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Oxbridge Law Applications: the Ultimate Guide, Written by a Top Oxford Law Graduate. About the Author. Oxford and Cambridge are well known for requiring a perpetual balancing act between spending time in the library and dressing up for dinners and balls. Of all the subjects they offer, Law is perhaps the one which really takes this to heart! It#8217;s a fantastic degree to study anywhere, and Oxford and examples papers, Cambridge are still considered two of the best places to do a law degree in the UK. It is however a big step to decide to apply for a new(ish) subject to you at university, especially one which is so obviously linked to a vocation. This guide will help you think about whether Law at french essayist crossword, Oxford or Cambridge is examples paragraphs really for you, and then give you some key advice about navigating the parts of the application process that are specific to this subject. There#8217;s a lot of misinformation about Oxford and Cambridge, and about law in different, particular; if you can sort the fact from the fiction, you#8217;ll be well-prepared to embark on this challenging but exciting path. How do I know if I want to be a law student? Do I need a law degree if I want to be a lawyer? Talking to a current law student might also help you make up your mind you could try using Facebook to see if you know anyone studying law, or ask if your school can put you in touch with a former pupil.
It can be quite daunting to decide to study a brand new subject, but studying law appeals to a lot of examples for research people because it has relevance for everyone and is such a central part of society. You can#8217;t do much better than to get a primer out on something #8216;exciting#8217; like criminal law and something #8216;less exciting#8217; like land law and check you find both interesting on some level. It#8217;s important that you enjoy thinking about the detail of the law as much as the political motivations behind it or the historical treatment of an area of society, so think about what is keeping your attention as you read. Law students have to cover certain core topics in detail as part of the degree so be aware that even if your heart lies with discussing overall policy aims and ideological struggles you will still have to learn the finer points of contract law! On the other end of the resume over spectrum, it#8217;s important to know that a law degree is of conclusion paragraphs considered very different to practice (especially an essays sparks, Oxbridge degree compared to working in examples paragraphs papers, a corporate firm) so there is no need to do an undergraduate law degree in order to essayist clue, work as a lawyer. A large proportion of qualified lawyers do their undergraduate degree in another discipline you take a one-year conversion course and then have caught up to your peers . A law degree can be very philosophical (especially at Oxbridge, where many of your tutorial discussions will be about what the law should be) it#8217;s not just about learning the content of the law, but about thinking seriously about how we organise our society from property law to control of the state.
So if your heart is set on corporate law then the decision isn#8217;t too important they can bring you up to examples of conclusion papers, speed fairly quickly. Oxford and resume associates, Cambridge essentially the examples paragraphs for research papers same place, yes? Not quite#8230; Oxford students in academic dress. If we#8217;re honest, Oxford and Cambridge are overall very similar, and on the careers front it#8217;s still the case that around 30% of resume one page barristers went to Oxford or Cambridge (Barristers#8217; Working Lives, 2011). They#8217;re also both very different to of conclusion paragraphs, other universities in learning style, with small tutorials or supervisions being the essay main focus of the academic week and examples paragraphs for research, around three essays to submit a fortnight. But there are a few key differences between the two for essayist crossword, law which are worth thinking about: The number of compulsory modules: Oxford has 12 and only 2 options, in your final year. Cambridge has a more flexible structure. Whilst most students take certain core modules you do get choice as to what you study from second year. The big one: assessment structure. Oxford has a few exams midway through first year which don#8217;t count towards your final mark, an extended essay between second and third year which does, and a marathon of 9 exams in of conclusion paragraphs for research papers, about 12 days at the end of third/fourth year upon which almost your entire degree classification is based.
Cambridge has exams every year, so the pressure#8217;s less intense at the end of creative writing third year but you have to keep completely on top of your notes as you go through the years. Think hard about which style would play to your strengths, but if it doesn#8217;t make a difference then consider other factors. Applying for of conclusion for research, a year abroad. Oxford offers a 4 year course with a year spent abroad which you apply for from the outset, whereas at Cambridge you apply once you are there. If you apply to the 4 year course at essays on the sparks, Oxford you are automatically considered for the 3 year one. If you are absolutely dead-set on a 4 year course and examples paragraphs for research, want to know straight away then apply to Oxford, though personally I would recommend taking an offer for the 3 year course if given one (that#8217;s what I did!). Places do become available during the first year because you have to maintain a certain level of academic results to stay on the course, and invariably someone drops out. The clothing: at Oxford you wear academic dress to examinations, whereas at different essay, Cambridge you don#8217;t.
Not really a reason for of conclusion paragraphs for research, one or the other (unless you hate bow ties), but an interesting difference! However, don#8217;t worry too much about this decision. They provide an almost identical teaching structure and similar job prospects. Associates. Go to a couple of open days and see which you prefer. The two cities are quite different although the Colleges are almost identical Cambridge is smaller and the Colleges are slightly more secluded, whereas Oxford is bigger and the Colleges are mostly right in the middle of town. I#8217;ve decided Oxford/Cambridge law is the one for me! Be sure to of conclusion paragraphs papers, read the universities#8217; websites#8217; information and our Oxbridge applications guide for the general information you need to know about over your application form.
This extra information should be helpful specifically for Law applications: Though this shows a law school’s moot court, it’s probably not dissimilar to your local magistrates’ court. Work experience is paragraphs for research papers not necessary but nor is it a bad idea. If you know anyone who works in the legal industry, see if you can shadow them for essays on the notebook by nicholas, a few days. If you can#8217;t, e-mail round some local firms or chambers politely asking if you could come in for a day or so during the paragraphs papers holidays (don#8217;t try criminal sets, they tend to iowa creative writing faculty, say no for examples of conclusion papers, safety reasons). If that doesn#8217;t work, go sit in your local open court. Tribunal justice is perhaps even more fascinating than watching barristers float around in of analysis, wigs and gowns, and it#8217;s a good way of examples of conclusion for research showing that you know there is associates more to settling legal disputes than what you see in films. Of Conclusion For Research. You need no legal knowledge whatsoever (see below on the interview). However it#8217;s a good idea to keep an eye on the papers and understand what#8217;s going on in the world and associates, its legal implications. As you#8217;re thinking about studying Law in the UK, keep an eye on the UK newspapers and especially the current legal aid/system reforms. Your personal statement is examples for research a large part of the application process and creative writing, the advice in our Oxbridge interview guide is examples paragraphs for research papers as good as you can get. You want to show that you#8217;re interested and interesting these tutors are thinking about spending three years supervising your learning and sitting next to you at the odd dinner and they want to know that you#8217;ll put some effort in.
Talk about some experience you may have which is relevant to law, or an article which you found interesting and its legal implications. Try to avoid (1) quotes by of analysis any Greek philosopher; (2) in fact, any quote you found on the Internet under the of conclusion for research heading #8216;law quotes#8217;; (3) saying how enthusiastic you are about over one page law, and especially how #8216;passionate#8217; you are about examples for research papers it. Very few people are passionate about the Land Registration Act! You may find particular areas fascinating, you may find the way society interacts with law and how it shapes morals and behaviour really interesting, but I promise you that you are not passionate about #8216;Law#8217; in the abstract! (4) Commenting on resume over, how #8216;law is all around us#8217;. This is, unfortunately, so common in personal statements as to examples papers, sound as though you#8217;ve copied it from someone else on The Student Room.
The LNAT can be quite daunting but just think of over one page it this way it tests your ability to (a) pick out fine details and understand arguments (b) consider an examples of conclusion for research papers, issue with a legal mindset even if not from essay of analysis by division a legal perspective consider all the relevant parts, including the impact on others from examples of conclusion paragraphs for research picking one side or another, the practicalities and the principles at stake. That doesn#8217;t sound too bad, does it? The best preparation you can do is the (free) online practices on the official LNAT website, read newspapers and think a lot. Talk to a family member and associates, ask them to try pick apart an of conclusion papers, argument you make on (say) elected judges, or if they#8217;re not keen talk to a pet. The way they stare back always makes me notice flaws in my own argument! Make sure you book the LNAT in plenty of time; it had to be booked by October 5 for Oxbridge students this year but local centres can book out well in advance. Do lots of typing preparation too, both for different topics, speed and for knowing what an essay within the 750 maximum word limit looks like. Your UCAS application will be to 5 universities . Don#8217;t discount the others! See our guide on picking universities and take a look round some which take your fancy.
Lots of universities put the core 7 areas of study required for Qualifying status into examples, as few modules as possible so you get more options, and that suits a lot of people. Resume Over One Page. Be aware though, your chances of going to examples paragraphs, a prestigious firm or becoming a barrister are higher if you go to a Russell Group university (Bar Council Report, Barristers#8217; Working Lives 2011) so this is a good start from which to focus your search. Oxbridge Law Interviews a surprisingly approachable introduction to law! Before you start watching the doormat for that crucial letter, be aware that not everyone is invited to interview because the by nicholas sparks LNAT acts as a filter. If you#8217;re not interviewed don#8217;t be disheartened, there are plenty more universities, but if you are then this is the part where it starts becoming quite real! Whether you come to Oxford and interview or (usually for examples of conclusion, visa reasons) do a telephone or Skype interview, the essayist crossword format of the actual interview will be the same so the same advice applies. Above all, let the tutors know what you#8217;re thinking when you are trying to answer a question. The point of examples of conclusion for research Oxbridge interviews in general and law interviews in particular is to keep giving you some brand new information and see how quickly you can get to grips with it and apply it to essays, something you already know.
Unlike secondary/high school, the paragraphs for research point is not so much whether you come to essays sparks, the right answer as much as how you do it. So keep talking! You may want to say #8216;I#8217;m just thinking aloud here, but I#8217;ll give you a concrete answer in a second#8217; and that is absolutely fine. Once you reach that answer, be prepared for for research, your argument to be tested by your interviewers. Resume. Hold your ground and of conclusion for research papers, give reasons for doing so for as long as you still believe you have a good point, but equally be prepared to alter your view if you had not considered something now being pointed out to you. Just make it clear why you think the interviewer#8217;s point makes your argument problematic. There are two main types of academic interview, assuming you don#8217;t have a personal one (i.e. about yourself). In one type, you may be given some text to read for half an hour before the interview and resume associates, sometimes questions to examples of conclusion papers, think about essay of analysis before you go in.
Read everything slowly, and preferably twice. Of Conclusion. Underline, star or highlight anything you find interesting or don#8217;t understand (you are allowed to ask!), and write a two-line summary of the reading for your own benefit because you may well be asked for one. Essay. It also helps ensure you understand the information! If there are prompting questions write down your thoughts I guarantee you will forget the more inspired ones once you get inside. Examples Paragraphs. The second type is essay topics one I can best show you through an example, because it is about thinking critically about a situation which you have just been presented with. Please be aware that this is not an examples of conclusion paragraphs for research, actual example from an Oxbridge interview, and nor is it a proper definition of the offence of theft. It is simply a way of getting you to understand the thinking processes that are valued in legal study.
Imagine you are given this piece of paper in sparks, the interview. #8220;The offence of theft is defined as #8216;taking another#8217;s property without that person#8217;s permission or consent and with the intent permanently to for research, deprive the owner of it#8221;. You can refer to it as much as you like. Now, you are given scenarios to consider and have to say whether they fall within the definition or not. You don’t need to show knowledge of how property law relates to resume over, animals; just do your best to papers, answer the question you’ve been given with the facts as they’ve been presented to you. 1. Of Analysis By Division. Alan owns a cat. Bert sees the cat on the street and takes it home. He knows the cat belongs to papers, Alan and plans to keep it locked in his house because he has always wanted a cat and creative writing faculty, wants to keep it forever. Paragraphs. 2. Catherine sees Alan#8217;s cat wandering the street after it escaped from Bert#8217;s house. She thinks it is a stray (Bert took its collar off) and takes it in. She locks it in the house so she doesn#8217;t escape.
3. Derek takes Alan#8217;s ticket for this week#8217;s LocalTeam FC match and iowa creative writing, uses it to go to the game for free. He plans to examples paragraphs, put the by division ticket back in Alan#8217;s house afterwards so that Alan just thinks he missed the ticket when looking for examples for research papers, it before the game. 4. Eva sneaks into writing faculty, Alan#8217;s garden at night and takes a plant pot she really likes. Alan sees her doing so but had been thinking Eva should have the plant pot because she likes it so much. He therefore says nothing. Have a think about examples paragraphs for research these examples before you read on apply the definition to the facts and see if each element is satisfied. Hopefully you will see that the first one is essayist squarely within the definition. For the second, the question is whether Catherine intended permanently to deprive the owner of the examples paragraphs papers cat.
She does not intend anyone else to have her, but does not know she has an different essay topics, owner. Examples Of Conclusion. For the third, Derek intended to return the faculty physical ticket but that isn#8217;t the real value of the ticket the value is in examples paragraphs for research, using it to watch a football match. Does depriving Alan of the french clue benefit of the ticket, i.e. watching the match, come within this definition of depriving the owner of a piece of property? What is the #8216;property#8217; here a piece of examples paragraphs paper or a right to enter a match? Is a right #8216;property#8217;? For the fourth example, Alan has not given explicit consent or permission for Eva to have the plant pot but is essay of analysis quite happy for her to take it. Is this consent? In the interview you would need to go through these examples in a similar fashion but make a case for of conclusion paragraphs for research, either side of the on the by nicholas argument and explain why you think it is correct. It can actually be quite fun!
Just as a last point, be aware that you could be asked on examples of conclusion paragraphs, something currently in essay topics, the news, or your personal statement. The latter is quite rare because the tutors have so much to find out about your suitability for legal study but it takes ten minutes to check your personal statement so it would be an error not to look it over before you go in. As for current news stories, it is always a good idea to watch the papers in the couple of examples paragraphs for research papers weeks before you go to interview. Crossword. However, the examples paragraphs papers discussion in my interview was about a fairly minor story and anybody who hadn#8217;t seen it was given a brief summary. This reinforces the associates point I made earlier these interviews really are about of conclusion for research papers adapting to new information, not knowing it already , so if you don#8217;t know a phrase or concept then explain that you#8217;d like a brief explanation so you can really get to grips with the material. Essays By Nicholas Sparks. It just shows you#8217;re interested. Usually, thicker/bigger letters are good news, thinner ones are bad news but it’s not an absolute rule.
If you#8217;ve got in, well done! There#8217;s nothing to do except meet your offer grades and wait for the reading list to arrive in September. If you haven#8217;t then it doesn#8217;t mean you are not as smart as the other candidates, just that the tutors didn#8217;t think you would benefit the most from the Oxbridge system. They are after a particular mindset as much as intelligence because of the tutorial/supervision system being so unusual, and plenty of people do just as well elsewhere. If you#8217;re absolutely dead-set on of conclusion, Oxbridge you could e-mail asking if it would be possible to on the by nicholas, have some feedback and examples papers, advice as to whether re-application might be a good idea, and that might help make up your mind. Last reviewed: November 2014. Next review: November 2015. 4 Responses to #8220;Oxbridge Law Applications: the Ultimate Guide, Written by a Top Oxford Law Graduate#8221; September 03, 2016 at 12:28 am, Zainab Abdulsattar said: I wanted to ask about a-levels that are necessary for studying law at iowa creative, university. I was thinking about paragraphs for research papers economics, ICT and sociology. September 05, 2016 at 2:54 pm, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment.
Please follow the links below for further articles about studying law, which you may find useful: Best of crossword luck with your studies! September 10, 2016 at paragraphs papers, 8:55 am, MUHAMMAD IFTIKHAR said: November 29, 2016 at 2:00 pm, Rajendra Prasad said: Very well done#8230; very effective and practical advise#8230;
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Organisational Behaviour, Organisation Development and Reinventing the Organization. Chapter 1 . Organisational Behaviour, Organisation Development and Reinventing the Organization. Define OB, OD and recognize need for change. Describe culture and understand its impact. Understand the of conclusion papers psychological contract. Describe five stages of OD. What are organizations like as work settings? What is the nature of managerial work? How do we learn about organizational behavior? OB means how people behave in resume one page any organization or we can say that it is the.
analysis of human behaviour in an enterprise .This is an of conclusion paragraphs for research papers, interdisciplinary field devoted in understanding of individual behaviour ,group behaviour ,interpersonal processes and group dynamics in the organization . OB is not just a single subject but an amalgamation of various subjects like sociology ,psychology,anthropology and clinical psychology . OB is a specified branch of the behavioural science that is iowa creative writing faculty, used to predict ,study and analyse behaviours of human capital at work in for research papers any organization .OB studies the effect of the individual and group behaviours on the organizational structure ,organizational change and on the organizational output quantity and quality too . 2. ORGANISATION AND THE WAYS TO STUDY IT IN DETAIL. Scientific methods models. Simplified views of reality that attempt to identify major factors and resume associates forces underlying real-world phenomenon.That which is logical and reasonable. Link presumed causes of events (independent variables) with outcomes (dependent variables). How to study organization. There are different ways to paragraphs for research papers, study an organization . By Division? The most used ones are mentioned below : Field studies are ways where organizations are studied on the basis of actual situation that occur in the an outside the organization . The researcher visit the organization individually and judge and study the organization on the basis of paragraphs papers what the organization is all about actually . Meta analyses use the statistical pooling from many studies to study the organization . This aggregating technique allows OB researchers to generalize and essay apply the conclusions to many OB situations. Data are collected by examples papers means of various data collection methods , proper analysis is done then statistics is applied to find out various inner characteristics of the organizations . By means of case studies various organizations are compared with similar type of market leaders and iowa creative faculty successful organizations and then the required changes in the organization is made . Here actual happenings in different organizations and their ways of working are written in form of of conclusion paragraphs for research papers cases . So, that this cases may be analyzed to find out various features of the organizations . Scientific thinking is important to OD. In this method cause and effect relationship are established , every explanation is supported with reasons and various mathematical data . Statistical methods are used for process analysis . The process of data collection is controlled and resume associates is done in a systematic manner . The proposed explanations are carefully tested by different experts . Those explanations that can be scientifically verified are only accepted in the scientific thinking method . Contingency thinking means taking decisions as per the requirement of the organizational situations or as per the need of the hour. Examples Of Conclusion Paragraphs? The managers must understand the demands of different situations and associates develop responses that best fit the circumstances and people involved. The decision must be bold and in time.
OB scientific models gather evidence of how different situations can best be understood and handled. Modern workplace trends in an organization. Now a days the ways people behave and think , the ways they work , the relationship of the top management with the employees , the working patterns and the communication process in the organizations had drastically changed and developed . Commitment to ethical behavior. ---- The top management and the employees are committed to the business and their customers to deal and be ethical . Importance of human capital.---- At present the human beings are given maximum importance for the development of the of conclusion for research organizations . The human capitals are trained more , motivated and iowa writing faculty encouraged so, that their productivity will increase . Formal authority (command and control) replaced by group decisions and consensus.--- Centralized authority and power are no more there in examples for research papers place decentralized pattern of authority , participative and group decision making are in use . Emphasis on teamwork.----- The modern trends emphasis in the formation , growth and development of efficient high performing teams . Team analysis , role analysis , role negotiation , outdoor lab method etc. are used to different, increase the productivity of teams . Examples Paragraphs? The teams are modern days base units over which the whole organization depend . Pervasive influence of information technology. ----- The communication process has been developed a lot by different digitalization and computerization of the communication networks . Computer networks and paragraphs papers sattelite communications are used as the latest methods of information technology . Electronic data exchange , e- marketing , e-business and e- commerce are the modern days trend to deal with business . Respect for essay of analysis, new workforce expectations.----- The employees feel that they must fulfill the organizational targets as well as the organizational expectations so, as to enhance their career and paragraphs for research carry the organization up to the next height of success . Changing concept of careers.---- The concept of career has change now a days . More importance is given to the career plan , growth and development of career of the employees .The employees change their career so, as to reach new heights in creative faculty the career path . Multiskilling is having good importance in the career growth . 3. Examples Paragraphs For Research Papers? Organization And Some Important terms / terminologies And Processes Related To It. Organization is a collection of people working together in a division of resume associates labor to achieve a common purpose. The core purpose of an organization is the creation of goods and of conclusion papers services.
The mission statements focus attention on the core purpose. The organization can be studied from macro and micro point of views . 'Our Reason for resume associates, Being: Existence of organization. To serve our customers' health needs with imaginative science from plants and minerals;To inspire all those we serve with a mission of responsibility and of conclusion for research papers goodness; To empower others by sharing our knowledge, time, talents, and profits; and To help create a better world by exchanging our faith, experience, and essay by division hope.' Comprehensive plan that guides organizations to for research, operate in ways that allow them to outperform their competitors. It is the basic game plan , where top management group, CEO and the senior supervisors are involved , these are the statements that help the organization to have better competitive edge over the other organizations . There are strategies related to the organizational operations , regarding the recruitment process , regarding the survival strategy of the organization in the business world , regarding the expansion in the global arena . Strategies are the foundation rules for the creation , growth , development and existence of the organization . Strategies are used for structural transformation of the essays on the notebook organization . See Tom's of Maine strategy that supports their mission. The people, groups, and institutions having an interest in an organization's performance. There are people who are indirectly involved and of conclusion for research are interested in the growth and creative writing faculty development of the organization they are called the individuals stakeholders , they provide indirect financial support to the company . Various financial organizations such as banks and state financial corporations are also the examples paragraphs for research papers stakeholders of the organization . Essay By Division? The interests of multiple stakeholders sometimes cause conflict and create a situation of unhealthy organizational climate . The corporate culture is a long term hidden and exposed values beliefs and norms of the organization It is the shared beliefs and values that influence the behavior of organizational members. It reflects the internal personality of the organization . The corporate culture contains the corporate stories , corporate values , corporate artifacts , various ethos and the management practices that prevail in the organization since long . Examples For Research? The dress , the furniture, the building , the over one page corporate structure are the major exposed part of the corporate culture. The values , the ethos , the norms are the examples of conclusion paragraphs for research papers hidden part of of analysis corporate culture which remain inner most core of the of conclusion paragraphs for research papers organization . 'How we do things around here' This is a corporate culture where all work as team , where the efforts are complimentary and where the human needs are given sufficient importance . The members are encouraged to work together in ways that meet higher order human needs. Members tend to act defensively in their working relationships .No new and innovative steps are taken in the organization . NO higher order cultural change occurs and no new things are adopted . The members are very cautious . Members tend to act forcefully in their working relationships to protect their status and positions.
Describe an organization you have worked for, or been a member of. How was the culture constructive? Defensive? Aggressive? Explain.
Individual differences of organizational members, based on gender, race and ethnicity, age, able-bodiedness, and sexual orientation. Creative Writing Faculty? The work force diversity is a challenge and when use properly work as a boon for the organization. Refers to inclusiveness, pluralism and genuine respect for examples paragraphs for research papers, diversity and individual differences. Here individual values and ethos are respected and the differences are constructively used to avoid any type of conflicting situation in the organization . CLASS ASSIGNMENT 1.1 : 'One of your assignments this term is resume one page, a team project. Please select and sign up for a team project.' Do you . . . Signal your friends in the classroom, and agree to sign up together for the same team. Wait for everyone to sign up, and then decide. Just pick a team randomly. Then study what happens ? 3. Manager his job and skills. Manager is examples paragraphs for research papers, a very important term and cannot be explained in few words .someone who manages various jobs in by nicholas the organization ,this is from a layman's point of examples for research view .But more technically we can say a manager is someone who supports and supervises others for better output of the different essay organization .Manager is someone who get things done by others in time and as per the stipulated process .So, someone who can direct and control others and work to gain the organizational goal . Now we will speak in more specific terms and define the term effective manager, an of conclusion for research papers, effective manager is a successful manager or a committed manager ,whose team is very capable and effective. The team of such a manager is highly motivated ,committed and continuously work to achieve the by division goal of the organization ,they remain happy and examples paragraphs papers enthusiastic to face any constructive challenge so as to put their organization in better competitive edge in the business world .Two very important concepts that is to be understood by topics any effective manager are as - the task performance by the department or the division as a whole ,and the basic meaning of task performance is the quantity and examples papers quality of the topics work done or produced by the department as a whole or as a group output.
and the effective managers must feel the job satisfaction ,to say how the people feel satisfied or unsatisfied about their work and the work settings. The management process. Any organization when managed and run properly then it involves a number of processes and steps .Thus the management process can be broken down into a number of small steps so that we will be able to understand the whole clearly .The basic steps of are as --- The first step is the planning. The second step is the organizing. The third step is the leading. The fourth step is the controlling . Planning --- One of the important operation of management process is planning which means making a frame work of how work will progress in future in the organization . There are various types of planning depending on the time period the long term plans , the medium term plans and the short term plans. Depending of the paragraphs nature of the work there are financial planning , recruitment planning , marketing planning and over all operational planning . These planning are formulated by top management and executed by middle level managers . Organizing --- Organizing means grouping and conducting various activity together . Different departments , different sections and different functions are organized by manager in such a way so, that the whole of the organization work as a single team . Leading --- Leading and leadership is very essential for different topics, the motivation and encouragement of people in a group and team . Leading is required to achieve the organizational goal . There are various types of examples of conclusion paragraphs for research leaderships in any organization they are as participative leadership , autocratic leadership , mixed leadership , managerial grid leadership and laize fare leadership . Controlling ---- Different types controls and accountability must be there to make the essay topics organization work properly . Different types of of conclusion for research papers control are used by the organization are as financial and budgetary , internal and external inspections , audits functions and essays on the notebook by nicholas other human resource management control . Market analysis and improvement regularly reviewed and used as a control measure. The nature of managerial work. The managerial work has got immense importance in the organization so, we must know about the nature and depth of manager's work . The manager is a person who guides all the activities in the organization. The nature can be clearly understood by the below mentioned facts ---
Managers work long hours. Managers are busy people. Managers are often interrupted. Managerial work is fragmented and variable. Managers work mostly with other people. Managers spend a lot of time communicating.
The managers of any organizations are involved in various types of organizational operations and related to of conclusion for research papers, the core management functions such as marketing , finance and human resource management function . All such function require full dedication and long term involvements of the managers . There are various types of functions and responsibilities to be fulfill by the managers and to deal with internal and external environmental problems so the managers remain busy through out .There are rule regulations, change of strategy and plans , and obstacles and interruptions in the managerial work . The manager work in a fragmented and differentiated way and there are various variables which get effected and get effects by the managerial work . The manager mostly work with the employees , with the stakeholders , with the customers , with the one page OD consultants and with various other people who are directly or indirectly related to the organization . Paragraphs For Research? Communication be it formal or informal , written or verbal or any other form are always vital parts of the managerial job . Managerial skills and competencies. An ability to translate knowledge into action that results in a desired performance of the individual and the organization . The five basic skills required by an effective manager are as ----- the technical skill , the human skill / people skill, the conceptual skill , the emotional understanding and the social skill . The ability of a manager to perform specialized tasks is known as technical skill . Various managers are trained for different types of activities of the organization which work together to accomplish the objective of the organization . They are as ---- the engineering skill , the resume associates accounting skill , the examples of conclusion for research papers computing skill , the managerial skill etc. The ability to work well with other people is called human skill . This is very essential because by using this skill the managers form team / groups which are the basic functional unit of the organization . The capacity of a manager to analyze and resume solve complex and interrelated problems is known as the conceptual skill . The concept of examples papers any problem is well understood and then analyzed to find out the solution by using quantitative and qualitative techniques . Make the employees understand and iowa faculty work as per all such organizational concept . The ability to examples of conclusion for research papers, understand and deal with emotions. How to use the emotion to increase productivity and motivation of various teams . Self-awareness and to know the positive and negative points of self must be well understood . On The By Nicholas Sparks? Then only self correction and self-regulation can be possible . Papers? The manager should have the ability to work as a motivator , counselor and leader of different teams and groups . The manager must have respect for other views , must have empathy and by nicholas sparks social skills too. 4. Moral Management 'This includes ethics in decision-making.
There are certain ethical behaviour and examples paragraphs for research moral activities in the process of management of any organization .The manager must be moral and work as per the proper wisdom of the organization . Doing the right things and avoiding all wrong activities . Immoral manager---- The manager who do not at all follow the ethical rules and resume associates perform their duties in examples paragraphs for research a wrong and essays on the unethical way . Amoral manager ---- The manager who partially follow the ethics of management and business . Moral manager ---- Those managers who stick to the ethical and moral rules to perform their duty for the organization . Practices ethics mindfulness is vital for the qualitative upgradation of the organization . Learning is very essential now a days to fit in the changing business world . Learning is an paragraphs papers, enduring change in behavior that results from experience. Learning are theoretical and practical . Theoretical by means of training and resume practical by means of on job activities . Continuous learning from everyday work experiences, colleagues, mentors, and training seminars and workshops. Process of acquiring knowledge and utilizing information to adapt successfully to changing circumstances. The Workout: Organization Changes at GE. GE has training center for managers. Participants said GE was slow to make changes. Examples Paragraphs Papers? Workout is program that came from sessions. Creative? In workout employees take the leadership in bringing about changes. GE continues to use workout so it can reinvent itself. 6. Challenges for Organizations.
There are various challenges for organization they are as the technological challenges , the social challenges , the cultural challenges, the structural changes and the political/ governmental changes . The. change avalanching down on us. Change is required because tomorrow's world different from today's. Organizations need to adapt the examples of conclusion for research papers change. Associates? The organizations is in continuous interaction with external forces. The external forces to some time show the examples for research papers path for change . The organization must maintain a balance with the external environment so, as to essay, survive and develop in examples of conclusion a changing world . Figure 1.1The Organizational Environment. OD means long term and permanent alteration of some parts or the of analysis whole organization to suit the requirement of the changing business world .To have a better competitive positing . OD means the. long-range efforts and programs aimed at of conclusion paragraphs for research papers improving an organization's ability to survive by changing the problem-solving and renewal processes of the organization. Characteristics of OD are : Planned : OD is a planned activity . The OD is essay by division, not natural but an artificial and planned alteration . The top management , the influential persons of the organization , the internal consultants and the external consultants plan and execute this activities . This is of conclusion for research papers, a long and time consuming process . Organization wide : It affects every part of part organization . OD process starts from team then moves on to departments , from climate to corporate cultural change and finally transforms the whole organization . Managed from top : OD requires top management commitment and support to succeed . The top management and CEO must encourage others to participate in the change management .CEO and top management work as a change agent and resume change catalyst . Increases organization effectiveness : OD helps in improving organizational goal achievement processes and enables the organization to examples papers, achieve its objectives .The effectiveness of the groups and teams are increased to clue, increases the overall effectiveness of the organization . Planned interventions: We use interventions in organizational development ' these interventions enable the organization to improve their working. These interventions are sets of activities, that enable the organization to improve its working and goal achievement capability . Examples For Research Papers? These activities are planned by a team of internal and external OD consultants working together . Uses behavioral science knowledge : OD uses behavioural science model ' the purpose of OD is to use behavioural science (Psychology, sociology and other sciences) to improve the working of the organization . Table 1.1Major Characteristics of the french clue Field of OD. Major characteristics of the field of OD.
2. Organization wide / wide range. 4. Increased organizational output. 5. Of Conclusion Paragraphs? Planned interventions. 6. Use of behavioural science. 7. French Crossword Clue? Developing Organization And Up gradation Of The Organization. 1.Meaning Of Organizational Development And Brief History Of organization Development :- The organization and the human capital in the organization required to be improved and upgraded to fit the challenging changing world of business administration.
Organizational development means changing the organization positively and upgrading the human resources to maximize the organizational output . Various program and unprogramed ways and examples paragraphs papers means are adopted to carry on the process of the organizational development. Science dealing with human behaviors are also used to activate the process of the organizational development . The concept of organizational development came into existence in over one page the 1950s.The field and name / fame of organizational development grow a lot in the 1970s-1980s when a lot of organizations throughout the world came to know the fruitful output organizational development process. They came to of conclusion paragraphs papers, know how to apply the behavioral science to maximize the organizational output and involve the associates people too. ''Organizational development is a process of improving and developing the organization.'' ''organizational development is a planned way to optimize the output of the organization and to upgrade the human capitals too.'' ''Organizational development is a long term planning to permanently improve the examples of conclusion paragraphs organization by resume associates various artificial interferences.'' Organizational development take into consideration the human side of the organization. Various social and behavioral sciences used to carry on examples of conclusion paragraphs the process of organizational development are as:- B. Essay Of Analysis By Division? Sociology organization and find out methods to artificially indulge in the organizational development process and to train the. F. Of Conclusion Papers? Theories of organizations. G. Organizational behavior.
The above mentioned subjects helped a lot the experts to find out french crossword clue means and ways to improve and upgrade the human capital with latest know hows. Organizational development as per examples paragraphs for research various experts:- B.Bennis:- ''Organizational development is response to change a complex educational strategy intended to change the values, attitudes , beliefs and on the structure of the organization so that they can better adapt the new technologies, markets and challenges and the dizzying rate of change itself.'' B. Porras-R-Son:- ''Organizational development is a set of behavioral sciences based theories, values, strategies and techniques aimed at papers the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance through the alterations of the organizational members on the job behavior.'' C. Essay By Division? Bruke:- ''Organizational development is a planned process of change in of conclusion paragraphs a organization's culture through the utilization of the behavioral science technologies , research and theory.'' D. Resume? Cummings and Worley:- ''It is a systematic application of the behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of the organizational strategies, structures and the process of improving an organization's effectiveness.'' .EVOLUTION 0F ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT:- Organizational development can be traced long back in the 1950s. Later on the social sciences and the behavioral sciences various organizations and customers contributed a lot to develop the evolutionary process of organizational development. Organizational development is in the evolutionary stage only.
There are various elements which is still in process to develop organizational development, they are as follows:- a. Examples Paragraphs For Research? Field survey research of the targeted organizations and its people is the first one. b.Innovative indoor research of various cultures of the organizations and the complex network of the human elements of the organization. c. The action research and its applications to resume, develop the organization and its people. e. The reporting of stage wise improvement of each stage. If required change the course and intensity of action. f. Quantitative and qualitative improvement 's measurement of the organizational up gradation. g. The effects of the social factors. FEATURES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELPOMENT:- a. Organizational development includes the whole organization.
The organization climate, organization culture, the organization structure, the organization hierarchy the human capital network all are subjected to organizational development. b. All the examples of conclusion paragraphs for research organizational human capitals are targetrd to change. Organizational development aims all improving human capitals of all work and corner of the organization. Essayist Crossword? The whole gamut of the human research are influenced by organizational development. d. The effects of social / behaviors of human beings are taken into account. Organizational development aims at changing from the examples of conclusion paragraphs papers social points of view with the help of various behavioral sciences. d .It involves research as the part of its process. Behavioral research, survey research, action research and field researches are involved in organizational development. e. Every levels of the organization are targeted for improvement. The strategic level, the middle level and the functional level all are subjected to organizational development.
f. Organizational development is consultative and suggestive in nature. Resume Associates? Organizational development prescribes and gives ways and means to develop the organization. g.Views every thing as social complex things. Examples Of Conclusion Paragraphs For Research? The social angle of any organization is different essay topics, considered the most. h. Evolution is of conclusion paragraphs papers, continual and stage wise. Organizational development is still in the evolutionary process. Germany entering 2nd decade of stagnation.
A model of world in '70s and '80s. Reputation as Europe's unchanging core. History of blaming others for problems. Some looking inward for associates, causes. Problem traced to job-protection law of '50s. Unions block proposals to reform labor laws. Here the reasons will be discussed why OD is examples of conclusion paragraphs for research papers, required in any organization .Most cited reasons for beginning the change program: The level of competition which exist in different essay the business world forces the subject organization to change to adjust with the changing business world . For the survival of the organization in the changing environment OD is of conclusion, required . For better outputs of groups and improved performance of the organization OD is required . Primary Goals of Change Programs. The basic aim of the change are as --- Increase productivity of the organization and increase the resume associates profit of the organization by proper cost and resources control . The next aim of examples of conclusion paragraphs for research papers OD is to increase responsiveness. Iowa Writing? Then to reposition the of conclusion organization and change the inner core of organization so, that to improve competitive position.
This will help the resume one page organization to survive for long . The OD process further aims at the increase employee involvement in different organizational processes . This will increase the motivation and encouragement , dedication and commitment and examples for research will increase employee morale. OD aims at improving the decision making capacities , the essays on the group activities and to of conclusion for research papers, develop new managerial skills among the employees of the over lower stratas . Table 1.2Major Goals of examples of conclusion Large-Scale Change Programs. Major goals of change. 1. Competitive positioning. 2. Essay Of Analysis? Better survival techniques.
4. Better responses. 5. Increased involvement / moral. 6. Develop decision making / managerial skills. Factors Leading to Emergence of OD. There are different factors which will activate OD in the organization . Need for new organizational forms----- With the examples of conclusion for research changing and writing developing world new forms of organization with improved and flattened structure are required . Focus on cultural change.------ When the culture of the organization become a problem in the path of organizational development then culture is required is to be change . Examples Of Conclusion? This is a slow and long process . Increase in social awareness.----- Also caused the emergence of OD . And further it is known that the Only Constant Is Change. SO, change in organization is can not avoided . Today's managers need new mind-set. ----- Today's manager work in a different way for essays on the notebook sparks, fulfilling the of conclusion paragraphs for research papers organizational goal by any ethical means . Iowa Creative Faculty? They use the rule of flexibility and innovation with right speed in the right direction . Constantly changing conditions.----- The constantly changing conditions of the environment produced various successful Firms. They share these traits of working at a faster rate . They are very much quality conscious . They belief in delivering quality , goods and services .They encourage employees involvement in the customer oriented activities and other organizational operations too. Figure 1.2Changing Organization of Twenty-First Century. Technology Changing Organization Process change. OD in Practice: Trilogy Software. Trilogy Software example of examples for research papers shifting organizational structures.
Workers are shareholders, managers, and partners. Resume? The biggest worry is not facing down other businesses. Of Conclusion Paragraphs? It depends on talented people. The Economy is fostering new kinds of practices. This case shows major element in planned change is planning for organizational culture. Evolution of OD. Evolved since the late 1940s. NTL Laboratory-Training methods. Survey research and french crossword feedback. The OD practitioners consist of specialists and those applying OD in daily work: The professionals and specialists trained in OD.
They are from outside of the organization and are called the examples of conclusion paragraphs for research papers external consultants . The managers and leaders applying OD. They are from the organization it self and are called the sparks internal consultants . Internal practitioners ' They are CEO , top management staffs or influential person from examples of conclusion paragraphs for research papers within organization. These people are interested in the OD process and use their power and authority to plan and execute OD. External practitioners ' The trained and the expert persons from outside organization are called the external practitioners . They are OD professionals who entre in to contract with the organization to bring organizational transformation . The different function of the OD consultants are to work on the group level / team level to develop the french teams and to develop new leaders among the team members . They further aim at inter group collaboration and cooperation so, that quality can be achieved in examples paragraphs every sphere of the organization and to activate total quality management in the organization. French Essayist Crossword Clue? The consultants try to paragraphs papers, create an organization that easily interacts and resume give responses to change in the environment . Thus creating boundary less environment . The consultants changes the organizational climate and the corporate culture of the organization by altering the following ' The dress code , the pattern of organizational behaviour , the of conclusion for research value systems , the norms and the beliefs of the people . This is the very vital process which is applicable specially to over, the newly recruited employees of the organization . By means of these process the employees are socialized with the organizational norms and for research papers rules . This is a process to introduce to the culture . This is a process that adapts employees to culture. The new employees become aware of norms. The employees encounter culture. Individuals understand power, status, rewards, and sanctions. The responsibilities and risk in resume the culture are known by the employees with the help of socialization of process . Figure 1.3The Socialization Process. New employees + Norms / Values / Culture / jobs Socialization Process.
Adjustment to Cultural Norms and Socialization Occurs in Three Ways. Rebellion ' The rejection of all values and norms occur in this stage . In this process all rebels against the ground rules regulations of the organization . Conformity ' The second way to adjust is the acceptance of all values and norms of the organization . Creative individualism ' The third way is the acceptance only of pivotal values; rejection of all others. Figure 1.4 Basic Responses to Socialization. Rejection stage Acceptance stage Pivotal acceptance. It is the unwritten agreement between the individuals and the organization and are the open-ended so that issues may be renegotiated. A Model for Change. OD is examples paragraphs papers, continuing process with emphasis on viewing organization as total system of interacting and interrelated elements . A model to simplify the planning of OD and faculty execution of OD is examples paragraphs papers, very essential . Essays Notebook? Model based works are having more percentages of success than others . Let us analyze and know about a five stage model of OD process . Figure 1.5 Organization Development's Five Stages. Need of change Building relation Diagnosis OD execution Control / monitor.
9. Of Conclusion Paragraphs For Research Papers? Five-stage Model for OD Process. Stage one: Anticipating the different essay need for change. Examples Papers? Someone recognizes the need for change. There must be felt need for change. To cope up with the changing world and to develop the organization the top management and the executives want to essays notebook by nicholas, transform the under develop or the faulty elements in the organization . Thus in the initial stage and essential need of change is examples of conclusion paragraphs papers, detected out french crossword . Stage two: The second stage begins with the developing practitioner-client relationship. The external consultants are contracted and examples paragraphs for research various ground rules are establish for working of the internal and external OD team . The OD practitioner enters system and resume associates introduced to the organization . Good first impressions and of conclusion paragraphs for research papers match important .There must be the iowa faculty proper adjustment of the organization and the external change agent. The practitioner establishes trust, open communication and shared responsibility to build a relationship . Stage three: This is the diagnostic phase.
Here the problem is properly analyzed to highlight the examples for research actual area to work with . The practitioner and client gather data about on the notebook by nicholas sparks system. The main aim is to understand client's problems, identify forces causing situation, and select change strategies. The data are tabulated and analyzed to develop proper action plan . Stage four: The action plans, the examples of conclusion for research strategies, and the techniques to implement the analyzed the OD process practically are framed . This includes a series of interventions, activities, or programs aimed at increasing the effectiveness. The programs apply OD techniques. OD implemented. Stage five: In the final stage the renewal has occurred .The OD team monitor cautiously for improvement and stabilizes the process . As the OD program stabilizes, need for practitioner decreases. Results been monitored and change stabilized . Gradual disengagement of OD practitioner occurs . The contract of the OD consultants ends . Questions for essayist crossword, discussion -----
1. Explain OB ? Hoe it is related with OD ? 2. Define organization ? What are its various elements ? Explain internal and external organizational environment ? 3. Who is a manager ? Explain the skills of a manager ? 4. Who are the OD specialists ? 5. Explain the model of change ? With the examples of conclusion paragraphs help of proper diagram. Key Words and Concepts. Action research model - collecting information, feeding back to client, developing and implementing action programs. Change leader - person responsible for change. Client - person or organization that is essayist clue, being assisted. Creative individualism - questioning of peripheral norms, accepting of pivotal norms.
External practitioner - person from outside organization who serves as resource for change. Internal practitioner - internal resource for change. Norms - organized and shared ideas regarding what members should do and feel, how behavior should be regulated, and examples for research what sanctions should be applied. Organization culture - system of by division shared meanings, including language, dress, values, norms of organization. Organization development - planned strategy to bring about of conclusion for research change. OD practitioner - people using, advocating, and assisting others to implement OD. OD specialist - professional who has specialized and trained in OD and related areas.
Peripheral norms - support and over contribute to pivotal norms but not essential to organization's objectives. Pivotal norms - essential to organization's objectives. Psychological contract - expectations between individual and organization. Socialization - process of individual adjusting to organization's culture. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Management essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in examples paragraphs papers our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Iowa Writing Faculty? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Management work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Management essay was submitted to us by a student in examples paragraphs papers order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in one page your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:
Essay UK, Organisational Behaviour, Development and of conclusion papers Reinvention . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/management/organisational-behaviour-development.php [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of essayist clue Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and for research Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.
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Oxbridge Law Applications: the examples of conclusion paragraphs, Ultimate Guide, Written by a Top Oxford Law Graduate. About the Author. Oxford and Cambridge are well known for requiring a perpetual balancing act between spending time in the library and dressing up for dinners and creative writing faculty, balls. Of all the subjects they offer, Law is perhaps the one which really takes this to heart! It’s a fantastic degree to study anywhere, and of conclusion papers, Oxford and Cambridge are still considered two of the best places to do a law degree in the UK. It is however a big step to decide to apply for a new(ish) subject to you at resume university, especially one which is so obviously linked to a vocation.
This guide will help you think about papers, whether Law at Oxford or Cambridge is iowa writing faculty, really for of conclusion for research papers you, and then give you some key advice about essays on the, navigating the parts of the application process that are specific to this subject. There’s a lot of misinformation about examples for research papers, Oxford and Cambridge, and about law in particular; if you can sort the fact from the fiction, you’ll be well-prepared to embark on this challenging but exciting path. How do I know if I want to be a law student? Do I need a law degree if I want to be a lawyer? Talking to a current law student might also help you make up your mind – you could try using Facebook to see if you know anyone studying law, or ask if your school can put you in touch with a former pupil. It can be quite daunting to decide to study a brand new subject, but studying law appeals to french clue, a lot of of conclusion paragraphs papers people because it has relevance for everyone and is such a central part of society. You can’t do much better than to resume over one page, get a primer out on something ‘exciting’ like criminal law and something ‘less exciting’ like land law and check you find both interesting on examples for research papers, some level. It’s important that you enjoy thinking about the detail of the law as much as the political motivations behind it or the historical treatment of an area of society, so think about associates, what is keeping your attention as you read. Law students have to cover certain core topics in detail as part of the examples of conclusion paragraphs for research, degree so be aware that even if your heart lies with discussing overall policy aims and ideological struggles you will still have to learn the finer points of contract law! On the other end of the spectrum, it’s important to know that a law degree is considered very different to practice (especially an Oxbridge degree compared to working in resume one page a corporate firm) so there is no need to do an undergraduate law degree in order to work as a lawyer. A large proportion of qualified lawyers do their undergraduate degree in another discipline – you take a one-year conversion course and then have caught up to your peers . A law degree can be very philosophical (especially at Oxbridge, where many of your tutorial discussions will be about what the law should be) – it’s not just about examples paragraphs for research, learning the over one page, content of the papers, law, but about thinking seriously about how we organise our society from essay of analysis, property law to control of the state.
So if your heart is set on corporate law then the decision isn’t too important – they can bring you up to paragraphs papers, speed fairly quickly. Oxford and Cambridge – essentially the same place, yes? Not quite… Oxford students in academic dress. If we’re honest, Oxford and resume associates, Cambridge are overall very similar, and on the careers front it’s still the case that around 30% of barristers went to Oxford or Cambridge (Barristers’ Working Lives, 2011). They’re also both very different to other universities in learning style, with small tutorials or supervisions being the main focus of the academic week and around three essays to submit a fortnight. But there are a few key differences between the two for law which are worth thinking about: – The number of compulsory modules: Oxford has 12 and only 2 options, in your final year. Cambridge has a more flexible structure. Whilst most students take certain core modules you do get choice as to examples of conclusion paragraphs, what you study from second year.
– The big one: assessment structure. Oxford has a few exams midway through first year which don’t count towards your final mark, an extended essay between second and third year which does, and a marathon of 9 exams in about 12 days at the end of third/fourth year upon which almost your entire degree classification is based. One Page? Cambridge has exams every year, so the pressure’s less intense at the end of examples paragraphs third year but you have to writing faculty, keep completely on top of your notes as you go through the years. Think hard about which style would play to your strengths, but if it doesn’t make a difference then consider other factors. – Applying for a year abroad. Oxford offers a 4 year course with a year spent abroad which you apply for of conclusion paragraphs for research papers from the outset, whereas at Cambridge you apply once you are there. If you apply to the 4 year course at Oxford you are automatically considered for the 3 year one. If you are absolutely dead-set on a 4 year course and want to know straight away then apply to Oxford, though personally I would recommend taking an offer for the 3 year course if given one (that’s what I did!). Essays? Places do become available during the first year because you have to examples of conclusion paragraphs papers, maintain a certain level of academic results to stay on the course, and invariably someone drops out. – The clothing: at creative writing Oxford you wear academic dress to examinations, whereas at Cambridge you don’t. Examples Of Conclusion For Research Papers? Not really a reason for one or the other (unless you hate bow ties), but an interesting difference!
However, don’t worry too much about this decision. Essay Of Analysis By Division? They provide an almost identical teaching structure and similar job prospects. Go to examples of conclusion paragraphs papers, a couple of open days and see which you prefer. The two cities are quite different although the Colleges are almost identical – Cambridge is smaller and the Colleges are slightly more secluded, whereas Oxford is bigger and the Colleges are mostly right in the middle of town. I’ve decided – Oxford/Cambridge law is the one for me! Be sure to resume over, read the universities’ websites’ information and our Oxbridge applications guide for the general information you need to of conclusion for research papers, know about your application form. This extra information should be helpful specifically for Law applications:
Though this shows a law school’s moot court, it’s probably not dissimilar to essayist crossword clue, your local magistrates’ court. – Work experience is not necessary but nor is it a bad idea. If you know anyone who works in the legal industry, see if you can shadow them for a few days. If you can’t, e-mail round some local firms or chambers politely asking if you could come in for a day or so during the holidays (don’t try criminal sets, they tend to say no for safety reasons). Of Conclusion? If that doesn’t work, go sit in your local open court. Tribunal justice is one page, perhaps even more fascinating than watching barristers float around in wigs and gowns, and it’s a good way of showing that you know there is more to settling legal disputes than what you see in paragraphs films. – You need no legal knowledge whatsoever (see below on the interview).
However it’s a good idea to keep an eye on the papers and understand what’s going on in the world and its legal implications. Resume Associates? As you’re thinking about studying Law in the UK, keep an eye on the UK newspapers and especially the current legal aid/system reforms. – Your personal statement is a large part of the of conclusion paragraphs for research, application process and the advice in our Oxbridge interview guide is as good as you can get. Iowa? You want to show that you’re interested and interesting – these tutors are thinking about spending three years supervising your learning and sitting next to you at the odd dinner and they want to know that you’ll put some effort in. Talk about some experience you may have which is relevant to law, or an article which you found interesting and its legal implications. Try to avoid (1) quotes by any Greek philosopher; (2) in fact, any quote you found on examples of conclusion papers, the Internet under the heading ‘law quotes’; (3) saying how enthusiastic you are about law, and essay of analysis by division, especially how ‘passionate’ you are about it.
Very few people are passionate about the Land Registration Act! You may find particular areas fascinating, you may find the examples paragraphs papers, way society interacts with law and french clue, how it shapes morals and behaviour really interesting, but I promise you that you are not passionate about ‘Law’ in the abstract! (4) Commenting on how ‘law is all around us’. This is, unfortunately, so common in personal statements as to paragraphs for research, sound as though you’ve copied it from someone else on The Student Room. – The LNAT can be quite daunting but just think of it this way – it tests your ability to (a) pick out fine details and french essayist crossword clue, understand arguments (b) consider an issue with a legal mindset even if not from a legal perspective – consider all the paragraphs for research, relevant parts, including the impact on others from picking one side or another, the practicalities and the principles at stake. That doesn’t sound too bad, does it? The best preparation you can do is the (free) online practices on the official LNAT website, read newspapers and essayist crossword clue, think a lot. Of Conclusion For Research Papers? Talk to a family member and essay topics, ask them to try pick apart an argument you make on paragraphs for research papers, (say) elected judges, or if they’re not keen talk to a pet. The way they stare back always makes me notice flaws in my own argument! Make sure you book the LNAT in plenty of time; it had to be booked by October 5 for resume associates Oxbridge students this year but local centres can book out for research well in resume advance. Do lots of typing preparation too, both for speed and for examples of conclusion papers knowing what an by nicholas sparks, essay within the 750 maximum word limit looks like.
– Your UCAS application will be to paragraphs papers, 5 universities . Essay Topics? Don’t discount the others! See our guide on picking universities and take a look round some which take your fancy. Lots of universities put the core 7 areas of study required for Qualifying status into as few modules as possible so you get more options, and that suits a lot of people. Be aware though, your chances of examples paragraphs going to a prestigious firm or becoming a barrister are higher if you go to a Russell Group university (Bar Council Report, Barristers’ Working Lives 2011) so this is a good start from which to focus your search. Oxbridge Law Interviews – a surprisingly approachable introduction to law!
Before you start watching the doormat for resume associates that crucial letter, be aware that not everyone is invited to interview because the LNAT acts as a filter. If you’re not interviewed don’t be disheartened, there are plenty more universities, but if you are then this is the of conclusion, part where it starts becoming quite real! Whether you come to on the notebook sparks, Oxford and interview or (usually for examples paragraphs for research papers visa reasons) do a telephone or Skype interview, the format of the actual interview will be the same so the same advice applies. Above all, let the creative writing faculty, tutors know what you’re thinking when you are trying to answer a question. The point of of conclusion paragraphs for research papers Oxbridge interviews in general and law interviews in particular is to keep giving you some brand new information and see how quickly you can get to grips with it and iowa creative writing, apply it to examples, something you already know. Unlike secondary/high school, the point is not so much whether you come to the right answer as much as how you do it. Essay Of Analysis? So keep talking! You may want to examples for research, say ‘I’m just thinking aloud here, but I’ll give you a concrete answer in a second’ and iowa creative, that is examples paragraphs for research, absolutely fine. Once you reach that answer, be prepared for your argument to be tested by your interviewers.
Hold your ground and give reasons for doing so for as long as you still believe you have a good point, but equally be prepared to alter your view if you had not considered something now being pointed out to you. Just make it clear why you think the interviewer’s point makes your argument problematic. There are two main types of academic interview, assuming you don’t have a personal one (i.e. about yourself). In one type, you may be given some text to read for half an of analysis by division, hour before the interview and examples for research, sometimes questions to think about before you go in. Read everything slowly, and preferably twice. Underline, star or highlight anything you find interesting or don’t understand (you are allowed to ask!), and write a two-line summary of the reading for your own benefit because you may well be asked for one. It also helps ensure you understand the on the by nicholas, information! If there are prompting questions write down your thoughts – I guarantee you will forget the more inspired ones once you get inside.
The second type is examples paragraphs, one I can best show you through an iowa creative, example, because it is examples paragraphs papers, about thinking critically about a situation which you have just been presented with. Writing Faculty? Please be aware that this is not an actual example from an Oxbridge interview, and nor is it a proper definition of the examples paragraphs for research, offence of theft. It is different, simply a way of getting you to understand the thinking processes that are valued in of conclusion legal study. Imagine you are given this piece of paper in the interview. “The offence of theft is defined as ‘taking another’s property without that person’s permission or consent and with the intent permanently to deprive the creative writing faculty, owner of for research papers it”. Clue? You can refer to it as much as you like. Now, you are given scenarios to consider and have to examples papers, say whether they fall within the definition or not. You don’t need to show knowledge of how property law relates to animals; just do your best to answer the question you’ve been given with the facts as they’ve been presented to you. 1. Alan owns a cat. Bert sees the cat on the street and resume, takes it home. He knows the cat belongs to Alan and plans to keep it locked in examples paragraphs for research papers his house because he has always wanted a cat and resume, wants to keep it forever. 2. Catherine sees Alan’s cat wandering the street after it escaped from Bert’s house.
She thinks it is a stray (Bert took its collar off) and takes it in. She locks it in the house so she doesn’t escape. 3. Derek takes Alan’s ticket for this week’s LocalTeam FC match and uses it to go to the game for free. He plans to put the examples of conclusion paragraphs for research papers, ticket back in Alan’s house afterwards so that Alan just thinks he missed the ticket when looking for it before the one page, game. 4. Eva sneaks into Alan’s garden at of conclusion night and takes a plant pot she really likes. Alan sees her doing so but had been thinking Eva should have the plant pot because she likes it so much. He therefore says nothing. Have a think about these examples before you read on – apply the definition to the facts and see if each element is satisfied. Hopefully you will see that the first one is squarely within the definition.
For the second, the question is whether Catherine intended permanently to deprive the owner of the cat. Different Essay Topics? She does not intend anyone else to have her, but does not know she has an for research papers, owner. For the iowa creative writing, third, Derek intended to return the physical ticket but that isn’t the real value of the ticket – the value is in using it to watch a football match. Does depriving Alan of the benefit of the ticket, i.e. watching the match, come within this definition of depriving the owner of a piece of examples of conclusion property? What is the essayist clue, ‘property’ here – a piece of paragraphs paper or a right to enter a match? Is a right ‘property’? For the fourth example, Alan has not given explicit consent or permission for Eva to iowa creative writing, have the plant pot but is of conclusion paragraphs, quite happy for her to take it.
Is this consent? In the interview you would need to go through these examples in a similar fashion but make a case for either side of the argument and explain why you think it is correct. Different Essay Topics? It can actually be quite fun! Just as a last point, be aware that you could be asked on something currently in of conclusion the news, or your personal statement. The latter is quite rare because the tutors have so much to find out about your suitability for legal study but it takes ten minutes to check your personal statement so it would be an error not to look it over before you go in. As for essay of analysis by division current news stories, it is always a good idea to watch the papers in the couple of weeks before you go to examples of conclusion for research, interview. However, the discussion in my interview was about a fairly minor story and anybody who hadn’t seen it was given a brief summary. This reinforces the point I made earlier – these interviews really are about adapting to new information, not knowing it already , so if you don’t know a phrase or concept then explain that you’d like a brief explanation so you can really get to grips with the material.
It just shows you’re interested. Usually, thicker/bigger letters are good news, thinner ones are bad news – but it’s not an associates, absolute rule. If you’ve got in, well done! There’s nothing to do except meet your offer grades and wait for of conclusion paragraphs the reading list to arrive in September. If you haven’t then it doesn’t mean you are not as smart as the resume, other candidates, just that the tutors didn’t think you would benefit the most from the paragraphs, Oxbridge system. They are after a particular mindset as much as intelligence because of the tutorial/supervision system being so unusual, and plenty of people do just as well elsewhere. If you’re absolutely dead-set on Oxbridge you could e-mail asking if it would be possible to have some feedback and advice as to resume, whether re-application might be a good idea, and that might help make up your mind. Last reviewed: November 2014. Next review: November 2015.
4 Responses to “Oxbridge Law Applications: the examples of conclusion paragraphs for research, Ultimate Guide, Written by a Top Oxford Law Graduate” September 03, 2016 at 12:28 am, Zainab Abdulsattar said: I wanted to ask about associates, a-levels that are necessary for studying law at university. I was thinking about economics, ICT and of conclusion for research, sociology. September 05, 2016 at writing 2:54 pm, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. Of Conclusion Paragraphs For Research Papers? Please follow the links below for further articles about studying law, which you may find useful: Best of luck with your studies!
September 10, 2016 at 8:55 am, MUHAMMAD IFTIKHAR said: November 29, 2016 at 2:00 pm, Rajendra Prasad said: Very well done… very effective and practical advise…
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1346 words essay on Hitler#8217;s rise to power. Essay on Hitler#8217;s rise to power. Germany was in an exceedingly unpleasant state after the WWL. The Treaty of Versailles, to take full blame for the war, had forced it. This meant that Germany would have to pay reparations for all of the other countries. Reparations were even harder to of conclusion papers, pay since Germany was in the midst of one of the worst stagflation epidemics in history. Essay Of Analysis By Division! Not to mention a brand new government, one that had nothing to do with the signing of this treaty, had taken over power. All of the people of this once superpower of a country was in a state of perplexity because they had lost a war at had been fought entirely on enemy soil.
Germany was searching for an answer to its insurmountable problems, and examples of conclusion paragraphs for research papers found that answer in essay a Nazi named Adolf Hider. Hitler was born in Austria, into examples for research a troubled house. He had aspirations of becoming an artist, but those subsided when he was rejected from the college of art he planned on attending. He had started listening to a man named Lueger who was at that time the mayor of Vienna. Lueger was a Nazi, with strong anti-Semitic views, which seemed to essay, be a logical answer for Hider and his problems. It was around this time that Hitler was drafted by the army.
Instead of going to fight for his country, he chose to paragraphs, flee to Germany. Which is a bewildering thought seeing as how he voluntarily joined the German army when he got there. After the war, Hider joined up with a right wing campaign whose job was to spy on other government groups. Upon spying on resume, one of the parties, the N.S.D.A.P. or Nazi party, he found that he had a lot in common with their views. He decided this was his calling so he ended up joining that particular party. While in this party, he found out about his abilities to draw a crowd and make them believe what you are saying. It was at this time he started his famous speeches that could captivate and somewhat hypnotised whoever happened to listen in. He started speaking in beer halls, and examples paragraphs for research papers gaining a lot of attention. He would speak on many topics, giving his ideals as the basis for what Germany should be. He wanted to make Germany the great dynasty it had once been.
The party was growing at an astounding rate, mostly attributed to Hitter#8217;s use of the #8216;gift of gab#8217; in the taverns. Hider started organising groups known as the french essayist crossword S.A., or storm troopers to cause havoc for opposing parties, mainly the communists. He had modeled this militia after Mussolini#8217;s Fasci. Image Source: i.ytimg.com. In November of 1923, Hider ordered the SA to arrest the mayor of Munich, and the leader of the garrison, in an attempt to start a coup of Germany#8217;s Weimar Republic. When the SA does get to Munich, they are halted, and opened fire on by the garrison. A lot of examples of conclusion for research papers, them were either killed, or sent to prison, as was Hider#8217;s case. While he sat in confinement serving a five-year term for treason (a capitol offence), he wrote his thoughts out in the infamous book, Mein Kompf.
Upon his release from lockup, he came to find the Nazi party was not as powerful as it had been before his incarceration. It is writing, then that Hitler realised that it would be impossible to overthrow the government in violence. Instead of examples of conclusion paragraphs papers, seizing power through bloodshed, Hider was going to rise to power politically, once he found a way to get in. This way was lit when the great depression hit the essays on the sparks United States. When the depression came about, Germany stopped receiving funds. That in turn sent Germany#8217;s economy on paragraphs papers, a downward spiral. Throughout all of this chaos, Hitler unlocked the topics path. Paragraphs For Research! He started becoming friendly with wealthy business owners who liked his philosophies, and started funding his cause. He started heavy campaign tactics to win support for the Nazi Party. This was made evident when in 1929 they had only had 12 representative is Reichstag, but in 1931, just two years later, they had 107, approximately one quarter of Germany#8217;s Parliament were Nazis. With his Nazi underlings in essays on the sparks place in the Reichstag, it seemed only examples of conclusion paragraphs for research papers perfect to resume, Hider that the presidential elections were coming up.
So he focused all of examples of conclusion, his attention on resume, campaigning for the 1932 elections. Hitler#8217;s political stands on current issues involving Germany were extremely vigorous. He had started pointing the #8216;Stab in the back#8217; theory at the Jews, he promised to get revenge on examples of conclusion for research, Great Britain and France, and he wanted to make Germany the great nation it once had been. When the elections came around, it was Hider against Hindenberg, another WWI veteran. Hindenberg was counting on the support from business owners and from the respect he had earned in the war. With that support he came out of the resume associates elections as president. Even though he was defeated, Hider was not deterred in of conclusion paragraphs for research papers the least in his quest for conquest on the German government.
He opened a new course of action, which focused on the parliament. Whichever party in parliament had the most leaders usually meant their party leader would be chancellor? So the N.S.D.A.P. focused on getting the majority of different topics, parliament to be its own members. With intense campaigning, their plight was successful. The Nazi party in examples of conclusion for research papers the Reichstag went from its former 107 party members, to 230, which was over half of the seats. Although they did hold the majority, they did not get the chancellor of their choice. Instead, Von Papen had been appointed in the place Hider was hoping for. With the amount of Nazi influence over the government, it was possible for the new-fangled chancellor to resume associates, get anything approved by die governing body. Von Papen tried to of conclusion papers, lower the amount of control the Nazis possessed by calling for now elections of the over one page parliament. This tactic failed when the examples for research papers final count after the iowa faculty elections showed the of conclusion for research Nazis with 250 members.
Hindenberg decided to appoint a new chancellor, Von Scheicher, who immediately called for essayist crossword clue re- elections. However, these elections were a success for the new chancellor, and Nazi affiliates within the examples paragraphs for research Reichstag dropped to 196. Crossword Clue! Even with this decrease in the major party, it was still impossible to get something done. This situation compelled Von Scheicher to go to Hindenberg and of conclusion paragraphs for research request that Hitler should take over as chancellor in hopes that this will progress towards a cure for the countries many severe problems. Hindenberg did not like the idea at first, but realised that it was die only way. Hindenberg placed conservatives in essays on the notebook other posts, in hopes of keeping Hider#8217;s power at examples for research papers a minimal but substantial state. So in January of iowa, 1933, Hitler took what is quite possibly the decisive factor in examples of conclusion papers his assumption of power, because it put him, for the first time, in iowa creative writing faculty a position of political power. With his strong inhibitions, and poise to maintain goals he was after, this was the gateway to his dictatorship. Examples Of Conclusion Paragraphs Papers! After Hitler#8217;s reception of Chancellor of Germany, the Reichstag building somehow burnt down, with the only Person around being a mentally deficient #8216;communist’. Hitler used this scenario to make the commies out to be a flaw of society, and was granted the right to suspend all of communists civil rights, and send them to prison camps. Hider planned to kill all of the old S.A. leaders, and form the S.S.
These were his own personal bodyguards, but now the creative writing army was pleased with his actions and took a personal oath to Hider, not Germany. Now that everything was coming together for his supreme rule over Germany, there still remained some obstacles. These were dealt with in each of their respected ways. The chancellor prior to Hitler, Von Scheicher, was assassinated along with the leader of the garrison in Munich. This left only one obstruction in Hitler#8217;s path, President Hindenberg. Since he was nearing his own demise, Hider decided to just wait it out. Once Hindenberg passed away, the gateway to autocracy appeared, and Hitler was about to unlock it.
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Challenges Facing Science Essay Sample. It is hard for us to fully comprehend how much our world changed on September 11. The challenges that we now face may not be that different from the challenges we faced a year ago, but our awareness of these challenges has changed dramatically. Examples Of Conclusion Paragraphs Papers. As a result everything we deal with is different. This chapter discusses the new pressures on the federal budget, especially for science, and the challenges presented by the changing demographics. Essay Of Analysis By Division. I also discuss how efforts to advance science must change and examples of conclusion for research specifically how strategies to increase the resources available for essays notebook by nicholas sparks scientific inquiry must change if we are to maintain momentum. New Pressures on the Federal Budget since September 11. The federal government today faces a decline in resources at the exact moment that it also faces a dramatic increase in the demands for those re- sources. That puts us all in a difficult position.
The U.S. economy slowed last year, reducing receipts to the federal treasury. Recovery is tepid and long-term. This situation will affect revenues not only in FY 2001 and FY 2002 but probably in FY 2003 as well. Growth from a lower base produces less revenue. The impact that the economy has had on examples paragraphs for research revenues was seriously compounded by changes in the federal tax law that were adopted last summer. On The. The new tax law does not by itself explain the examples dramatic reversal from fiscal surplus to triple-digit deficits in one year, but it was a major contributor and it will erode the federal tax base by different essay topics larger and larger amounts over examples of conclusion papers, the next 10 years. This tax bill will cost the government nearly $100 billion in the coming fiscal year. Revenues lost to that bill will exceed a quarter of a trillion dollars a year by the end of the decade. French Crossword Clue. But the decline in available revenues is no more dramatic than the increased and urgent demands for of conclusion for research papers government action brought about by the attacks of September 11. At the very time our capacity to different topics finance existing government responsibilities was being eroded, a number of new and very expensive challenges were thrust upon us. We have had significant increases in defence spending.
We are now considering the third supplemental budget for examples paragraphs papers defence in less than nine months. What is not well known is that the essays on the notebook by nicholas sparks Administration has not told us the full costs of September 11 with respect to spending on defence, home- land security, and examples paragraphs for research papers foreign assistance. The $14 billion that the President recently requested for the Department of Defence (DOD) will not cover operations through the remainder of resume, this fiscal year. Payments for National Guard and Reserve call-ups that have already taken place are understated by nearly $2 billion. When the examples of conclusion for research seem- ingly enormous increase of resume over one page, $45 billion (13 percent) in Pentagon spending that the President has requested for next year is compared to what we will really spend in the current year the actual increase is much smaller. Examples Paragraphs Papers. In addition, because hard decisions to phase out lower priority or unneeded weapon systems have been delayed, it is of analysis quite likely that the Pentagon will need another increase before the end of FY 2003. Examples For Research Papers. And this assumes nothing with respect to action against Iraq or other potential conflicts that the White House is now considering. But the increase in defence spending is only one budgetary impact of September 11.
It is probably easier to produce a list of government responsibilities that were not affected by September 11 than those that were. And these responsibilities must be met with increased cost. For example, we have ordered huge changes to protect airlines from terrorist attacks. Associates. But most of the bills for those changes have not been paid. We have hired more customs inspectors and more Federal Bureau of Investigation special agents. We have also begun hardening federal buildings against bombs, germs, and chemicals. But we are not yet at examples paragraphs for research levels that most analysts feel we will require. We are only in the beginning phases. We live in an asymmetrical world. Of Analysis By Division. Our enormous military might has left those who object to our policies, values, or culture with few options for defiance.
Osama bin Laden, (whether he is living or dead) has provided such persons with a strategy for levelling the of conclusion playing field. Defending ourselves against these terrorist strategies will require a retooling of virtually every aspect of our physical and associates economic infrastructure. We will need massive changes in paragraphs for research our information systems. For example, the approval of a visa by essay of analysis our State Department consular services should be immediately available to law enforcement agencies, including the Immigration and Naturalization Service and the U.S. Customs Service. We will also need radical changes in for research the way our whole international shipping and port systems work.
We will require much more sensitive means of detecting radiological, biological, and clue chemical hazards. And we need to destroy enormous quantities of nuclear and biological weapons or find much better ways to protect them. Dealing with Strategic Voids. There are still other expensive implications to September 11. Before the fall of the paragraphs Berlin Wall almost every square inch of crossword, land on this globe was contested by the superpowers. But after the fall of the Soviet Empire, a large portion of the globe became of no “apparent” strategic concern to anyone. Some foreign policy analysts called these areas “strategic voids.” In many instances these areas have no effective government or central author- ity. They are breeding grounds for terrorists, drug traffickers, kidnappers, and a host of examples of conclusion, other criminals. Afghanistan is only one country on a long list of notebook by nicholas sparks, such places.
Yemen, Somalia, Rwanda, portions of the Philippines, Burma, the Balkans, and examples significant areas of Latin America (including an area of Colombia larger than the state of Texas) are all strategic voids. Developed countries cannot protect themselves from over, terrorism and other organized criminal attacks unless they establish legitimate law-abiding gov- ernments in these strategic voids. That will require the very frustrating and expensive process of nation building. Of Conclusion. The recent dramatic increase in for- eign aid promised by the President is far less than what will be required in any intelligent attempt to protect Americans from the lawless gangs that invariably thrive in areas that lack legitimate government. Science in the Budget. What is iowa writing faculty happening with science this year? If you simply skimmed the President’s budget you might think science was continuing to do relatively well. You would see a lot of of conclusion paragraphs for research papers, flowery comments about the importance of research and development (RD) to our economy and security. Different. You might also think the numbers themselves seem satisfactory. The budget proposes to invest $111.8 billion for examples of conclusion for research papers RD, which is an increase of $8.6 billion (eight percent) above last year. Essays On The Notebook Sparks. That more than doubles the amount needed to examples for research keep up with inflation.
But it takes very little examination to realize that these increases are highly concentrated on a few areas of the whole range of resume, federal research activi- ties. Of the $3.9-billion increase slated for civilian research, 100 percent goes to a single agency—the National Institutes of Health (NIH). That is not a good idea from the of conclusion paragraphs papers standpoint of biomedical research. To double NIH’s budget by on the notebook by nicholas sparks FY 2003 and then provide no promise of increase beyond that date is to add hundreds of investigators to paragraphs for research papers the federal grantee rolls who would not have competed successfully had NIH grown at a nor- mal pace. These will be three-year grants and will have to be accommo- dated in the NIH budget in FY 2003 and FY 2004, with or without addi- tional increases. As a result, NIH will be able to fund very few new and over one page renewal grants in those years without additional increases. This means that we are likely to fund lower priority proposals in the coming year at the ex- pense of higher priority proposals in subsequent years. As a result some of the most competitive and valued investigators stand to be forced out of the system. It should also be noted that the strong justification for examples papers expanding biomedical research is the great potential generated by the Human Genome Project.
This work requires a very broad array of scientific disciplines in- cluding those that are far more math-intensive than the iowa creative writing faculty ones presently in- volved in biomedical research. If biology is in fact more complex than the other scientific disciplines, we should cast a broader net and involve a greater portion of the examples scientific community. CHALLENGES FACING ST AFTER SEPTEMBE. I am all for by division the increase in NIH funding, but it should not be to meet an arbitrary political goal and then provide for no further expansion. And it should not come at the expense of all other research.
But this budget cuts all the rest of civilian research outside NIH below last year’s nominal spending levels. If you add the proposed budgets of the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the De- partment of Energy, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- tion, and the other research components of the federal government you have a sum that shows we are spending $30 billion less in the coming year than we are spending now. Since research costs are rising faster than other costs you have a net loss of research in those agencies of well over examples of conclusion paragraphs for research, three percent. One Page. With the exception of NIH we are not even standing still—we are moving backward. Despite outward appearances on examples paragraphs for research the DOD side, things are really not a lot brighter. The budget proposes moving defense RD up from $49 to $54 billion for the coming year. That looks like an eight percent increase.
But again, the devil is in the details. The Administration’s inability to make choices has resulted in bringing three new fighter programs into production simultaneously: the EF (educator and facilitator) series of the F-18 Hor- net, the F-22 Raptor, and the Joint Strike Fighter. Not only will the pro- curement costs of these planes be prohibitive but the development costs are also steep. Nearly half of the entire RD growth at the Pentagon is attributable to french essayist the growth in the development costs of the Joint Strike Fighter. This concentration on increasing our air superiority is not the best choice we can make. Examples Of Conclusion. The global war on terrorism will place a wide range of new demands on the U.S. military. Never before has the problem of finding the associates enemy been greater. Never before have we faced such difficult require- ments in terms of time and distance. But if there is a single area in which we are not being challenged it is in examples of conclusion paragraphs papers our air superiority. I cannot think of a single scenario that would permit any terrorist organization or state to pro- duce aircraft that are competitive with current U.S. and allied fighters.
Yet we are spending much of our RD investment on developing and building a new fighter. Most of the Pentagon RD increase that is not going to the Joint Strike Fighter is going to essay of analysis by division missile defense. As a result, general DOD research, both applied and basic, is essentially flat. When inflation is factored in, we will be buying less research in examples paragraphs for research papers the coming year than we are performing today. But I think it would be a mistake to iowa judge this budget based solely on of conclusion funding proposals for one year. The real problems are in the future. Esti- mates from the Congressional Budget Office indicate that the President’s budget will result in overall funding for nondefense discretionary programs to decline from $370 billion in the current year to $360 billion in the com- ing year and resume $357 billion within three years. Declines in examples of conclusion for research papers inflation-adjusted spending will continue through the rest of the decade. The problem is that simply keeping pace with inflation is not adequate in notebook sparks a dynamic and paragraphs growing society. The U.S. Associates. Census Bureau estimates that our population will increase from paragraphs for research, 280 million to writing more than 304 million in the next 10 years—an increase of 24 million or the equivalent of annexing four- fifths of Canada.
Nominal gross domestic product is expected to grow from $10 billion to more than $17 billion, an increase equivalent to the combined economies of England, France, Germany, and Spain. This means huge new demands on infrastructure, education systems, health care, and energy supplies. If we live within the discretionary totals permitted in the President’s budget it also means a huge scramble for resources in Washington—one that will be far more intense than the one we see now. Within these totals we will have to accommodate all new demands for of conclusion papers homeland security and increased foreign assistance. Clue. Even so, I predict that some advocates like the veterans and paragraphs for research the highway lobby will hold their own or at least come close. That means that others will be squeezed terribly.
If this analysis sounds sensible and by division you care about the advancement of science, then you need to put together a plan to paragraphs cope with these realities. One strategy is to outmatch the other lobbies in essayist clue Washington for the scarce resources that are left on the table. A second strategy is to join with others who are facing this squeeze and try to reverse the budget and tax policies that created the squeeze. A third strategy is to look to the private sector for of conclusion for research resources. The second choice seems most reasonable. Over One Page. I think people who care about science owe it to the country to try to reverse these policies. We face another second challenge that is every bit as daunting as the examples of conclusion paragraphs papers war on terrorism. It is essentially a challenge of by nicholas, demography. Science will play a central role in examples of conclusion its solution. The Challenge of Changing Demographics. As the baby boomers begin retiring at by division the end of of conclusion for research, this decade we will have fewer and fewer workers to pay the bills and more and more elderly with medical and subsistence needs.
A popular view in Washington is that we should save for that eventuality. If we build up large surpluses in the Social Security and different topics Medicare Trust Funds then we will have the money when it is needed. That analysis seems to make sense on examples of conclusion paragraphs papers the surface. But societies are not like individuals. Societies must balance their books on a year-to- year basis. Stated more simply, you can borrow from your neighbour as long as he is not also attempting to borrow from someone. You can lend to your neighbor as long as he is not attempting to topics also be a lender. Societies that plan to be large lenders for a period of time and of conclusion for research then large borrowers at creative writing faculty some future point inevitably run up the value of their assets (real estate, stocks, bonds, etc.). The value of those assets collapses when the time comes for the society to examples of conclusion for research collectively draw on them. When large numbers of individuals save for their retirement and the government adds to that savings and then begins to make withdrawals at the same time as the individuals, you have a fiscal policy that is simply increasing the size of the bubble.
That is precisely what happened in Japan. One could argue that the huge increase in equities and real estate values in the United States in recent years is an essayist, indication of the same problem. The question is: How can we all cash in our retirement accounts at the same time? Who will buy? Federal Reserve Board chairman Alan Greenspan suggested an answer to that problem a little more than two years ago when he stated, “something extraordinary has happened to the U.S. economy in recent years.” That extraordinary thing was the growth in productivity.
The chairman attributed that to new technologies such as supercomputers, gene splicing, robotics, and the Internet. What is stunning to examples of conclusion paragraphs most ardent free enterprisers is that a huge percentage of these advances for which they so proudly accept credit are largely the result of public investments. Investments made by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Iowa Writing Faculty. Air Force in the 1950s created the backbone of what has become the Internet. The sustained outlays at NIH created the biotechnology industry. We as a society spent money on these things 30, 40, even 50 years ago. Only in the past decade and a half have they begun transforming our economy and our society. But the growth generated by these scientific advances does not continue indefinitely. New scientific breakthroughs will be required if we are to paragraphs sustain the growth rates we enjoyed in the 1990s into the next decades. At that time, we will have a declining work force and a work force that is increasingly made up of people from lower income households with less opportunity for educational attainment.
The scientific community should not attempt to resume simply get a larger slice of a shrinking pie, even if it could muster the clout to overcome other interests to do so. For Research. Fancy new machines will do little to essays on the notebook spur the economy and examples paragraphs for research papers sustain growth without the workers capable of using them. Training these workers will be a huge task since America’s school-age population is coming increasingly from disadvantaged and immigrant households. Resume Over One Page. The investments needed are not huge in of conclusion paragraphs for research papers terms of the overall size of the U.S. economy. They will not impinge on the ability of the private sector to grow and flourish. To the contrary, they will provide American business with the technological and on the by nicholas human resources that business by itself cannot generate. It is a bold path and one that we might be reluctant to venture down. But it is the only course that will reverse the examples of conclusion for research unfortunate trend we are now facing. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Challenges Facing Science. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.
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