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Five Steps to essay Writing a Good For and Against Essay. An essay is a formal piece of writing which describes, analyses or discusses a particular issue. The most common types are: Opinion essays. They present the writer’s personal opinion of the topic, supported with examples and reasons. For and against essays. They present both sides of an issue in a balanced way. In the concluding paragraph you can say why you find one side more convincing than the other. In this post, I#8217;ll guide you step by step to help you write a good for and against essay.
Step 1. Medieval England? Tips and Guidelines +sample essay (pdf) Step 2. Presentation + sample essay (reinforcing) Step 3. Essay? Using connectors of contrast Step 4. Using connectors of purpose Step 5. Write: 53 topics to write about. (pdf) Step 1. Tips and guidelines+sample essay. Plan Essay? 1. The first stage in writing is producing ideas. It’s important to dedicate two or three minutes to carefully planning what you are going to say. Make a list of the points for and against. Remember that the key to writing a good balanced essay is to include as many arguments you disagree with as those you agree with. They should be noted impartially although in your conclusion you can say why you find one side more convincing than the other.
2. Producing and organising ideas is one thing. For Cheap? Shaping ideas and the organisation of your writing is fitness plan, another. But often the most difficult part is starting a first draft. Once you have your first draft pay attention to how you have organised the information into paragraphs and grouped ideas. Once this is done you can focus on expression.
This means looking at sentence structure, tense usage and vocabulary. Essay For Cheap? It’s important to write clearly and economically. This can mean either rephrasing ideas in plan two sentences instead of one, or rewriting two longer sentences as one shorter sentence. So, go over essay your first draft, looking for ways of improving sentence structure, tense usage and how to star an essay vocabulary. For Cheap? 3. Organise your essay into three parts: Introduction- Paragraph 1- Introduce the topic. The opening should engage the reader’s interest and give a hint of what is to england essay follow. For Cheap? Main Body- Normally you have two paragraphs.
In Paragraph 2, you state your arguments for and in topics Paragraph 3, your arguments against. Conclusion– In paragraph 4 you refer back to the topic and summarize. Here you can say why you find one side more convincing than the other. 4. It’s important that you begin each paragraph with a main idea and then develop this idea. For a new idea, begin a new paragraph. 5. This is academic writing, so don’t use informal style ( no contractions, colloquial words, or emotional language). For Cheap? 6. Remember to use a variety of structures and vocabulary adequate to your level.
Step 2. Presentation + sample essay (reinforcing ). Step 3. Using connectors of contrast. Using connectors is important to express different relationships between ideas. Here, you#8217;ll learn how to use connectors of contrast. Read the flyer below to learn how to use: despite/in spite of, nevertheless, however, on the other hand, although, even though, though, yet, still, but and while/whereas. At the contrasting essays outlines, end of the flyer there are some interactive exercises to test your knowledge. Step 3. Using connectors of purpose. Now we learn how to express purpose with the following words: to, in order to, so as to, for, so that and in case. Test your knowledge. Step 5. Write: 53 topics to write about.
Pdf here. Are you ready to write now? Here#8217;s a compilation of 53 for and against topics to essay write about from different sites and course books. Take your pick, follow all the tips and guidelines and good luck! Should schools start later in the morning?
Benefits of teaching children second languages early on. The pros and cons of why is it important language single gender classrooms. Is sex education the job of parents or of the school? The pros and cons of reduction of physical education hours in our current school system. The pros and cons of security cameras in schools. Pros and cons of a 4-day school week. Should parents pay students for good grades?
The pros and cons of bilingual or dual language education. The pros and essay for cheap cons of wearing a uniform. The pros and cons of banning junk food in schools. Should sexual education be taught in high schools? The education a child receives at home from medieval england essay, having parents who are positive role models is essay, more important than the academic education a child receives at medieval essay, school. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Plastic surgery- vanity or need? Is vegetarianism a healthy diet? One of the largest parts of for cheap government expenditure is it important essay, health. Some people argue that this money would be better spent on health education on essay for cheap, the principle that prevention is better than cure. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Should parents be allowed to fitness choose their child#8217;s gender? Pros and cons of having exotic animals as home pets? Should advertising for for cheap plastic surgery be illegal? Should priests be celibate? What does everyone think about zoo animals? Is it a good or a bad thing? Does legal prostitution reduce crime? To what extent is the use of animals in medieval england essay scientific research acceptable? Discuss the pros and for cheap cons.
Some people argue that the amount of lifetime fitness plan violence shown in films and on television has led to an increase in violent crimes in society. Essay For Cheap? Do you agree with this argument? Should the government control what is medieval, shown on television and in the cinema? Should rich countries forgive all debts for poor countries? The pros and cons of children under the age of 10 playing video games. The pros and essay for cheap cons of film, television, and music piracy. Should kids under the age of 13 have a phone? Advantages and disadvantages of digital spying on kids and teens. The pros and why is it important a second language essay cons of owning an electric car.
Have we become too dependent on essay for cheap, technology? Discuss the pros and cons. Should students be allowed to have cell phones in elementary and high schools? Should we ban the sale of violent video games? Some people say that the Internet is how to star an essay, making the world smaller by bringing people together.
To what extent do you agree that the Internet is making it easier for people to communicate with one another? Should pro for cheap wrestling be considered a sport? Should sport hunting be banned? Many people want their country to hold the Olympics. Medieval England Essay? Others believe that international sporting events bring more problems than benefits.
Discuss both views and state your opinion. In the future, we will have more and more leisure time as machines replace many of the tasks we do at home and work. Discuss the benefits this will bring and also the essay for cheap, problem it will cause. It is why is to learn language, said that travel broadens the mind. What can we learn by travelling to other countries? Should we first explore our own countries? Discuss. In many countries tourism is a major part of the economy, but it also causes environmental damage and essay for cheap ruins the places it exploits. It is argued that tourists should pay an additional tax to compensate for this damage.
Do you agree? Should museums and art galleries be free of charge for it important essay the general public, or should a charge, even a voluntary charge, be levied for admittance? Discuss this issue, and give your opinion. Unemployment is one of the most serious problems facing developed nations today. For Cheap? What are the lifetime, advantages and/or disadvantages of reducing the working week to thirty five hours?
Most high level jobs are done by essay, men. Should the contrasting essays outlines, government encourage a certain percentage of these jobs to essay be reserved for women? Should retirement be compulsory at 65 years of age? Differences between countries become less evident each year. Nowadays, all over the world people share the same fashions, advertising, brands, eating habits and TV channels. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?
Television has had a significant influence on the culture of many societies. Design Essay? To what extent would you say that television has positively or negatively affected the cultural development of essay for cheap your society? Some people like living in a house, while others prefer an apartment. Are there more advantages than disadvantages to living in contrasting essays a house rather than in an apartment? FAMILY AND RELATIONSHIPS. The pros and essay for cheap cons of gay marriage. Some parents choose not to plan essay have a television at home because of the influence on their children.
Is this a good or a bad thing? Some people believe in the traditional idea that the woman’s place is in the home, while others say that idea is outdated and that women should play an increasingly important role in the workplace of the future. What is your opinion? People are now living longer than ever before and many old people are unable to look after themselves. Some people believe that it is the responsibility of essay families to look after the elderly, while others say governments should provide retirement homes for them where they can be looked after properly. Discuss. Why Is To Learn Language Essay? Are women better parents than men?
If children behave badly, should their parents accept responsibility and also be punished? 13 thoughts on “ Five Steps to Writing a Good For and for cheap Against Essay ” The powerpoint like document is not working properly. Some words overlap others and it makes it difficult to read sometimes. Mla Research? Anyway, thanks for sharing, it#8217;s very useful, Which powerpoint do you refer to? I#8217;ve tested everything visual on the post and it seems to be working fine. Thanks a lot for sharing us this material. I really appreciate it. You#8217;re welcome!
I am glad you find it useful! Just to let you know that we’ve shortlisted this blog post for for cheap this month’s TeachingEnglish blog award and I’ll be putting up a post about it on tomorrow’s TeachingEnglish Facebook page http://www.facebook.com/TeachingEnglish.BritishCouncil, if you’d like to check there for likes and comments. Thanks a lot, Ann! This is quite interesting topic and students can have variety of words to write on. Writing an why is it important to learn a second language essay just needs clear instruction and for cheap valuable content. This is to learn language essay, basic requirement of essay because without clear concept we can#8217;t write well. Also i want to say that writing will describe your thinking as well so always try to remain positive and for cheap determined to your task. Your rules of hypenation seem to not be for English words and spellings. I think that your current rules are perhaps for Spanish.
That makes this kind of hypenation: Since #8220;th#8221; is a digraph, you have to hyphenate: Where is #8220;although#8221; hyphenated exactly? I can#8217;t see it anywhere! This is mla research, all very useful. Thanks a lot.. Thanks for your comment! Thanks very much for sharing your For and essay Against Presentation but it does not work quite well. Words overlap, some of them are not separated#8230; it is difficult to stop the presentation.. Design Topics? Which presentation are you referring to? There are three.
I#8217;ve just checked all of them and they seem to be working fine.
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nancy drew essay ‘The girl sleuth is the supreme role given to females in juvenile fiction.’ (The Girl Sleuth, Bobbie Ann Mason.) And Nancy Drew is the essay for cheap supreme girl sleuth. I’m not American, and essay, while Nancy Drew was around in Ireland, she wasn’t an institution like she is in essay, America. I’d seen the film starring Emma Roberts but I hadn’t read the books, and yet as soon as I announced that I’d be writing up posts about girl sleuths, people asked me ‘Will you write about Nancy Drew?’ She’s the to learn language go-to girl sleuth: she’s part of the lexicon. So I decided I would sit down and read all the Nancy Drew books. FOR YOU GUYS. How deep is my love, y’all.
Then I read the for cheap Nancy Drew novel The Secret of fitness essay Red Gate Farm, which begins ‘”That Oriental-looking clerk in the perfume shop certainly acted mysterious.” Holy God, I almost dropped the book. But I read the whole thing, in which Nancy suspects an Asian lady of selling her, um, Oriental perfumes at too high a price, and essay for cheap, then Nancy’s suspicions are further raised by lifetime fitness plan, the sight of a man in a (horrors) foreign made car! Of course they’re all counterfeiters. Should’ve driven a Ford, buddy. After reading that I knew that I could not possibly read all the Nancy Drews without going completely doolally. And yet Nancy Drew is still an important girl sleuth… some would say the for cheap quintessential girl sleuth. So I thought I would concentrate on mla research format, Nancy Drew in the real world. The elements of essay for cheap Nancy which have inspired and essay topics, influenced people, and the world and the women who produced Nancy Drew. Because Nancy Drew was chiefly the for cheap product of two pretty remarkable women.
So list to outlines the tale of Harriet Stratemeyer Adams and Mildred Augustine Wirt Benson. (Mildred was also remarkable for for cheap her truly terrible name, but she didn’t let it hold her back.) Let’s start with Harriet. Her father Edward Stratemeyer started the Stratemeyer Group, which was based on getting a bunch of writers to a second language essay write up stories that Edward had thought up under several different pen names. Essay For Cheap! One of his most popular serieseses was the Bobbsey Twins, which was a mystery series. Fitness Essay! (Many people thought of having factories of writers doing their bidding before James Patterson did it. For Cheap! In fact… excuse me, I have to essays outlines go rent a warehouse…) Edward said ‘Almost as many girls write to me as boys and all say that they like to read boys’ books (but it’s pretty hard to get a boy to read a girl’s book, I think).’ He wrote this in 1905, and in for cheap, 2012 still nobody knows how to format get boys to essay read ‘girl’ books as if girls are… also people. I FEEL U, ED. By 1929 the Stratemeyer Group was so successful, and the ladies were so uncatered-to, that Edward decided he’d commission a writer to medieval england essay write a girl detective series he intended to be big. He planned to call her Stella Strong, Diana Dare or maybe Nan Drew.
He hired a lady named Mildred Wirt to write the Stella Strong Stories. Essay For Cheap! More on her later! But Edward was not feeling quite the ticket, and the Nancy Drew stories (as they became) were much helped along by his secretary. Harriet Otis Smith (Different Harriet. Many Harriets were involved). In May 1930, twelve days after Nancy Drew’s first book came out, Edward died with no dude left to medieval england run the Stratemeyer Group. THE WORLD: Bad news, your father’s dead. HARRIET STRATEMEYER, HER MOTHER AND HER SISTER EDNA: Sucks to be us.
Time to sell the company. THE WORLD: Bad news, welcome to The Depression. HARRIET: … What is a weak woman to for cheap do but… HARRIET: RUN THE COMPANY HER OWN DAMN SELF! Nancy Drew might have died there, except for essays outlines Edward’s eldest daughter, Harriet. She was married, and she moved the company to for cheap New Jersey so she didn’t have to outlines leave her kids too much, but she still had to essay sort out childcare issues in a time when people thought a creche was a pastry. She was a LADY CEO in the 1930s.
That just did not happen. ‘Oh, it was a radical thing to do all right, and some of design essay topics my friends didn’t think I should work. But my children turned out all right, so I guess I was right.’ (Harriet Stratemeyer Adams.) With the help of only essay, her sister Edna and her father’s super-capable secretary The Other Harriet, Harriet started writing blurbs, and reading about mla research, her father’s methods and implementing them, and essay, introducing innovations. One change these three women made right away was give Nancy Drew two girl friends, Bess and design essay, George, total opposites who were enormously loyal to Nancy. In April 1934 there was an essay, article about Harriet and the Stratemeyer Group in Fortune , which was a leeeetle condescending but had to admit that they were geniuses and england essay, that Nancy was an essay, enormous phenomenon. ‘How she (Nancy) crashed a Valhalla that had been rigidly restricted to mla research the male of her species is a mystery even to her publishers.’
Harriet wrote some of the later Nancy Drew books, and still more were written to essay for cheap her increasingly strict specifications. Medieval England Essay! She spent decades fighting the press about for cheap, her company and medieval england, Nancy’s integrity, and essay, referred to Nancy as her fictional daughter. She also believed Nancy would totally have gone to Wellesley, her old college. Harriet Stratemeyer Adams was the woman responsible for Nancy Drew’s survival. But Mildred Wirt, as she went by when she started the contrasting essays outlines books, was the woman most responsible for for cheap Nancy Drew’s creation.
And Mildred Wirt was a genuine sassy girl reporter. She was the first woman ever to mla research format graduate from the essay Iowa School of Journalism in 1927. She also answered an ad put up by the Stratemeyer Group, and medieval essay, wrote for Edward Stratemeyer a series called the for cheap Ruth Fielding series, in which a girl was torn between mysteries and marriage. So when time came to an essay write Nancy Drew, it was clear who to for cheap call to write under the an essay false name ‘Carolyn Keene.’ It was Mildred Wirt, legend has it, who put in the most daring things Nancy said and bold things she did. ‘While Nancy hesitated, uncertain which way to turn, her mind worked more clearly than ever before.’ (The Secret of The Old Clock.) No damsel in distress Nancy. As written by essay, Mildred, she could arrange flowers, ace college tests, and be a bareback ballerina in a circus on demand. Harriet and mla research format, Mildred met maybe twice and totally seemed to like each other, but they had obvious conflicts. HARRIET: Uh so we’re cutting wages because there’s this thing called the Depression, maybe you’ve heard of essay it? MILDRED: Um as someone who is not a CEO and mla research format, who is supporting her invalid husband… YES YES I HAVE.
HARRIET: While I like Nancy, she is a well brought up young lady! Walk softly and carry a big stick, know what I mean? Little less sass, what do you think? MILDRED: I think I love sass. Harriet and for cheap, Mildred worked together for mla research a while, then Mildred wouldn’t write at a reduced rate, then Harriet hired a dude to be Carolyn Keene for three Nancy Drew books, then Harriet got tired of rewriting the books to be less dudely so she re-hired Mildred. And back and forth they went, until Harriet mostly took over—but Mildred had a lot to do with the creation and evolution of Nancy Drew. In 1944 Mildred joined the Toledo Times as a beat reporter. EDITOR: That the essay for cheap war has brought us this low is a horror to me.
As soon as the war is over fitness plan, you are super fired. MILDRED: Yeah we’ll see. EDITOR: You will be the FIRST ONE to be SO INCREDIBLY FIRED. MILDRED: Fifty-four years later, when I am STILL WORKING FOR THIS PAPER, I am going to laff and laff. When the war ended she was given a permanent post. She said it was because ‘I could always get the story.’ Mind you, she also said she was ‘running scared for essay about forty-nine-and-a-half years.’ So little job security for the ladies!
She supported her sick husband until he died, and then she married a fellow reporter. HARRIET: Are you telling me you became a reporter and got married and had a baby and never said and met all your deadlines?! CHILL, LADY. MILDRED: Mildred never chills. HARRIET: Well as a lady CEO I guess I am in. In the 1950s, however, Harriet just took the Nancy Drews into her own hands, and medieval england essay, after twenty-odd years with Nancy, Mildred went on with her reportering, her own books, and essay, her family. Her new husband was a whiz in lifetime essay, the kitchen and liked going home to cook and look after the baby while Mildred always stayed late in the office. Mildred also got her pilot’s license at the age of essay fifty-nine and why is to learn a second, began flying about the place for kicks. She only had two jobs: had to have something to essay for cheap occupy herself with! She wrote a column called ‘Happy Landings’ and wrote about competitions organized by Amelia Earhart’s women-only flying groups.
Their motto was ‘We hope men will enter—but let the design topics best woman win!’ In 1980, due to the Stratemeyer Group changing publishers amid a storm of publicity, there was a lawsuit over who had written Nancy Drew. HARRIET: Well me obviously. MILDRED: koff koff. HARRIET: My bad.
I totally thought you were dead. Harriet won the essay lawsuit, but Mildred survived Harriet and became the go-to for Nancy Drew knowledge and opinions from the mla research ‘real Nancy Drew.’ In 1985 she gave an interview saying ‘I do believe in essay for cheap, equality. England Essay! Which, by essay, the way, women still do not have!’ In 1998, aged ninety-three, Mildred breezed out of the office telling a fellow reporter ‘I gotta go interview some old fogey.’ ‘They’ve tried to change me for a whole generation and I am impossible. There’s only two things I believe in—well, a few more things than that—but I believe in absolute honesty and honesty in journalism.’ (Mildred Wirt Benson at a press conference.)
In 2002 when Mildred died the Washington Post acclaimed her as ‘the original Carolyn Keene, the one who gave Nancy her personality and her keenness.’ So who made Nancy Drew? Well, both of them. Mildred was the why is to learn language snazzier figure, with her lady journalism and for cheap, being a daring pilot. But lady CEOs need love too: without Harriet’s business acumen Nancy would not have survived. And the england thing is… Nancy Drew is hugely compelling because she’s a lot of things at once. She’s conservative in some ways and privileged, the for cheap cosseted only child of lifetime fitness a lawyer with her own car who dresses extremely well, but she’s also independent and curious and groundbreaking.
She’s a lot of things because she was created by a lot of people. ‘Our heroine-gunning down the highway after a gang of crooks—is a sweet young lady who dresses nicely and enjoys having tea with little cakes… Nancy is a paradox, and she is also the most popular girl detective in the world.’ (The Girl Sleuth, Bobbie Ann Mason.) She also started out as a blonde, but they quickly sassed her up to be a redhead. For Cheap! Has Nancy been dyeing her hair all these years, like Emma Stone? (Can Emma Stone play Nancy Drew in a 1930s-set movie? Please say yes.) Mildred kicked off Nancy Drew and gave her derring-do and snappy repartee and discomfort with romance. Harriet made sure Nancy Drew continued, and always argued for her courage and firmness: possibly there was something of Harriet, surpassing her father Edward Stratemeyer who started the company, in Nancy’s relationship with her father.
‘ ”Dad, that man stole a purse!” Nancy whispered excitedly. “I’m going after him!” Before Mr Drew could recover from his surprise, she scrambled past him.’ Too slow, Mr Drew! Other dudes in Nancy’s life were mostly criminals who wanted to bop Nancy over fitness, the head, tie her up or mess with her car. Nancy had a boyfriend, Ned, but Mildred was always pretty against her being rooomantic. “Anyway,” said Ned, “there’s one puzzle I wish you would solve for me.” “Why you always change the subject when I talk to you about essay for cheap, something that isn’t a bit mysterious!” Nancy smiled and said, “Ned, someday I promise to listen.” (The Mystery of the Tolling Bell). I think Ned maybe wanted to design topics talk about making out? And also, I think Nancy is in charge. She was also in charge in for cheap, the 1938 movie Nancy Drew: Detective, in why is it important a second language, which she made Ned (called Ted in the movie) dress up in drag as a nurse to break into essay, a nursing home.
Nancy’s boyfriend Ned introduced himself in his very first appearance with “‘I’m Ned Nickerson,’ he declared with a warm smile. ‘Anything I can do?’” Here was a hot guy who was happy to be supporting. You go, Nancy. Four for you, Drew. In the Mystery of the Ivory Charm, Ned is like, Nancy don’t go to India, it’s so far, baby! And… ‘Perhaps,’ Nancy agreed, smiling. ‘But I would go to contrasting outlines the very ends of the essay for cheap earth to find another mystery.’ Nancy was always smiling and being very polite. AND SUPER FIRM. ‘Perhaps it was a daring plan,’ Nancy admitted with a pleased little laugh… ‘but it worked, and that’s the how to star most important thing.’ (The Clue in the Diary.) Nobody puts Nancy in the corner! She was able to for cheap sort things herself: at one point Nancy saves damsel in distress Bess from drowning and Bess hurls herself into Nancy’s arms. Essay Topics! Ned tries to break out of a dungeon where he and essay, Nancy are immured, and Nancy murmurs ‘Oh Ned… you’ll break a bone.’ Nancy is it important to learn a second, really feminine, and uses her femininity for her own devices. ‘Nancy did not want to answer questions. To avoid them she pretended to faint.
The act was well timed, for the man, frightened, immediately rushed into the hall for help. Essay! The young sleuth smiled.’ You see? Always smiling, our Nancy. The Mona Lisa of Crime Solving!
It was 1964 when Nancy Drew was first recognized as an icon, in a nostalgic fashion shoot in Mademoiselle magazine. By then thirty million Nancy Drews had been sold: girls who read Nancy Drew as kids were all grown up. In 1973 Ms. magazine ran a first-person essay discussing Nancy’s effect on women who would grow up to be feminists. ‘Even though Nancy Drew was sixteen and medieval essay, I was only for cheap, nine, I knew we were kindred spirits.’ The New York Times covered Nancy, and sales boomed as more and more new books came out, changing slightly (never too much, as Nancy is about nostalgia) with the changing times. In 1974 (maybe inspired by the Ms magazine coverage) Ned Nickerson got kidnapped in The Mystery of the Glowing Eye. Nancy, of course, was on the case and rescued her man. And in the Double Jinx mystery, a girl of Asian heritage Nancy is suspicious of (Nancy, Nancy why) turns out to design essay topics be a cool lady and an awesome new friend. A lot of people talked about how Nancy never made a fuss about being able to do anything—she just performed amazing feats and made them feel they could too. ‘I didn’t realize how feminist they were because I sort of essay figured that’s the way the world was,’ said a fan (Girl Sleuth: Nancy Drew and the Women Who Created Her, Melanie Rehak). 1970s singer sensation Janis Ian described Nancy as the epitome of self-confidence. Two women who had worked their way up from secretaries to producers went on to produce Hardy Boys (also the Stratemeyer Group) and design, Nancy Drew TV shows. Essay For Cheap! The TV shows weren’t successful, but for kind of awesome reasons—fans expected more from Nancy.
For instance, they disliked Nancy’s boyfriend Ned and commented: ‘You don’t make a female character strong by playing her opposite design topics a buffoon. You just make her strong.’ In 1980 Nancy Drew had a fiftieth birthday party attended by celebrities like Bette Davis (which I like because of the song Bette Davis Eyes: ‘all the boys think she’s a spy… she’s got Bette Davis eyes’) and Barbara Walters, who said ‘seems to for cheap me I read all of essays them (the Nancy Drew novels).’ Real-life lady journalist inspired by Nancy Drew! While Mildred was mostly bothered by Nancy Drew fans in her later years, I hope Barbara Walters would have pleased her. I was with Jennifer Lynn Barnes and for cheap, Ally Carter, both writers of contrasting outlines young adult fiction with very strong ladies, when I wrote this. Essay! Jennifer Lynn Barnes remembered her mother giving Jennifer her own old Nancy Drews, and Ally Carter remembered that the Nancy Drew mystery about a fake ghost on mla research, a ranch, The Secret of Shadow Ranch, was the very first book she ever remembered reading and wanting to never end. Nancy Drew is essay for cheap, still influencing and inspiring people. So, thanks for Nancy, Mildred Wirt Benson and essay, Harriet Stratemeyer Adams. Thanks for changing the essay for cheap world. One more thing about the girl sleuth–her world is populated by criminals faking supernatural phenomena, like the why is it important to learn language ghosts of The Secret of Shadow Ranch.
I wanted to write a book in essay, which a girl sleuth, and a fairly girly girl sleuth (loves great dresses, can still handle herself), actually had to deal with real supernatural phenomena in Unspoken. How would Nancy have handled real magic? I bet real well. Sort of lifetime fitness plan Nancy’s way. 9 Responses to “Who Made You, Nancy Drew?” August 09, 2012 at 6:26 pm, E. K. Essay! B. said: A truly fantastic essay! Thanks for writing it – I learned a lot, and design, it was a really fun read. It’s amazing that you take the time to write articles like this, so I want you to know I love them, /and/ your books (can’t wait to buy Unspoken! yay!).
And the new website is BEAUTIFUL. Hope you have a good day! #128578; August 09, 2012 at 6:27 pm, sbrennan said: Aw, what a truly lovely first comment for le shiny new website! Thank you. #128521; I will keep my fingers crossed you like Unspoken and essay, I am so glad you liked this (and the star an essay website!) August 10, 2012 at 12:10 am, Katie said: This was a very interesting read. I’ve been a fan of Nancy Drew for a very long time and while I knew a little bit about for cheap, these two, I definitely never knew all these details. They really were awesome people. Nancy Drew has always been something my sister and I shared and bonded over. She passed the books on to me when she decided I was old enough (I think I must have been in first or second grade) and I devoured them.
Though I would get annoyed that she managed to get kidnapped or knocked out in pretty much every book, I still loved them to pieces. My sister and design essay topics, I, though much older now, still play all the for cheap games together. Oddly enough, the Secret of lifetime fitness Shadow Ranch is one of the earlier games Her Interactive created. On a side note, the essay for cheap new website is gorgeous and contrasting essays, has me even more excited for Unspoken. Essay For Cheap! =D. August 10, 2012 at 10:27 am, J.M. Dow said:
This is a fantastic essay–incredibly informative and extremely well written. I never really read Nancy Drew growing up. I had a couple of essay her older mysteries, and essay for cheap, there was a new series that came out when I was in format, middle school (Nancy Drew Casefiles, I think?) that I was going to pick up, but I never got into essay, her. Design Essay Topics! I wasn’t that she was a girl and I was a boy, mind you. It was because I was more into Goosebumps, and Nancy Drew and The Hardy Boys were a little too old fashioned for me. (That said, I loved Sherlock Holmes. Go figure.) I am very much looking forward to Unspoken, now. So…thanks for adding to essay my shame stack (the loving name my wife has given the massive pile of books I buy, but cannot read fast enough to thin out). August 10, 2012 at 10:58 am, sbrennan said: I used to how to an essay take reading bets with my brother on essay for cheap, how fast I could read a Goosebumps book.
Record holds at fourteen minutes. Essays! #128521; August 10, 2012 at 10:30 am, Augusta Scattergood said: Fabulous! I, too, am a lifelong ND fan. But when I tried very hard to reread them because my character in my first middle-grade novel was reading them, I failed miserably.
Too many adverbs. Or probably the same issues you described so well in this post. I am totally linking this in an upcoming blog of my own! […] – Sarah Rees Brennan shares the story of the ladies behind the essay Nancy Drew series […] August 11, 2012 at 9:57 am, Sarah said: A very, very good essay. Why Is It Important Language Essay! There is one detail I want to point out, though. The first 34 Nancy Drew books were the ones that had the most racist stereotypes in essay for cheap, them.
They were all written, to a lesser or greater degree, to bring them more up-to-date and to why is it important a second essay remove the racism. Essay! The racist material was removed by simply no longer naming a person’s color, and by changing the way they spoke, so it was a sort of minor correction. I also like the why is language Judy Bolton books, the Dana Girls books, and for cheap, the Cherry Ames series. The first two were mystery-related books, the last one part mystery, part what’s-it-like-to-be-a-nurse books. […] I was inspired by essay topics, girl detectives, because who better to solve a mystery than a girl detective? […]
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The strategic role of Supply chain management in manufacturing industry Essay Sample. As a manufacturing company in UK, we spend over 50 % of our sales on purchases. Because such a high percentage of an organization’s costs are determined by purchasing, relationships with suppliers are increasingly integrated and for cheap long-term. Joint efforts that improve innovation, speed design, and reduce costs are common. Such efforts can dramatically improve both partners’ competitiveness.
Consequently, a discipline known as supply-chain management has developed. My presentation in the form of a report will cover the following topics regarding the function of Supply Chain Management: The Strategic Role that can be associated with this function and an analysis of what is involved in the successful implementation of this role. An outline of why is it important to learn how can SCM meet globalisation challenges. II The definition of SCM. 1.What is supply chain? A supply chain as a whole can be viewed as the flow of water in a river: organizations located closer to the original source of supply are described as being ‘upstream’, while those located closer to the end customer are ‘downstream’. The flow of the whole river is for cheap, being concerned. In other words, supply chain is a network, which for tangible goods covers purchasing of raw materials, manufacturing, assembly and distribution of design topics finished goods to the client. In manufacturing, just like our company, the supply chain is the linkage for the physical movement of all materials from suppliers, through transformation, and then as finished goods for the customers.
Supply-chain management is essay for cheap, one of the how to star an essay hot topics in business today. The idea is to apply a total systems approach to managing the entire flow of information, materials, and services from raw-materials suppliers through factories and essay warehouses to the end customers. The focus is on those core activities that a business must operate each day to meet demand. 3 The function of supply chain management. ?U Contribute to the formulation, communication and implementation of policies, strategies and plans. ?U Contribute to the establishment and improvement of purchasing related systems. ?U Establish and maintain a database of purchasing and how to star stores information.
?U Establish and develop source of supply. ?U Acquire supplies. ?U Provide goods and materials to internal and external customers through storage, movement, distribution and transport. ?U Monitor and control the purchasing, supply, storage, distribution and transport chain. ?U Contribute to effective working.
III.Strategic role of SCM. The supply process acts as the bridge between core competencies and markets. The ability to manage this process along with the strategic core is crucial to for cheap market success. Fitness Essay? There is a need to contemplate the scope of strategic thinking and action at two sections. The first is the strategic role of SCM, and the second is the benefit achieved from SCM. 1. The strategic role of for cheap SCM.
Supply chain management is described as the integrated management of business links, of information flows and of people. Lifetime Plan? Attention is given to for cheap the whole chain from raw material supply, manufacture, assembly and distribution to the end customer. For manufacturers, operations are the heart of the supply process, and mla research supply is not the sole criterion of competitive advantage, but it performs a crucial role in support of other strategies. Essay For Cheap? Investments and longer-term developments in manufacturing are examined in relation to changes in business strategy. The second major trend facing organizations is the demand for ever-greater levels of responsiveness and shorter defined cycle times for deliveries of high-quality goods and services. All functions have a part to play in the development of strategy and manufacturing should be involved as well. Manufacturing is medieval england, seen as a strategic resource and for cheap development of capabilities is contrasting essays, important.
This may open new market opportunities. As a result, in manufacturing companies, SCM seeks to play one of essay for cheap two distinct roles: a)To establish competitive advantage through unique logistic performance. b) To achieve higher efficiency through cost leadership. Supply chain management becomes even more important for manufacturing companies, when they are competing in the markets where are sensitive to logistics cost or performance. And the management must balance supply chain effectiveness (the quality of the products) against efficiency (low cost).
Another important trend in supply chain management is the recovery, recycling, or reuse of products from the end user after they have reached the why is to learn a second language essay end of their useful life. Essay? Organizations are now extending their distribution channels beyond the end customer to include the acceptance and ‘disassembly’ of final products for reuse in new products. 2. Benefits achieved from strategic SCM. An early benefit of how to star supply chain improvement efforts included project work by teams that reduced purchasing costs, inventories, logistical costs, and freight costs. As the focus is placed on specific supply chain projects such as mainly clerical, order-pacing activities and in which personnel tend to adopt only a short-term, hand-to-mouth approach, merely reacting to essay contingencies as they arise. Supply chain objectives are usually described by lifetime fitness plan essay, two opposing goals: satisfying customers (effectiveness) and achieving the essay for cheap highest possible efficiency, and the way in which balance is achieved is the fundamental benefit of essays supply chain strategy. Supply chain effectiveness indicates how well it is oriented to the customer. The customer orientation of the supply chain has four benefits: high service performance, quick response, flexibility and variety. The benefit of SCM for essay manufacturers is the quick change in supply chain and introduce new products to meet the turbulent conditions of the market. Inventory becomes obsolete.
In the long run, there seems to be general support for the view that in rapid changing world markets, product innovation is an lifetime plan, essential ingredient in the capability of essay for cheap firms to sustain a competitive advantage. Design? Linkage with suppliers and the relationships that are forged with them can help to stimulate technological changes that can benefit both parties. Essay? The alternative is to emphasize flexibility and time-based cycle. There are both internal and external benefits associated with being time-based competitor. The external effects refer to benefits enjoyed by time-based organizations in the marketplace relative to their competitors (such as higher quality, quicker customer response, technologically advances products). The internal benefits are found within and between the different functional areas in contrasting, the firm (including simplified organizations, shorter planning loops, increased responsiveness, better communication, coordination and cooperation between functions). These capabilities become even more important when considered on a global scale. To survive, organizations today must increase market share on essay, a global basis. To meet this challenge, managers are seeking ways to rapidly expand their global logistics and distribution networks, in order to ship products to mla research the customers who demand them, in a dynamic and rapidly changing set of market channels.
IV Implementing supply chain management strategies. The primary purpose in for cheap, establishing supply chains is to minimize the flow of raw materials and finished products at every point in the pipeline in order to enhance productivity and cost savings (Cohen, 1996; Cooper and Ellram, 1993). There are five points that would be noticed in implementing supply chain management strategies. 1. Establish supplier relationships. It is important to establish strategic partnerships with suppliers for a successful supply chain. Corporations have started to limit the number of suppliers they do business with by implementing vendor review programs. These programs strive to find suppliers with operational excellence so the why is to learn customer can determine which supplier is serving it better. The ability to have a closer customer/supplier relationship is very important because these suppliers are easier to for cheap work with. With the evolution toward a sole supplier relationship, firms need full disclosure of mla research information such as financial performance, gain-sharing strategies, and plans for jointly designed work.
They may establish a comparable culture and also implement compatible forecasting and information technology systems. This is because their suppliers must be able to link electronically into the customer’s system to obtain shipping details, production schedules and any other needed information (Copacino, 1996; Coyle et al., 1996; Keller, 1995). 2.Manage inventory investment in the chain. Each constituent of the supply chain desires to hold no more than its fair share of inventory. For instance, the distributor desires fewer inventories and would like to see inventory held by the manufacturer. As a result, the essay concept of vendor-managed inventory has become a trend in star, inventory management. This system allows the inventory to be pushed back to the vendor and as a result lowers the investment and risk for essay the other chain members (Donovan, 1997; Mayer, 1996). As product life cycles are shortening, lower inventory investment in the chain has become important. Contrasting? Cycle times are being reduced as a result of the quick response inventory system. The quick response system improves customer service because the customer gets the right amount of product, when and where it is needed.
Quick response also serves to essay increase manufacturing inventory turns. 3.Build a competitive advantage for the channel. Achieving and maintaining competitive advantage in an industry is it important to learn a second, not an easy undertaking for a firm. Many competitive pressures force a firm to remain efficient. Supply chain management is seen by some as a competitive advantage for firms that employ the resources to for cheap implement the process. Essays? It also serves to increase the clout in the channel because these firms are recognized as leading edge and are treated with respect. Attaining competitive advantage in the channel comes with top management support for decreased costs, waste management, and enhanced profits. Many firms want to push costs back to their supplier and essay for cheap take labor costs out it important to learn of the system.
These cost reducing tactics tend to increase the essay competitive efficiency of the entire supply chain. Firms have become more market channel focused. Medieval England Essay? They are observing how the for cheap entire channel’s activities affect the system operation. In recent times, the channel power has shifted to the retailer. Retailer channel power in the distribution channel is driven by the shift to fitness plan essay some large retail firms, such as Wal-Mart, Kmart, and essay for cheap Target. The large size of these retailers allows them the power to dictate exactly how they want their suppliers to format do business with them. The use of point of sales data and increased efficiency of distribution also have been instrumental in essay for cheap, improving channel power and competitive advantage (Magretta, 1998; Robinson, 1998; Ross, 1996). 4.Increase customer responsiveness.
To remain competitive, firms focus on improved supply chain efforts to enhance customer service through increased frequency of reliable product deliveries. Increasing demands on it important to learn a second, customer service levels is driving partnerships between customers and suppliers. The ability to serve their customers with higher levels of quality service, including speedier delivery of essay products, is vital to partnering efforts. Having a successful relationship with a supplier results in trust and the ability to be customer driven, customer intimate and customer focused (Willis, 1995). 5.Introduce supply chain management solutions and enabling information technology.
Information is vital to effectively operating the supply chain. The communication capability of an enterprise is enhanced by an information technology system. However, information system compatibility among trading partners can limit the capability to medieval essay exchange information. Essay For Cheap? An improved information technology system that is user friendly, where partners in it important a second language essay, the channel have access to common databases that are updated in essay, real-time, is england, needed. Supply chain management is a broader and strategically more significant concept, which includes the entire supply chain from the supply of raw materials, through manufacture, assembly and for cheap distribution to england essay the end customer. It includes the strategic and long-term consideration of for cheap supply chain management issues as well as the short-term control of flow throughout the supply chain. These include the adoption of appropriate attitudes, perspectives, skills and philosophies by all those who are associated with activities in how to star, the supply chain. Interpersonal relationships, both internally and essay for cheap externally, play an important part in essay topics, the development of effective and efficient arrangements. In conclusion, on the basis of essay for cheap new understanding of supply chain and supply chain management, we need to find new ways of contrasting outlines navigating in essay, a changing world and to why is it important a second language learn how to essay develop supply chains that enable them to maximise the value for the organization. Malcolm Saunders, Strategic Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, 1997.
Cooper,M C, Ellram, L.M, 1993,”characteristics of it important to learn a second language essay supply chain management and the implications for purchasing and logistics strategy”. Essay? The International Journal of Logistic Management, 4,2,13-24. Copacino, W.C., 1996, “Why you should synchronize logistics and manufacturing”, Logistics Management, 35, 11, 63. Coyle, J.J., Langley, C.J., 1996, The Management of Business Logistics, 6th ed, West Publishing Company, St Paul, MN. Donovan, M. R, 1997, “Reduce inventories and improve business performance”, Midrange EEP, 62-4. Magretta, J., 1998, “Fast, global, and entrepreneurial: supply chain management, Hong Kong style: an interview with Victor Fung”, Harvard Business Review, 103-14. III Linking SCM to company’s overall strategy. The supply chain improvements described indicate that supply chain management has the potential to improve a firm’s competitiveness. Supply chain capability is essay, as important to for cheap a company’s overall strategy as overall product strategy. Supply chain management encourage management of it important language processes across departments.
By linking supply chain objectives to company strategy, decisions can be made between competing demands on the supply chain. Essay? Improvements in outlines, performance are driven by externally-based targets rather than by essay, internal department objectives. Managing the supply chain means managing across traditional functional areas in the company and managing interactions external to the company with both supplier and customers. This cross-boundary nature of it important to learn essay management supports incorporating supply chain goals and capabilities in essay, the strategic plan of the contrasting company. This focus on integration can then lead to using the supply chain to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage over competitors. The impact of managing overall product demand and the supply of product will impact the profitability of the company. The supply chain strategy can be viewed as the pattern of decisions related to souring product, capacity planning, conversing of finished product, deployment of finished product, demand management and essay for cheap communication, and delivery. Linking supply chain strategy to the business strategy involved in producing a company’s product.
A company must develop objectives for the management of the supply chain based on corporate objectives. From these higher level objectives, a set of detailed objectives can be developed for each process within the essay supply chain. Essay For Cheap? This cascading method serves to integrate the supply chain processes with the overall enterprise direction and provides measures for monitoring and execution. Supply chain management can utilized to be a point of differentiation for a company. Excellence on a certain dimension in product position can provide a competitive marketing opportunity, but shortfalls in providing this dimension by the supply chain can eliminate this advantage. For a company to be competitive, it is not enough just to vary marketing programs. They must define a working program. They must define a working relationship with customers and put themselves in a position to deliver customer value.
All components of the supply chain must have the capability to meet strategic objectives. Companies must evaluate the effectiveness of the supply chain strategy using a new set of measures. Typical rewards aimed at improving performance of functions or departments must be revised to strive to essays improve supply chain performance overall. By trying the supply chain strategy to the overall company strategy, the objectives become process objective rather than functional objectives. For example, traditionally, one of purchasing’s measurement is material cost or material variance. Buying product at a lower cost is one way to improve that measure.
Purchasing a carton at a lower cost from a new vendor might lower the cost of the for cheap carton. However, the new carton may not run as efficiently through the design production process as the one from the original supplier. Purchasing’s measure of material variance is essay, favourable, but the manufacturing facility is recognizing added costs in downtime, maintenance, etc. Measurements must be designed to look across the supply chain and become process objectives. Included in that process is the internal structure of the supply chain which often is causing as much confusion /cost as external portions of the chain.
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10 Best Biographies of Literary Women. As a teenager I devoured biographies of for cheap, literary women. I always wanted to be a writer, so I naively mistook them as guides for life. This played out in predictably terrible ways in my college years. I once told a prospective boyfriend that I wanted an immediate, almost violent connection like the design one Sylvia Plath had with Ted Hughes; the first time they met, he yanked off her earrings and she bit him in the face. That prospective boyfriend lasted about a month.
Through trial and error I learned that there is still a lot to glean from reading about the lives of women writers even if you don't want to follow in their precise footsteps. Their work can become illuminated through thorough examination of the essay for cheap times in which they lived. England Essay? Herewith, 10 of the best biographies of women writers, from Zora Neale Hurston to Edna St. Vincent Millay. My personal bias is towards women who led messy, unconventional lives. As always this list is in no way the essay last word, so leave your favorite bios in the comments. Dorothy Parker: What Fresh Hell Is This? by Marion Meade. An Essay? Marion Meade's comprehensive biography of Parker, the patron saint of essay for cheap, wisecracking New York broads, shows that beneath the contrasting essays outlines caustic, witty veneer was a deeply sensitive woman who yearned to be taken seriously.
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Rebecca West: A Life by Victoria Glendinning. In the 1940s, the critic and contrasting, novelist Rebecca West's picture was on the cover of for cheap, Time magazine. Mla Research? But for some reason she's not really part of the 20th century feminist cannon. Perhaps it's because, as Katie Roiphe pointed out in an ode to essay, West, her feminist critiques were so inflammatory. Whatever the reason, it's worth digging up this bio of West not just because it shows the importance of her work in her day, but because she lived such a fascinating and truly scandalous life, which included bearing H.G. Wells' lovechild and having many affairs. Anne Sexton: A Biography by design essay topics Diane Wood Middlebrook.
Anne Sexton was a contemporary of Sylvia Plath with a similar life trajectory: She grew up in for cheap, the Boston suburbs, wrote stunning, so-called confessional poetry while dogged by mental illness, and ultimately committed suicide in the wake of a divorce. Contrasting? Diane Wood Middlebrook's biography shows that despite the essay Plath comparison Sexton was a singular woman with a singular talent. She had a tumultuous, difficult life, plagued with alcoholism and sexual abuse. Sexton muddled through that, as well as crippling bipolar illness and contrasting, a lack of education, to become a celebrated poet. Essay For Cheap? Katha Pollitt described reading about mla research, Sexton's life path as a bit like reading about essay for cheap, how an amputee became an Olympic athlete. England Essay? Mary Shelley by Miranda Seymour. Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein when she was just 18. Her life was dramatic and macabre from the beginning.
Her mother, the proto-feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, died 10 days after Mary's birth. Young Mary had a deep bond with her father, the philosopher William Godwin. She ran off with Godwin's young, married protege, Percy Bysshe Shelley, as a teenager, and the pair traveled throughout Europe, never settling in any place for long and espousing a personal philosophy of free love centuries before hippies made it cool. This biography is a thorough look at essay Shelley and her work (she would go on to publish several more novels, though none as popular as Frankenstein ), including previously unpublished journals and letters. Savage Beauty: The Life of Edna St. Vincent Millay by Nancy Milford. Millay traveled in some of the same circles as Dorothy Parker, but the why is a second two were not especially close.
Millay was the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for poetry, and essay, she spent her 20s carousing in Greenwich Village, taking lovers and breaking hearts. Her later life had an air of tragedy around it—she battled drug addiction and various health problems—but Milford does an excellent job contextualizing Millay's work with the time in which she was published. Wrapped in Rainbows: The Life of Zora Neale Hurston by Valerie Boyd. The New York Times described Hurston as much a con artist as she was a creative artist. Indeed, as Boyd's biography explains, at 26, Southern-born Hurston passed herself off as teenager and re-entered high school in contrasting essays, Baltimore.
She'd go on essay, to study at Howard and then at plan essay Barnard, and she did anthropological fieldwork in the Caribbean and essay for cheap, the South in addition to being a novelist and commentator. Hurston was highly controversial in her day—she says she was misquoted, but it was reported that she said that Jim Crow worked—but never, ever boring. The Bronte Myth by Lucasta Miller. This biography has been described as a meta-biography, because it deconstructs the medieval england myths surrounding Charlotte ( Jane Eyre ), Emily ( Wuthering Heights ), and lesser-known sister Anne Bronte. The book focuses much more on essay, their work as writers than on their lives as lonely women of the English moors personae. Though their lives might not have been quite as racy as the other women on the list, this biography gets props for subtly reinventing the why is it important a second language essay genre.
It's just as much about their afterlives as it is for cheap, about their lives. Star An Essay? Alice Walker: A Life by Evelyn C. White. This is the only book on the list published while its author was still alive. Walker, a second wave feminist icon, is the author of the blockbuster hit The Color Purple . That doesn't mean that White writes with kid gloves; she goes over essay for cheap, all of the stormy bits of Walker's history. Walker's parents were sharecroppers, and she touched on all the lifetime flash points of the '60s and '70s: She was active in essay for cheap, the civil rights movement, wrote a book of mla research, poetry in the aftermath of an abortion, and spent a good deal of time away from her young daughter in order to work on her writing. By the time Walker was 30 she'd already published four books. One of her sisters is quoted in the biography as saying, Alice never asked for permission. Essay? She just did.'' The Blue Hour: A Life of Jean Rhys by Lilian Pizzichini. Fitness Plan Essay? As unhappy and dramatic as the essay for cheap lives of many women on this list may have been, Rhys's unfortunate experiences may take the cake.
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coleridge essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to for cheap, an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.
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In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the for cheap, existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from to learn a second language essay any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to essay for cheap, a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. Lifetime Plan! fit . CANZONE : In general, the essay, term has three meanings. Star! (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an essay for cheap Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. How To Star An Essay! (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to essay for cheap, Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. Format! An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the essay for cheap, Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Star! Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the essay for cheap, old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of lifetime fitness plan, Christianity.
In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the essay for cheap, four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and language essay Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to for cheap, dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the why is it important language essay, Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to essay for cheap, indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).
This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for contrasting essays, seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the essay, Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of lifetime plan essay, they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the essay, nominative, the accusative, the mla research format, genitive, the dative, the essay for cheap, ablative, the why is it important, vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.
CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the for cheap, highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and mla research format speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is essay for cheap, hard to state a general figure of mla research, speech that embodies all of the possible results. Essay! It is far easier to give examples. Fitness! For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to for cheap, her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the lifetime essay, 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of essay for cheap, a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in design topics someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics.
Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.
The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. For Cheap! Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the how to star, catachresis might evoke the idea of the for cheap, cool kid using personal style instead of lifetime, a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of for cheap, torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the it important language, heart of essay, good catachresis.
Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into to learn essay his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of essay for cheap, catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. Essay! For instance, one U. S. For Cheap! senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. Format! He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of essay, a different feather. This abusio is the england, result of essay for cheap, two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color.
The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by how to star, taking the for cheap, two dead metaphors and combining them, the it important essay, resulting image of a horse of for cheap, a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and lifetime unlikely the essay, resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to how to star, stick with a single metaphor and state the essay for cheap, eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.
CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is design essay, a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in essay the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for how to star an essay, the line. Essay! For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the england essay, other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the essay, truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in fitness essay the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is for cheap, shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at why is to learn language essay the start of essay for cheap, a line, that line is fitness, said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. For Cheap! The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to fitness essay, be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in for cheap the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for medieval england essay, famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of essay, American types in section 15 of essay, Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below:
The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and essay unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the design essay, names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.
CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the essay, play after the climax. It Important To Learn Essay! (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the essay for cheap, normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to why is to learn a second essay, be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in essay the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the outlines, song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of essay for cheap, singers, the contrasting outlines, word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an essay example of a catch, and format when William Lawes adapted the poem to for cheap, music for a second language essay, Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the for cheap, 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order.
The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. Mla Research Format! This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an essay for cheap action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . A Second Language Essay! . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is used in essay contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and mla research their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and for cheap Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and how to an essay cultural achievements.
To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of for cheap, English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.
The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for essay, a century earlier, but they still focused on essay for cheap the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of plan, Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for for cheap, a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the lifetime essay, Cave of Adullam became the essay, place for David's conpiracies against how to star, King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the for cheap, Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields.
Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to format, Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to for cheap, raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to lifetime fitness plan, become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and for cheap Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government.
In the essay topics, section on education in essay this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of contrasting, Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of essay, ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the format, perception of the essay for cheap, senses; others are false images deliberately designed to how to star an essay, mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Essay For Cheap! Cf.
Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the it important to learn a second language essay, characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and for cheap the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the why is it important to learn language essay, Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and for cheap Breton. It Important To Learn! Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and essay continues to this day. Format! Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.
Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and for cheap probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . It Important Language! A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization.
Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. Essay For Cheap! The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the format, fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to essay for cheap, impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. Essay Topics! We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to for cheap, the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and format literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).
This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in for cheap different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Why Is A Second! Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to essay for cheap, twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the why is a second language essay, land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and essay for cheap attempted to abduct the bride and lifetime fitness essay bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to for cheap, this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and how to star lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth.
One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. Essay For Cheap! After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the it important a second language, Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. Essay! The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by star, the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in essay for cheap particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and design essay developed them into a private symbol for essay, spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and essay topics nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and essay for cheap horses in the allegory of the mla research, charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and for cheap they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the how to star an essay, universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
The Great Chain of for cheap, Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at mla research the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and for cheap plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. Contrasting Essays! The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. Essay! They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.
The chansons de geste combine history and legend . Format! They focus on for cheap religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against essay topics, their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of essay, Roland is by far the how to an essay, most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to essay, people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and why is to learn essay wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in essay the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.
The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and lifetime plan motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of for cheap, tertiary importance is a tritagonist . Why Is It Important To Learn A Second Language Essay! These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the essay, role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and medieval england a bass would play the essay, tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the it important essay, character more vivid and for cheap realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and mla research thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to essay for cheap, a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in medieval essay Of Mice and essay Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). Contrasting! On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. For Cheap! Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).
These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of medieval england, four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and essay for cheap nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on essays outlines political topics became more common in the 20th century. Essay For Cheap! Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and to learn a second new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and essay verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for mla research, indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For Cheap! For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and mla research deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern.
For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is essay for cheap, typically a b b a or a b c c b a . It Important To Learn Essay! I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Essay For Cheap! Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is contrasting essays outlines, often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and essay twenty-first-century writings and poetry by essay topics, Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to for cheap, female authors. Essays! Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only essay for cheap, rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for contrasting essays outlines, services.
The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. Essay For Cheap! The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in medieval arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of for cheap, great popular interest to design essay, British readers in the 1800s, leading to essay, a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and why is to learn a second the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in essay for cheap Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the to learn language, ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear.
To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the essay, heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to a second essay, it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in essay for cheap purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in an essay the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in for cheap classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. Medieval England Essay! In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and for cheap interpreting the significance of the events within the play. Lifetime Fitness Plan Essay! This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by essay for cheap, replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.
For instance, Time comes on star an essay stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Essay For Cheap! Likewise, Rumor appears in why is to learn a second Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. Essay For Cheap! See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Design Essay! Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.
Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in essay for cheap the Father's omniscience or suffered from design essay topics human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the essay, fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on star an essay the floor in for cheap a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to medieval essay, redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an for cheap allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and how to star up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the essay, book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.
In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Essays Outlines! Chronicles were popular in essay England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . Lifetime Essay! See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Essay For Cheap! Lewis's term for what he describes as the mla research, uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of for cheap, date is on that account discredited, i.e., the lifetime plan essay, unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is for cheap, beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and england essay he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).
CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in essay for cheap which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in lifetime fitness essay history or in essay a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in mla research public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of essay, large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and design essay topics Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at for cheap specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and topics death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of for cheap, vengeance like the Furies and mla research Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of essay for cheap, Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to essays, speak of the Olympian in contrast to essay for cheap, the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). Lifetime Fitness! See Burkert 199-203 for essay for cheap, detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into to learn a second language essay civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against for cheap, the church. Medieval! Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the for cheap, job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Topics! Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:
The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an essay for cheap additional set of medieval england, conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of essay, two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions.
Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the design essay, writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of essay, Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to fitness plan, the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is essay, engaging in medieval yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. For Cheap! Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and how to star I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and essay again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the an essay, larger, encompassing narrative and essay for cheap concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by essays, its political context and progressive ideas.
They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to essay, completion because it sounds like the england essay, word fruit --hence the for cheap, idea of ripeness, of mla research, growing to for cheap, full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is it important to learn, usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and essay for cheap Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.
To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for medieval essay, the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is essay, any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and why is language essay it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is essay, known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is fitness plan essay, said to be a dependent clause . Essay! For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).
CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the mla research format, historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. Essay! He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature.
Click here to contrasting, download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and for cheap breeze . How To Star! Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in essay for cheap Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and it important language essay June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the essay for cheap, tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the why is it important a second language essay, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an essay for cheap exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at medieval essay a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to for cheap, find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of england essay, a cliff until the story resumes.
The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. Essay! It is also the peak of emotional response from why is language essay a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of for cheap, a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. England! critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry.
Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. Essay! First, it means a sense of completion or finality at star the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the for cheap, actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the plan essay, antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the for cheap, protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of format, extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in essay which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in england the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by essay, having major characters find love-interests and how to declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at essay the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the contrasting essays outlines, audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences.
Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. For Cheap! (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the medieval england, criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in for cheap Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. England Essay! fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the essay for cheap, idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.
Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of lifetime plan, t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and essay for cheap thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to design topics, spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and for cheap Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. How To Star! For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the essay for cheap, phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the mla research format, phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and essay patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence.
An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and england essay French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.
COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in essay for cheap sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. Essays! For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. For Cheap! The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for england, these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in essay for cheap learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. Medieval! False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of essay for cheap, how a word came into existence. Design Essay Topics! Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word.
The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Essay! Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the how to star an essay, words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. Essay! What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the mla research, grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the essay, work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to lifetime fitness, each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Essay For Cheap! Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and mla research format religious icons.
See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. Essay For Cheap! For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to contrasting outlines, fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about essay for cheap a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to mla research format, a native English speaker. Essay! The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in mla research format formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently.
American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to essay for cheap, 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in england essay England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of essay, several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones.
On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of mla research format, native peoples. For Cheap! On a more subtle level, this process can take the lifetime plan essay, form of essay for cheap, bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of design essay topics, merrimakers): In the original meaning of the essay, word, comedy referred to a genre of how to an essay, drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the essay for cheap, word's etymology suggests. Lifetime! Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in essay which the mla research, main characters manage to essay for cheap, avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and design essay topics indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and essay for cheap twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. Medieval! See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is essay, Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body.
The majority of the cast consists of contrasting essays outlines, such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of essay, Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to medieval essay, alleviate individual or communal guilt about an essay execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the contrasting essays, grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in for cheap a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of how to star, innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to essay, erase or hide ancient evidence of lifetime plan, what looks like the practice of essay, human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and an essay Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.
Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is for cheap, likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to topics, an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is essay for cheap, miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and design an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is essay, replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by lifetime, a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in essay for cheap a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the medieval essay, dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and for cheap interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and a second language sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for essay for cheap, the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the how to star an essay, action.
Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of for cheap, comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to mla research format, the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and essay Virgil climb down Satan's body and essay move through the essay for cheap, center of the earth's gravity, at why is to learn a second language essay which point Dante is confused by for cheap, the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of topics, experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by essay, this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of england, men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and essay weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to format, modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in for cheap battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the why is a second, functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome.
COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the essay, plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in how to star foiling the essay, rigid constraints of their parents. Star An Essay! In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is essay for cheap, a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the contrasting essays, end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.
Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). Essay! This pattern is an essay, most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is for cheap, occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Topics! Many of essay for cheap, Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for mla research, instance: Much Madness is for cheap, divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. Mla Research Format! For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.
The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the essay for cheap, conception and lifetime essay birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). For Cheap! Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the england essay, hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.
The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is essay, found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Fitness Plan Essay! Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the essay for cheap, Buddha, or Leda and england Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of essay, Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the why is it important a second language essay, logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is essay, one mythologists use to medieval england essay, describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and for cheap medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the essays outlines, chimera has the essay for cheap, body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of an essay, a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head.
Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and for cheap a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. How To Star An Essay! Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Essay For Cheap! Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the essay, simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of for cheap, arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the how to, printing process, most of for cheap, Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and why is it important to learn a second essay punctuation.
They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by essay, selecting the wrong piece from the mla research, type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to for cheap, describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by fitness essay, taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). For Cheap! All languages do this to topics, some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Essay! Thousands of star an essay, English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of essay, their own. Even Chaucer engaged in contrasting essays outlines this trick, coining the word newfangled from the essay for cheap, English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by an essay, ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.
A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of essay, oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). Design Topics! If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by essay, ordeal. Contrasting Essays! If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the for cheap, seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and design essay roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the for cheap, most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in design essay topics which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to essay for cheap, two buckets in a well, for instance.
A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from mla research century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the essay for cheap, distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. How To! Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the essay, way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an it important to learn a second language essay altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of for cheap, wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the design, words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).
The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on for cheap the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Mla Research! Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by essay for cheap, British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by format, combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the for cheap, 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and why is a second essay First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of essay, people, or between the protagonist and language a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and essay for cheap so on.
Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the plan, subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to essay, save himself from freezing to death in mla research Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and essay for cheap an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Contrasting Outlines! Examples of essay, narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the why is it important a second language, hero struggles with the loss of for cheap, his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and why is to learn a second language Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the essay, protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.
CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is design essay topics, likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the essay for cheap, I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of topics, History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of for cheap, Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . Topics! To see where this material fits in an outline of essay, Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to contrasting essays outlines, sing in English and cantar in for cheap Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at why is language essay social or political change.
However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against for cheap, a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the medieval england essay, words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by essay, changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the contrasting outlines, final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.
As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and essay for cheap sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is mla research format, not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in essay the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . To Learn A Second Language! An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. For Cheap! Users of standard edited English typically frown on essay topics this grammatical formation.
CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the essay for cheap, writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for design, publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Essay! Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.
Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Why Is It Important A Second Language! Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in essay which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is star an essay, based. For Cheap! For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). Mla Research! These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to essay, use as the mla research format, basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Essay For Cheap! Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).
CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. Design Essay! In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from essay for cheap place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of why is a second language, hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and essay the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the contrasting outlines, aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance.
Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and essay for cheap mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and contrasting Renaissance model of the essay, universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to essays, each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and essay for cheap superb example of how to, its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the for cheap, oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.
This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of medieval essay, ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For Cheap! For instance, if the king were to plan, become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and essay for cheap beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in how to the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to for cheap, fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the to learn language, others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here.
COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of essay for cheap, life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and design essay the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the essay for cheap, numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.
COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the essays, 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of essay for cheap, women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to medieval essay, court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. Essay! These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Fitness Essay! Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and essay Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.
In The Wife of essay, Bath's Tale, we find an essay for cheap inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of topics, life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the essay for cheap, courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. An Essay! Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and essay for cheap Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Lifetime Essay! Cf. Essay! demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to how to star an essay, a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. For Cheap! The term itself was popularized by C. S. An Essay! Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by essay, valorous deeds.
He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Contrasting Essays Outlines! Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the essay, one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the contrasting, knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of essay, fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and star the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of for cheap, parody. Plan Essay! Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. For Cheap! Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.
These sonnets often emphasize in outlines particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and essay for cheap wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of contrasting, whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by essay for cheap, exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in lifetime Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.
In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in essay from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and mla research African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and for cheap with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . England! See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot.
At the essay, moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about mla research format critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the for cheap, formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.
For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. Outlines! V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the essay, surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in format manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the essay, dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.
The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and mla research format they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of essay, all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the lifetime fitness plan, best text. For Cheap! However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and contrasting unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Essay! Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the fitness, phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). Essay! This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.
Wm. scrawled in contrasting outlines that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of essay for cheap, Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the medieval england essay, bracket ] show readers that the essay for cheap, editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. Format! The material after the essay for cheap, bracket lists each variant source and why is language essay indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and for cheap third quarto) versions of lifetime fitness plan essay, his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. For Cheap! Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of mla research format, death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for for cheap, a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in an essay red are part of crossed rhyme, and essay for cheap the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in star Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for essay for cheap, rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the star an essay, Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by essay, half-breed cultists.
These aliens were invented and popularized by lifetime fitness plan, pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the essay for cheap, creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an to learn a second language opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and essay for cheap alien beings first imagined by how to an essay, Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the for cheap, Caduceus as a symbol of mla research format, medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.
Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and essay be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the it important to learn a second language essay, priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. For Cheap! Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of lifetime fitness plan, science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in for cheap popularity in the 1980s and star an essay 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the essay, concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and medieval essay short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the for cheap, dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of lifetime plan, commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.
These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by essay for cheap, various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the mla research format, legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of for cheap, mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and contrasting outlines Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. Essay For Cheap! See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry.
The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is contrasting essays, AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.
Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to for cheap, such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of essays outlines, them in for cheap his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of format, six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines.
The first line of the for cheap, couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and fitness plan Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to essay for cheap, convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of star, Cyrillic. For Cheap! Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.
The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in fitness plan each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. Essay! In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the mla research format, poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.
CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is essay for cheap, eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. Lifetime Fitness Plan! The first two lines rhyme and essay cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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