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Spm english essay tips
Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Montaigne said, The most universal quality is a+ spm essay, diversity. Given that diversity abounds, the project of understanding each other is both daunting and important. It is a journey never finished, because the process and the endpoints change constantly. The journey is bound up with communication and about america, conflict, since misunderstandings and miscommunication can cause and escalate conflict. Effective communication is often the key to making progress in a conflict. Progress through conflict is possible, and the route is twofold. First, self-knowledge and self-awareness are needed.
Without these, our seemingly normal approaches to meaning-making and communication will never be clear enough that we can see them for what they are: a set of lenses that shape what we see, hear, say, understand, and interpret. Second, cultural fluency is needed, meaning familiarity with culture and a+ spm english essay, the ability to act on that familiarity. Cultural fluency means understanding what culture is, how it works, and the ways culture and communication are intertwined with conflicts. This may sound simple enough, but it actually requires significant, continuous effort. As Edward T. Hall writes in the introduction to his book, The Dance of Life , for us to understand each other may mean, reorganizing [our] thinking. and if there s will, few people are willing to risk such a radical move. A+ Spm English! Communication theorists, anthropologists, and others have given us tools to develop awareness of our own lenses, and to facilitate the reorganization of thinking necessary to psu dissertation truly understand others whose starting points may differ from our own. Two of these tools are explored here. Communication Tools for Understanding Culture. Additional insights into communication tools for understanding cultural differences are offered by a+ spm english essay Beyond Intractability project participants. Short Essay On Studying Abroad! The tools we will examine here relate to communication and ways of seeing the self in relation to others.
They are: High-context and low-context communication, and Individualist and communitarian conceptions of a+ spm english self and other. Since all of these tools are used in the service of understanding culture, a working definition of america culture is a+ spm, useful. Is A Paper As A! Donal Carbaugh defines culture as a system of expressive practices fraught with feelings, a system of symbols, premises, rules, forms, and the domains and dimensions of mutual meanings associated with these. He also suggests culture is a learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, and norms, which affect the behaviors of a relatively large group of people. In each of these definitions, culture is linked to communication and a wide range of human experience including feelings, identity, and meaning-making. Communication is the vehicle by which meanings are conveyed, identity is composed and reinforced, and feelings are expressed. As we communicate using different cultural habits and meaning systems, both conflict and harmony are possible outcomes of any interaction. There is no comprehensive way to understand culture and a+ spm english essay, its relationships to on studying abroad communication and conflict. The two tools outlined here give windows into how different groups of people make sense of their worlds. They are neither reliable guides to every member of a particular group nor are they fixed in nature, since culture is constantly evolving and changing as people within groups and the contexts around them change. These two sets of a+ spm english tools are the most frequently used classifications of short abroad cultures used by anthropologists and communication scholars. We begin with one of the most familiar sets of a+ spm essay tools: high-context and low-context communication. High-context and Low-context Communication refers to the degree to which speakers rely on factors other than explicit speech to convey their messages.
This tool, developed by Edward T. Hall, suggests that communication varies according to its degree of field dependence, and that it can be classified into two general categories -- high-context and low-context. Is A As A Paper! Field dependence refers to the degree to which things outside the communication itself affect the meaning. For example, a request for a child to shut the door relies comparatively little on context, while a comment containing meaning other than what is on the surface relies largely on english context for its meaning to be received. A high-context message of disagreement might be telegraphed to a spouse or a co-worker by the words chosen or the way they are spoken, even if no disagreement is explicitly voiced. Hall says that every human being is short, confronted by far more sensory stimuli than can possibly be attended to. Cultures help by screening messages, shaping perceptions and interpretations according to a series of english selective filters. In high-context settings, the screens are designed to let in implied meanings arising from the about america culture, physical setting, relational cues, or shared understandings. In low-context settings, the screens direct attention more to a+ spm essay the literal meanings of binding words and less to the context surrounding the a+ spm english, words. Education! All of essay us engage in both high-context and low-context communication.
There are times we say what we mean, and mean what we say, leaving little to be read in to the explicit message. This is low-context communication. At other times, we may infer, imply, insinuate, or deliver with nonverbal cues messages that we want to have conveyed but do not speak. This is high-context communication. Psu Dissertation Binding! Most of the time, we are somewhere nearer the middle of the continuum, relying to some extent on context, but also on the literal meaning of words. To understand this distinction between high-context and low-context communication, ask yourself these questions: Do I tend to let my words speak for themselves, or prefer to be less direct, relying on what is implied by my communication? (low-context communication) Do I prefer indirect messages from a+ spm english essay, others, and essay, am I attuned to a whole range of verbal and nonverbal cues to help me understand the meaning of what is said? (high-context communication) As will quickly become clear, most people can and do function at both ends of the high-context, low-context continuum. There are times when direct, clear communication is most appropriate, and a+ spm english, times when it is preferable to communicate in layers of meaning to save face, spare feelings, or allow for diffuse interpretations. Essay About America Culture! Most people rely on english a whole range of verbal and nonverbal cues to understand the meaning of what is said. Even in the most direct, low-context setting, meanings will be conveyed that are not explicitly spoken. The novelist Amy Tan describes the if there s will essay, different starting points of English and Chinese this way: I try to explain to my English-speaking friends that Chinese language is more strategic in manner, whereas English tends to be more direct; an American business executive may say, 'Let's make a deal,' and the Chinese manager may reply, 'Is your son interested in learning about your widget business?' Each to his or her own purpose, each with his or her own linguistic path. As people communicate, they move along a continuum between high context and low context. Depending on a+ spm the kind of relationship, the calculus education, situation, and the purpose of communication, they may be more or less explicit and direct.
In close relationships, communication short-hand is a+ spm, often used, which makes communication opaque to outsiders but perfectly clear to the parties. With strangers, the the same research, same people may choose low-context communication. Low- and high-context communication refers not only to individual communication strategies, but may be used to understand cultural groups. Generally, Western cultures tend to gravitate toward low-context starting points, while Eastern and Southern cultures tend to use high-context communication. Within these huge categories, there are important differences and essay, many variations. Where high-context communication tends to calculus education be featured, it is useful to pay specific attention to nonverbal cues and the behavior of others who may know more of the unstated rules governing the communication. Where low-context communication is the norm, directness is likely to be expected in return. It is less important to classify any communication as high or low context than it is to essay understand whether nonverbal or verbal cues are the most prominent. Without this understanding, those who tend to use high-context starting points may be looking for education shades of meaning that are not present, and those who prefer low-context communication may miss important nuances of meaning.
The choice of high-context and low-context as labels has led to unfortunate misunderstandings, since there is an implied ranking in the adjectives. In fact, neither is better or worse than the other. They are simply different. Each has possible pitfalls for cross-cultural communicators. Generally, low-context communicators interacting with high-context communicators should be mindful that. nonverbal messages and gestures may be as important as what is said; status and identity may be communicated nonverbally and require appropriate acknowledgement; face-saving and tact may be important, and need to be balanced with the desire to communicate fully and frankly; building a good relationship can contribute to a+ spm english effectiveness over time; and as a, indirect routes and creative thinking are important alternatives to problem-solving when blocks are encountered. High-context communicators interacting with low-context communicators should be mindful that. things can be taken at face value rather than as representative of a+ spm layers of meaning; roles and resume, functions may be decoupled from status and a+ spm, identity; efficiency and effectiveness may be served by a sustained focus on tasks; direct questions and observations are not necessarily meant to offend, but to clarify and advance shared goals; and indirect cues may not be enough to is a term the same as a research get the other's attention. As communicators factor awareness of a+ spm english essay high-context and low-context communication into is a research paper, their relations, conflict may be lessened and even prevented. Individualism and Communitarianism is the second dimension important to conflict and conflict resolution. In communitarian settings (sometimes called collectivist settings), children are taught that they are part of a circle of relations. This identity as a member of a group comes first, summed up in a+ spm the South African idea of ubuntu: I am because we are. In communitarian settings, members are rewarded for allegiance to group norms and values, interdependence, and cooperation.
Wherever they go, their identity as a member of their group goes out in front. Identity is not isolated from others, but is determined with others according to stoops group needs and views. When conflict arises, behavior and responses tend to be jointly chosen. Individualist patterns involve ideas of the a+ spm, self as independent, self-directed, and autonomous. Many Western conflict-resolution approaches presuppose exactly this kind of person: someone able to paper the same as a paper make proposals, concessions, and maximize gains in their own self-interest.
Children raised in this milieu are rewarded for initiative, personal achievement, and individual leadership. They may be just as close to their families as a child raised in a communitarian setting, but they draw the boundaries differently: in case of a conflict, they may feel more free to choose their individual preference. Duty, honor, and deference to authority are less prominent for those with individualist starting points than communitarian ones. Individual and communitarian identities are two quite different ways of being in the world. They connect at some point, of course, since all groups are made up of individuals and all individuals find themselves in relationship with various groups. But the starting points are different. To discern the basic difference, ask yourself which is a+ spm english essay, most in the foreground of your life, the paper the same as a, welfare, development, security, prosperity, and well-being of a+ spm essay yourself and others as individuals, or the shared heritage, ecological resources, traditional stories, and group accomplishments of your people? Generally, those who start with individualism as their beginning tend to be most comfortable with independence, personal achievement, and a competitive conflict style.
Those who start with a communal orientation are more focused on social connections, service, and a cooperative conflict style. French anthropologist Raymonde Carroll, who is married to a North American, suggests that North Americans tend to paper paper see individual identities as existing outside all networks. This does not mean that social networks do not exist, or that they are unimportant, but that it is a+ spm english, notionally possible to see the self apart from these. In the North American view, there is a sense that the self creates its own identity, as in the expression, a self-made person. This view explains why it is unnecessary for North Americans to hide things about their past, such as humble origins.
It also explains why the alcoholic brother of a president of the United States is seen as having no connection to essay america culture the president's standing or ability. In a communitarian setting, identity is defined much more by the person's social network, and cannot be so easily separated. A+ Spm! One way to discern communitarian or individualist starting points is to listen to forms of greeting and address. Thomas Morning Owl, a member of the Confederated Umatilla Tribes in Oregon, reports that his response to the question 'Shinnamwa?' (Who are you?) would not be his name, but a description of his father, mother, and tribe, and is a term research paper, the place they came from. English Essay! Morning Owl reflects that individual identities are subsumed into the collective in is a paper the same as a his culture: Who preceded you, is english essay, who you are. Members of communitarian cultures place less importance than individualists on relationships with outsiders, such as strangers or casual acquaintances. Boundaries around relationships tend to binding be less porous in communitarian contexts like Japan, where attention is focused on maintaining harmony and cohesion with the group. In the individualist setting of the United States, by contrast, friendly behavior is directed to members of in-groups and strangers alike. This difference can lead to english misunderstandings across cultures, since the U.S. American behavior of friendliness to psu dissertation binding strangers may be seen as inappropriately familiar by those from communitarian settings, while U.S.
Americans may find social networks in communitarian settings very difficult to penetrate. English Essay! No matter which starting point seems natural, it is important to keep the education dissertations, entire continuum in mind when trying to understand and a+ spm english essay, address conflict. Paper As A! From each vantage point, it is a+ spm essay, useful to remember some things: From an individualist starting point, achievement involves individual goal-setting and action; I am ultimately accountable to myself and must make decisions I can live with; while I consult with others about calculus education dissertations, choices, I am autonomous: a discrete circle; and I believe in equality and consider everyone able to make their own personal choices. From a communitarian starting point, maintaining group harmony and cohesion is important, and my decisions should not disrupt that; choices are made in consultation with family and authority figures and their input is weighted as heavily, or even more heavily, than mine. I am an overlapping circle amidst other overlapping circles; my decisions reflect on my group and a+ spm english, I am accountable to them as a member; and bobby, I notice hierarchy and accept direction from those of higher status than myself. With these differences in english essay mind, it is important for individualists to if there there essay recognize the web of relations encompassing the english essay, communitarian party to a conflict, and to act in recognition of those. Short Essay! Similarly, it is helpful for those from communitarian settings to remember that individualists value autonomy and initiative, and to act in ways that respect these preferences.
Combining Starting Points: High-Context/Low-Context and Individualism/Communitarianism. As with any set of starting points, neither of these starting points exists in isolation. High-context communication often corresponds with communitarian settings, just as low-context communication often occurs in individualist settings. This is not always true, but it is worth exploring because it is english, frequently the case. Where communitarianism is the preferred starting point, individual expression may be less important than group will. Indirect communication that draws heavily on nonverbal cues may be preferable in s will s way such a setting, because it allows for multiple meanings, saves face, leaves room for group input into decisions, and displays interdependence. A+ Spm English! In individualist settings, low-context communication may be preferable because it is direct, expresses individual desires and initiatives, displays independence, and clarifies the meaning intended by the speaker. Nobel Peace Laureate Jimmy Carter understood the importance of psu dissertation binding high-context communication with his counterparts from english essay, Israel and Egypt in essay america culture the historic Camp David peace negotiations.
In one example, Carter reports that Prime Minister Begin was about to leave the negotiations after several days, discouraged at having reached an a+ spm english essay impasse. Carter met Begin at his accommodations and presented him with pictures of the three heads of state, inscribed with the names of each of Begin's grandchildren. Prime Minister Begin repeated the names of his grandchildren out loud as he paused to look at short essay on studying abroad the pictures, seeming to reflect on the importance of the peace negotiations to the grandchildren's futures. Carter knew instinctively that no direct, low-context appeal would work to bring Prime Minister Begin back to the negotiating table. Perhaps low-context requests were already tried without success. Instead, Carter relied on a high-context reference to legacy, future generations, and a+ spm, the relations that Begin cared about. He invoked the communities each leader served by psu dissertation binding reminding Begin of his grandchildren. Through Carter's masterful, high-context appeal, negotiations resumed and peace was achieved between neighbors who had been in intractable conflict for english many years. This example shows the importance of these two interrelated starting points, individualism/communitarianism and low/high context. Psu Dissertation! While there are many exceptions to cultural patterns and all of us use different starting points depending on the context, noticing the intersections of ways of making meaning is often a useful window into conflict dynamics.  Montaigne, 1580.
Quoted in Tracy Novinger. Intercultural Communication . (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001)  This is english essay, closely related to the concept of framing.  Edward T. Binding! Hall, The Dance of Life. A+ Spm English! The Other Dimension of Time (New York: Doubleday, 1983), 7. Calculus Education Dissertations!  Lustig, Myron and english, Jolene Koester. S Will Essay! 1998. Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures (3 rd Ed.). A+ Spm English Essay! (Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1998), 30.  Edward T. Bobby Resume! Hall, Beyond Culture . (New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1971)  Tan, Amy. The Language of Discretion, in About Language 3 rd Ed ., E.H.Roberts and G. A+ Spm! Turgeon, eds. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), 142.  These points are taken from Michelle LeBaron, Bridging Cultural Conflicts: New Approaches for a Changing World (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2003)  Quoted in Tracy Novinger, Intercultural Communication (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2001), 31.  Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith (New York: Bantam Books, 1982), 392, 399.
Use the following to cite this article: LeBaron, Michelle. About Culture! Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Beyond Intractability . Eds. A+ Spm English Essay! Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder.
Posted: June 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/communication-tools. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. You can also still use the the same research, old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to a+ spm english constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible.
Find out about the is a as a paper, problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and english, outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and stoops, peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the a+ spm english, challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for bobby becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to a+ spm english essay conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of essay culture Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado.
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Spm english essay tips
The “T” Cover Letter – The Only Type Worth Sending. Many job-seekers have asked whether or not it’s worthwhile including a cover letter with their resume when they apply to a+ spm, an online job posting, or email it to short on studying, a contact at a+ spm one of their target companies. It’s a question that many people struggle with. Should they attach a cover letter as a separate Microsoft Word document? Should the cover letter be the body of the email?
Does anyone actually read cover letters? I’ve asked that last question to a number of term paper research paper, colleagues of mine who are both recruiters and HR people. A+ Spm English Essay? The answers are all over the map. At one extreme, some recruiters say they never even look at psu dissertation binding cover letters, and a+ spm, just go right to the resume. Bobby Stoops Resume? At the opposite end of the spectrum, some say they pay close attention to the cover letters, and actually use them to decide if they even want to look at the person’s resume based on what it says and how well it’s written. And others are somewhere in between – they’ll sometimes glance at it, but pay more attention to the resume for evaluation purposes. Basically, there are three ways to send a cover letter in an email: 1) Typed into the body of the email, with the resume attached as a Word-formatted document. 2) As a separate (second) Word-formatted document sent as an attachment along with the Word-formatted resume.
3) Integrated into the actual resume document itself, and english, formatted in Word to appear as the first page of the resume which is sent as an attachment. By the way … just as an aside – I would not recommend using the Adobe PDF format for resumes or cover letters. The reason is that most recruiters and HR people will want to import the text of your resume into their electronic database or Applicant Tracking System for paper as a research, future keyword searches. Those programs deal much easier with Microsoft Word documents, and often cannot read or properly import the text from a PDF. A+ Spm English? All that beautiful formatting you think you are preserving by using PDF gets lost in translation, and your resume can end up looking like unreadable gibberish!
Personally, I prefer the first method listed above … I’m much more likely to if there there s way essay, read the body of an a+ spm essay, email message than to open up a separate attachment. The likelihood of anyone opening a cover letter sent as a separate Word document is essay culture very low. A+ Spm Essay? However, if you are bound and determined to short essay on studying abroad, force your cover letter to a+ spm essay, be read, the third method is probably the psu dissertation binding, most surefire. Everyone opens the resume, and a+ spm english essay, making your cover letter be the first page guarantees it will be seen. Of course, the potential down side of binding, doing it that way is a+ spm english that it could annoy the reader who typically spends about 15 seconds or less reviewing your resume, and will be less likely to get to the “good parts” if you make them stop and read your cover letter first.
Whichever way you do it, if you do decide to send a cover letter along with your resume, in my opinion there is only one format that is worth considering … it’s called the “T” Cover Letter. The name is derived from the binding, look of the english essay, page itself. Imagine taking a piece of paper and drawing a huge letter “T” on it, with the short on studying abroad, top line appearing under your opening paragraph, and a+ spm, the vertical line dividing the essay, page below into two equal spaces. The opener should be a brief introduction of who you are, and what position you are interested in (two or three sentences at a+ spm english essay most.) Then you say something like: “Below is resume a comparison of your job requirements and my qualifications.” Now comes the a+ spm english, good part: in the “T” chart you’ve drawn, on the left side you have a heading called “Your Job Requirements” under which you copy and paste each of the bulleted requirements listed in psu dissertation binding, the company’s job posting or job description. A+ Spm English Essay? Then, on essay about, the right side you have a heading called “My Qualifications” under which you match up bullet-for-bullet your specific skills and experiences showing how you fit each job requirement on essay, the left. Here’s a link to a template that you can modify, and then use for calculus, the Word formatted version to send as an english essay, attachment: It should be noted that this “T” format (which can also sometimes look more like a chart with boxes) can be easily created on essay culture, a Word document using the Table creation tool. English? But because it depends so much on the formatting, it really only works if you are attaching a separate Word document to an email (numbers 2 3 above.) However, you can still use a modified version of the same concept if you choose to have your cover letter be the body of an essay, email. All you have to do is just forget the fancy “T” table, and simply list each requirement from their job description, and under each one list your matching bulleted qualifications.
It may not be as “pretty” as the formatted “T” version, but it serves the a+ spm, same exact purpose. Also, this would be the essay abroad, version to use in an online application where you are asked to paste your cover letter into english an open field in a web-based form. Here’s a link to a second plain text template without formatting that you can modify, and then cut and binding, paste into the body of an email or a web-based form: The reason this “T” Cover Letter is so effective should be obvious. Most recruiters and essay, HR people are looking for exact matches to their job requirements, and are under a tremendous amount of time pressure to screen an calculus education dissertations, overwhelming flood of applicants. [Read “The Brutal Truth on How Resumes Get Eliminated” for more on how that screening process works.] Typically, they’ll scan the first page of a resume for essay, less than 15 seconds, and if they don’t quickly see exactly what they think they want or need right up front … bye bye – delete key for you! By providing the “T” Cover Letter, you are simplifying their job, and cutting right to the chase of what they are looking for … the match! You are saying, in effect, “I’m exactly what you are looking for, and here is psu dissertation binding why!” It’s kind of like “Resume Reading for english essay, Dummies!” If you truly match their job requirements point-for-point – and if there s will essay, send the “T” Cover Letter to prove it – your chances of passing through that first step and progressing on to the a+ spm english, next step (usually a phone screen) will be WAY higher than someone who just sends a resume with either a generic cover letter, or none at all. I’ve been sending the is a the same as a paper, T-letter format for english essay, 10 yrs. It has always proved beneficial. Once your requirements are in place, they rarely chance.
Pull their requirments from their ad. It takes 10 minutes to stoops, write a stellar cover letter. English Essay? Learn this. It will pay off! Correction…once your qualifications are in place, you add their requirements. oops! so let me get this straight… the if there there, ability to write a well-written, clear and eloquent cover letter no longer means squat? what you’ve shown here is english essay NOT a cover letter, in fact it isn’t a letter at all, its an excel chart with a few words of fluff built around it. these articles have definitely been eye openers for term, me, i have to retrain myself to think of the recruiter as a 2 year old with a 10 second attention span. weird.
I am no 2 year old (although sometimes I do wish I could go back in time to that simpler era and do it all over a+ spm english, again … only this time I’d skip the teen years!) But it’s not such a simpler time and the rules of the is a paper as a research paper, employment game have changed drastically. Applying for a job in today’s overcrowded market is not an a+ spm english, essay contest where the most “eloquent” letter wins a prize. Only after you’ve been in the place of s will, a person who must review hundreds and hundreds of english, applications for a single job with very specific requirements, might you see the value in the “T” Cover letter that others have seen. Short Essay? It does work. Michael, thank you as well. I think this will be very beneficial in my pursuit of a+ spm, a new position. I agree it will work well for essay about culture, myself and in gaining a recruiter’s attention. Thank you, Michael, for sharing this wonderful and helpful tool. I have used it several times and it has proven successful in catching the a+ spm, recruiter’s attention, saving him/her time. Also, It has given me a strategy of assessment to use when evaluating if a new opportunity is indeed one I should consider and about culture, pursue. Michele Boisvert, CMP.
I read with zeal your Recruiter Musings. You have some great stuff. Your content is not only right on philosophically (as in accords with reality) but very insightful and detailed. I’m glad you take the time to write it. You bet – as a hiring manager or recruiter, this would grab my attention over another dry, standard everyday letter or resume. What’s your advice on english, the pre-formatted coverletter though? The ones everyone posts on the job boards?
It’s difficult to compare specifics when you don’t have any without writing and posting a new cover letter for term paper, every job listed on the board. I think I’ve found one way that might work. I would create a new cover letter for each job application you submit through the job boards, and not use a “one-size-fits-all” pre-formatted letter. Thank you so much for that helpful tool. Essay? It is essay america culture few months that I have been looking for essay, a job and term the same as a research, this is the first time I come across this idea. A+ Spm Essay? It makes me wonder about the term paper research, fate of all the numerous cover letters and a+ spm english essay, Resumes I have sent up to now.
By the way, do you think that “T” cover letter is also relevant for applying an internship position? President/Consultant at Evaluations Plus – Business and Management Specialists. The T letter just mimics the matching process the is a paper the same as a research paper, company is going to do with its OCR or other electronic filtering systems, why bother? The job seeker needs to differentiate him/herself from the clutter. They must have a Unique Value Proposition that they can deliver to the hiring manager, not just fed into a+ spm the maw of HR’s resume digesting system. I might agree with “it certainly can’t hurt” but you would still be playing into the matching process. If the company is about big enough to have HR they will first do a negative selection. “Let’s get rid of as many of these resumes as quickly as possible!” e.g. English Essay? wrong zip code, no degree, wrong degree, no PAR statements, out of short essay abroad, work for too long, not held similar position, spelling or grammatical errors, etc and on and on. Resume (and cover letter) submission is an english essay, action that has two sides to it, the employers and the prospect; how does the short on studying abroad, employer discern that this person is worth ‘considering’ for the open position? How does the prospect make sure that his submission will strike gold?
If he/she can avoid all of the a+ spm, aforementioned negatives then the decision will come back to psu dissertation binding, the matching process. How well does the candidates previous experience (and current or previous position) and education match the job description? At this point the ‘T’ letter might be a positive factor but a cover letter explaining (with facts) how he/she will help the employer solve ‘the’ problem and make or save them “money” will have a bigger impact, maybe not with HR but certainly with the hiring manager. At some point in the resume evaluation process HR will exceed its capabilities to match the a+ spm essay, prospect to the job description. At that point the short pile of psu dissertation, resumes will be sent to the hiring manager, for further culling. If the a+ spm english, candidate passes that test he/she might be put on the short list and maybe brought in for america, an interview or given a screening interview by telephone. Essay? Why not try to bypass all of essay on studying abroad, that selection process (and its many pitfalls) by appealing directly to a+ spm english essay, the hiring manager? In the long run the hiring manager will still have a serious problem in picking the “best candidate” anyway. If the candidate realizes that she/he has to sell her/himself into the position their preparation will be much better and they will match themselves to all aspects of the job requirement, ‘T’ letter or not. Corporate Recruiter / Executive Search.
I agree 100% with your assessment of psu dissertation binding, how the weeding-out process works. English? If you plan to bypass HR and is a term the same as a paper, go directly to essay, a hiring manager (which is usually a much better approach than just applying online and short essay abroad, hoping for the best), then skip the “T” Letter write a more directed appeal to that decision-maker. President/Consultant at Evaluations Plus – Business and Management Specialists. Thanks for your comments Michael. Despite what I just indicated, it has been my experience that few candidates have the ability to synthesize a “direct approach” program for themselves.
It appears that 99% of the job seekers are still submitting resumes on line. The TV ad’ that “The Ladders” has, showing a tennis match; is a great allegorical example (with all the confusion and clutter) of the a+ spm english essay, internet hiring process. Unfortunately it currently seems to psu dissertation, be the pre-eminent way to search for a job. Making a table mapping the a+ spm essay, job requirements to your qualifications saves the hiring manager the time an is a paper the same as a, effort needed to do the mapping, and can be used to add relevant qualifications that did not make it into the resume. The challenge is to keep the entries very brief. Even though recruiters may not necessarily rush to look at a cover letter, sending one may still be expected for professional opportunities. Essay? I myself will read the calculus education dissertations, resume first, but then certainly review the cover letter if the a+ spm, resume is of interest to is a term as a, me. Great article again Michael. Thanks for sharing.
I’ve been circulating your article to different people in my network this morning. Thanks for posting this. I like the T type of cover letter best also (although I didn’t know it was called a “T cover letter”). I have noticed that the essay, T format is neither encouraged nor talked about calculus as much as the old fashioned cover letters that don’t even get you noticed. I am surprised that companies aren’t encouraging or even insisting upon the T cover letter. Jolly good stuff! First time i hear about the T-letter. A+ Spm English? Good way to draw valued comparisons between experience and requirements. But i agree with Amy [who commented: “So obvious and insightful into the needs of is a term paper paper, those looking for the perfect match. English? But suggest there needs to be a strategic space for the key reason one is better than other candidates — the emotional clincher that assures you go into the ‘must interview’ pile.”] Aside from if there s will there s way crossing your “T”, you need to also strategically dot your “I” ! Impressed.
First time I have heard about the T letter. I also agree with Amy Mika … The emotional clincher or the english, dot on your “i” is a must too. Great stuff Michael. Like some of us, I had not heard of a T letter as well. I really do like it a lot and essay about culture, think it will be killer. I will definitely be forwardig this around to my fellow memebers in my group on linkedin as well a few of a+ spm essay, my friends. As I am in the process of “hunting” for a job, I hope I am able to “kill” my prey with this T letter. #128578;
Will keep you posted on the outcome. I felt that this will definitely change my conversations with recruiters in the future. Thanks and I will update you after the change. Thank you Michael so much for this. I have been looking for six months for something that would work and I believe wholeheartedly that this is it. Essay America? You are a genius. Thanks again. Gale. Thank you very much I’ve been struggling with cover letters. I get nervous when I’m asked for one. It feels like I’m repeating myself.
I’m 40 and graduated a few years ago, but I still can’t get a job with NGOs. This article makes complete sense and also provides the tools to implement a successful application to english, a desired and matching job. Nice posting. Thanks for this, Michael. It was very detailed and helpful–and came perfectly timed for the work that I’m doing on revising my cover letter! I only recently became aware of the ‘T’ letter and have to say I love it! I find it makes everything so much easier for all parties – it provides a clear and succinct coverage of what the employer is looking for psu dissertation binding, (from the posting) and the skills the applicant has that matches those needs (from the a+ spm essay, resume). It makes it easy for the employer to see quickly if the individual has a match to points that are key for them and calculus, ensures that it will be worthwhile for them to turn to the resume to dig deeper into the person’s background.
Michael, I’d just like to say how much I enjoy reading your wordpress site and congratulate you on the content. Essay? Very useful, very clear and above all very useful!. Well done and again, thanks for sharing. Graeme. Just a note to say thanks for your articles in Recruiter Musings. I always learn something new from them. Nice job.
Great discussion! I recently followed up my online resume and online cover letter with a branding statement brochure directed to the hiring manager. Psu Dissertation Binding? My resume was either eliminated by keyword process or there was a mix up because the hiring manager suddenly left and someone else was in essay, charge. At any rate, that brochure was the reason the new hiring manager called me, saying she never would have known I applied for the position had I not sent a brochure and there s way, indicated that I had applied. This resulted in their company flying me out for four interviews with executives at their company. I would like to know about the key word elimination process, because many good candidates could be falling through the cracks. It’s not always possible to correctly guess what key words the employer will screen for. Regarding the a+ spm essay, keywords … the binding, best place to start is with a company’s job description. When applying to english essay, a specific job, make sure that the phrases, keywords and language found that job description also appear in your resume. Use them in the “T” Cover Letter as well. Thank you!
I liked the “T” cover leter idea – simple and must be very efficient. Michael – You’re right on with your assessment on on studying, resume reviewing. As a manager who has had to a+ spm essay, sift through dozens of resumes at a time, the average time is less than 30 seconds on the first pass. Essay Abroad? That’s why proper format and spell check are so important. If I come across two misspelled words the resume is toast. A+ Spm English? And if the resume reads like a job description, less than 10 seconds and calculus education, it’s turned over. Your message on the T format cover letter really hit home. I was introduced to the format about 15 years ago, used it during job searches, and almost always received favorable comments about it when I got an interview. It was the final element that put me in front of the recruiter.
Now that I’m once again exploring opportunities in the marketplace I have done exactly what you wrote: spent hours dusting off my resume and a+ spm english essay, polishing it up. But when I submitted my new resume, I reverted back to the old, boring, faceless cover letter. Thank you for waking me up! I’m back to the T format again. I began using this cover letter format in June when I read about it on LinkedIn.
While I have not yet secured a position I have had great luck in getting the attention of calculus, HR and hiring managers. English? In two cases I stood out psu dissertation, enough that while totally over qualitfied for the Customer Serivice supervisory job for which I applied the HR manager contacted me to discuss a higher-level management position that was open. I have gotten about a 50% response rate since using this format. I think one reason response % is up is a+ spm that by about using this over letter format I sometimes discover that I am not very qualified for the role and have stopped sending applications/resumes on a+ spm english essay, jobs that are not a good fit. I personally think that the cover letters works only to binding, find out the level of english essay, language command. This type of dissertations, letter convey more information rather the blal bla ones which on top of a+ spm english essay, this could be written from somebody else. I have written a lot of Cl and I do not have a lot of feedbacks on them. Stoops? The employer does not read them at english essay all. Calculus Education? An assistant does and the recruiter does.
Could you some body tell me what is the value preposition of the requiters in the era of Internet? Your comments are quite amusing … although I’m quite sure you didn’t intend for a+ spm, them to be funny. If you think that cover letters are used to find out a person’s level of language command — well, then I suggest you find someone who has a better command of English to proof-read your writings! Perhaps your “blal bla ones” don’t really deserve “a lot of feedbacks.” And anyway – what’s wrong with assessing someone’s written communication skills by reading their cover letter? The ability to s will there s way essay, write clearly and effectively is a key skill for many jobs. And as to english, the value “preposition of requiters” … well, if you really believe that recruiters have no value in the era of the internet, then I suggest you read The Real Truth About Working with Recruiters. Binding? Good recruiters are making a ton of money by placing hard-to-find talent in today’s high tech world. In the staffing world, the internet is a+ spm essay merely a collection of tools — not a replacement for relationships with hiring authorities, which is what good recruiters bring to the table. Good luck with your job search. I hope this comment isn’t too late to get a response!
I am applying for a early childhood educator position. My gut tells me that a more traditional format of essay about america, cover letter would be more appropriate for this sort of position, as personability is just as important as fundamental qualifications. English Essay? I also want to be able to if there s will essay, provide a bit of a+ spm english, explanation regarding a job i left only calculus dissertations, two months in last year. On the other hand, the early childhood center is based at a+ spm a large university, and I am not clear on the stages that my cover letter and resume will go through before being evaluated by the person who is psu dissertation responsible for making the hiring decision. It may be that my resume will be directed through HR before even seeing the light of day. Any tips on how best to navigate these conflicts?
The type of cover letter you choose to send depends on how and to whom you are applying. If you are simply applying online to a+ spm english, a job posting, then the psu dissertation, T-Letter is the best way to a+ spm english essay, start. If, on the other hand, you are sending it directly to a decision maker that you’ve identified in the early childhood center … then your more “personable” approach may be a better choice. Since you seem to be unsure who will see it first — I would assume an psu dissertation binding, HR person will be the a+ spm english essay, first one to stoops, look at your letter and resume. If you have a job description with a list of requirements, then by all means send the T-Letter first! You can always follow up later with a more traditional letter to the actual hiring manager once you know who that is and english, you’ve passed through that first HR gatekeeper stage.
Very nice write-up. Bobby Resume? I certainly love this site. Continue the good work! Very nice blog post. Essay? I absolutely love this site. Thanks! Nice job, this is a great way to let the reader know that you have the skills to about america culture, solve their problems. I don’t normally take time to comment on web postings, but I just ran across your article regarding The “T” Cover Letter, and I wanted to simply thank you for sharing this information.
I’ve been familiar with the T format for english essay, many years, but frankly don’t often use it. Nevertheless, your advice provided an absolutely spot-on view on stoops, its value (I’ll definitely use it going forward), as well as other really great tips! Thanks again! I don’t think this would be as effective for a recent graduate who may not have as many qualifications to a+ spm, list next to if there s will there, each job requirement. Nikitasha: No offense, but if you really don’t have the qualifications required for a job you are applying for english, … you probably won’t get much of a response no matter what type of cover letter you use. It’s probably a waste of your time (as well as the time of the person you send it to) applying to a job that has requirements that you do not yet possess because of your inexperience as a recent graduate. Given that most people do not meet every single job requirement in a job ad because employers post for the ideal candidate (especially in my field of Graphic Design), if I meet seven out of ten requirements, doesn’t the calculus education, T cover letter make it more obvious that I don’t meet all of their requirements?
If so, would you suggest that I do an old-fashioned cover letter for those job listings and a+ spm, using a T cover letter only education dissertations, when I meet every single requirement? Why not just cut and english, paste the seven requirements that you do fit, and list your experiences and skills next to those. I would ignore the s will, three you don’t have in english essay, the cover letter, and save your explanations about those things (only if asked) for an interview. I could not agree more with everything you said. If There S Will There S Way? I am a recruiter too, and all the facts you mentioned about our methods are so true. In reply to some comments here, if you think about the english, role of the recruiter and how little time we usually have to s way essay, go through hundreds of CVs, reality leaves us little choice but learning how to english, skim through hundreds of documents in a day and be able to extract what we need from them.
The T-cover letter might not be a conventional letter, but surely helps your words to be noticed sooner. I do not consider myself a ruthless recruiter, I?d rather say an incredibly-busy-recruiter, I know what I am looking for in a CV, and this chart will tell me straght away. If your cover letter helps me find what I need so easily I can guarantee I will be spending more than 30 seconds reviewing your CV. Great advice again. Essay On Studying? I enjoyed reading it!
I like this idea and have been doing something similar but not quite this structured. English Essay? I will definitely give the T Cover letter a go. Thanks for the template. Any advice on how (or if) to use a T CL when the job posting doesn’t divulge many details? If there is no job description or list of requirements in the job posting, then how can you know if you are even qualified? You might try calling the company’s department overseeing this position and ask someone if there are any specific requirements for applicants. Or, you could simply send your resume without a cover letter … but that will likely end up in “The Black Hole of HR.” great advice — I have been struggling with this and appreciate your recommendations. These are great tips. Especially the tip about the psu dissertation, ways of sending cover letters. A+ Spm Essay? The point of cover letters is to short essay on studying, show an employer why they should hire u. Hi, I love this format for a cover letter!
I do have a question though. Say a job listing has 8 or 9 job requirements. Would you list them all or just list the most important ones so that it stays to one page. I am trying to apply for this job and a+ spm english, I feel very qualified at all the job requirements so I feel hard cutting some out bobby stoops, when I can adequately perform all of them. It seems that you have 3 choices: 1) Expand the T-Cover Letter chart to include all 8 or 9 job requirements and your matching skills; 2) Choose just the 4 or 5 that seem the most important; or 3) Combine some of the english essay, requirements and have fewer but longer bullets. If you really feel that they are all important and term paper as a research paper, distinct, I’d lean towards listing them all and just have the letter be longer.
I think any of a+ spm, those formats would work. Hope that is helpful. My partner and I absolutely love your blog and find many of your post’s to be just what I’m looking for. Do you offer guest writers to write content for binding, you personally? I wouldn’t mind composing a post or elaborating on a number of the essay, subjects you write concerning here. Again, awesome website! I’m so glad to hear you are finding value in my blog writings! I do not use “guest writers” … however, I’ve certainly had many readers write very elaborate and term paper paper, informative comments that become part of each article I write.
I am also always open to suggestions for new topics that I can write about. This is a terrific site that’s been a great help as I’ve started my first job hunt since I was fresh out of school. One online job posting I’m looking at requires an uploaded resume but has only a (large) text field for a+ spm english essay, a cover letter. Since I have no idea what the formatting of the submission will end up looking like, I can’t use a standard T-letter. Any suggestions for the best approach here? Thanks for all the great insights. I’m glad to hear that my blog has been helpful to you in term, your job search. The answer to a+ spm, your question is easy: use the second template in the article above, which is a plain text version of the “T” Cover Letter designed for the body of an email.
Since it has no fancy formatting, using it in is a term paper as a, the text field of your online application should not be a problem. Thanks. I’ll leave “attention to detial” off my resume. Nice! You might want to check out the “Resume Bloopers” at english essay the bottom of is a term paper research paper, this blog: Comic Relief: Job-Seeking Humor – Volume 3. I’ve been using this letter and I have been unable to get any resume response with it. I have other people suggesting that I go back to the 3-4 paragraph style. English? What should I do? If you truly fit all the requirements for is a term paper the same as a, the job you are applying to, then I’ve found that a T-Letter helps your chances of getting a response. A+ Spm? On the other hand, if you really don’t fit or are not as strong as other applicants, then no response should be expected no matter what type of cover letter you use. That said, go ahead and try other cover letter styles … use whatever works for you!
Thank you for stoops, your insightful words Michael. Still applicable after first writing it four years ago. Much appreciated! Tried this format this week and a+ spm english, Boom, got the first job I applied for. Calculus? Thanks a million for a+ spm english, the insight. #128578; My brother suggested I might like this web site. He was entirely right. This post truly made my day. You can not imagine simply how much time I have spent looking for this information! Thanks! Hi Michael, I have worked on the HR of side of education dissertations, things (and in a+ spm, the position of staring at hundreds of bobby resume, applications for one opening), and now I’m an Employment Specialist working with the candidates, so I’ve really gotten a wide perspective there. (Can I weigh in?
I *hate* reading cover letters. If I’m stuck between candidates and have reviewed all the other application materials already, then I look at the cover letters–for spelling errors.) Anyways, I teach my clients to english essay, tailor their resume in a similar manner to your T-letter: I hand them a piece of is a the same as a, paper with a big T on a+ spm english essay, it, and we pick out the job requirements from the posting and write them on education, one side and pick out experience/qualifications from the clients skill set that correspond, and THOSE are then typed into (or pasted if we did it electronically in a slightly more sophisticated version) the resume. I really like the english essay, T letter format, but this leaves them with the problem of stoops, potentially just regurgitating the resume in the cover letter. A+ Spm English Essay? Any thoughts on this? Yes, of course the T-Cover Letter is basically a “regurgitation” of short essay on studying, certain elements in a person’s resume. However, the format highlights the fit to a+ spm english essay, a job’s specific requirements in a way that is psu dissertation binding not always so obvious when reading someone’s original resume document.
As I said in the blog article, you are cutting right to the chase of what they are looking for … the match! You are saying, in effect, “I’m exactly what you are looking for, and english essay, here is why — point for point!” It’s kind of like “Resume Reading for s will there s way essay, Dummies!” A “T” style cover letter simply addresses the essay, exact job requirements and can contain detail that cannot be included in a cover letter. It is as direct, specific, and to the point as possible in text. It should reduce the work of evaluating the applicant. I makes the stoops resume, resume a backup document if used properly. As a Certified Career Strategist, Career Coach and professional Resume Writer specializing in midcareer professionals in transition, the T covering letter can be appropriately used in some instances especially technical resumes, or where specialized equipment experience is needed because this put the candidate’s information up front and centre. As a former recruiter, this form was something that was used to skill match the a+ spm english essay, client’s qualification to the job posting.
I agree with one poster that the psu dissertation, covering letter can be used to gauge a client’s writing and communication skills however if the english essay, client has hired a professional resume writer than nullifies that qualifying attempt. Binding? Although there is a positive benefit to the T format, this formatting may not be compatible with an ATS (applicant tracking system) commonly used when uploading to job boards which requires simple formatting and basic structure. Thanks for english essay, your comments. Two things: 1) If someone hires a “professional resume writer,” they would still probably write their own cover letters for individual job applications. That, plus any other emails or communications between a candidate and a recruiter or prospective employer will probably reveal a person’s true writing and communications skills.
And 2) as mentioned in the blog, there is a second “plain-text” version of the T-Cover Letter that can be used in the body of an bobby resume, email or on essay, a web-based application form. That alternative plain-text version will most likely be compatible with any ATS, since is short on studying has no fancy formatting. 1.The biggest issue is that the person reading the resume and cover is usually NOT the a+ spm english, hiring manager and probably knows NOTHING about calculus dissertations anything to english, do with the actual job or its requirements. 2. The second issue is that there is NO excuse for spending 10-20 seconds reviewing ANYTHING, EVER. Calculus Dissertations? It means that the person doing the sorting and reviewing is actually costing the company time, energy and effort with very little possibility of not tossing the BEST candidates resumes aside. See number 1. 3. English? Most job postings are so damn generic in themselves that no applicant can possibly create a cover/resume that matches the job in any way. We all see the same buzz words (which change regularly) and descriptions….however one company is an resume, ice cream manufacturer and english essay, the next builds missiles (many times we don’t even know a company name!). The job description for a given position is the essay america, SAME…yet the personality, types of background, as well as job histories being sought in each case would be zero match to each other….(yes one can tell that someone with an english essay, ice cream manufacturing background would not fit building missiles….however the reverse is not true at all, depending). 4. Cover letters are a waste of applicant’s time, especially when they many times do NOT KNOW the company, department, or even the industry because of today’s double blind job listings.
There is little or nothing that can be said that will change the initial reviewer’s perspective, unless that person just likes to hire brown nosing bullshiLLers. 5. Lets be real, many of the binding, positions posted today are NOT even for US citizens…they are listed to a+ spm english essay, NOT hire so that companies can obtain foreign workers through special programs (supposedly to calculus education, reduce costs but instead costing our society many fold any actual savings). Or possibly to hire intern level employees, where even dumbing down one’s resume can bring back the response….”you are over-qualified”. So if the point is NOT to a+ spm essay, hire fully trained, fully qualified and expert employees, then we waste everyone’s time, especially with cover letters. 6. Essay On Studying Abroad? When to use a cover letter: a. when referred to a position from someone who works there or knows the hiring managers or HR etc. b. When YOU know the hiring managers or HR personally. c. English Essay? When you have worked as a contractor or in other manner in or for that specific company and department (you would probably be inside tracked unless they didn’t like you or didn’t know you would consider leaving your current employer) d. When one knows the EXACT position, department, and industry and is so familiar (expert) that they can make statements that will cause the resume to move to the TOP instantly. You must know exactly what to say and it better be excellent. Other than that, employers and HR managers should not WANT any cover letters..they should not require them ever. If There There Essay? The resume, if written well can deliver EVERYTHING about a+ spm a candidate that is necessary to assess the fit to the position and if there there s way, company (provided it is reviewed by a real manager and a+ spm english essay, co-workers to that position.
I forgot to mention.. To the ones that believe they can readily find the Hiring manager name, supervisor name..or even the HR person who will review the letter… Why don’t you go and try and get that information. if it is not posted with the job listing your odds are about 1 in 12 of getting that information. most companies have a policy that they don’t give it out at all. Thy don’t want you calling and trying to talk to that person. I have even known of companies that use faked name for the responses…so you are addressing a pseudonym to begin with. Wow. So much anger and cynicism coming through in your comments, DJ!
I sure hope, for your sake, that your negativity doesn’t come across so blatantly to any of the prospective employers you might be targeting — assuming you are in job search mode. While there may be truth in many of bobby stoops, your words, I’ve found that attitude is the number one most important factor that determines who gets hired and who doesn’t. I don’t know if you’ll see this but I am so glad I came across this article. After my phone interview ended, the interviewer specifically said “You’re cover letter was very thoughtful” and a+ spm, now I have an in person interview next week! Yes, I actually do read people’s comments! And I’m so glad to education dissertations, hear that the “T-Cover Letter” article helped you get an interview. English Essay? That’s the essay america culture, best feedback I could hope for! I like the a+ spm, format you are showing here! Question .. in a job posting lets say there are 8 points highlighting what they are looking for, do you try to cover each one? what if you leave one out does that look like you don’t have it? WHen submitting the application would a resume still go with this cover letter? If you have all 8 points then by all means list all 8. Essay Culture? If not, then only leave out ones you do not have.
And yes, submit your resume along with this T-Cover Letter. I recommend sending the a+ spm essay, resume as a word attachment, and is a term research paper, having the cover letter be the a+ spm english essay, body of your email. Good morning Michael, Any tips on writing a powerful cover letter when your application is spontaneous / unsolicited? T format would not be appropriated, unless based on psu dissertation, the values of the company? Thanks in english, advance, It would depend on what position you are targeting. If there is no job description available to match up with your skills, then you simply need to binding, bullet out your main assets, skills and a+ spm english essay, experiences and hope they match up to what the company is looking for and/or in need of. Keep it short and simple — let the resume provide the about america culture, details. Also — personalize it if you can!
Do not send a generic one-size-fits-all cover letter. Try to mention specifics about the essay, company, details about anyone you know there, etc. Explain why you want to work there in particular, and there essay, what you can do for them. Thank you for this wonderfully article. English Essay? I have since made changes to my approach with cover letters.
Now, I’m currently using a summary of calculus education, qualifications section ( 5 bullets) on my resume, but it’s largely a repeat from the T cover letter. Certainly I’m a huge fan of the T cover letter, but how would you suggest that I develop a summary of qualifications section? Since every job might have different requirements or look for different specific qualifications, it’s difficult to english essay, have a “one-size-fits-all” cover letter. That’s why each T-Cover Letter needs to be tailored for essay, the specific job you are applying to. The same goes for a resume’s Summary of Qualifications section.
It’s best to be very general there, and leave the english, specifics to the T-Cover Letter (unless you want to constantly modify your resume to fit each and every job you are sending it to — which is also a great idea, but can be very time consuming!) In a perfect world, your resume’s summary section should look like a regurgitation of the language in calculus education dissertations, the specific job description you are applying for.
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7 Common MBA Essay Questions and How to Tackle Them. There are a handful of business school essay questions that seem to capture the heart and imagination of a+ spm essay many an MBA program. It seems that, across the board, admissions committees feel these queries offer the best insight into term the same research paper, the minds of their applicants. You are likely to see a version of one or more of these common MBA essay questions on english your b-school application. Education! These tips will help you craft the perfect answer. 1. Essay! Describe your specific career aspirations and your reason for america culture pursuing an MBA. This may be the most important essay question you tackle. You must convince the a+ spm essay, admissions committee that you deserve one of bobby stoops their few, cherished spots. Reference your background, skills, and career aspirations, demonstrating how this degree is english a bridge to the next step in your professional life. Be sure to speak to how this particular program will help you realize your potential. It's okay to present modest goals.
Deepening your expertise and broadening your perspective are solid reasons for pursuing this degree. If you aspire to lofty goals, like becoming a CEO or starting your own company, be careful to detail a sensible (read: realistic), pragmatic plan. 2. What are your principal interests outside of work or school? What leisure and/or community activities do you particularly enjoy? There's more to b-school than the library. The best programs buzz with the energy of a student body that is talented and creative and if there, bursting with personality. These students are not just about a+ spm english essay, case studies and careers. Describe how you will be a unique addition to the business school community. Short Essay On Studying! B-school is essay also a very social experience. Much of the work is done in groups.
Weekends are full of social gatherings or immersion experiences, and the networking you do here will impact the short on studying, rest of english your career. Communicate that people, not just your job, are an important part of your life. Essay On Studying Abroad! The admissions committee wants to know the qualities, attributes and english essay, strengths you value in others and hope to embrace. Short Essay On Studying! Drive, discipline and vision are fine examples but try and look beyond these conventional characteristics. Essay! Tell a story and provide specific examples. If you choose someone famous (which is fine), remember that you risk being one of many in the pile. Instead, consider a current boss, business associate, or friend. Know that your choice of person is less important than what you say about him or her. 4. Describe a situation in which you led a team.
What challenges did you face, and how did you overcome them? The committee isn't looking to is a paper the same as a research paper, see how you saved the team through your heroic efforts (so put yourself on ego alert). They want to see how you helped foster an environment in which everyone contributes, illustrating that the sum is greater than its parts. B-schools like leaders, but they like leaders who can help everyone get along and arrive at a collaborative solution. You should shift gears for this question. Almost the entire application process thus far has asked you to showcase me-me-me. Now the focus of your story needs to be on the we and how you made the we happen. 5. English! Our business school is a diverse environment.
How will your experiences contribute to this? This essay gets at two concerns for the admissions committee: (1) how will you enrich the student body at this school and (2) what is your attitude toward others' diverse backgrounds? Diversity comes in if there essay many shapes. A+ Spm English Essay! If a grandparent or relative is an immigrant to this country, you can discuss the impact of his or her values on essay about america your life. Perhaps you are the english essay, first individual in your family to attend college or graduate school. Maybe you are involved in a meaningful or unusual extracurricular activity. Whatever you choose to write, it's vital that you discuss how it contributes to is a term, your unique perspective. English Essay! 6. Describe a personal achievement that has had a significant impact on your life. Don't pull your hair out just because you haven't founded a successful start-up or swum across the English Channel. Smaller accomplishments with a lot of the same as a research personal significance are just fine if they demonstrate character, sacrifice, humility, dedication, or perseverance.
A good essay describes how you reached a personal objective and english essay, what that meant to calculus dissertations, you. Maybe you didn't lead a sports team to a+ spm english essay, a victory. Maybe the victory was that you made it onto the team . 7. Discuss a non-academic personal failure. Is A Paper Paper! What did you learn from the experience? Many applicants make the mistake of answering this question with a failure that is really a positive.
Or they never really answer the english essay, question, fearful that any admission of failure will throw their whole candidacy into jeopardy. Don't get crafty. Short Essay On Studying Abroad! You should answer with a genuine mistake that the committee will recognize as authentic. Write about a failure that had some high stakes for you. Demonstrate what you learned from your mistake and how it helped you mature. This is a chance to show b-schools your ability to be honest, show accountability, and face your failures head-on.
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essay on a+ spm english essay, duty A note on the chief rules of practical conduct to be observed by those who accept the binding Law of Thelema. “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law.” [AL I:40] “There is no law beyond Do what thou wilt.” [AL III:60] “. thou hast no right but to do thy will. Do that, and english, no other shall say nay. For pure will, unassuaged of purpose, delivered from the lust of result, is psu dissertation binding every way perfect.” [AL I:4244] “Love is the law, love under will.” [AL I:57] “Every man and every woman is a star.” [AL I:3] A. English Essay. Your duty to yourself. Find yourself to be the s way essay centre of your own Universe.
“I am the english flame that burns in every heart of man, and in the core of every star.” [AL II:6] Explore the Nature and Powers of your own Being. This includes everything which is, or can be, for you: and you must accept everything exactly as it is in itself, as one of the factors which go to make up your True Self. This True Self thus ultimately includes all things soever; its discovery is Initiation (the travelling inwards) and as its Nature is to move continually, it must be understood not as static, but as dynamic, not as a Noun but as a Verb. Develop in due harmony and proportion every faculty which you possess. “Wisdom says: be strong!
Then canst thou bear more joy. Be not animal; refine thy rapture! If thou drink, drink by the eight and ninety rules of art: if thou love, exceed by delicacy; and if thou do aught joyous, let there be subtlety therein!” [AL II:70] “Be strong, o man! lust, enjoy all things of sense and rapture: fear not that any God shall deny thee for stoops, this.” [AL II:22] Contemplate your own Nature. Consider every element thereof both separately and in relation to a+ spm essay, all the rest as to judge accurately the true purpose of the stoops resume totality of your Being. Find the english formula of this purpose, or “True Will,” in an expression as simple as possible. Learn to understand clearly how best to manipulate the energies which you control to obtain the results most favourable to it from its relations with the part of the Universe which you do not yet control.
Extend the is a the same dominion of essay your consciousness, and its control of all forces alien to it, to the utmost. Do this by the ever stronger and more skilful application of your faculties to the finer, clearer, fuller, and more accurate perception, the better understanding, and the more wisely ordered government, of s way essay that external Universe. Never permit the a+ spm essay thought or will of any other Being to interfere with your own. Be constantly vigilant to resent, and on the alert to resist, with unvanquishable ardour and vehemence of passion unquenchable, every attempt of any other Being to influence you otherwise than by if there s way, contributing new facts to your experience of the Universe, or by assisting you to reach a higher synthesis of Truth by the mode of passionate fusion. Do not repress or restrict any true instinct of your Nature; but devote all in perfection to english, the sole service of your one True Will. “Be goodly therefore: dress ye all in fine apparel; eat rich foods and calculus education dissertations, drink sweet wines and wines that foam!
Also, take your fill and will of love as ye will, when, where and with whom ye will! But always unto me.” [AL I:51] “The word of Sin is Restriction. O man! refuse not thy wife, if she will! O lover, if thou wilt, depart! There is no bond that can unite the divided but love: all else is a curse. Accurséd! Accurséd be it to the æons! Hell.” [AL I:41] “So with thy all; thou hast no right but to do thy will.
Do that, and no other shall say nay. For pure will, unassuaged of purpose, delivered from the lust of result, is every way perfect.” [AL I:4244] “Ye shall gather goods and store of women and spices; ye shall wear rich jewels; ye shall exceed the nations of the earth in splendour pride; but always in the love of english essay me, and so shall ye come to my joy.” [AL I:61] “Remember all ye that existence is pure joy; that all the short essay on studying sorrows are but as shadows; they pass are done; but there is that which remains.” [AL II:9] “But ye, o my people, rise up awake! Let the rituals be rightly performed with joy beauty!” . “A feast for fire and a feast for water; a feast for life and a greater feast for a+ spm english, death!
A feast every day in your hearts in stoops, the joy of my rapture! A feast every night unto Nu, and a+ spm essay, the pleasure of uttermost delight! Aye! feast! rejoice! there is no dread hereafter. There is the dissolution, and essay america, eternal ecstasy in the kisses of Nu.” [AL II:3435, 4144] “Now rejoice! now come in our splendour rapture!
Come in our passionate peace, write sweet words for a+ spm english, the Kings!” [AL II:64] “Thrill with the joy of life death! Ah! thy death shall be lovely: whoso seeth it shall be glad. Thy death shall be the seal of the promise of is a term the same as a research our agelong love. Come! lift up thy heart rejoice!” [AL II:66]
“Is a God to live in a dog? No! but the highest are of us. They shall rejoice, our chosen: who sorroweth is not of us. English Essay. Beauty and strength, leaping laughter and stoops resume, delicious languor, force and fire, are of us.” [AL II:1920] B. Your duty to other individual men and women. “Love is the law, love under will.” [AL I:57] “Come forth, o children, under the stars, take your fill of love!” [AL I:12]
Unite yourself passionately with every other form of consciousness, thus destroying the english essay sense of separateness from the Whole, and creating a new baseline in the Universe from which to measure it. “As brothers fight ye!” [AL III:59] “If he be a King, thou canst not hurt him.” [AL II:59] To bring out saliently the about differences between two points-of-view is useful to both in measuring the position of each in the whole. Combat stimulates the essay virile or creative energy; and, like love, of which it is one form, excites the mind to short, an orgasm which enables it to transcend its rational dullness. Abstain from all interferences with other wills. “Beware lest any force another, King against King!” [AL II:24] (The love and war in the previous injunctions are of the nature of sport, where one respects, and learns from the opponent, but never interferes with him, outside the actual game.) To seek to dominate or influence another is to seek to deform or to english essay, destroy him; and he is a necessary part of one’s own Universe, that is, of one’s self. Seek, if you so will, to bobby stoops resume, enlighten another when need arises.
This may be done, always with the strict respect for english, the attitude of the good sportsman, when he is in there essay, distress through failure to a+ spm, understand himself clearly, especially when he specifically demands help; for his darkness may hinder one’s perception of essay on studying abroad his perfection. Essay. (Yet also his darkness may serve as a warning, or excite one’s interest.) It is also lawful when his ignorance has lead him to interfere with one’s will. All interference is in any case dangerous, and demands the exercise of extreme skill and good judgement, fortified by experience. To influence another is to leave one’s citadel unguarded; and the attempt commonly ends in losing one’s own self-supremacy. “Every man and every woman is a star.” [AL I:3] “Mercy let be off; damn them who pity!” [AL III:18] “We have nothing with the outcast and the unfit: let them die in their misery. For they feel not.
Compassion is the vice of kings: stamp down the wretched the weak: this is the law of the strong: this is term paper our law and the joy of the world. Think not, o king, upon that lie: That Thou Must Die: verily thou shalt not die, but live. Now let it be understood: if the body of the King dissolve, he shall remain in pure ecstasy for ever. A+ Spm Essay. Nuit! Hadit! Ra-Hoor-Khuit! The Sun, Strength Sight, Light; these are for the servants of the Star the Snake.” [AL II:21] Each being is, exactly as you are, the education dissertations sole centre of a+ spm essay a Universe in no wise identical with, or even assimilable to, your own. The impersonal Universe of “Nature” is only an abstraction, approximately true, of the factors which it is convenient to s will, regard as common to all. The Universe of another is therefore necessarily unknown to, and unknowable by, you; but it induces currents of energy in english, yours by education dissertations, determining in part your reactions. Use men and a+ spm english essay, women, therefore, with the absolute respect due to if there essay, inviolable standards of measurement; verify your own observations by comparison with similar judgements made by them; and, studying the methods which determine their failure or success, acquire for yourself the a+ spm english wit and skill required to cope with your own problems.
Pity, sympathy and like emotions are fundamentally insults to binding, the Godhead of the english essay person exciting them, and therefore also to your own. The distress of another may be relieved; but always with the america culture positive and noble idea of making manifest the perfection of the Universe. Pity is the source of a+ spm english essay every mean, ignoble, cowardly vice; and the essential blasphemy against Truth. “To Me do ye reverence! to me come ye through tribulation of ordeal, which is bliss.” AL III:62. C. Culture. Your duty to mankind. Establish the essay Law of Thelema as the sole basis of conduct. The general welfare of the race being necessary in many respects to your own, that well-being, like your own, principally a function of the intelligent and wise observance of the Law of Thelema, it is of the culture very first importance to you that every individual should accept frankly that Law, and strictly govern himself in full accordance therewith. You may regard the a+ spm english essay establishment of the Law of Thelema as an essential element of your True Will, since, whatever the ultimate nature of that Will, the evident condition of s way putting it into a+ spm english, execution is freedom from external interference. Governments too often exhibit the most deplorable stupidity, however enlightened may be the men who compose and bobby stoops resume, constitute them, or the people whose destinies they direct. It is therefore incumbent on every man and a+ spm english, woman to take the proper steps to cause the revisions of all existing statutes on the basis of the Law of calculus education dissertations Thelema. This Law being a Law of Liberty, the aim of the legislature must be to secure the a+ spm amplest freedom for each individual in the state, eschewing the presumptuous assumption that any given positive ideal is worthy to be obtained.
“The word of Sin is Restriction.” [AL I:41] The essence of crime is that it restricts the short abroad freedom of the english essay individual outraged. (Thus, murder restricts his right to live; robbery, his right to enjoy the about fruits of a+ spm english his labour; coining, his right to the guarantee of the state that he shall barter in security; etc.) It is then the common duty to prevent crime by segregating the criminal, and by the threat of is a as a paper reprisals; also, to teach the criminal that his acts, being analyzed, are contrary to his own True Will. (This may often be accomplished by a+ spm, taking from him the right which he has denied to psu dissertation, others; as by outlawing the thief, so that he feels constant anxiety for the safety of his own possessions, removed from the ward of the english essay State.) The rule is quite simple. He who violated any right declares magically that it does not exist; therefore it no longer does so, for essay, him. Crime being a direct spiritual violation of the Law of Thelema, it should not be tolerated in a+ spm essay, the community. Those who possess the instinct should be segregated in if there there essay, a settlement to build up a state of their own, so to learn the a+ spm essay necessity of themselves imposing and maintaining rules of justice.
All artificial crimes should be abolished. When fantastic restrictions disappear, the greater freedom of the individual will itself teach him to avoid acts which really restrict natural rights. Thus real crime will diminish automatically. The administration of the Law should be simplified by training men of uprightness and discretion whose will is to fulfill this function in the community to decide all complaints by the abstract principle of the Law of Thelema, and to award judgement on bobby stoops, the basis of the actual restriction caused by a+ spm english essay, the offense. The ultimate aim is stoops resume thus to reintegrate Conscience, on true scientific principles, as the warden of conduct, the monitor of the people, and the guarantee of their governors. D. Your duty to all other beings and things. Apply the a+ spm english essay Law of Thelema to all problems of fitness, use, and development.
It is a violation of the Law of Thelema to abuse the natural qualities of any animal or object by diverting it from its proper function, as determined by consideration of its history and term paper the same as a paper, structure. Thus, to train children to perform mental operations, or to practice tasks, for which they are unfitted, is a crime against nature. Similarly, to build houses of rotten material, to adulterate food, to destroy forests, etc., etc., is to offend. The Law of Thelema is to be applied unflinchingly to decide every question of conduct. A+ Spm. The inherent fitness of any thing for any proposed use should be the sole criterion. Apparent, and sometimes even real, conflict between interests will frequently arise. Such cases are to be decided by the general value of the contending parties in the scale of Nature. Thus, a tree has a right to its life; but a man being more than a tree, he may cut it down for fuel or shelter when need arises.
Even so, let him remember that the Law never fails to avenge infraction: as when wanton deforestation has ruined a climate or a soil, or as when the importation of rabbits for a cheap supply of food has created a plague. Observe that the violation of the Law of Thelema produces cumulative ills. The drain of the agricultural population to big cities, due chiefly to persuading them to abandon their natural ideals, has not only calculus education dissertations, made the country less tolerable to the peasant, but debauched the town. English. And the error tends to increase in geometrical progression, until a remedy has become almost inconceivable and the whole structure of society is threatened with ruin. The wise application based on observation and experience of the Law of Thelema is to work in conscious harmony with Evolution. Experiments in creation, involving variation from existing types, are lawful and necessary.
Their value is to be judged by resume, their fertility as bearing witness to their harmony with the course of nature towards perfection.