer satisfaction in year one, and 92% in year two. On Health And Nutrition? Gained a thorough understanding of the company’s entire product offering. Managed to upsell products by focusing on book, customers’ past purchases. Resolved 90% of customer complaints with one telephone conversation.

Tips for How to Write an Experience Section for a Retail Resume. Did you do anything that resulted in saving money? Did you do anything that resulted in earning money? Did you exceed sales targets? Did you exceed customer satisfaction targets? Did your boss ever praise you for doing something well?

Did you train anyone? Action Verbs You Can Use to Highlight Sales Associate Resume Duties and owl at purdue a research paper, Responsibilities: Think outside of the box - there are a lot of common responsibilities and duties of a retail sales associate, a customer service associate and a cashier. If you want to stand out, make sure that your retail resume for a sales associate has special skills that prove your impact. Pro Tip: Sales Associates must be in constant contact with people. So, it’s best if you have an outgoing, energetic personality.

Action verbs can create the impression that you have initiative and do not like to sit still. If you are writing a retail manager resume, you want to avoid writing responsible for . Try these action words: They will definetly put your retail management resume heads and shoulders above your competition. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You don’t need to book report have a high school diploma or university degree for essay on health and nutrition sales associate jobs. But many employers will warm to candidates that can show that they have an academic track record. That’s especially true if you have a degree in how to, business and are applying for a business-to-business (B2B) sales associate role.

It’s not so true if you’re applying for a role in the patriot, business-to-consumer (B2C) sales or retail sales. Here a lack of a degree won’t matter in report, the least. But let's say you have finished high school. Here's an example of a high school education on a sales associate resume: Centreville High School, Centreville, MI Graduated in 2010. Let's say that you went to college, but you didnt finish your degree. You can still put that on essay and nutrition, your resume. Example of unfinished higher education on a sales associate resume: Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 2010 - 2012 Completed 60 credits toward a BBA.

In the technical or scientific sectors, a degree in relevant subjects will also help. As would a degree in business or economics if you were entering the book world of insurance sales. Regardless, start your education section by the patriot highlighting your highest educational attainment first. And make sure you list the book name of your school, your degree, your major, and information system, the year you graduated. Do A Report? It isn’t necessary to include your GPA unless it’s impressive and recent. If you’re a member of any industry-related organizations, include this information too. If you have completed college, don’t include your high school information. Example of higher education on a sales associate resume: BA in History - 2012 University of thesis management, California at Los Angeles (UCLA) 3.5 GPA.

How to Put Sales Associate Skills on do a report, a Resume. Before you start listing your skills on your resume, take a good look at writing a research the retail sales associate job description. What is a sales associate, what are the duties and responsibilities? Make sure that you match the employer’s requirements with your own qualifications. Sales Resume Examples of Soft Skills : Keeping track of do a, frequent customers. Following company procedures.

Locating documentation and why i want to transfer, inventory. Following the company's system for how to do a book report filing paperwork. Asking the useful spanish sentences for essays right questions to instil confidence in your customers. Anticipating customers’ needs. How To Book Report? Listening.

Speaking about products and services. Being amiable, friendly, and relaxed. Projecting confidence. Summary? Putting customers at ease. Calculating prices. Understanding and writing memos and contact letters. Understanding which solutions best meet customers’ needs.

Listening to customers’ concerns. Determining the real issues. How To Do A Book? Reviewing information with clients. Taking your time to make useful and constructive suggestions. Hard skills are easier to information pin down. Do A Book? They should include skills in Microsoft Office. Useful Spanish Sentences For Essays? And if you use PowerPoint, include this too. The more familiar you are with web-based technologies the better. List those retail skills that are on how to do a book report, the salesman jobs description first. Then continue to on health and nutrition wow them with any extra IT skills you can bring to the party.

How to Quantify Your Retail Sales Associate Resume Skills: When making your retail resume, remember to go over. How to Add Other Sections for how to an Effective Resume. If you have other experiences outside work, it may be worth including them on the patriot summary essay, your retail resume. You may, for instance, have helped out in how to, a charity shop or a library and essay, served the general public. You might have done the accounts for do a report a local charity. Sentences For Essays? Or you may have been a member of a reading group or amateur dramatics society that required you to do a perform. All these activities rely on qualities that are relevant for a role in sales. How to present this on useful spanish sentences, a sample sales resume:

You can add another section to your retail salesman resume with a simple title like Other Experience . If you’re making an entry-level sales associate resume, you can put this information in your experience section. Then you will need to add: Use a title that explains exactly what you did. Check that you didn’t sign any non-disclosure documents with these organizations. If you have, don’t disclose the do a book report name of the company. Instead, use a generic description of the nature of the business.

Add each company as a bullet point and information, describe your role within it. Volunteer Sales Associate 2012-13 - Oxfam, Hampstead, London. Served the do a report general public. Operated the till. And created in-house posters to encourage the sentences public to donate unwanted clothes. Volunteer librarian for how to do a book community library 2011-12 - Muswell Hill, London. Catalogued books. Rippavilla Essays? Answered enquiries from the do a report general public in person and by telephone. And set up several social media accounts.

Pro Tip: If you have hobbies and to transfer, interests, they may be worth including at the end of your sales resume. Here’s the do a book Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. Some will say that a cover letter is a waste of time and that 54% of employers don’t read them. But there are still an awful lot of essays, employers out how to do a report there who do. And it’s a simple fact that a great cover letter can make all the difference for on health even an entry-level sales associate resume. As an example, here’s a great cover letter by report a young guy called Robert Pirosh who dreamt of writing movies back in thesis information, 1934. So he wrote this cover letter to the head of MGM Studios in Hollywood:

Dear Sir, I like words. I like fat buttery words, such as ooze, glutinous, toady. I like solemn, angular, creaky words, such as straitlaced, cantankerous, pecunious, valedictory. I like spurious, black-is-white words, such as mortician, liquidate, tonsorial, demi-monde. Report? I like suave v words, such as Svengali, svelte, bravura, verve. I like crunchy, brittle, crackly words, such as splinter, grapple, jostle, crusty. I like sullen, crabbed, scowling words, such as skulk, glower, scabby, churl. Owl At Purdue A Research? I like Oh-Heavens, my-gracious, land's-sake words, such as tricksy, tucker, genteel, horrid.

I like elegant, flowery words, such as estivate, peregrinate, elysium, halcyon. I like wormy, squirmy, mealy words, such as crawl, blubber, squeal, drip. I like sniggly, chuckling words, such as cowlick, gurgle, bubble and burp. Do A? I like the word screenwriter better than copywriter, so I decided to quit my job in a New York advertising agency and try my luck in Hollywood. But before taking the plunge I went to Europe for a year of study, contemplation and horsing around. I have just returned and I still like words.

May I have a few with you? Robert Pirosh. Okay, so this is a very clever letter. Information System? And of course your retail cover letter will be different. But cover letters can add so much to your applications. Robert’s demonstrates what he was so good at, and so passionate about: His cover letter not only how to do a report, got him an interview; it got him a job. Owl At Purdue A Research Paper? And he went on report, to become one of Hollywood’s greatest screenwriters. Dos and Don’ts for Your Retail Sales Associate Resume Cover Letter. A cover letter is always a nice touch and gives you an opportunity to be less formal and more personal. Aim to be conversational in tone, but don’t ramble.

Make your points, outlining why you think you are perfect for the sales associate role. Don’t make outlandish claims or oversell yourself. You’ll look like you’re being arrogant or desperate. A Research? Possibly both. But feel free to use humour - even if it’s self-deprecating. If you manage to how to book report raise a smile, you won’t be forgotten in a hurry. From your employer’s point of view, a sales associate who can make his customers smile is worth his weight in gold. Stuck in a rut and can't write your Kmart sales associate cover letter?

Have no worries. We’ll help you off the starting blocks with a guide: “ How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] ” Writing a cracking resume for a sales associate position isn’t as difficult or as daunting as it may first seem. All you need is a guiding hand, a healthy dollop of common-sense and a sensational retail resume template. Here’s a reminder of our useful and practical steps: Use a reverse-chronological resume format for your resume for rippavilla sales associate. Don’t forget to update your contact details.

You can write the most dazzling resume in the history of civilization. But without your contact details, it’s worth diddly-squat. Include an objective for a sales associate resume or write a summary statement. Highlight your most tangible and impressive duties and how to do a book, achievements in your experience section. Tailor your experience and skills to and nutrition the store associate job description. Highlight your skills on your salesperson resume. Explain how you’ve used them. And then outline their impact. Proofread your resume and report, send it with a customized cover letter. Do you have any questions on how to make a sales associate resume?

Give us a shout in the comments section! Alex Pearl is a freelance copywriter and author who has written his fair share of resumes over the years.

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2017 MBA Essay Questions: MIT Sloan. 2017 MIT Sloan Full-Time MBA Application Class of do a book report 2020. As expected, MIT has retained their cover letter for the 2017 MBA application #8212; and they#8217;ve also added a video component! It has a prescribed question and they#8217;re calling it a #8220;video statement#8221; #8212; you have to record your video and upload it to the app like another essay, as part of the submission. The Patriot Essay! The question is deceivingly simple: Please introduce yourself to your future classmates via a brief video statement. This one is going to require some introspection and self-examination in do a order to essay, answer well! You#8217;ll want to treat this more like a second essay not to book, the extent that you#8217;ll literally write out your answer, since that would seriously backfire on you if you were to sit there and read it while you were being filmed. Instead, you#8217;ll outline and prepare your content for both the video statement, and the cover letter, and the optional essay if you need it. Then, you#8217;ll write the rippavilla cover letter (and write it again the revision process is critical) and review and adjust your ideas for the video statement.

After the cover letter and resume (and optional essay) are all done, when you submit the app, then you#8217;ll also record your video statement too. You need to know how you#8217;re going to handle it before you send it all in! This requires a concentrated approach. For the cover letter, which is do a, another assignment that Brave Supplicants have found challenging, they#8217;ve thankfully given you BSers a break this year by expanding the max length of that cover letter by 50 words. Summary Essay! You may not think that 50 words is very much but believe the do a report #8216;Snark, 300 words is WAY more than 250. The Patriot Summary! This is still going to be an exceedingly challenging essay to how to do a report, write (mostly because it#8217;s really not an essay) however you won#8217;t have quite as tough a time as last year#8217;s crop of applicants did. Here are the full instructions for the written components these also have been greatly expanded and further explained so you know what you#8217;re getting int. They are helping you significantly here!

MIT Sloan seeks students whose personal characteristics demonstrate that they will make the most of the information system management incredible opportunities at do a book, MIT, both academic and non-academic. And Nutrition! We are on a quest to book, find those whose presence will enhance the experience of other students. We seek thoughtful leaders with exceptional intellectual abilities and the patriot summary, the drive and determination to how to do a, put their stamp on the world. We welcome people who are independent, authentic, and fearlessly creative — true doers. We want people who can redefine solutions to conventional problems, and strive to essay on health, preempt unconventional dilemmas with cutting-edge ideas. Do A Report! We demand integrity and respect passion. Taking the above into consideration, please submit a cover letter seeking a place in rippavilla essays the MIT Sloan MBA Program. Your letter should conform to a standard business correspondence, include one or more examples that illustrate why you meet the book desired criteria above, and essay and nutrition, be addressed to how to do a book report, Mr. Writing Paper! Rod Garcia, Senior Director of Admissions (300 words or fewer, excluding address and salutation). How To Book! Please submit a resume that includes your employment history and academic record in reverse chronological order.

Other information appropriate to a business resume is welcomed and to transfer examples, encouraged. (no more than 1 page in length) The cover letter at MIT is do a book, actually a long-standing tradition that they resuscitated last year, after previously having it as recently as 2012 (when it was but one of a research paper a suite of how to do a essays). Well offer you this from rippavilla, Twitter#8217;s Professor Snarky (no relation): Dear student: A job cover letter needs to say what they#39;ll get out of hiring you, not what you#39;ll get out of being hired. Because of the how to do a book video question, which is pretty open-ended, then the Additional Information submission for MIT has moved back to text only; it can now be up to 200 words, which means you should use it as you would any other school#8217;s optional essay (meaning, only if specifically needed to explain something that you can#8217;t otherwise explain elsewhere in the application, like low GPA, gaps in the patriot summary essay employment, etc.). Please note: For several years, it was highly recommended to do the Additional Info submission for report Sloan!!

That has now changed. You will need to evaluate your circumstances very carefully and see what you#8217;re conveying with the cover letter + resume + video statement! Do NOT include the want essay examples Additional Info only because you think you should or you read somewhere that everyone should do it for Sloan! That advice is do a report, now outdated. If you#8217;re researching posts here on the blahg about rippavilla essays your app strategy for MIT, please pay careful attention to the date; anything that does not say 2017 is book, not likely to be accurate with this year#8217;s application instructions. But wait! There#8217;s more! #128578; MIT has a unique element to their process: If you get invited to interview then you#8217;ll need to submit a separate essay as part of that process. The essence of this question is that they#8217;re asking for a story where you#8217;ve being successful in some capacity in information your career that demonstrates how you#8217;re in sync with their mission (note that as of 7/31/17 we#8217;ve been informed by a sharp-eyed BSer that it#8217;s a change to the actual prompt from what they had before): The mission of the how to book MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. We believe that a commitment to diversity, inclusion, equity, and essay on health and nutrition, well-being is a key component of both principled leadership and sound management practice.

In 250 words or less, please describe how you, as a member of the book report MIT Sloan community, would work to create a campus that is welcoming, inclusive and increasingly diverse. This is now in line with many other schools that are not just focusing on their own culture but also on how each applicant will actually contribute to the patriot summary essay, it in book report a civil way, to foster growth and change productively (in contrast with the polarized politics a lot of people are fostering in the #8220;real world#8221; right now). This is not an easy question! There#8217;s a lot to why i to transfer essay, parse here and you could go in many different directions with it #8212; which is both a grand opportunity and also a very big challenge. Most people don#8217;t do so well in articulating how they feel they#8217;re a fit through this (it is NOT asking you for the standard info of how to report #8220;I want to take this course or be in this club#8221; stuff that so many applicants use in other essays). This one needs to why i to transfer essay examples, be part of your full strategy.

We actually suggest you write it when you write your cover letter. Our essay guide explains why, and how). One advance tip: Often BSers start with Story A in the CL and Story B in the Mission essay, and after tearing their hair out for a week or so, finally realize that the two stories should be swapped. Which is how to book report, yet another reason why it#8217;s so strategic to work on them together. Be open to totally juggling around your ideas as you go through this. Dang, lots of essay changes again this year, Sloan! The recommenders#8217; requirements also have been changed! And they shifted their Round 1 deadline out till later in September, which takes the pressure off when you#8217;re scrambling to get other top schools done earlier in the month. And yes there#8217;s more! they now have two rounds for LGO, instead of just one which was a tough process for many BSers. These are all awesome improvements; they#8217;re streamlining, clarifying, and otherwise changing for the better. Yet Sloan is still Sloan!

You will not be able to reuse anything you#8217;ve done for do a report any other school (except for the parts that capture YOU; those parts won#8217;t need to be changed!). We have revised our MIT SnarkStrategies Guide to reflect all of this and how it impacts your strategy as a Class of 2020 MBA applicant. There#8217;s also been a number of posts on the patriot essay, the EssaySnark blahg about the report MIT Sloan cover letter and essay and nutrition, resume this year see the Snark Info on Sloan section below for how to do a book report some highlights. We also definitely recommend getting up to writing, Boston to experience Sloan for yourself, and if not, then be sure to get in do a book front of the spanish for essays adcom in one of their traveling sessions if at how to report, all possible. This really will help you quite a bit.

For some additional insights into MIT Sloan, we live-tweeted an MIT admissions chat in late August 2015. From @MITSloanAdcom: Common mistake is people who don#39;t follow instructions-seems like common sense but happens more often then you think. From @MITSloanAdcom: It can certainly be a challenge for intl student to work in the US but many of our intl grads work abroad for rippavilla US cos. How To Do A Book Report! Someone asked how recent is information system, recent for essay: the do a book report choice is summary, yours but we typically recommend that the experience be w/in the last 3 yrs. Here#39;s a good Q: Do you expect managerial experience from candidates or will demonstrated leadership experience in how to report other roles suffice ? The @MITSloanAdcom#39;s answer: Leadership in why i essay examples other roles is perfectly fine. The average work experience is typically 5 years. At least they#39;re still consistent on how to do a book report, this! We would prefer a one page resume. All schools do BTW. From @MITSloanAdcom: The only on health and nutrition advice I have for interview is to print your application and do a book, think of new examples to talk about!

Confirming what we#39;ve been saying for years now: From @MITSloanAdcom: I always encourage people to apply in summary round 1 if possible. Pick up the 2017 MIT essay guide to learn how to approach the app! It#8217;s been completely revised for this year#8217;s requirements. Your approach for MIT must be different they evaluate your application based on specific criteria that are unique to them. If you want to understand how this works, please pick up the SnarkStrategies Guide for how to report MIT it will help you grasp what#8217;s so very unique about this school#8217;s admissions criteria, compared to other top MBA programs.

MIT 2017 FULL-TIME MBA Dates and Deadlines. Regular MBA and LGO Round 1: September 25, 2017 More applicant-friendliness from MIT this year! First, they moved their Rd 1 date out so that deadlines are going to be more staggered for many of you in September. Big win! Second, they#8217;re now letting you apply to LGO in why i want to transfer essay examples Round 1, too!

Used to be, LGO apps were due in December and there was only one deadline, and it was definitely not optimized if you were trying for other schools in Round 1. This is way better. Remember that while Rd 1 is always recommended, it is REALLY recommended at MIT based on how they manage their process. Rd 1 interview invitations will start going out on October 5th and then come on every Thursday until November 2nd, when applicants they won#8217;t be moving forward with will be released. For those being interviewed, a final decision comes in mid December like other top schools. LGO Round 2: December 4, 2017 if you#8217;re interested in do a book LGO then this can work too but for most of you, Round 1 will be better due to timing of decisions with other schools. (LGO is a joint degree with MIT Engineering, you can find out useful, more here .) Regular MBA Round 2: January 17, 2018 yay thank you also MIT for keeping your Round 2 date later. OMG jumping up and down you make the report #8216;Snark happy on behalf of all future BSers everywhere. We expect Round 2 interview invitations will go out in waves starting February 21, with Round 2 release to happen on summary, March 3. Interviews will be conducted by do a report the adcom in international locations from February 27 to why i want to transfer, March 27.

Please note that MIT had only two rounds for admission up through the 2015-2016 application cycle, so it#8217;s very possible that you could read posts from the #8216;Snarchives that are outdated in how they talk about do a timing of an application strategy for this school. Always check to see that the information you#8217;re consuming here and elsewhere is current and applicable to the current year! There are a lot of changes with the MIT admissions requirements! The 2017 MIT Application Guide is now available, with a full discussion of what to do and how to maximize your chances in light of the new application. And Nutrition! For Reference: MIT#8217;s Past-Season Questions. Included in case anyone wants to see what Sloan asked before. Click to view last year's questions. 2016 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. They are officially going retro!

MIT has restored their classic #8220;cover letter#8221; question, which was the how to do a book very first form of an #8220;introduce yourself#8221; type essay that any school ever instituted. Good news: We#8217;ve got lots of experience in helping successful applicants work through this important deliverable! Cover Letter: Please submit a cover letter seeking a place in essays the MIT Sloan MBA Program. Your letter should conform to a standard business correspondence and be addressed to Mr. Rod Garcia, Senior Director of do a book report Admissions. (250 words or fewer for why i want to transfer essay examples the body of the letter) Resume: Please submit a resume that includes your employment history and academic record in reverse chronological order. How To Report! Other information appropriate to a business resume is welcomed and encouraged. (no more than 1 page in length) Thankfully they#8217;ve clarified now that the owl at 250 words is the book report body of the to transfer examples cover letter only! On each of these EssaySnark school essay question and info pages, we always retain our commentary from past seasons#8217; app requirements at the bottom and in how to do a book report the case of and nutrition MIT Sloan, we#8217;re going to how to do a report, recommend you actually go through and read all of thesis system management that. The info on last year#8217;s app can give some context into the changes that the adcom has been making. Also, to fill you in, the cover letter requirement was a staple of the MIT app through 2012 when it was but one of book report a suite of essays. Essay On Health! This 2016 MIT Sloan MBA application is a hybrid of tried-and-true requirements that have been updated to the modern era of book MBA applications. As an example of the modern era, they#8217;ve again kept their #8220;Additional Information#8221; optional submission, which we actually say is not optional this is one of the why i to transfer essay examples very few schools where you really do want to how to do a book, submit something for this: Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to share additional information about yourself, in rippavilla essays any format.

If you choose a multimedia format, please host the information on a website and provide us with the URL. Please keep all videos and media limited to do a report, 2:00 minutes total in length. Please keep all written essays to 500 words or less. If hosting your submission on a website, please ensure you provide an unprotected link (no password required). Summary! Instead of this being a traditional #8220;optional essay#8221; which we typically suggest you DON#8217;T submit unless you have to in order to explain something, in do a this case, for information system management MIT, we suggest you DO come up with something to include here particularly this year when there#8217;s only the single essay for the app. Our MIT essay guide goes into all the strategy behind this suggestion. We have revised our comprehensive MIT SnarkStrategies Guide to reflect all of this and do a book, how it impacts your strategy as a Class of 2019 MBA applicant. We do NOT recommend buying any previous season version of this school#8217;s guide; it will NOT help you with the the patriot summary core application and the details involved with this year#8217;s strategy. They#8217;ve also kept their post-interview-invite essay where they want you to how to do a report, tell a story about being successful in the context of their mission a classic #8220;culture#8221; type question: The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. Please share with us something about thesis your past that aligns with this mission. (250 words or fewer).

Only those who are lucky enough to get invited to the interview stage will need to do this additional essay (we actually suggest you write it when you write your cover letter though! our essay guide explains why, and how). Book Report! How long and in what capacity have you known the applicant? How does the spanish for essays applicant stand out from others in a similar capacity? Please give an example of the applicant#8217;s impact on do a report, a person, group, or organization. Please give a representative example of how the applicant interacts with other people. Which of the applicant#8217;s personal or professional characteristics would you change? If you are an information system academic/technical recommender, please tell us how well the applicant mastered the subject you taught or supervised and in what ways did the report applicant demonstrate this mastery. The Patriot! (LGO only?) Please tell us anything else you think we should know about this applicant.

Our Recommender#8217;s Instruction Sets can be especially useful for this school! [end discussion of MIT#8217;s last-year questions] 2015 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Update 3/9/16: MIT says that 5% of the class will be admitted in Round 3, but they’re discouraging international applicants due to potential visa timing issues. MIT WAS PICKY IN ROUND 1. Report! They#8217;re clearly going for an improvement to to transfer essay examples, their rankings based on a strengthening of the class profile. We expect average GMAT score to go up even further at MIT for the Class of how to do a book 2018, based on the outcomes we#8217;re seeing from them so far this season. (We did predict that, back in May#8230;) Thankfully (. Essay! ) MIT has modified its application this year. Their essay questions the past two cycles were straight-up awful for how to do a report BSers to essay, deal with.

This year they#8217;ve gone down to ONE main question which normally we#8217;d be rather unhappy about, except that they#8217;re also introducing a system sort of similar to HBS, where you submit a second essay if you#8217;re invited to interview. Report! (Harvard#8217;s Post-Interview Reflection is not the same, but it#8217;s the same idea: get another submission from the rippavilla applicant at the interview stage.) AND while on first glance it appeared that MIT retained the how to worst of the worst of for essays its essay prompts from last year (see below), actually they changed that too! All around positives. The other big change? They#8217;re EXPANDING their admissions cycle to three rounds. For a very long time, MIT has had just two rounds yet for several years running, we#8217;ve heard that they accepted #8220;late#8221; applications after their January Round 2 date was past. So they sort of kind of let you apply after their final deadline anyway. They#8217;re now standardizing to do a book, do what every other top school does. Three Rounds. September, January, April. Cool. Owl At Purdue Writing! The main application essay question is how to do a book, what we#8217;re most pleased about.

Here it is: Tell us about a recent success you had: How did you accomplish this? Who else was involved? What hurdles did you encounter? What type of impact did this have? (500 words or fewer). This is such a classic #8220;significant achievement#8221; question that we#8217;re practically rejoicing here in Snarkville. Sentences! Such questions let applicants communicate in ways that are revealing at least, provided the applicant does a good job with the question! The question itself is how to do a book, absolutely awesome: It has subparts that guide you on what to focus on, it#8217;s a reasonable length to convey what#8217;s needed, and it#8217;s unambiguous. Thank you, Sloan! We have a category for posts here on the blahg called #8220;essay types #8216;achievement#8217; essays#8221; which you may want to investigate if you#8217;re researching how to approach this. Owl At Purdue Writing A Research! Our wait for it Accomplishments Achievements App Accelerator may also be useful in hashing through your possible topics and do a book, figuring out why i to transfer, which #8220;recent success#8221; is going to be most effective for you to how to book report, present. What other goodness is coming from the MIT announcement?

Well, they’re retaining their “Additional Information” optional submission, which we have always liked. Rippavilla! Here’s the wording for how to that: Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to share anything else you would like us to useful spanish for essays, know about you, in any format. How To Report! Good stuff already coming @MITSloanAdcom chat: It is useful sentences for essays, highly recommended you also submit optional essay (tho it#39;s schoolspecific advice!) They#8217;re also introducing a post-interview-invite essay requirement which looks remarkably similar to what they asked as a main essay prompt for the past two years, except that they fixed the awkwardness of it and now they#8217;re just asking you to tell another story about being successful somehow: The mission of the do a report MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. Please share with us something about your past that aligns with this mission. Information! (250 words or fewer). MIT had a near-identical question as its Essay 1 for two years and almost entirely because of that, had been recognized here in Snarkville as having the how to worst essay questions. Purdue Writing A Research! This new version of the book report prompt is much better though 250 words is very short. If you are in the lucky position of management being invited to interview at MIT, you definitely will want to avail yourself of the benefits in our Sloan essay strategy guide #8212; though hopefully you will get the guide right away so that you can benefit from the how to do a book report entire strategy we lay forth!

As of that early May 2015 announcement of the new essay questions, their app requirements page had NOT been fully edited and thesis system, updated (once again, MIT exhibits sloppiness as of this writing on 5/10/15, they have the new essay questions listed at book report, the top but then the discussion of Letters of Recommendation talks about an #8220;essay #2#8221; which is essay, a leftover comment from do a report, last year#8217;s app). Essay On Health And Nutrition! We#8217;re not saying that we never have errors on our site but on a school#8217;s app requirements page? Proofread, Sloan Adcom, proofread. 7/16/15 Good news! MIT continues to introduce applicant-friendly changes. We#8217;ve now discovered that they ditched the ridiculous suggestion that applicants submit a resume in do a Sloan#8217;s own resume format, and that the resume could be only system #8220;50 lines.#8221; These restrictions were just silly, and do a book report, created undue stress for candidates. You still should only be submitting a one-page resume (that#8217;s true for summary any school) but now you don#8217;t have to how to report, worry about a particular format for a particular school (especially when that format did not even demonstrate best practices for MBA applicants).

Thank you, Sloan Adcom, for thesis information system management coming around!! MIT 2015 Dates and Deadlines. MIT now has three rounds! That means: Be careful about how to do a any posts you read here on the blahg about owl at #8220;two rounds#8221; and MIT. We have discussed the implications of this change to three rounds in the 2015 MIT Application Guide but we have not gone back over our historical posts here on this site to offer warnings or corrections what we may have said in how to report the past about application strategy at MIT may not apply to information system management, this new world of how to do a book report a standardized admissions cycle. Round 1: September 17, 2015 almost a week earlier than Rd 1 was last year. Traditionally this has been the most advantageous at MIT but we don#8217;t know if that will hold true quite in the same way this year (Rd 1 is always recommended but it used to on health, be REALLY recommended at MIT based on how they managed their two-round cycle; Rd 1 will still be an advantage, but it#8217;s a TBD on how big of an advantage it will be going forward at this school). Based on a 10/7/15 announcement on the MIT blog , interview invitations this year will work the how to book report same as they did last year in Round 1: They#8217;ll start going out in system mid-October, through the #8220;week of November 9th#8221; (not sure why they can#8217;t name the how to do a book report actual day?). That#8217;s when the Round 1 #8220;release from consideration#8221; happens, which is a nice way to say #8220;no#8221; to you if they#8217;re not interested. For those being interviewed, a final decision comes in mid December like other top schools. Round 2: January 14, 2016 . The Patriot! This jives with what happened last season, which actually was not what was originally planned.

They had set Round 2 to how to book report, be January 8, 2015, but then at information system, the last minute, it was EXTENDED TO JANUARY 13th. Round 2 is always viable at MIT. Round 2 interview invitations will going out the week of February 15th (same as last year), with Round 2 release to happen somewhere around March 1st. Round 3 THIS IS NEW: April 11, 2016. We don#8217;t generally post Round 3 deadlines here on the blahg because it#8217;s typically near-impossible to get in how to do a book then. HOWEVER: Since Round 3 is NEW at MIT, then we can only expect that they have modified their internal admissions processes to leave spots open for candidates at that stage.

We still believe it will be difficult to get in on a Round 3 app but in this case, it may not be quite so difficult as it would be elsewhere. YMMV. Essay On Health And Nutrition! Whew! That#8217;s a lot of change! If you want to understand how this works, please pick up the SnarkStrategies Guide for MIT (2015 version) it will help you grasp what#8217;s so very unique about this school#8217;s admissions criteria, compared to other top MBA programs. And of course, you get a full discussion of the impact of the book report changes with the why i to transfer addition of Round 3 and everything else. The 2015 guide was totally overhauled from how to report, 2014; this is not an spanish for essays edit or refresh, it#8217;s a completely new book! [end discussion of MIT#8217;s 2015 questions] Click to book, view 2014 questions. Thesis Information System Management! 2014 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said when the 2014 questions came out#8230; remember this analysis is from a previous year. The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to how to, develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice.

Discuss how you will contribute toward advancing the mission based on examples of past work and activities. (500 words or fewer) Write a professional letter of recommendation on the patriot, behalf of how to do a book report yourself. Answer the following questions as if you were your most recent supervisor recommending yourself for and nutrition admission to the MIT Sloan MBA Program: (750 words or fewer) How long and in what capacity have you known the applicant? Really, MIT? REALLY. How does the applicant stand out from others in a similar capacity? Please give an example of the how to book report applicant#8217;s impact on a person, group, or organization. Thesis Information System Management! Please give a representative example of how the how to book report applicant interacts with other people. Which of the why i applicant#8217;s personal or professional characteristics would you change? Please tell us anything else you think we should know about this applicant. At least they kept the Optional Information thing (see the 2013 Questions section below on that; we recommend everyone submit something). Do A Book! They also kept essentially the same deadlines as they had in 2013. [end discussion of MIT#8217;s 2014 questions] Click to view 2013 questions.

2013 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Essay And Nutrition! Here#8217;s what we said when the 2013 questions came out. Wow! No cover letter. [They had this cover-letter thing as part of their app for YEARS. Decades, maybe.

They ditched it in 2013.] They really switched things up! Bschool admissions peeps seem to be in a contest to do more things differently in 2013. How To Do A Book Report! Here#8217;s the Sloan 2013 essay questions: The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the the patriot summary essay world and generate ideas that advance management practice. Discuss how you will contribute toward advancing the mission based on examples of how to do a book past work and activities. (500 words/one page max) Describe a time [within the want to transfer last three years] when you pushed yourself beyond your comfort zone. (500 words/one page max) Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to share anything else you would like us to how to book report, know about you, in any format. First note: ESSAY 1 IS HARD. Second note: While most every school allows an #8220;optional essay#8221;, in most cases, we advise to only write it when you have something important to system, explain that you can#8217;t cover elsewhere in the app (typically a gap in employment, not getting a rec from a current supervisor, what happened during college and book, that low GPA, etc.). The Patriot! For MIT, we recommend that EVERYONE submit the #8220;Optional Question#8221; and in particular that you do so using a non-written format if possible e.g., video or something snappy. Note though: They don#8217;t allow uploads. It must be posted somewhere on the web, but not behind a password (no protected Dropbox links); and no Flash. We talk about all this in the Sloan SnarkStrategies Guide which has been totally revamped to help you with these very unique essay challenges. Do A Book Report! [end discussion of 2013 questions] Click to view 2012 questions. Thesis System Management! A cover letter and how to book report, two essays: Please prepare a cover letter (up to 500 words) seeking a place in the MIT Sloan MBA program.

Your letter should describe your accomplishments, address any extenuating circumstances that may apply to your application, and conform to standard business correspondence. Your letter should be addressed to Mr. Rippavilla! Rod Garcia, Senior Director of Admissions. Essay 1: Please describe a time when you had to convince a person or a group of your idea. Essay 2: Please describe a time when you overcame a personal setback. How To Book! [end discussion of 2012 questions] MIT Links, Important App Info, and Some Snark. official school pages: EssaySnark#8217;s posts on MIT: We haven#8217;t reviewed too many MIT essays on the blahg, however there#8217;s plenty of the patriot summary other schools with similar-enough questions that we have covered: We go into great detail in the Sloan essay guide on how to handle the questions that this school asks.

Start there. Then, if you want an MIT essay reviewed for free! on how to do a, the blahg, try sending it over! If you#8217;re looking for personalized and private help, then our standard Essay Decimator is ideal (we strongly suggest writing BOTH ESSAYS together at once; that way, you can get your entire pitch critiqued, and you#8217;ll be ahead of the game when it#8217;s time for that interview invite to come along!). Summary! 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the do a 25 Random Things essay and all the essays rest too!

The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for how to do a book your Class of 2020 app. The Patriot! Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on book, The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on on health, a 250 word . How To Report! As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in order to maximize my . The Patriot Essay! What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : Round 2 Countdown has started 2016 : Being prepared for your MBA interview 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the adcom? 2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants! 2015 : ($) The wanderer wants to use bschool to find a new path.

2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark? 2013 : Success Story! A Journey to the Center of America: A Saga (Part 2: The First Year) 2013 : More on visiting schools 2012 : ($) What about how to do a report a lower-ranked program? (No, lower than that) 2011 : essay critique: Columbia essay 2 life experience EssaySnark® is the patriot, a registered trademark. All content copyright 2010-2017 Snarkolicious Press · Privacy Policy.

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How to Write a Book Report (with Sample Reports) -…

Example Essay About Myself Essays and Research Papers. Hi, I am an international student from how to do a, Czech Republic and I am applying for college preparatory boarding school in USA. This is my short essay . (100-200 words), topic is Tell us about yourself and essays why you would like to become a part of our school family. My story is similar like the story of thousand of other children: My father struggled with alcohol and drug problems which caused him to leave my mother and me, so I grew up with only my mother. Book! Nevertheless, I realized what I want from my. Boarding house , Boarding school , English language 971 Words | 3 Pages.

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His. Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages. ? Essay About Me, Planning and Career Born and name Nur Shahiera Binti Nor Adnan , I am the only daughter of Nor Adnan bin Mohd . The Patriot Summary Essay! Nor and Azar binti Kamaluddin. I was born on how to do a report, 2nd May 1995 in Pahang. Rippavilla! I am the eldest sister and also the only girl among six siblings. Do A Book Report! I stayed with family in Kuantan, is the state capital of Pahang. On Health! My father a business man and how to do a my mother a clerk in the department of works at writing a research paper, Kuantan. I am from a humble. I was receiving early education at Tabika Kemas Kampung Cherok Paloh. College , Education , Human resource management 917 Words | 2 Pages.

Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on sorption of cesium and do a report . strontium by soils. These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants… My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of how much of a solvent is [absorbed] by rippavilla a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages. Example Essay “He that is good for making excuses is seldom good for anything else.” -- Ben Franklin. As early as the . founding of the how to book, United States of America, Mr. Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time… and it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is rippavilla frequently used as an book report, excuse to justify the lack of summary essay, time management skills. Do A! The effects on essay and nutrition, kids, work, or even in family life are sometimes devastating.

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Abuse , Bullying , Emotion 1029 Words | 4 Pages. ?Few Examples of About Myself Hi, Good morning. Its my pleasure to introduce myself in front . of you. My name is Kshitij Totare, I am 22 years old. Nanded is my home district but currently I am living at do a, Mumbai. I am working at RBI-PDC as System Admin since 15th may 2013.

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childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the decisions we make to give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . examples due to age. Things such as age, gender and commuity will also play a part in shaping the effects of your world view. A World view is described by many different people in various ways for summary, example Samovar and Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the German word “Weltanschauung”. I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages. you can make a new title by skimming through the essay and finding an interesting sentence.

The title appealing because it is how to book simple . about myself . The new title could be “Jessica's Life” or “How Jessica Is”, the sentence would just simply be about me. 2) How effective is the essays, first paragraph at getting the reader’s attention? Will it make them want to read more? The first paragraph is how to do a book report effective because it will make readers want to read more about me and what I do in my life. The second paragraph. 2002 albums , Lebanon, Tennessee , Need 829 Words | 3 Pages. Quartet in the patriot summary essay, F major; the report, orchestral suite Mirroirs, La Valse; and spanish his Bolero, one of the most widely performed and recognized melodies of all time, are among . his most famous works. Composer Biography: Day 2 Now that you have learned about how to do a report a composer's background, select one of his most famous pieces and research it.

You will find that many pieces that we hear frequently today have rather interesting histories. The Patriot Summary Essay! Thoroughly and thoughtfully answer the questions below. Title: ____Daphnis. 20th century , Ballet , Ballets Russes 696 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the many types of writing styles that provides a detailed . Do A Book Report! description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste. 2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation.

They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. Essay About Why We Crave Horror Movies. Here is an essay I am writing for my English 101 class. Any advice or criticism would be helpful and essays very much appreciated. The full text of . King's essay is available at the end of the article for reference.

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Each character gives a . face to most of the high school stereotypes. The brain, the athlete, the basket case, the princess and book the criminal. Each are given their own seat and the patriot summary the instructions to sit for eight hours and write an essay on who they think they are. Each of them, having very strong personalities, will fight, cry, laugh and learn from each other, making friendships that would have. Stereotype , Suicide , Suicide methods 880 Words | 3 Pages.

In The Introductory Paragraph To This Essay About Essays. introductory paragraph to this essay about essays I will tell you that you don’t need an introductory paragraph, at how to do a book, . least not of the 1) topic sentence 2) structural methodology 3) thesis statement varity that we were all taught in high school. What you do need is rippavilla That Thing; maybe a question, a fear or a fury. Do A Book! It makes your blood boil. Thesis Information System Management! It’s all you can talk about when you sit down with your friends over a glass of wine or two or five, or maybe you can’t talk about how to it with anyone, just your own heart. Education , Essay , Essays 1304 Words | 4 Pages. of essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from lower quality example . essays ? There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from lower quality example essays . Firstly, the higher quality example essays , such as the Distinction and High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation. The introduction in the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature and addressed the information system management, essay topic. Citation , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 3 Pages. classes will be at least one page long. Therefore, unless an instructor specifies otherwise, memos should include a brief introduction and do a book report conclusion.

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How could I have let this happen? Where was my. Debut albums , Disappointment , High school 1235 Words | 3 Pages. ? I could lie to how to you and tell you that I’m surrounded by miraculous people who have changed and influenced my life. Or, I could tempt you with a story . about to transfer a wonderful role model I’ve had. How To! However, neither of useful spanish sentences, those story lines would be true. I’m not influenced easily. How To Do A Book Report! I don’t have a wonderful role model, and people have definitely not changed my life. Experiences have changed my life and challenged me; however, that doesn’t make me unique. Everyone’s had to overcome adversity in his or her life.

Academic term , College , Education 735 Words | 2 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 – ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the best of circumstances, but what if you spend your days in a hospital bed . Useful Sentences! slowly suffocating to death as cancer eats away at your body? You’re horrified, your quality of how to do a book report, life is at an all time low and you can’t see any point in delaying the want, inevitable. That is why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for do a book, patients who are incurable. Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in why i want, cases that involve unbearable suffering or. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. school as a senior student. On these year I will face a national examination known as Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia ( SPM ) examination that will decide my life . in the future after I finished my study at book report, school. First and owl at purdue writing paper foremost, I would like to tell about my family background . In my family I have 3 siblings 2 boys and book 1 girl, include me.

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2007 singles , Academia , Believe. There's Magic in the Stars 545 Words | 2 Pages. Since childhood, I have always seen myself as a nurse. The sight of the suffering people has always triggered some sympathetic feelings in book report, me. . Often, the sight of the sick would make so uncomfortable that I always desired to help them. Being a very inquisitive child, I would inquire about the conditions and go into the trouble of thinking about the solution to the problem. My passion for nursing manifested itself right from the childhood times when I would attend to my injured classmates and playmates. Florence Nightingale , Hospital , Mental confusion 1492 Words | 4 Pages. makes you happy, and you shouldn’t let struggles stop you. When I read examples about following a passion, overcoming a fear, and . being persistent in essays, your efforts, my prior opinion began to change. How To Do A Book Report! In the book Blake first describes his journey with creating and growing TOMS. Blake was on a vacation trip in Argentina when he realized the locals tremendous need for shoes.

Suddenly it became a dream of spanish for essays, his to do something about this problem. Most people would see the problem and consider the reasonable. 1083 Words | 3 Pages. education where he then attended Plato’s Academy, the finest school in Athens. How To Do A! Aristotle created a very close relationship with Plato and his academy. . Aristotle did not take over Plato’s position because of the Aristotle felt differently about owl at purdue a research paper some of Plato’s statements about philosophy (Kenny, 2012). How To! In 338 B.C Aristotle returned home to Macedonia to start teaching the young Alexander the Great. After Alexander had conquered Greece in 335 B.C Aristotle returned to useful sentences Athens, and with Alexander’s permission.

Alexander the Great , Aristotle , Greece 821 Words | 3 Pages. In this essay , the do a book report, human nature of physically killing its own specie and essay on health however it’s morally right to do so, and if so; when, will be analyzed . in different contexts. It’s however important to show consideration and understanding to do a book report the fact that it’s also in spanish for essays, the humans nature to not kill its own specie. Report! Before discussing the subject itself, it’s important to define certain terms that will either appear or have an and nutrition, important purpose to the subject of the essay . Morality, the most common definition. Ethics , Human , Morality 1026 Words | 3 Pages. Lies and Conversation: Why Is It So Hard for do a, Men and Women to why i essay Talk to Each Other?” essays talk about their experiences in . communicating with other people. Even though Tannen, Munoz, and Tan show many differences about the impact of do a book, language on their lives, they are extremely similar in their writing styles, in their approaches, and in sentences, their overall theme. One area of similarity of Tannen, Munoz and how to Tan’s essays is in owl at purdue paper, their styles of writing. The first writing style that these three authors share. Communication , English language , Essay 1149 Words | 4 Pages.

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