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Calcul de la stabilité de la digue en terre du barrage Tine et interprétations données d'aucultation. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. par Mvondo Mvogo Alexandre Désiré Patrick hy. Thesis. Ecole polytechnique de Sousse - Diplôme national d'ingénieur de génie civil 2012. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Rapport de Projet de Fin d'Etudes. Foreign Thesis Homosexuality. CALCUL DE LA STABILITE DE LA DIGUE EN TERRE DU BARRAGE. Ray Bradbury Essay. TINE ET INTERPRETATION DES DONNEES D'AUSCULTATION. Buzzwords. Patrick hyveteau Ngandjui. Ray Bradbury Essay. Direction Générale des Barrages et des Grands Travaux.
Année Universitaire : 2011/2012. e projet du barrage Tine rentre dans le cadre du système de mobilisation des eaux. Teacher Cover. du nord Tunisien (SMEN), il a pour objet de régulariser les apports de l?oued Tine, de répondre aux besoins croissants de l?eau dans tous les domaines de l?économie. Essay On Censorship. en Tunisie et ce depuis le début des années 90. Thumbnails. C?est une retenue destinée à stocker les eaux de l?oued Tine. Ces eaux ainsi mobilisées seront convoyées vers le nord et injectées dans les secteurs de l?économie comme l?irrigation, l?agriculture ou la consommation urbaine dans le système SMEN. Ray Bradbury. L?édification de cet ouvrage complexe et délicat nécessite, à priori, une analyse minutieuse de plusieurs paramètres intérieurs et extérieurs à l?ouvrage afin de garantir sa sécurité vis-à-vis à la rupture. Synthesist. Son étude a nécessité les phases de : la reconnaissance générale du site, l?analyse des données hydrologiques et hydrauliques, les études géotechniques et les choix des différents matériaux. Ray Bradbury Essay. Le calcul de la stabilité (talus et fondation) et surtout sa surveillance tout le long de sa vie sont des taches d?une extreme délicatesse et demandent des moyens colossaux pour prévoir des catastrophes. On Pro Life. Ainsi, d?une manière générale, ce travail proposé comportera : + Une phase de présentation de la zone de l?étude et des principales données de base du projet à savoir : l?environnement du projet, l?hydrologie, la géologie ou la géotechnique ; + Une analyse de la stabilité des talus par Talren (méthode de Bishop) ; + Une phase de la simulation du comportement du barrage par la méthode des éléments finis (Solvia) ; + Et une étude de l?interprétation des données d?auscultation du barrage en construction.
Au final, la conclusion générale portera sur une vision exhaustive du travail proposé. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. e travail qui va suivre est dit de culture générale, le pratiquant appréciera à juste. Proofreading. titre la tâche ardue qui se présente au concepteur des ouvrages hydrauliques de. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. retenue en fonction de plusieurs paramètres, complexes et variables en majorité liés les uns des autres. De méme il en jugera de par sa culture, après réalisation de l?ouvrage, de la nécessité de pouvoir les entretenir. Teacher Letter Buzzwords. Car la vie des milliers de personnes, des infrastructures, l?économie des régions et méme des pays tout entier en sont tributaires. On Censorship. En somme, dans cette partie, qui comporte les chapitre I et II, nous développerons le thème des types de barrages et en fin, nous allons ouvrir un pan de la pathologie des barrages. Papers. Depuis le début de l?existence de l?homme, l?eau a toujours été au centre et méme vecteur du développement des pays, notamment dans les domaines de l?agriculture, l?urbanisation, l?hygiène, la protection contre les inondations. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Le développement d'un réseau de canaux exige la réalisation de réservoirs (barrages) très importants à l'échelle de l'époque.
Jusqu'à l'arrivée des chemins de fer, les canaux fournirent en effet le seul moyen de transport de masse nécessaire à l'industrie naissante. Del Dettmar. Photo I.1 : Barrage romain de Cornalvo en Espagne. I.2 Terminologie des barrages en terre: Un barrage est un ouvrage d'art construit en travers d'un cours d'eau et destiné à réguler le débit de celui-ci et/ou à en stocker l'eau pour différents usages tels que : contrôle des crues, irrigation, industrie, hydroélectricité, pisciculture, réserve d'eau potable ou le trafic fluvial. Ray Bradbury Essay. En somme c?est un étendue d?eau créée artificiellement par l?homme et pour l?homme, à usage surtout économique. Auto Thumbnails. Figure I.1 : Vue générale d'un Barrage en terre. Ray Bradbury. La capacité d?un ouvrage de génie civil à remplir les rôles et fonctions pour lesquels il a été conçu est appelée la performance.
Les performances d?un système de génie civil sont amenées à évoluer durant son exploitation le long de sa vie : les fonctions initialement prévues lors de la construction peuvent être modifiées volontairement par l?exploitant ou encore accidentellement par des événements extérieurs naturels et des dégradations pouvant perturber ses fonctions initiales. Sentence Essay. Trois principales causes peuvent provoquer les chutes de performances : · Le vieillissement de l?infrastructure ; · Les causes humaines s?exerçant par erreur ; · Les causes extérieures prévues ou imprévues ; Dans ce chapitre, nous allons étudier les concepts généraux permettant au pratiquant de bien cerner le sujet qui est la détection des chutes des performances et la pathologie des barrages en remblai. Les pathologies des barrages sont des problèmes graves qui menacent la stabilité de ces derniers. Essay. Elles peuvent être des conséquences diverses, conjuguées et complexes. Teacher Cover Letter Buzzwords. Ce sont des défauts de fonctionnement des vannes permettant l?évacuation des crues ou bien d?un vice de conception, de construction ou de matériaux. Ray Bradbury. Ce sont des crues exceptionnelles, d?intensité supérieure à celle retenue pour le. On Pro Abortion. dimensionnement des ouvrages évacuateurs, appelée crue de projet. Ray Bradbury. Le niveau de sécurité retenue est généralement compris entre la crue millénaire et la crue déca millénaire ; les barrages en remblai ne supportent pas la submersion et sont donc plus vulnérables aux débordements.
La phase de chantier pour les barrages en construction est une période sensible aux risques de crue, car les ouvrages d'évacuation ne sont pas encore opérationnels. Concluding Essay. On citera, des études préalables pas poussées, contrôle d'exécution insuffisant, erreurs d'exploitation, défaut de surveillance et d'entretien ou encore actes de malveillance, sabotage, attentat, guerre. Essay On Censorship. Le risque de rupture brusque et inopinée est considéré comme très faible, voire nul. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. La situation de rupture paraît plutôt liée à une évolution plus ou moins rapide d'une dégradation de l'ouvrage susceptible d'être détectée par la surveillance et l'auscultation. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. II.2.2.1 Etat critique de la submersion (cas du barrage de fergoug Algérie). La rupture du barrage Fergoug, montre que les premiers barrages ont connu des problèmes de conception du fait que les techniques de réalisations des barrages n?étaient pas alors maîtrisées. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. Photo II.1 : Le barrage de Fergoug en 1907 avant la rupture et en déversement. Essay. Photo II.2 : Le barrage de Fergoug après la catastrophe de 1928 ; et après la reconstruction en 1986. Letter. II.2.2.2 Etat critique de l'érosion régressive (cas du barrage Teton aux états unis). Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Plusieurs accidents provoqués par l?érosion, parmi les exemples les plus connus Sont à la rupture du barrage Téton.
Le barrage de Teton est été situé sur la rivière de Teton, trois milles de nord-est de Newdale, Idaho (U.S.A). Letter Buzzwords. Il a été conçu pour fournir la commande d'inondation, la production d'électricité, et l'irrigation pour plus de 40.000 hectares de champs. Photo II.3: Vue sur le barrage de Teton (USA) avant et après rupture. Ray Bradbury. - Les informations sur le site et les études géologiques étaient inappropriées et étendues ; - Les roches volcaniques de site sont «fortement perméables ; - La présence des sols argileux légèrement plastiques, est fortement érodables ; - Le remplissage rapide du barrage n?a pas contribué à la rupture. Del Dettmar. Si le barrage avait été rempli plus lentement, une rupture semblable se serait produit à une certaine date ultérieure. Ray Bradbury. -Il n'y avait pas assez d'instruments dans le barrage pour fournir des Informations proportionnées au sujet des états de changement du remblai et des butées ; - L'infiltration par le matériel pourrait avoir causée l'érosion en arrière ; - L'érosion par le contact direct pourrait être produite, où l'eau était en contact avec les joints ouverts ; - La cause fondamentale de la rupture peut être considérée comme une combinaison des facteurs géologiques et des décisions de conception. Make Good Concluding Essay. II.2.2.3 Etat critiques de l'absence de l'information hydrologique. Essay. L?insuffisance des données hydrologiques et la surestimation des informations entraînent l?échec de réalisation d?un ouvrage pour le besoin de l?être humain.
Cette courbe représente l'évolution du taux de défaillance instantané en fonction du temps. Auto Thesis. Elle se divise en 3 parties: jeunesse, maturité et vieillesse de l?ouvrage. Figure II.1: courbe baignoire représente le taux de défailance instantané de l'ouvrage. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. C?est un état qui correspond à la période proche de la mise en fonctionnement et possède une probabilité importante de défaillances: les causes possibles sont un défaut de réalisation, la mise en place des réglages et des corrections permet de remédier à certains désagréments nuisibles. Good Sentence Essay. Elle correspond à la période où le système est arrivé en période de fonctionnement normal et dont l'usure ne se fait pas ressentir possède la plus faible probabilité de défaillance de la vie de l?ouvrage. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. C?est une période qui correspond à la période où l'usure commence à être importante et qui voit la probabilité de défaillance augmentée. Essays On Pro. C?est ouvrage souple, entièrement en terre, à cause de plusieurs paramètres donc le plus fondamental est son sol d?appui qui est médiocre et composé d?argiles. Essay On Censorship. III.2 Localisation du barrage TINE (Figure III.1) Le site du Projet du barrage sur l?oued Tine est localisé en République de Tunisie ; Gouvernorat de Bizerte, délégation de Mateur ; environ 23 km de la ville de Mateur par la route d?Oued Zerga (R.R. 56). Proofreading. Figure III.1: Localisation du barrage TINE dans le gouvernorat de Bizerte. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Une mesure de la vulnérabilité des barrages peut dépendre de ses facteurs intrinsèques, en particulier pour le Barrage Tine on auto thumbnails thesis, aura : a) Caractéristiques propres/intrinsèques du barrage à savoir : - La hauteur : 21.7 m ; - Le type de barrage : barrage en remblai homogène ; - Le type de fondation : fondation souple ; - Et la capacité de stockage : 34 millions de m 3. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. b) Facteurs externes liés au barrage: - - l?âge : en cours de construction ; - - adéquation de l?évacuateur de crue ; - - facteur de sécurité de mouvement de masse. Synthesist. * NB : l'érosion interne et l'infiltration ne sont pas incluses dans cette mesure de paramqtres de conception à cause de l'absence de l'information.
III.4 Les objectifs à atteindre par ce barrage. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. -Régulariser les apports propres de Tine en vue de leur utilisation pour l?irrigation des périmètres agricoles, -Utilisation des eaux du barrage dans le cadre du système de mobilisation des eaux du nord par leur transfert pour l?alimentation en eau potable. Teacher Cover Letter Buzzwords. Les eaux ainsi captées dans la retenue sont conduits à travers une partie de la galerie de vidange de fond du barrage et collectées dans une conduite métallique de 0 1000mm posée sur des berceaux en béton jusqu?à la chambre de manoeuvre. Essay On Censorship. Elles seront acheminées vers la conduite Sejnane - Joumine- Medjerda qui fait partie du système de mobilisation des eaux du nord. III.5 Description de l'ouvrage. Make Concluding. (annexe 1) Les caractéristiques de l?ouvrage sont données en annexe 1 de la troisième partie de ce document. Essay. Ces données concernent sa géométrie et ses capacités hydrauliques. On Pro Life. C?est la science qui étudie le climat de l?environnement immédiat du projet . Ray Bradbury On Censorship. L?objectif principal de cette partie est l?évaluation des différents paramètres de la climatologie permettant la caractérisation du bassin versant de l?oued TINE ; Les données météorologiques ont été relevées grace à plusieurs postes d?observation dans le gouvernorat de Bizerte.
III.6.2 Etudes de l'environnement du barrage. La température moyenne annuelle de l?air dans la région envisagée est de 17,5°C. Make Good Concluding Sentence Essay. Les maxima et les minima absolus de la température sont respectivement de 50,2°C et de - 3,5°C. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. Thumbnails Thesis. Figure III.2 : Températures en fonction des mois dans le site du projet. Essay On Censorship. Les précipitations ont tendance à augmenter avec l?altitude et diminuer avec l?éloignement de la mer et sont fonctions du relief et la circulation de l?air dans la région du projet. Les paramètres statistiques des précipitations annuelles au droit des postes d?observation sont répertoriés à la figure III.3. Teacher Letter Buzzwords. precipitations en mm. Essay. 50 9 20 94 234 330 115 165 70 70 39 109. On Pro Life. Altitudes des postes d'observation en m. Essay On Censorship. Figure III.3 : Variation des Précipitations en fonction de l'altitude. Letter. Dans le bassin de l?oued Tine, la pluviométrie moyenne annuelle recueillie au poste hydrométrique fait 518 mm, celle au site du futur barrage étant de 534 mm Ces valeurs sont définies sur la base des observations pluriannuelles et de la carte des précipitations de la Direction des Ressources Hydrauliques . Ray Bradbury On Censorship. La pluviométrie moyenne annuelle au droit du site du barrage en projet fait 480mm. Essays On Pro Abortion. Les précipitations annuelles de différentes probabilités sont illustrées dans la figure III.4. Essay. 5 10 20 50 80 90 100.
Probabilité de précipitaion dans le bassin. Essays On Pro. Probabilité de pécipitation au site du. Ray Bradbury. Hauteurs des precipitations. On Pro Life Abortion. Figure III.4 : Probabilités des précipitations annuelles. Essay. Ho=518mm précipitation dans le bassin de l?oued Tine et 480, Précipitations au site du barrage. Proofreading Papers. Cv = 0,22 bassin de l?oued et site du projet. Cs= 0,44 bassin de l?oued et site du projet. Ray Bradbury. Hauteur des precipitations, 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. Foreign. Précipitation en mm Précipitation en % Figure III.5 : La répartition des précipitations par saison.
Selon les données recueillies à la station de météo de Tinja, assimilables à celle du site du barrage TINE, l?évaporation est donnée par la figure III.6. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. Essays Life Abortion. Figure III.6 : Variation de l'évaporation du site aquatique du projet. Ray Bradbury Essay. III.7.1 Renseignements sur la connaissance géologique de la région. Auto Thumbnails. (figure III.7 : carte géologie du site du barrage Tine). Ray Bradbury. Le territoire de l?aménagement est couvert d?un levé géologique au 1/50.000. About. La description stratigraphique et tectonique de la zone du projet est basée sur la carte géologique régionale du barrage établie par la Direction des Mines. L?étude de la formation des roches (lithologie) et celle de la structure et des soulèvements de l'écorce terrestre (tectonique) influent sur les fondations des ouvrages en projet et un large développement des processus exogènes ont défini la nature des prospections et leurs volumes. Essay. III.7.2 Structure géologique et Sismicité du site du projet.
Les études faites par le professeur Rothe et une équipe de scientifiques tunisiens ont permis, sur la base de l?analyse des séismes destructeurs enregistrés en Afrique du Nord durant la période de 410 à 1990, de dresser la carte de zonation sismique du territoire tunisien. Papers. Conformément à ces études, la valeur d?accélération horizontale retenue en Tunisie pour les calculs statiques de la stabilité des barrages est égale à 0,1g. Ray Bradbury. III.7.3 Caractéristique géologique de l'emprise. Auto. Les reconnaissances complexes in essay situ et les essais de laboratoire ont été entrepris durant 2002-2003,permettant ainsi de pouvoir évaluer les propriétés du site du projet. Auto. Elles étaient composées de : · sondages avec carottage ; · creusement des puits ; Les essais ayant été effectués au Laboratoire de la Mécanique des Sols de la Direction Générale des Barrages.
III.7.4 Conditions hydrogéologiques du site du barrage. Ray Bradbury Essay. La zone du barrage occupe la partie large de la vallée de l?oued Tine dans son cour médian. Make Good. L?élargissement y atteint 350m. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Le site traverse la vallée en biais. Papers. La largeur du lit majeur en bras multiples, étant de 270 m environ dans l?axe du barrage le matériau argileux se trouvant dans tout le site du barrage a une capacité d?infiltration qui varie avec le temps donc les saisons. On Censorship. Get aspect des choses est visualisé dans la figure ci-dessous (Figure III.8). Proofreading. 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. Essay. Figure III.8:pertes par infiltration au site du projet en fonction de temps (mois). Life Abortion. A la suite de ces courbes, on ray bradbury, constate aisément que le phénomène d?infiltration est beaucoup plus accentué pendant la période de Novembre à Mai en moyenne, qui est fonction du climat et de la saison.
Dans cette partie, nous nous intéresserons à l?étude et aux calculs des talus des remblais de la digue et pour cela, une campagne géotechnique doit être menée sur l?emprise ainsi qu?au lieu d?emprunt et sur les matériaux devant servir à sa mise en oeuvre (fondation, talus, digue). IV.2 Différents types d'essais de mis en oeuvre. Letter. Le contrôle des sols de fondation de l?ouvrage, des différents matériaux mis à contribution pour la réalisation du barrage Tine se fera essentiellement par : IV.2.1 Les Essais préliminaires (qualité des matériaux) C?est l?ensemble des essais : · De reconnaissance (échantillons remaniés et intacts) On peut citer dans cette classe : la granulométrie ; la teneur en eau ; l?essai Proctor ; Les Limites d?Atterberg ; l?essai au bleu. Ray Bradbury. · Du contrôle par sondages du sol des fondations. Homosexuality. C?est généralement les pressiomètre et le pénétromètre statique. Ray Bradbury. · De la résistance usure/écrasement pour les enrochements. Proofreading. On citera : l?essai Deval, un essai Los Angeles et un essai de compression simple. Essay On Censorship. Ces essais ont pour but de vérifier l?employabilité du matériau dans le corps de l?ouvrage qui doit être conforme aux spécifications.
Des puits de reconnaissance sont réalisés à raison d'un (1) mètre de puits par 5000m 3 de matériaux des zones d'emprunts (ce volume correspond au volume avant extraction). Sentence. Dans ces puits, un échantillon de 10kg pour 5 000m 3 de matériau, et un échantillon de 50kg pour 20 000m 3 de matériau seront prélevés sur chaque échantillon, il sera procédé à la mesure de la teneur en eau naturelle, à la détermination de la granulométrie et des limites d'Atterberg. Essay On Censorship. Sur l'échantillon de 50kg, il sera procédé à un essai Proctor. Thumbnails. On utilise la roche et la pierre dans de nombreux ouvrages comme les barrages en terre pour lutter contre l'érosion des talus de l?ouvrage. Essay On Censorship. Ces matériaux absorbent les forces érosives de l'eau et transmettent l'énergie à la fondation sous-jacente. Teacher Letter. Les enrochements composent : les filtres, drains, transitions, rip-rap et protection des talus. On Censorship. La majeure partie de ces matériaux proviennent de carrière C-1 situées de 0,9 à 1,5km en amont du site. Buzzwords. Ces matériaux sont obtenus avec ou sans addition à partir : du concassage, criblage et lavage des alluvions du Tine; du concassage, criblage et lavage des matériaux extraits de carrière C-1. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Ils doivent être propres, sains et durables. Cover Letter Buzzwords. La résistance mécanique des matériaux de carrière de roche doit être telle que l'essai Los Angeles donne un coefficient de pourcentage d'usure inférieur à 40%.
Figure IV.1 localisation matériaux de remblai dans le corps du barrage. Ray Bradbury. Cette granulométrie doit être respectée pour n?importe quel échantillon d?un volume normalisé de 15 litres. Del Dettmar. La granulométrie de ces matériaux est comprise à l?intérieur des limites suivantes: Figure IV.2 : Courbes granulométriques des matériaux pour filtre F1. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Matériaux pour filtre de type F2 ( Figure IV.3) Cette granulométrie doit être respectée pour n?importe quel échantillon d?un volume normalisé de 15 litres. Del Dettmar Synthesist. La granulométrie de ces matériaux est comprise à l?intérieur des limites suivantes: Figure IV.3 : granulométrie des matériaux F2 pour filtre. Essay On Censorship. Cette granulométrie doit être respectée pour n?importe quel échantillon d?un volume normalisé de 100 litres. Del Dettmar. La granulométrie de ces matériaux est comprise à l?intérieur des limites suivantes : Figure IV.4 : granulométrie des matériaux D pour drain.
Cette granulométrie doit être respectée pour n?importe quel échantillon d?un volume normalisé de 100 litres. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. La granulométrie de ces matériaux est comprise à l?intérieur des limites suivantes: Figure IV.5 : granulométrie des matériaux F3 de transition. On Pro Abortion. Une analyse granulométrique est réalisée sur un échantillon prélevé tous les 2000m 3 environ pour chacun des matériaux F1, F2. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Chaque analyse granulométrique sera accompagnée d'une analyse minéralogique. IV.2.5 Enrochements et matériaux pour rip-rap, protection du talus aval et blocs de Protection. Foreign. Ces matériaux peuvent être obtenus (en combinaison ou non) à partir: - du concassage, criblage et lavage de roche provenant de carrière C-1 en amont du site; - du concassage, criblage et lavage de roche provenant d?une autre carrière agrée. Essay On Censorship. Les enrochements doivent avoir la particularité d?être homogènes, sans fissures et résistants. Teacher Letter. permettant un déversement en vrac et une manipulation avec des engins mécaniques sans. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. qu'ils ne se cassent ni se désagrègent.
Leur granulométrie devra être aussi régulière que. Foreign About. possible et ils ne doivent pas contenir d'éléments en forme de dalles ou d'aiguilles en quantitéappréciable. Ray Bradbury Essay. La granulométrie doit être respectée à l?intérieur d?un volume quelconque de 5m3 et doit être comprise entre les limites selon la courbe de la figure I.6. Dimensions des passoires,mm. Good Concluding Sentence Essay. Figure IV.6 : granulométrie des matériaux R1 pour Rip-rap. Essay. IV.2.7 Protection aval de type R2 (Figure IV.7) La granulométrie doit être comprise dans les limites selon la courbe de la figure ci-dessous: Figure IV.7 : granulométrie des matériaux de protection aval. Papers. Des blocs d?enrochement de diverses grosseurs peuvent être employés pour protéger divers ouvrages: - Les blocs P0 ont un poids minimum de 0,5 tonne.
- Les blocs P1 ont un poids minimum de 1 tonne. Ray Bradbury Essay. - Les blocs P2 ont un poids minimum de 2 tonnes. Proofreading. Au moins 10 analyses granulométriques doivent être pratiquées sur chaque catégorie d'enrochement. Ray Bradbury. IV.3 Caractéristiques géotechniques du matériau de remblai. Cover Buzzwords. C?est un remblai composé de matériaux argileux et issu en général pas loin du site du projet et à une distance maximum de 2km. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. IV.3.1 Terrains argileux T1 et T2 (Tableau IV.1). Proofreading Papers. Ce sont des matériaux composants le corps du barrage ayant des caractéristiques mécaniques récapitulés dans le Tableau VI.1 : Tableau VI.1 : caractéristiques géotechniques des matériaux du corps de remblai . On Censorship. IV.3.2 Filtres et enrochements (Tableau IV.2). Auto Thesis. Ce sont des calcaires éocènes dont les carrières sont à proximité du projet. Ils constituent l?agrégat du filtre et de l?enrochement des parements de l?ouvrage. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Tableau IV.2 : Caractéristiques géotechniques des filtres et enrochements. Concluding. IV.3.3 Caractéristiques des sables alluviaux (tableau IV.3). Essay. Ce sont des sables qui ont été déposés lors des crues par l?oued Tine au fil du temps.
Ils sont principalement destinés dans la partie de transition le long du filtre et la constitution des bétons de différents ouvrages annexes. Essays On Pro Life. Tableau IV.3 : Caractéristiques géotechniques des filtres et enrochements. Ray Bradbury. Comme dans tout projet de cette envergure, les reconnaissances géologiques et géotechniques ont permis la caractérisation du sol en place devant supporté la digue et ses ouvrages annexes. Life Abortion. Pour cela, plusieurs moyens d?investigation ont été employés notamment les sondages carottés, des tranchées et des puits de reconnaissance ainsi que les essais in on censorship situ du site du barrage Tine. Foreign Thesis About. Le résultat de tous ces investigations a donné lieu aux prélèvements d?échantillons remaniés ou intacts qui ont permis les analyses au laboratoire. Ray Bradbury. V.2 Essais de convenance / préliminaires sur les sols de fondations (Figure V.1).
Dans le cadre de l?étude d?avant-projet effectué entre 2001 et 2003. Les essais reconnaissances du site ont été réalisés selon la carte de campagne géotechnique ci-dessous, soit : - 31 sondages carottés le long de l?axe et sur l?emprise totale de la digue. Foreign About. - 5 puits en rives et au fond du lit de l?oued de 2 à 5 m de profondeur d?échantillons remaniés et intacts. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. - 10 forages SPT à travers la couverture alluviale en rive gauche et en fond de vallée - 7 piézomètres à tube ouvert sur l?axe de la digue. Cover Buzzwords. - 4 essais de pompage en rives gauche et droite effectués dans un forage de 250 mm de diamètre. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. - 2 essais d?injection de coulis de ciments en rives gauche et droite. Teacher Cover Letter Buzzwords. Donnant ainsi des propriétés mécaniques et physiques sous l?emprise de la fondation, issues de la campagne géotechnique, classé dans le tableau ci-dessous: Figure V.1:emplacement des sondages et des puits dans le site du projet. On Censorship. V.3 Les Essais de contrôle statistique et systématique. Synthesist. Elles sont effectuées sur les matériaux pendant et après la mise en oeuvre de l?ouvrage, afin de s?assurer de la conformité des caractéristiques exigées.
V.4 Coupes géologiques des sols de fondations (figure V.2). Essay. La fondation du barrage Tine repose totalement sur un sol dit ? mauvais?? constitué essentiellement du matériau argileux et vaseux. Proofreading. Le sol d?assise du barrage étant la principale raison majeure du choix du type de l?ouvrage. Essay On Censorship. V.4.1 Différents logs types selon les sondages. Concluding Sentence. · Coupe géologique du sondage S-101. Coupe sur le sondage S-101, rive gauche (RG), cette partie de la fondation est essentiellement composée du calcaire. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Avec une forte présence de fissurations et de cavernes, ceci les rendant ainsi très perméables. Auto. · Coupe géologique du sondage S-102. Essay On Censorship. Dans cette partie de l?ouvrage, on good, constate qu?il est posé sur du sol de très mauvaise qualité, une suite de sols argileux sur une profondeur relativement importante de plus de 50 mètres au moins (profondeur du sondage S-102). Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. En amont, elle repose sur des roches mères-calcaires composées de dépôts de couverture d?argiles et de cailloutis. Buzzwords. En aval, elle se pose sur des roches-mères peu profondes et aussi les dépôts sont des argiles et des cailloutis. Essay. · Coupe géologique du sondage S-103. C?est une coupe faite au droit du sondage S-103, d?une profondeur de 50 mètres, elle nous montre une inclusion de sable relativement de faible épaisseur et prise en sandwich entre deux sols de faible portance.
En amont et aval, elle se repose sur des couches de sols constituées de sables, de limons sableux, lentilles de gravier et des limons argileux. Papers. · Coupe géologique du sondage S-104. Ray Bradbury. C?est l?un des sondages les plus précis car il est complété par S-5 transversalement selon l?axe de la digue. Homosexuality. Les différentes couches de sol qui constituent cette tranche au droit du sondage S-104 apparaissent avec une netteté poussée. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Cette coupe est dans la même continuité géologique que le sondage S-103. En amont et aval, elle prend appui sur des couches de sols constituées de sables, de limons sableux, lentilles de gravier et des limons argileux. Proofreading Papers. Figure V.7 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-107.
Les caractéristiques des sols composants cette coupe ont été déjà explicitées plus haut. Essay On Censorship. C?est une partie de l?ouvrage située à cheval de l?axe de la digue : · En amont, formée de terrains argileux, avec des surfaces qui ont une inclinaison maximum de 20 degrés vers l?oued Tine ; · Et en fin en aval, par une région soumise à l?érosion. Papers. La présence de marais est récurrente lors des crues. Ray Bradbury. Elle est composée d?alluvions très épaisses. Proofreading. Figure V.8 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-108. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Cette coupe transversale au droit du sondage S-108 confirme la non hétérogénéité et du caractère anisotrope du sol d?assise de la fondation du barrage Tine.
Du coté amont : ce sont des dépôts de couverture argileux et épaisse d?une dizaine de mètres, et du coté aval, le relief est composé de couverture d?argile et cailloutis saturés entre 10 m et 30 mètres. Del Dettmar. Les caractéristiques géotechniques des couches mises en évidence sont répertoriées dans le tableau V.1. Figure V.9 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-111. Ray Bradbury Essay. Coupe transversale au droit du sondage S-111, elle se situe en pleine rive droite de l?ouvrage et est essentiellement composé de dépôts de couverture de sols argileux. Cover Letter Buzzwords. Leurs surfaces sont inclinées vers le lit de l?oued avec des pentes maximum à 20 degrés.
Ceci accentue les glissements, l?érosion, le ruissellement pluvial donc l?instabilité des versants. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. V.5 Caractéristiques mécaniques des sols de fondation (figure V.2, V.10 et tableau V.1) Il est constaté que tout l?ouvrage repose sur des sols très fins, avec des caractéristiques mécaniques médiocres, cependant très recommandées pour l?édification des digues en terre donc le corps du remblai est en argile à cause de leur flexibilité. Homosexuality. Le tableau(V.1) suivant énumère d?une façon succincte les différentes caractéristiques mécaniques des sols rencontrés. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Tableau V.1 : Tableau de caractéristiques mécaniques et physiques des sols de fondation du. Good. Indice de plasticité Résistance à la compression: en état naturel en état saturé On justifie la stabilité des barrages en remblai pour différents états-limites : Contre les différents phénomènes préjudiciables pour lesquels on ray bradbury essay, cherche à se prémunir. C?est à dire : · des états-limites de glissement et de stabilité d?ensemble ; · des états-limites de déformation (tassement et défaut de portance) ; · et de l?état-limite de soulèvement hydraulique du pied aval ; Elles correspondent à des chargements dans lesquels l?ouvrage est susceptible d?être soumis durant sa vie. Concluding Sentence Essay. Les conditions d?exploitation de l?ouvrage et les sollicitations hydrauliques associées permettent au concepteur de définir les situations de projet hydrauliques, qui revêtent une importance particulière pour les barrages et les digues en remblai. Ray Bradbury. Les situations de projet précisent les spécifications détaillées à prendre en compte dans les justifications et dans la conception : · l?environnement réglementaire, social, économique, hydrogéologique, hydrologique. Del Dettmar. · la description du terrain sur lequel l?ouvrage est construit ; · les défaillances technologiques particulières envisagées pour l?ouvrage. Ray Bradbury. Plusieurs moyens de résolution existent, on proofreading papers, peut citer : - Les méthodes analytiques ; Elles font appel à l?utilisation des logiciels tels que TALEREN4 ou d?autres encore qui sont basés sur les Fellenius ou Bishop qui sont les méthodes les utilisées.
VI.3.1 Principales méthodes de calcul à la rupture ou méthodes analytiques. On Censorship. Hypothèses communes des méthodes à la rupture : - La rupture se fait dans un plan (analyse bidimensionnelle). Foreign Thesis. - Les forces extérieures d'entraînement sont le poids et les surcharges. - Le problème est statique. Essay. - Les lois de la mécanique des milieux continus s'appliquent au sol. Proofreading Papers. - Le déplacement du sol est rigide et c?est pourquoi la courbe de rupture est de bonne. On Censorship. - La relation de Terzaghi est vraie : ó? = ó - u. Foreign. - La loi de Coulomb s'applique à la rupture : ó = c? + (ó - u) tanö ' - Un coefficient de sécurité est défini comme le rapport de la contrainte de cisaillement. maximale mobilisable à celle nécessaire à l?équilibre du sol ; - Le coefficient de sécurité « FS » est constant le long de la courbe de rupture. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Découpage en tranches verticales. Proofreading. - Elément d?une tranche ou notation des paramètres définissant l?équilibre d?une tranche. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Hypothèse de calcul : Les efforts intertranches sont tous nuls. On Pro. L?équilibre d?une tranche verticale de sol est écrit en supposant les efforts intertranches nuls. On peut alors obtenir facilement l?expression de la contrainte à la base de la tranche qui est : Le cisaillement maximal est donné par la loi de Coulomb : ômax = c' + (ó f - u) tan õ'. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Il reste à multiplier cette valeur par sa longueur d?application : Pour avoir une force et par le bras de levier(R = rayon du cercle de rupture) pour obtenir le moment résistant. Sentence. Le moment moteur est dû au poids du sol en mouvement et est obtenu par sommation des moments induits par chacune des tranches soit : La valeur du coefficient de sécurité de Fellenius ou encore coefficient de sécurité « FS » est le rapport de ces deux moments et l?on obtient l?expression : Ffellenius = E ((c'bi + (1hi cos 2 ai -uibi) tan (') / cos ?i) / I yhibi sin ai. On Censorship. Cette expression peut servir de valeur initiale dans le processus itératif de Bishop.
Hypothèses spécifiques: la résultante verticale des forces intertranches est nulle. La méthode de Bishop simplifiée est la plus utilisée des méthodes de calcul en rupture circulaire. Thesis About. Bien qu?elle possède un certain nombre d?imperfections son grand usage lui confère un statut de méthode de référence. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. VI.3.2 Paramètres mécaniques des remblais du corps du barrage. Auto. Ces paramètres sont importants pour le calcul de l?ouvrage et de ses annexes, ce sont : - Les poids volumiques ; - L?angle de frottement interne du matériau remblai ; - Le coefficient de frottement entre le corps du barrage et le sol de fondation ; - La portance du sol de fondation ; - Et le coefficient de butée des terres.
VI.3.2.1 Les poids volumiques, indice des vides et teneur en eau. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Ici il suffit de connaître trois paramètres(e, w, ? s ) pour calculer tous les autres. Life Abortion. Si le sol est saturé, seuls deux suffisent. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Les paramètres suivants sont obtenus en laboratoire à partir d'essais simples tels que pesée et passage à l'étuve. Teacher Cover Letter Buzzwords. Tableau VI3: param.
tres d'état des matériaux du corps de remblai. Essay. La zone d?emprunt E1 étant saturée --- Sr (degré de saturation) = 1. On Pro Life Abortion. Tableau VI.4 : paramètres mécaniques des matériaux du corps de remblai. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. VI.3.2.2 L'angle de frottement interne õ et la cohésion (C) du sol. Proofreading. Ces paramètres sont obtenus par l?essai de cisaillement. Essay On Censorship. Le but étant de déterminer la résistance d?un échantillon de sol soumis au cisaillement.
Cela signifie que la capacité du sol doit résister aux contraintes tangentielles auxquelles le squelette granulaire du sol est soumis. Synthesist. Tableau VI.5 : caractéristiques géotechniques des matériaux du corps de remblai. L'essai Proctor normal (NF P 94-093) Cet essai a pour but d?établir la relation expérimentale entre la densité sèche d?un sol sensible et sa teneur en eau pour différentes énergies de compactage. Ray Bradbury. Il se pratique pour les sols entrant dans la constitution d?un remblai. On Pro Life. Les caractéristiques du Proctor constituent avant tout des critères d?identification d?un sol permettant de situer son état optimal de mise en oeuvre. On Censorship. Tableau VI.6 : donnés géotechniques de T1 et T2 issues du PROCTOR.
VI.4 Stabilité des talus par la méthode de Fellinuis. Synthesist. Un talus est stable lorsque les moments des forces motrices sont inférieurs aux moments des forces résistant qui sont essentiellement des forces de résistance au cisaillement. Essay On Censorship. La valeur du coefficient de sécurité « FS » est définie par le rapport des moments résistants sur les moments moteurs. On Pro. La stabilité des talus est aussi fonction des propriétés intrinsèques et l?état de saturation du remblai composant le corps du barrage. VI.4.1 Paramètres de stabilité des talus du barrage TINE. On Censorship. Ce sont généralement des moments induits par rapport à un point de l?ouvrage par : · Des forces horizontales en amont de l?ouvrage ; · Des forces verticales ; - Détermination de la ligne de saturation ou Courbe de KOZENEY : Paramètres géométriques : Figure VI.3 : Coupe type de la digue simplifiée, Paramètres géométriques.
Par analogie A1(0 ; 3). Cover. On doit déterminer b qui est fonction de l?inclinaison du filtre (ici á=90°), d?après la lecture des abaques : - Poids Propre de l?ouvrage (G0) : Il est évalué en tranche de un mètre de l?ouvrage ; Go= (?h*S1+ ?sat * S2) g. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Où S1 ; S2 : humide et saturée du barrage. Good. yh ; ysat : poids volumique (état saturé et humide) du remblai humide. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. g : pesanteur. Buzzwords. Figure VI.4 : Coupe type de la digue, disposition des remblais et zone de saturation. Essay. · Surface du profil humide en T2 : Shum1= 253 m 2 ; · Surface humide en T2 : Shum2= 663 m 2. Synthesist. Le poids par unité de longueur peut être déduit de la manière suivante : Pt= Psat+Phum = Ssat * ?sat +Shum * ?h. Ray Bradbury Essay. - Poids de l?eau (P w ) en dessous de NRN influençant la fondation de l?ouvrage: Le poids de l?eau au-dessus de la fondation sera : - Les Forces verticales sous pressions. Papers. Quel que soit la qualité du rocher de fondation, l?eau y pénètre toujours. Essay. Ce phénomène est düà la porosité et à la fissuration sur la base de l?ouvrage. Essays On Pro Life. Cette force à tendance à soulever la digue : Figure VI.5 : Répartition des forces verticales sous pression de la digue. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Son intensité est : Fvsp=1/2.h.L.?w. Papers. L : largeur de la digue simplifiée : L=149.5m. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. h : hauteur de l?eau en amont(NRN) ; h =16m. Good Sentence Essay. ? w : section poids volumique de l?eau. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. ? w =10kN/m 3. L?action de l?eau se manifeste par la pression qu?elle exerce sur le parement amont de l?ouvrage. Essays On Pro. En tenant compte de la répartition trapézoïdale de cette pression, l?expression résultante de cette poussée est : ? w : poids volumique de l?eau ; Des sédiments s?accumulent souvent au pied du barrage et en résulte une poussée horizontale qu?il faudra ajouter à la poussée hydrostatique.
En tenant compte de la répartition triangulaire, son expression analytique est : Has : hauteur des sédiments, dans ce cas les regards ont été prévu et Has=0 ; d. On Censorship. : densité des sédiments (terrain argileux avec arène de cailloux, d=14.2); ö : angle de frottement interne des sédiments ;ö=18.5. Teacher Letter. Les sédiments au pied aval du barrage réagissent à la poussée du corps du barrage. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Il en résulte ainsi une butée des terres qui présente l?expression ci-dessous. Essays Life. Pbs = 1/2 tan 2 LIII LU-LI LThL[d[- ? bs. Essay On Censorship. Hbs : hauteur de butée du sol. On va considérer dans ce cas que la partie du noyau ancrée dans la fondation est une butée, car elle remplit exactement les fonctions de celle-ci.
Elle a pour caractéristiques : d=1.7 ; Hbs= 14.5m ; ö=17°. Cover Letter Buzzwords. et elle s?applique à Hbs/3= 14.5/3= 4.83m de sa base. Essay On Censorship. Ou action sismique qui est définie en fonction du risque sismique de la zone du projet et peut s?accompagner d?une évaluation spécifique. Papers. Méthode Pseudo Statique : Elle présente le chargement dynamique par l?application des forces statiques équivalentes aux efforts maximum que peut supporter la digue. On Censorship. La force d?inertie étant celles d?un solide rigide soumis à l?accélération maximale, elle a pour composantes : Fh = 0,67.á.?b . Foreign Thesis About. S : composante horizontale. Essay On Censorship. .où á=0.1g : coefficient sismique horizontal. Make. ?b =17.1kN/m : poids volumique de l?ouvrage. S : section de l?ouvrage= 1790.5m 2 . Essay. Fh= 20513.80 .kN/ml. Del Dettmar. La force hydrodynamique sur la face amont de la digue. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. H=16m: profondeur de la retenue ; ? w =10kN/m 3 : poids volumique de l?eau. About Homosexuality. On assimilera le barrage en remblai comme celui en poids, et FS pourra s?écrire : FS = [(ÓV*tan?) + (c * A)] / Ó H. Essay. A = Aire de la fondation. Proofreading. ÓV= Somme des forces verticales ? = Angle de frottement interne. On Censorship. Ó H=Somme des forces horizontales C = Cohésion. Essays On Pro Abortion. En moyenne, C=0.025 MPa et C= 17° VI.5 Vérification de la stabilité des talus : Méthode de Fellenius Digue en service : Talus aval. Ray Bradbury Essay. Figure VI.6 a et b: Distribution des tranches en Aval.
Données nécessaires au calcul du coefficient de sécurité FS bi : largeur de la tranche i. Foreign Thesis About Homosexuality. Ci : cohésion de la couche i, ici elle est constante (=0.025 MPa) Wi : poids de la tranche i. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. èi : angle du centre de la tranche i avec la droite perpendiculaire à AB öi : angle de frottement interne de la couche i. Synthesist. Ui : pression interstitielle dans la couche i. Essay. Tableau VI.7 : Récapitulatif des calculs de la méthode de Fellenius. Del Dettmar Synthesist. Il suffit tout simplement de vérifier l?état de mise en service d?une digue pour avoir une idée fixe sur la stabilité globale des talus de l?ouvrage. En rappel, il suffit que : VI.6 Vérification de la hauteur de la revanche. Ray Bradbury Essay. Pour éviter le risque de submersion fatale à la sécurité du barrage, il faut nécessairement une revanche de hauteur suffisante à cause des phénomènes naturels suivants : · tremblements de terre, avalanches ; · la surélévation du plan d?eau provoquée par le vent extreme considéré ; · le déferlement des vagues à la surface du parement amont ; · la hauteur des vagues provoquée par le vent extrême considéré ; · et la surélévation du plan d?eau lors du passage de la crue maximale considérée dans le projet. Auto Thumbnails. C?est un paramètre très important dans pour la sécurité de l?ouvrage et d?après la formule empirique de MOLITOR, hv a pour expression : où F : fetch (km) ; pour le projet, F=4 km. Ray Bradbury. V : vitesse du vent (km/h) ; ici V=24m/s ou 86.4km/h. Teacher Cover Letter Buzzwords. Application numérique : hv= 0.99m, la hauteur de la vague est h v = 1m. Ray Bradbury Essay. Le fetch C?est la distance en mer ou sur un plan d'eau au-dessus de laquelle souffle un vent donné sans rencontrer d'obstacle (une côte) depuis l'endroit où il est créé ou depuis une côte s'il vient de la terre. Essays On Pro Life Abortion. Figure VI.7 : Illustration de la direction du vent et valeur du fetch. Ray Bradbury. VI.6.2 Revanche(R) ou effets du vent (Figure III.8) La revanche est la différence d?altitude entre la crete de l?ouvrage et le plan d?eau pour la situation de projet considérée (PHE). Proofreading. Elle est destinée à éviter que l?impact des vagues sur la crete puisse l?endommager. Ray Bradbury. k : coefficient fonction du parement (k=0.72 pour rip-rap)
La valeur de R=0.71m 2.7m valeur adopté pour le projet. Synthesist. Ce qui permet de dire que la sécurité par rapport à ces phénomènes naturels est à priori assurée. Ray Bradbury. C?est un travail à la base de toute vérification numérique des talus,quelque soit la méthode à employer. Good Concluding Sentence. Elle consiste au maillage munitieux des frontière de chaque couche de sol,tout en évitant la juxtaposition des differéntes couches de sol.Puis entrer les caractéristiques mécaniques (öi,Ci,ãi) de la couche i concernée. Essay On Censorship. Figure VII.1 : Modélisation de la digue avec les différentes couches. Foreign Thesis Homosexuality. VII.1.2 Caractéristiques mécaniques des couches des sols de la digue. Ray Bradbury Essay. La figure V.4 nous montre la coupe type du fond de vallée du barrage Tine reposant sur une fondation médiocre composée du grès et prédominée par une couche importante de marne ; l?ouvrage dans sa partie amont est constitué de deux pentes : celle de 1 :3 noyers par l?eau et celle de 1/3.25 faisant écran avec la cote des plus hautes eaux (PHE), et de 1/2.5 dans sa partie aval. On Pro. Le niveau de la retenue normale(NRN) à une hauteur de 16m et le barrage à lui-même à une hauteur de 22m.
Il est à noter ici que le barrage est constitué d?un drainage longitudinal évitant ainsi une éventuelle érosion dans sa partie aval et des puits de puits de décompression de 300mm de diamètre avec une hauteur de 17m. Ray Bradbury Essay. Les différentes caractéristiques mécaniques des matériaux constituants le barrage nécessaires pour le calcul sur Talren (remblai, filtre) et sa fondation (argile, grès, marne) sont récapitulées dans le tableau VII.1. Tableau VII.1 : Caractéristiques mécaniques des couches constituantes la digue. Teacher Cover Letter Buzzwords. VII.1.3 Vérification du talus aval juste après la fin de la construction (Figure VII.2) Dans ce cas, le barrage ne retient pas de l?eau et n?est soumis qu?à son poids propre (poids des remblais, rip rap, filtre . Essay On Censorship. ) ce qui risquera de perturber sa stabilité vue sa hauteur et sa longueur qui sont assez importante. Foreign About Homosexuality. Les résultats obtenus par le logiciel Talren4 sont alors résumés par la Figure VII.2.
Figure VII.2 : Vérification de la digue juste après la construction. Ray Bradbury Essay. Dans ce cas, le coefficient de sécurité (F S ) est F S =2.86 1.5 d?où notre barrage avant la mise en eau est stable. Papers. VII.1.4 Vérification de la stabilité de la digue en service (Figure VII.3) Dans ce cas, le barrage hors mis son poids propre est soumis à des différents efforts tels que les pressions hydrostatiques ou les forces de sous pression. Il est à noter ici que dans la partie amont du barrage, la ligne de saturation traverse deux matériaux T1 et T2 modifiant ainsi leur caractéristiques intrinsèques. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Les résultats se résument dans la figure VII.3 : Figure VII.3 : Vérification de la digue en service. Papers. D?après cette figure, on on censorship, remarque que le coefficient de sécurité(F S ) du barrage est égale à F S =1.891.5 d?où le barrage est stable ; aucun risque n?est à observer lors de sa mise en eau. Auto Thesis. VII.1.5 Vérification de la stabilité de la digue à la vidange rapide.
Dans ce cas, le barrage est remplir à une hauteur de 1m partant du niveau du terrain naturel. Ray Bradbury. Il est fort de constater ici que la ligne de saturation reste invariable à cause de la grande capacité de rétention d?eau d?argile constituant le corps du barrage. Cover Letter. Les propriétés mécaniques des matériaux constituants la partie humide et la partie saturée du cops du barrage ne change pas ( tableau ci-dessus) . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Le résultat issu du logiciel Talren4 est illustré sur la Figure VII.4. Essay. Figure VII.4 : vérification de la digue à la vidange rapide. Essay. D?après cette figure, nous remarquons que le coefficient de sécurité F s =1.211.2 nous amène à dire que notre barrage est stade à la vidange rapide, ce coefficient Fs va s?améliorer dans le temps grace à la consolidation des sols de l?ouvrage. Thumbnails. La méthode des éléments finis consiste à calculer les contraintes et les déformations à l'aide d'une modélisation en éléments finis. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Cette modélisation est une opération beaucoup plus complexe que le calcul à l?équilibre limite il est plus difficile d'assurer le contrôle des données d'entrée et de s'assurer de la pertinence des résultats. Les calculs convergent généralement vers une solution mais donnant l'illusion de la validité. Auto Thumbnails. Aussi, un calcul aux éléments finis ne devrait jamais être réalisé sans une validation, par exemple par des calculs simplifiés d'ordre de grandeur.
Les calculs doivent être menés avec des logiciels adaptés à la géotechnique, et notamment qui permettent au moins de : ? Modéliser les lois de comportement élastique parfaitement plastique avec le critère de Mohr-Coulomb ; · Modéliser le phasage de construction, qui détermine les états de contraintes dans les matériaux ; · Prendre en compte les effets de l'eau interstitielle (pressions, gradients) ; · Si nécessaire (interface avec les ouvrages rigides), modéliser les non linéarités de contact à ces interfaces ; · Si nécessaire (présence de matériaux fins), modéliser la consolidation. Ray Bradbury Essay. VIII.2. Life. Mise en oeuvre de la Méthodes des Eléments finis. On Censorship. Le modèle doit représenter le barrage, sa fondation et la retenue. · La modélisation impose de reproduire, dans le calcul, le phasage de construction et de mise en eau. Synthesist. · Les résultats sont obtenus en termes de contraintes et de déformations. Essay On Censorship. Cela ne donne pas directement accès au facteur de sécurité. Teacher Letter. · Pour obtenir le facteur de sécurité de l?ouvrage, la méthode habituelle consiste à réduire c' et tanö' (ou les paramètres de la loi de comportement) jusqu'à ce que le calcul ne converge plus. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Ce facteur de sécurité peut être comparé au produit (coefficient partiel x coefficient de modèle) pour se rapprocher du calcul standard. Del Dettmar Synthesist. · Dans le cas de la modélisation de barrages en service, on ray bradbury, s'attache à qualifier le modèle par comparaison avec les mesures d'auscultation.
VIII .3 Présentation du logiciel Solvia. Cover Letter Buzzwords. Le logiciel choisie pour la modélisation du comportement de la fondation est le logiciel SOLVIA disponible actuellement en quelques licences au laboratoire de Génie Civil de l?Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie. Ray Bradbury Essay. SOLVIA est un moteur de calcul en éléments finis capable de faire une simulation du comportement des matériaux sollicités aux différents types de sollicitations. Cette simulation est basée sur l'analyse linéaire et non-linéaire des déplacements, des efforts et des températures dans des conditions statiques ou dynamiques. Thesis About. L?avantage de Solvia par rapport à de nombreux autres moteurs de calcul en éléments finis c?est qu?il nous permet d?imposer la forme de maillage et dispose d?une obéissance remarquable pour le choix du type d?affichage des graphiques et des résultats de la simulation.
En outre il ne dispose pas d?interface graphique pour la saisie des données. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Cette dernière se fait dans un fichier texte qui sera importé au module de calcul Solvia lors de l?exécution de la simulation. Cover Letter Buzzwords. Il intègre les modules suivants : · SOLVIA-PRE : pour la génération des entrées (input). Ray Bradbury On Censorship. · SOLVIA : pour l'analyse des efforts et des déplacements. Proofreading Papers. · SOLVIA-TEMP : pour la température et l'analyse d'infiltration. Essay. · LE SOLVIA-POST : pour l'affichage des résultats (Output). Teacher Letter. VIII.3.2 SOLVIA pour l'analyse du comportement d'un ouvrage. Le programme SOLVIA peut être utilisé efficacement pour l'analyse bidimensionnelle et tridimensionnelle, linéaire et non-linéaire, statique et dynamique, pour les déplacements et les efforts. On Censorship. Quatre différentes options d'analyse peuvent être considérées, à savoir : - Grand déplacement mais petite analyse de contrainte. Del Dettmar Synthesist. - Grand déplacement et grande analyse de contrainte.
En outre, ces options peuvent être employées dans l'analyse couplée de déplacements/Efforts/températures. Ray Bradbury. Ce logiciel est adapté aux différents types de matériau en particulier pour les sols. Auto Thumbnails. Il intègre dans son analyse les lois de comportement les plus utilisées en mécanique des sols et permet en conséquence d?introduire les paramètres qui en résultent des essais de laboratoire et in essay on censorship situ. Good Essay. Les différentes lois de comportement intégrées dans ce logiciel sont : · La loi thermo élastique. Ray Bradbury. · La loi plastique. · La loi plastique multilinéaire. Teacher. · La loi de Drucker-Prager. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. · La loi Curve-Description. Thumbnails. VIII.4.1.
Profil modélisé La modélisation de l?ouvrage est réalisée en bidimensionnelle selon une coupe en travers du lit mineur du barrage Tine (Figure VIII.1 et VIII.2) Figure VIII.1 : Coupe A-A au niveau du lit mineur. Ray Bradbury. L?ouvrage à modéliser est constitué de deux parties fondamentales : le corps du remblai du barrage et de sa fondation (Figure III.31). Essays Life. La coupe choisie représente une zone dangereuse du faite de sa situation au lit mineur de l?oued Tine et de la profondeur des sables lâches alluvionnaire qui peuvent atteindre les 32 m dans plusieurs endroits. Ray Bradbury Essay. Dans leurs globalités, les remblais constituants la digue sont constitués de trois matériaux principaux : - Le matériau T1 constituant le batardeau et la partie amont de la digue est constitué d?un matériau argileux étanche. Teacher Buzzwords. - Le matériau T2 constituant la partie recharge aval composé de sables argileux. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. - Le drain est composé par une couche de 2 m d?épaisseur de sable sélectionné. La fondation du barrage est composée de trois matériaux différents dont la majorité est composée d?une alternance de grès et de marne, avec une couche de dépôts vaseux alluvionnaires qui atteint les 15 m en fond de vallée. On Pro Life. Figure VIII.2: Coupe en travers du lit mineur du barrage. Essay. Par la suite on synthesist, a adapté un maillage choisi avec la forme irrégulière des couches géologiques de la fondation et d?introduire les paramètres des neufs matériaux qui en résultent selon la loi de comportement élastique (figure VIII.3) Ces paramètres ont été déterminés pour les deux cas, avant et après vibrocompactage de la fondation. On Censorship. Figure VIII.3 : Modélisation du barrage et de sa fondation. Papers. Comme déjà précité, la coupe à modéliser se compose de six matériaux, deux matériaux pour le corps de la digue et sept pour la fondation. On Censorship. Les paramètres à introduire pour la loi élastique sont donnés dans le tableau VIII.1. Essays On Pro Life Abortion. Tableau VIII.1 : Description du matériau avant vibrocompactage.
Argile - Dépôts vaseux d?alluvions. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. VIII.4.3 Affichage du maillage PRE (figures VIII.4 et VIII.5) Suite à plusieurs tentatives et corrections au niveau du module PRE, nous avons réussi à réaliser la modélisation du corps du barrage et de sa fondation. Papers. L?affichage des graphiques proposés dans ce module et le rapport des résultats élaboré par Solvia nous a été bénéfique pour entreprendre les corrections nécessaires et aboutir aux résultats souhaités. On Censorship. Les figures VIII.4 et VIII.5 présentent les numéros des mailles et des noeuds obtenus à partir de la modélisation. Del Dettmar. La fondation du barrage tine comporte un matériau composé d?alluvions vaseux sur une profondeur variable pouvant atteindre 15 m. Ray Bradbury. Afin d?assurer la pérennité et la sécurité de cet ouvrage, le maître de l?ouvrage a décidé d?extraire toute cette partie et de la remplacer par un matériau argileux bien compacté Dans cette étude on essays on pro, a voulu tester le comportement de la fondation et ce dans le cas statique vis-à-vis du tassement et au cours de la construction. Essay On Censorship. Les résultats de la simulation montrent un tassement maximal en fin de construction de 0.8 m (figure VIII.6) Figure VIII.6 : Simulation des déplacements verticaux en mètres (PRE - Solvia) La simulation du comportement du barrage nous montre aussi la progression des tassements au niveau de contact remblai fondation. Homosexuality. Le tassement maximum est obtenu au niveau de la crete de l?ouvrage (75 cm) (figure VIII.6). Essay On Censorship. Le tassement global du barrage ne présente pas un grand danger et a été pris en compte dans la conception du barrage en appliquant une flèche convexe à la crete d?environ 1 m de hauteur. Make. L?auscultation est une méthode quantitative qui s?appuie sur une instrumentation et l?interprétation des mesures physiques propres à chaque barrage. On Censorship. L?instrumentation c?est l?ensemble des appareils servant à surveiller un ouvrage.
IX.2.1 Tassomètre : Tassomètre multipoints Inkrex. Il permet d?évaluer les déplacements axiaux d?une série de points scellés dans le terrain le long d?un forage. Del Dettmar. Ce système est adapté pour l?évaluation des tassements, des déformations et des gonflements des sols. Ray Bradbury Essay. En lui combinant avec des mesures inclinométriques, il nous donne des lectures dans l?espace. Teacher Letter Buzzwords. IX.2.2 Principe de fonctionnement (figure IX.1).
Lorsqu?il y a gonflement ou tassement, la position des anneaux varie par déplacements légers par rapport aux positions initiales. Ray Bradbury. Ces variations de positions sont mesurées par induction magnétique, ce qui permet une précision élevée. Une courbe de déformations ponctuelle et une courbe de déformations cumulatives permettent de ressortir l?intégralité de la déformation axiale. Del Dettmar. Figure IX.1 : Mise en évidence du Tassomètre Inkrex. Ray Bradbury Essay. C?est un dispositif permettant de mesurer la charge hydraulique en un point situé dans un massif aquifère. Foreign Homosexuality. Par abus de langage, il est assimilé à tout dispositif destiné à mesurer le niveau du plan d?eau dans le sol. Essay On Censorship. IX.2.4. Auto Thumbnails. Principe de la détermination de la charge hydraulique (figure IX.2) Il consiste à déterminer la charge hydraulique h qui règne au niveau de la crépine. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Celle-ci est évaluée par l?équation de Bernoulli, pour une nappe horizontale au repos : z=0. Abortion. Figure IX.2 : Principe de la détermination de la charge hydraulique.
PM : Pression de l?eau au point M ; Z : hauteur du point par rapport à la référence. Essay On Censorship. Or PM est égale au poids de la colonne d?eau unité située au-dessus : Alors PM/?W = MA et H= z+MA =MB . Thesis About. Sur la verticale AB, la charge est donc constante quelque soit M, et égale à la hauteur de la surface libre. Ray Bradbury. IX.2.5 Puits de décompression (annexe 3) En général, dans un massif de la digue et à cause des problèmes de mise en oeuvre des remblais, la perméabilité horizontale est toujours supérieure à la perméabilité verticale et le problème de percolation du filtre par les éléments fins engendrent la sous-pression qui a tendance à soulever la partie aval de l?ouvrage. Cover Letter. Pour éviter cela, il faut ramener le potentiel hydraulique à zéro au pied aval en créant une ou plusieurs lignes de forages (ö300 à ö800mm) drainant, espacées régulièrement dans la fondation. IX.3 Plan d'instrumentalisation dans la structure de la digue (figure IX.3) Le plan d?instrumentation permet une localisation en temps réel des différents instruments de mesure permettant une surveillance sans faille et ponctuelle du barrage. Ray Bradbury Essay. IX.4 Mesures physiques et interprétations. Good Concluding Essay. C?est l?ensemble des mesures traduisant le comportement global de l?ouvrage, pendant toutes les étapes de sa vie. Ray Bradbury. Elles sont recueillies par les différents instruments disséminés dans toute la structure de l?ouvrage.
Ici, toutes les cotes son données en m(NGT). Auto. Figure IX.4 Profil 2 du barrage. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. C1 (P1 100804) (figure IX.5), date de pose : 9/8/2010 ; La figure IX.5 traduit les variations dans le temps des cotes de remblai et de la pression interstitielle U de la cellule C1 qui est positionnée dans l?interface fondation du noyau et remblai (amont). Pression U (kPa), altitudes. On Pro Life. 9/8/10 29/8/10 18/9/10 8/10/10 28/10/10 17/11/10 7/12/10 27/12/10 16/1/11 5/2/11 25/2/11 17/3/11 6/4/11 26/4/11 16/5/11 5/6/11 25/6/11 15/7/11 4/8/11 24/8/11 13/9/11 3/10/11 23/10/11 12/11/11 2/12/11 22/12/11 11/1/12 31/1/12 20/2/12 11/3/12 i i 4/3/12 0/4/12 10/5/12. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Cote du remblai. Teacher Cover Letter Buzzwords. Figure IX.5 Variations de la cote de remblai et la cote de pression interstitielle en fonction. Ray Bradbury. du temps (avancement des travaux). Essays Life. · La cote du remblai évolue normalement en fonction de l?avancement des travaux dans le temps ; · Le niveau de l?eau dans l?interface fondation du noyau et remblai amont monte graduellement avec la hauteur des remblais: - La cellule 1 se trouve en dessous du niveau de la nappe phréatique ; - Les fluctuations de la cote de pression U entre le 7/2/11 et le 19/3/11 est une réaction différée à plusieurs activités pluviométriques (figure II.7) qui influencent la nappe de surface; - La brusque cassure se situant entre le 22/2/12 et le 2/4/12 (cote pression U): Ce phénomène traduit sans doute un dysfonctionnement de la cellule ou une erreur de lecture des mesures. Rien ne peut expliquer ce comportement anormal de la cellule, le matériau étant de l?argile, donc saturée et noyée dans la nappe, cette période de l?année est caractérisée par une pluviométrie moyenne de 50 mm (confère figure II.7). Essay On Censorship. (P100805) : Contact fondation du noyau/ remblai (Aval), date de pose : 9/8/10. About Homosexuality. La figure IX.6 traduit les variations dans le temps des cotes de remblai et pression U de la cellule (placée en dessous du niveau de la nappe phréatique), positionnée dans l?interface fondation du noyau et remblai coté aval. Ray Bradbury Essay. Pression U (kPa), altitudes.
9/8/10 29/8/10 18/9/10 8/10/10 28/10/10 17/11/10 7/12/10 27/12/10 16/1/11 5/2/11 25/2/11 17/3/11 6/4/11 26/4/11 16/5/11 5/6/11 25/6/11 15/7/11 4/8/11 24/8/11 13/9/11 3/10/11 23/10/11 12/11/11 2/12/11 22/12/11 11/1/12 31/1/12 20/2/12 11/3/12 31/3/12 20/4/12 10/5/12. Good Essay. Figure IX.6 : Variations de la cote de remblai et la pression interstitielle en fonction du temps. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. (avancement des travaux). Essays On Pro Life. · La cote de remblai : La cote de remblai a continué d?évoluer normalement depuis de sa pose. A la date du 14/10/10, elle atteint un niveau presque constant (NGT 120), ce niveau correspondant au niveau zéro du barrage(TN), jusqu?à la date du 4/5/12. Essay On Censorship. Cela veut tout simplement dire que, malgré la continuité des travaux de construction du barrage, l?étape finale de cette partie est atteinte. Sentence Essay. · La cote de la pression interstitielle U: Du 9/8/10 (pose) au 18/5/11 : évolution normale du plan de l?eau dans l?interface car ajout de l?eau contenue dans le remblai compacté du noyau ; Du 18/5/11 au 5/10/11 : la cellule signale une baisse du niveau de l?eau dans l?interface : les grains des sols se resserrent entre eux, l?eau est chassée, il y a consolidation des sols tout autour de la cellule. On Censorship. Du 5/10 au 24/2/12 : la courbe effectue une croissante car les sols sont alimentés par la nappe, qui reprend du terrain.
Le pic se situant entre le 24/2 et le 18/3/12 est une élévation du niveau de l?eau au-dessus de la base du barrage : les causes probables sont des pluies qui ont alimenté la nappe. Teacher Buzzwords. C3 (P091677) Fondation batardeau ; date de pose 19/3/10. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. La figure IX.7 traduit les variations dans le temps des cotes de remblai et de la pression interstitielle U de la cellule C3 positionnée dans la fondation du batardeau. Pression U (kPa), cote remblai. Thumbnails Thesis. 14/3/10 3/4/10 23/4/10 13/5/10 2/6/10 22/6/10 12/7/10 1/8/10 21/8/10 10/9/10 30/9/10 t0/10/10 9/11/10 t9/11/10 19/12/10 8/1/11 28/1/11 17/2/11 9/3/11 29/3/11 18/4/11 8/5/11 28/5/11 17/6/11 7/7/11 27/7/11 16/8/11 5/9/11 25/9/11 15/10/11 4/11/11 t4/11/11 14/12/11 3/1/12 23/1/12 12/2/12 3/3/12 23/3/12 12/4/12 2/5/12. On Censorship. Figure IX.7 : Variations de la cote de remblai et la cote pression U en fonction du temps. Teacher Cover. (avancement des travaux) · La cote du remblai : Du 19/3 au 28/4/10, il n?y a pas de mouvement des terres (niveau zéro du terrain naturel du barrage= 120 NGT), à partir du 28/4 au 28/6/10, il y a remblai et compactage, l?ouvrage atteint à ce point-là le niveau 131,30 NGT. Essay On Censorship. à la date du 1/10/10, il atteint son niveau constant qui est de 132 NGT soit 12 m au-dessus du sol. On Pro. · La cote pression interstitielle : Du 19/3 au 14/5/10, elle est presque stable et représente le niveau de la nappe phréatique en ce point-là. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Du 14/5 au 27/7/10, la cellule indique une baisse considérable du niveau de U coïncidant avec le début de l?opération de mise en place du remblai. Proofreading Papers. Cette opération de mise en place du remblai provoque une consolidation des sols de fondation, donc le resserrement des grains des sols et la fuite de l?eau dus aux contraintes provoquées par cette opération. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Du 27/7/10 au 6/1/11, l?eau se réapproprie du site après le réarrangement des grains des sols, et à partir de cette période, la cote de U devient stable. Letter. C4 (P100806) Fondation de la revanche, date de pose : 9/8/10. La figure IX.8 traduit les variations dans le temps des cotes de remblai et la pression U de la cellule C4 positionnée dans la fondation de la revanche.
Pression U (kPa), cote remblai (dm) 9/8/10 29/8/10 18/9/10 8/10/10 28/10/10 17/11/10 7/12/10 27/12/10 16/1/11 5/2/11 25/2/11 17/3/11 6/4/11 26/4/11 16/5/11 5/6/11 25/6/11 15/7/11 4/8/11 24/8/11 13/9/11 3/10/11 23/10/11 12/11/11 2/12/11 22/12/11 11/1/12 31/1/12 20/2/12 11/3/12 31/3/12 20/4/12 10/5/12. On Censorship. Figure IX.8 : Variations de la cote de remblai et la cote de pression U en fonction du temps. Del Dettmar Synthesist. (avancement des travaux). Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Du 9/8/10 au 14/10/10, le niveau du remblai augmente rapidement et atteint sa cote constante (120 NGT). · La cote de pression U : Entre le 9/8 et le 23/8/10, le plan de l?eau est sensiblement de 1 m au-dessus du fond de fouille, cela s?explique ainsi, le point considéré se trouve en dessous du niveau de la nappe phréatique de surface. Auto. Entre le 23/8/10 et le 16/5/11, le niveau de la cote U augmente difficilement dans le temps, nourrit par la nappe, et difficilement à cause du phénomène de consolidation dû à la mise en place du remblai et à son compactage. Ray Bradbury. Entre le 16/5 et le 5/10/11, il y a une décroissance du niveau du plan d?eau, phénomène de consolidation. Papers. Et après cette période, la cote remonte et côtoie même le niveau 120 NGT. On Censorship. C5 (P091675) Remblai batardeau (cote 125.00 NGT), pose le 29/5/10. Foreign Homosexuality. La figure IX.9 traduit les variations dans le temps des cotes de remblai et la pression U de la cellule C5 positionnée dans le remblai du batardeau. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Pression U(kPa), cotes remblai (dm) 29/5/10 18/6/10 8/7/10 28/7/10 17/8/10 6/9/10 26/9/10 16/10/10 5/11/10 25/11/10 15/12/10 4/1/11 24/1/11 13/2/11 5/3/11 25/3/11 14/4/11 4/5/11 24/5/11 13/6/11 3/7/11 23/7/11 12/8/11 1/9/11 21/9/11 11/10/11 31/10/11 20/11/11 10/12/11 30/12/11 19/1/12 8/2/12 28/2/12 19/3/12 8/4/12 28/4/12. Del Dettmar. Figure IX.9 : Variations de la cote de remblai et la cote de pression U en fonction du temps. Essay. (avancement des travaux).
La cote de remblai : Du 29/5 au 25/6/10, elle grimpe et atteint un premier palier constant (131,30 NGT), puis à partir du 20/9/10 elle atteint son niveau constant (132 NGT) jusqu?au 28/4/12. Thesis About Homosexuality. · Cote de pression interstitielle U: La pression U ne cesse de croitre à cause de la présence de l?eau dans le matériau argileux de remblai. Ray Bradbury. A partir du 20/10/10, elle passera au-dessus de celle du remblai : l?influence des précipitations (confère figure II.7) et la continuité des travaux au noyé central de l?ouvrage. On Pro. Ce sont des éléments de surveillance se présentant sous forme de forages (Ô300 à Ô800) et atteignant la fondation. Ils sont espacés de 20 mètres entre eux le long au pied de la risberme aval. Ray Bradbury. PC 2 (figure IX.10) cote du tube au 26/3/11 : 120,82 m (NGT) . Auto Thesis. Niveau final risberme. Essay. Figure IX.10 : Variation du plan de l'eau dans le puits P en fonction du temps . Papers. Du 30/4 au 17/10/11, pendant cette période, le niveau de l?eau dans le puits est presque nivelé. Essay On Censorship. Les fluctuations qui se produisent après cette période ont pour origine probable les précipitations qui alimentent la nappe phréatique de surface et de l?eau contenue dans le matériau des sols de remblais ainsi que les infiltrations du sol d?assise du barrage. Synthesist. Cette eau déborde le puits PC 2 entre le 2 et le 11/11/11. On Censorship. PC 8 (figure IX.11), cote du tube au 26/6/11 : 120,63m (NGT) ; cote haut du tube : 120,69m.
17/6/10 7/7/10 27/7/10 16/8/10 5/9/10 25/9/10 15/10/10 4/11/10 24/11/10 14/12/10 3/1/11 23/1/11 12/2/11 4/3/11 24/3/11 13/4/11 3/5/11 23/5/11 12/6/11 2/7/11 22/7/11 11/8/11 31/8/11 20/9/11 10/10/11 30/10/11 19/11/11 9/12/11 29/12/11 18/1/12 7/2/12 27/2/12 18/3/12 7/4/12 27/4/12. Niveau final risberme aval. Good Concluding Essay. Figure IX.11 : Variation du plan de l'eau dans le puits PC 8 en fonction du temps. Essay. Constats : Dans cette partie de l?ouvrage, il y a une fluctuation très remarquée du niveau de l?eau dans le puits. Auto. Le phénomène de consolidation (23/8 au 27/10/10 et du 1/6 au 28/12/11) est très visible dans cette partie. Essay On Censorship. Entre ces périodes, la nappe réalimente le puits mais, l?eau n?atteignant jamais le niveau 117 m (NGT). Proofreading Papers. Le puits PC8 ne présente pas les débordements d?eau. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. PC 14 (figure IX.12) ; cote haut du tube : 119,91m ; cote du tube au 26/3/11 : 119,01m. Papers. 20/5/10 9/6/10 29/6/10 19/7/10 8/8/10 28/8/10 17/9/10 7/10/10 27/10/10 16/11/10 6/12/10 26/12/10 15/1/11 4/2/11 24/2/11 16/3/11 5/4/11 25/4/11 15/5/11 4/6/11 24/6/11 14/7/11 3/8/11 23/8/11 12/9/11 2/10/11 22/10/11 11/11/11 1/12/11 21/12/11 10/1/12 30/1/12 19/2/12 10/3/12 30/3/12 19/4/12 9/5/12. Essay On Censorship. Niveau final risberme aval. Figure IX.12 : Variation du plan de l'eau dans le puits PC 14 en fonction du temps.
Des périodes 21/5 au 23/8/10 et du 23/5 au 18/10/2011, il se produit un phénomène de réarrangement des grains des sols ce qui amène le plan d?eau à baisser dans le puits (consolidation) dü aux contraintes issues de la mise en oeuvre du remblai. Synthesist. La période de la remontée du niveau du plan d?eau correspond à l?influence du facteur pluviométrie (confère figure VII.2) et la géologie du sol de fondation de la digue (confère figure II.2 a II.8). Essay. PC 20 (figure IX.13) ; cote haut du tube 120,40m ; cote tube au 26/3/11 :119,49m. Foreign. 21/5/10 10/6/10 30/6/10 20/7/10 9/8/10 29/8/10 18/9/10 8/10/10 8/10/10 7/11/10 7/12/10 7/12/10 16/1/11 5/2/11 25/2/11 17/3/11 6/4/11 26/4/11 16/5/11 5/6/11 25/6/11 15/7/11 4/8/11 24/8/11 13/9/11 3/10/11 3/10/11 2/11/11 2/12/11 2/12/11 11/1/12 31/1/12 20/2/12 11/3/12 31/3/12 20/4/12 10/5/12. On Censorship. Niveau final risberme aval. On Pro Life. Figure IX.13 : Variation du plan de l'eau dans le puits PC 20 en fonction du temps. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Constats : La période qui correspond à la chute du niveau du plan d?eau est presque similaire au comportement de la cellule PII-4 (distant de PC 20 de moins de 60m). C?est la consolidation des sols de fondation due par des contraintes issues de la mise en place du remblai (compactage et poids). Papers. PC 29 (figure IX.14) ; cote du tube au 26/3/11 : 123,42m. Ray Bradbury. Ce puits est situé vers la rive gauche de l?ouvrage et au-dessus du matériau argileux, c?est pourquoi il réagit en différé. Essays Life Abortion. Niveau final risberme.
Figure IX.14 : Variation du plan de l'eau dans le puits PC 20 en fonction du temps Constats : La consolidation dure pendant la période du 30/4/11 au 2/11/11, entrainant ainsi une baisse significative du niveau de l?eau dans le puits. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. La nappe réapprovisionnant ces puits suites aux averses à la période indiquée confère figure II.7. La structure du sol d?assise étant essentiellement faite de matériaux argileux, elle rend l?infiltration difficile. Thesis. Les effets de la pluviométrie deviennent différés à moins d?avoir à faire aux écoulements de surface. On Censorship. Le dernier cas des effets différés sur le niveau de la nappe dans le puits PC 29 est illustré à partir du 2/11/11, ici la courbe reprend sa croissance après plus de 3 mois avec un niveau moyen de 117m. Essays Life Abortion. Cet appareil de surveillance permet d?évaluer l?amplitude des tassements. Essay On Censorship. Ses coordonnées de pose sont : X =95869,643m ; Y=24266,03m et la cote de pose est de 118,92m. Foreign Thesis Homosexuality. Figure IX.15: Evolution du tassement au point considéré(X =95869,643m ; Y=24266,03m) en fonction du temps. Ray Bradbury Essay. Il est à noter que la structure de la fondation de la digue étant en général composée des sols compressibles, le tassement en ce point considéré va continuer à se manifester dans le temps même après la fin des travaux. Del Dettmar Synthesist. Du 8/5 au 30/7/10, le sol commence à être chargé et la descente brusque de la courbe le confirme le phénomène du tassement instantané, l?air compressible est chassé dans les vides qui entourent les grains des sols.
Du 30/7/10 au 16/12/11, c?est le tassement secondaire. Essay. Cette deuxième phase est moins grande et évolue dans le temps en fonction des charges des remblais qui lui sont appliquées. Teacher. IX.5 Vue générale sur les instruments de surveillance du barrage TINE. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. - L?ensemble des instruments présentés dans cette partie fonctionne normalement d?après les résultats présentés. - En dehors des erreurs de lecture ou d?enregistrement des données pour quelques cellules, les graphiques présentent une allure normale et un comportement qui colle avec les sols argileux utilisés en remblai ou rencontrés dans la l?assise de la digue. Make Good Sentence. - Le tassement du point considéré présente une moyenne de 50 cm, ce qui est normal à ce stade (jeunesse) de l?ouvrage. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Toutefois, il doit faire l?objet d?une surveillance particulière. Thumbnails Thesis. Pour ce tassomètre installé dans l?interface remblai/fondation, au point de coordonnées indiquées, au-dessus du sol argileux, il est conseillé de bien le surveiller à cause de la sensibilité et de la complexité de la fondation du barrage. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. ?étude du barrage Tine a nécessité l?intervention de plusieurs disciplines. Life Abortion. scientifiques complémentaires les unes des autres à cause de nature complexe et. Ray Bradbury Essay. délicate. Essays On Pro Abortion. Les données environnementales du de la région, hydrauliques, géologiques et géotechniques combinées ensemble constituent le socle de ce projet. Essay On Censorship. Ces données ont influencé toute la structure, notamment le choix des matériaux de son corps, de la fondation et des mesures spécifiques de sécurité.
L?auscultation est une partie très importante, elle se résume à la prévention des accidents graves et certaines pour éviter des pertes en vies humaines. Foreign Thesis About. L?auscultation se compose en de l?auscultation, de l?instrumentation et de la surveillance de l?ouvrage. Ray Bradbury. L?emploi des moteurs de calcul, pour le test de la stabilité des talus ou pour une simulation a permis de justifier le barrage tout entier. Foreign Thesis Homosexuality. Les résultats des coefficients trouvés à l?aide du logiciel Talren sont tous inférieurs aux prescriptions en vigueur, de même, grâce au logiciel Solvia, il a été trouvé que le tassement maximum se situera au voisinage de 75 cm (valeur inférieure à la prescription des concepteurs). Essay On Censorship. Ainsi le profil final adopté comportera : + Une longueur en crête de 759,7m ; + Une largeur de la digue en fondation de 153m ; + Une largeur de la crête de 8m ; + Une hauteur maximale au-dessus du terrain naturel : 21,7m ; + Le fruit du parement amont : 1/3.25 avec la berme large de 15 à la cote 131m et plus bas 1/3 ; + Le fruit du parement aval : 1/2.5 avec la berme large de 6 m à la cote 123,5 m absolue et plus et plus bas toujours 1/2.5. Analysis of cover buzzwords stability of the essay dyke and del dettmar interpretation of the ray bradbury essay on censorship data. Del Dettmar Synthesist. auscultation of ray bradbury essay on censorship Tine dam. Papers. This work has for essay on censorship object the auto thumbnails thesis verification of the essay stability (slope and teacher cover foundation) and on censorship the interpretation of proofreading data auscultation.
The use of essay adequate method is essays life abortion, needed of ray bradbury analysis at auto thesis best Tine dam. Ray Bradbury Essay. The stability methods of the essays life abortion dyke are mainly the essay on censorship following: Fellenius?s method, Bishop?s method and thesis finite element?s method. In this study, Talren software, whit Bishop?s method to ray bradbury essay on censorship stability analysis in teacher letter buzzwords three cases: + End construction; + Normal operation; + And fast draining. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. For the good sentence entire dam, Solvia software has been used to essay simulate the cover behavior of the ray bradbury essay on censorship structure subjected to good sentence essay various stresses by ray bradbury essay, the finite method. Del Dettmar. These studies gave satisfactory results. Ray Bradbury. The interpretation of del dettmar synthesist auscultation?s data allows increased surveillance and on censorship allows designers to essays life be able to essay adjust if necessary in del dettmar this stage of ray bradbury on censorship construction. Thesis. Indeed, the ray bradbury on censorship different numerical analyzes and thumbnails thesis the interpretation of essay auscultation data were used to cover buzzwords support the ray bradbury essay dam Tine. Foreign About Homosexuality. Calcul de la stabilité et interprétation des données. Ray Bradbury Essay. Ce travail a pour objectif la vérification de la stabilité de la digue ainsi que l?interprétation des données d?auscultation du barrage Tine.
Les principales méthodes d?analyses de la stabilité des talus et de la fondation de la digue testées sont les suivantes la méthode de Fellenius, la méthode de Bishop et la méthode des éléments finis. Make Concluding. Dans cette étude, le logiciel Talren a été employé pour les trois cas suivant : + La fin de construction ; + Le fonctionnement normal (comportement à court terme); + La vidange rapide (comportement à long terme). La phase de test avec Talren a montré que les valeurs des coefficients trouvées sont bien conformes aux prescriptions. Essay. A l?aide du moteur de calcul Solvia, basée sur la méthode des éléments finis, une simulation du comportement des matériaux (sols) soumis aux différents types de sollicitations a été effectuée. Teacher. Le résultat de cette analyse est satisfaisant car il donne un tassement définitif de 80 cm, valeur inférieure à celle prescrite (100 cm).
La phase auscultation quant à elle nous permet une surveillance accrue et sans faille de notre ouvrage durant ses phases de vie, pour permettre d?éviter des catastrophes. Ray Bradbury. Toutes ces phases d?études et de l?analyse ont permis de justifier la stabilité et son comportement général du barrage Tine dans le temps. PIEZOMETRIE : Technique de mesure de la charge hydraulique dans un massif aquifère très perméable. Essays On Pro. Le piézomètre est un tube installé dans le sol et qui permet d'étudier la nappe phréatique. Ray Bradbury. PRESSIOMETRIE : Technique permettant de mesurer des variations de pression CELLULE : Aires contrôlées par un site cellulaire (station de base). Good. CELLULE DE CHARGE : Terme impropre pour dynamomètre, capteur de force ou capteur de pression totale. Essay On Censorship. CELLULE DE PRESSION : Terme impropre pour capteur de pression ou pour piézomètre.
CELLULE DE TASSEMENT : Terme impropre pour capteur de tassement ou de déplacement vertical. On Pro. CHARGE HYDRAULIQUE : Altitude du niveau piézométrique en un point, par rapport à un plan de référence. Unité mètre d?eau. Essay. CONTRAINTE : Rapport d?une force s?exerçant sur une surface à cette surface lorsque celle-ci tend vers zéro. Cover Letter. S?applique aux solides. On Censorship. Par définition, une contrainte n?est pas mesurable. Papers. Le plus souvent, on ray bradbury essay on censorship, la détermine indirectement par la mesure de la déformation d?un corps d?épreuve. Thesis About. Unité Pascal.
CONTRAINTE EFFECTIVE : Contrainte exercée par les grains du sol sur une facette. On Censorship. On ne tient pas compte de la pression de l?eau dans le sol (pression interstitielle). Make Good Concluding Sentence. Voir Contrainte totale. On Censorship. Unité Pascal. Teacher Letter Buzzwords. CONTRAINTE TOTALE : Contrainte exercée par l?ensemble des constituants du sol sur une facette. Ray Bradbury Essay. Voir Contrainte effective. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. Unité Pascal. DIAGNOSTIC : Le diagnostic se fonde sur l?étude des symptômes, anomalies de structure ou de fonctionnement, et sur la connaissance des pathologies, pour porter un jugement sur l?état et le fonctionnement de l?ouvrage. Ray Bradbury Essay. EXTENSOMETRE : Instrument qui mesure une déformation. Del Dettmar. Extensomètre de surface: instrument de base courte, quelques millimètres à quelques décimètres. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Extensomètre de forage : instrument placé en forage.
FIABILITÉ : Aptitude d?un dispositif à accomplir une fonction requise dans des conditions données pendant un temps donné. Homosexuality. FLUAGE : Déformation en fonction du temps sous une sollicitation constante. Ray Bradbury Essay. INCLINOMETRE : Appareil permettant de mesurer un angle ou ses variations. Good Sentence. INSTRUMENT : Moyen qui permet de faire une mesure. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Un instrument fait quelquefois partie d?un système de mesure.
INSTRUMENTATION : Ensemble des instruments de mesure, d?analyse et d?observation. LOGICIEL : Un ensemble de programmes, de procédures et de documentation d'un système réalisé par ordinateur. Make Good Sentence Essay. Terme générique pour indiquer des programmes pour ordinateur et des microprocesseurs. Ray Bradbury Essay. PENDULE : Appareil comportant un fil tendu par un poids (pendule direct) ou un flotteur (pendule inverse) qui donne la verticale entre deux points. Proofreading Papers. On mesure le déplacement horizontal relatif de la structure par rapport à un point du fil en supposant fixe un autre point du fil. Essay On Censorship. La lecture d?un pendule direct se fait à l?extrémité inférieure du pendule et à l?extrémité supérieure pour le pendule inverse. Teacher Cover. PIEZOMETRE : Appareil destiné à mesurer la pression interstitielle. Essay On Censorship. PIEZOMETRIE : Etat des pressions interstitielles dans un massif.
PLUVIOMETRE : Instrument météorologique destiné à mesurer la hauteur de précipitation pendant un intervalle de temps donné (en supposant uniformément répartie et non sujette à évaporation l'eau de précipitation tombée sur la surface terrestre). Proofreading Papers. PRESSION INTERSTITIELLE : Pression de l?eau dans un sol. Essay. Unité Pascal. Foreign About Homosexuality. PRESSION TOTALE : Terme impropre pour contrainte. Vient du terme «pression des terres» utilisé par les géotechniciens. Essay. SURFACE PIÉZOMÉTRIQUE : Surface idéale qui représente la distribution des charges hydrauliques d?une nappe d?eau souterraine à écoulement bidimensionnel ou des charges rapportées à méme strate aquifère en cas d?écoulement tridimensionnel. Teacher Cover Letter. TASSEMENT : Déplacement vertical d?un point d?un terrain. Ray Bradbury Essay. Le déplacement est orienté vers le bas. Synthesist. Dans le cas contraire il s?agit d?un soulèvement. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Un tassement différentiel entre deux points, est égal à la différence entre les tassements absolus de chacun des points. Teacher Cover Letter. TASSOMETRE : Catégorie générale d?instruments dont le principal champ d'application concerne le monitorage des affaissements des terrains de fondation.
Chapitre I : les différents types de barrages 3. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. I.1 Introduction ..3. I.2 Terminologies des barrages ..3. Teacher Cover Letter. Chapitre II : Pathologies des barrages. Ray Bradbury. II.2 Pathologies des barrages. Foreign Thesis. II.2.1 Les causes des ruptures. Essay On Censorship. II.2.1.1 Problèmes techniques. Papers. II.2.1.2 Causes naturelles. Ray Bradbury. II.2.1.3 Causes humaines. Cover Letter Buzzwords. II.2.2 Types de ruptures.
II.2.2.1 Etat critique de la submersion (cas du barrage de Fergoug Algérie) II.2.2.2 Etat critique de l?érosion régressive (cas du barrage Teton aux USA) II.2.2.3 Etat critique de l?absence de l?information hydrologique. Chapitre III : Présentation du barrage Tine. Ray Bradbury. III.1 Présentation du barrage Tine. Thesis. III.2 Localisation du barrage Tine. Ray Bradbury. III.4 Les objectifs à atteindre par ce barrage. Foreign Homosexuality. III.5 Description de l?ouvrage. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. III.6 Climatologie 10.
III.6.2 Etudes de l?environnement du barrage 11. III.7.1 Renseignements sur la connaissance géologique de la région 13. Good Concluding Sentence. III.7.2 Structure géologique et sismicité du site du projet 13. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. III.7.3 Caractéristiques géologiques de l?emprise 14. Auto Thesis. III.7.4 Conditions hydrogéologiques du site du barrage 16. Ray Bradbury. Chapitre IV : Caractéristiques géotechniques des matériaux pour remblai ..15. Foreign About Homosexuality. IV.2 Différents types d?essais mis en oeuvre . On Censorship. . Teacher Cover Buzzwords. 15. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. IV.2.1 Les essais préliminaires 15.
IV.2.2 Essais de convenance 15. Auto Thumbnails. IV.2.3 Enrochements 16. Essay. IV.2.4 Matériaux F1, F2 pour filtres 16. IV.2.5 Enrochements et matériaux pour rip-rap, protection du talus aval et blocs de protection .18. Thumbnails. IV.2.7 Protection aval de type R2 19. Ray Bradbury Essay. IV.2.8 Enrochements de protection .. Teacher Letter. . On Censorship. 20.
IV.3 Caractéristiques géotechniques des matériaux de remblai 20. Good Concluding Sentence Essay. IV.3.1 Terrain argileux T1 et T2 ..20. Essay On Censorship. IV.3.2 Filtres et enrochements .20. Essays Life. IV.3.3 Caractéristiques des sables alluviaux 21. Chapitre V : Contrôles des caractéristiques géotechniques des matériaux de fondation.
V.2 Essais de convenances/préliminaires sur les sols de fondation .22. Ray Bradbury Essay. V.3 Les essais de contrôles statistiques et systématiques 23. Make Concluding. V.4 Coupes géologiques des sols de fondation 24. On Censorship. V.4.1 Différents logs types selon les sondages 24. Thesis Homosexuality. V.4.1.1 Sondages S-101 24. V.4.1.2 Sondage S-102 24. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. V.4.1.3 Sondage S-103 ..25.
V.4.1.4 Sondage S-104 .25. Sentence Essay. V.4.1.5 Sondage S-107 ..26. On Censorship. V.4.1.6 Sondage S-108 .26. Essays On Pro Abortion. V.4.1.7 Sondage S-111 .27. Ray Bradbury. V.5 Caractéristiques mécaniques des sols de fondation . On Pro Life. 27. On Censorship. Chapitre VI : Calculs analytiques du barrage Tine 29. Letter Buzzwords. VI.1 Introduction générale 29. On Censorship. VI.2 Eléments de calculs 29. VI.3 Méthodes de résolutions 29. Auto. VI.3.1 Principales méthodes de calculs à la rupture ou méthodes analytiques 30. On Censorship. VI.3.1.1 Méthodes de Fellenius . Teacher Cover Buzzwords. .31.
VI.3.1.2 Méthodes de bishop 31. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. VI.3.2 Paramètres mécaniques des remblais du corps du barrage 31. Auto. VI.3.2.1 Les poids volumiques, indices des vides et teneurs en eau. VI.3.2.2 L?angle de frottement interne(ö) et la cohésion (C) des sols. On Censorship. VI.3.2.3 Les essais de Portance. Teacher Buzzwords. VI.4 Stabilité des talus par la méthode de Fellenius. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. VI.4.1 Paramètres de stabilité des talus du barrage Tine. Essays Life Abortion. VI.4.1.1 Moments résistants.
VI.4.1.2 Moments moteurs. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. VI.5 Vérifications de la stabilité par la méthode de Fellenius. Essays Life. VI.6 Vérification de la hauteur de la revanche. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. VI.6.1 Hauteur de la vague (hv) VI.6.2 Revanche (R) ou effets des vents. Thesis About. Chapitre VII : Vérification de la stabilité des talus : méthode numérique. On Censorship. VII.1 Vérification numérique. Auto Thumbnails. V.II.1.2 Caractéristiques mécaniques des couches des sols de la digue. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. VII.1.3 Vérification des talus juste après la fin de la construction. VII.1.4 Vérification de la stabilité de la digue en service. Papers. VII.1.5 Vérification du talus aval de la digue à la vidange rapide.
Chapitre VIII : Calculs de la fondation du barrage Tine par la méthode des éléments. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. VIII.2 Mise en oeuvre de la méthode des éléments finis. Del Dettmar Synthesist. VIII.3 Présentation du logiciel Solvia. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. VIII.3.2 Solvia pour analyse du comportement d?un ouvrage. Proofreading Papers. VIII.3.3 Application pour les sols. On Censorship. VIII.4.2 Description des matériaux.
VIII.4.3 Affichage du maillage PRE. Synthesist. VIII.4.5 Résultats de la simulation. On Censorship. Chapitre IX : Auscultations du barrage Tine. IX.2.1 Tassomètre : Tassomètre multipoints. Good. IX.2.2 Principe de fonctionnement. Essay On Censorship. IX.2.4 Principe de fonctionnement.
IX.2.5 Puits de décompression. About Homosexuality. IX.3 Plan d?instrumentalisation de la structure de la digue. Ray Bradbury. IX.4 Mesure physique et interprétation. Auto. IX.4.1 Profils II. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. IX.4.1.2 Puits de décompression. Proofreading. IX.4.1.3 Le Tassomètre. IX.5 Vue générale sur les instruments de surveillance du barrage Tine. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Figure I.1 : Vue générale d?un barrage en terre 4. Auto. Figure II.1 : Courbe baignoire représente le taux de défaillance instantané de l?ouvrage 8. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Figure III.1 : Localisation du barrage Tine dans le gouvernorat de Bizerte 9. Del Dettmar Synthesist. Figure III.2 : Température en fonction des mois dans le site du projet 11. On Censorship. Figure III.3 : Variation des précipitations en fonction de l?altitude 11.
Figure III.4 : Probabilité des précipitations annuelles .12. Make Concluding Sentence. Figure III.5 : La répartition des précipitations par saison 12. Essay On Censorship. Figure III.6 : Variation de l?évaporation du site aquatique du projet 13. Figure III.7 : Carte géologique du site du barrage Tine ..(entre 12 et 13) Figure III.8 : Pertes par infiltration au site du projet en fonction du temps .14. Synthesist. Figure IV.1 : Localisation des différents remblais dans le corps du barrage 16. Ray Bradbury Essay. Figure IV.2 : Courbe granulométrique des matériaux pour filtre F1 17.
Figure IV.3 : Courbe granulométrique des matériaux pour filtre F2 17. Del Dettmar Synthesist. Figure IV.4 : Courbe granulométrique des matériaux D pour drain 18. On Censorship. Figure IV.5 : Courbe granulométrique des matériaux de transition F3 18. Essays Life Abortion. Figure IV.6 : Courbe granulométrique des matériaux R1 pour rip-rap 19. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Figure IV.7 : Courbe granulométrique des matériaux de protection aval 19. On Pro Abortion. Figure V.1 : Emplacements des sondages et des puits dans le site du projet ..23. Figure V.2 : Coupe géologique longitudinale a l?axe de la digue (23 et 24) Figure V.3 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-101 .24. Essay On Censorship. Figure V.4 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-102 .24. Foreign About. Figure V.5 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-103 25. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Figure V.6 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-104 .25. Foreign Homosexuality. Figure V.7 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-107 26.
Figure V.8 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-108 . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. 26. Teacher Cover. Figure V.9 : Coupe géologique du sondage S-111 27. Figure V.10 : Coupe géologique des sols de fondation (entre 26 et 27) Figure VI.3 : Coupe type de la digue simplifiée paramètres géotechnique 34. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. Figure VI.4 : Coupe type de la digue disposition du remblai et zone de saturation 34. Thesis About. Figure VI.5 : Repartions des forces verticales sous la digue . Essay. 35.
Figure VI.6a et b : Distribution des tranches en aval 38. Figure VI.7 : Illustration de la direction du vent et valeur du fectch 40. Thumbnails Thesis. Figure VI.8 : Paramètres de sécurité vis-à-vis des phénomènes naturels 40. Ray Bradbury Essay. Figure VII.1 : Modélisation de la digue avec les différentes couches .41. Make Good Concluding. Figure VII.2 : Vérification de la digue juste après la construction ..43. Ray Bradbury. Figure VII.3 : Vérification de la digue en service 44.
Figure VII.4 : Vérification de la digue a la vidange rapide 45. Papers. Figure VIII.1 : Coupe A-A au niveau du lit mineur .48. Essay. Figure VIII.2 : Coupe en travers du lit mineur du barrage 49. Papers. Figure VIII.3 : Modélisation du barrage et de sa fondation .50. Figure VIII.4 et VIII.5 Modélisation du barrage présentant les numéros des mailles et des noeuds ..(entre 49 et 50) Figure VIII.6 : Simulation des déplacements verticaux en mètre ..51. On Censorship. Figure IX.1 : Mise en évidence du Tassomètre 52. Foreign Thesis Homosexuality. Figure IX.2 : Principe de détermination de la charge hydraulique 53. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Figure IX.3 : Plan de localisation des différents instruments de surveillance du barrage (entre 52 et 53) Figure IX.4 : Profil 2 du barrage .54. Letter. Figure IX.5 : Variations de la cote des remblais et de la cote de la pression interstitielle en fonction du temps (avancement des travaux) 54. Essay On Censorship. Figure IX.6 : Variation de la cote de remblai et de la pression interstitielle en fonction du temps (avancement des travaux) 55.
Figure IX.7 : Variation de la cote du remblai et de la cote pression U en fonction du temps (avancement des travaux) . Del Dettmar. 56. Essay On Censorship. Figure IX.8: Variation de la cote de remblai et la cote de pression U en fonction du temps (avancement des travaux) .57. Teacher Buzzwords. Figure IX.9 : Variation de la cote de remblai et la cote de pression U en fonction du temps (avancement des travaux) .58. Essay On Censorship. Figure IX.10 : Variation du plan d?eau dans le puits P en fonction du temps 59. Del Dettmar Synthesist. Figure IX.11 : Variation du plan d?eau dans le puits PC8 en fonction du temps 60. Ray Bradbury. Figure IX.12 : Variation du plan d?eau dans le puits PC14 en fonction du temps 60. Figure IX.13 : Variation du plan d?eau dans le puits P0 en fonction du temps . Del Dettmar Synthesist. 61. Essay On Censorship. Figure IX.14 : Variation du plan d?eau dans le puits P9 en fonction du temps 62. Auto Thesis. Figure IX.15 : Evolution du tassement au point considéré en fonction du temps 62.
Tableaux des données inhérentes à la retenue ; Je dédie ce précieux travail à tous ceux qui de près ou de loin donnent un sens à ma vie, je pense particulièrement à : O Ma mère Mme Veuve POUNGO Cérine. On Censorship. O DJAGUEU Cyrille Hortense. Essays On Pro Abortion. O LEUMASSA Gilles Fernand. Essay. O SIEWE NGANDJUI Hervé O POUGOM NGANDJUI Suzanne Valérie. Proofreading Papers. O TCHEUTCHOUA NGANDJUI Josiane O MEDJIETCHEU NGANDJUI Pétronille.
O Ma Grand-mère Mme Veuve WEBEBE Agnès. O Ma Tante DEUMEKAM Brigitte. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. O Ma Tata Mme LEUMASSA Chanceline. Auto Thesis. O Tous mes neveux et nièces. Essay On Censorship. P F E 2 0 1 2 : Alexandre M v o n d o M Patrick H N g a n d j u i. Auto Thumbnails. 1) A.P.D : Avant-projet détaillé du barrage Tine, Tunis, (Ministère de l?agriculture, direction générale des barrages et grands travaux hydrauliques), novembre 2003. Ray Bradbury Essay. 2) Berichte des BWG, Serie Wasser, Rapports de l?OFEG, série Eaux, Bienne ,2002.
3) CCT : cahiers des clauses techniques particulières du barrage Tine, Tunis (Ministère de l?agriculture, direction générale des barrages et grands travaux hydrauliques), novembre 2003. Make Sentence Essay. 4) H. Essay. Hamdi , travaux de recherches, Tunis, 2012. 5) EL OUNI , Cours Mécanique des sols I et II, Sousse, 2011 et 2012, 6) E.ALONSO , Barrages en remblai (chapitre V). Del Dettmar Synthesist. Cemagref. Ray Bradbury. 7) F. On Pro. A. Ray Bradbury Essay. MILLOGO. Cover Buzzwords. Ingénieur en Hydraulique, OUVRAGES HYDRAULIQUES , Août 2009. Ray Bradbury Essay. 8) G.DEGOUTTE et P. Teacher Buzzwords. Royet , Aide de mémoire de mécanique des sols, AIX en Provence, les publications de l?ENGREF, 96 pages. On Censorship. 9) Groupe de Travail « Justification des barrages et des digues en remblai », Recommandations pour la justification de la stabilité des barrages et des digues en remblai, JUIN 2010. 10) H. Auto. FEMMAM 1 N. Ray Bradbury. BENMEBAREK 2, EFFETS DES DRAINS SUR LA STABILITE DES BARRAGES EN TERRE(Drains effects on about homosexuality, the stability of ray bradbury essay earth. Make Good Essay. dams) Courrier du Savoir - N°11, Université Mohamed Khider - Biskra, Algérie, Mars 2011, pp.09-15. On Censorship. 11) INTERREG III A. Good Sentence Essay. Activité 4. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Systèmes d?instrumentation , Projet n° 179 (ex n° 046), RiskYdrogéo Risques hydrogéologiques en montagne : parades et surveillance » 12) Khaled MEFTAH , cours et exercices de mécaniques des sols, Septembre 2008.
13) Maurice CASSAN , LES ESSAIS DE PERMÉABILITÉ SUR SITE DANS LA RECONNAISSANCE DES SOLS ; Nouvelle édition. Synthesist. 14) Mourad Karray, ing, Ph.D, Cours Séance 1-p sol. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship. 15) Rapport de l'UFAG , serie Acqua, Sécurité des ouvrages d?accumulation. Proofreading. 16) Stump ForaTec SA, Abt . Ray Bradbury Essay. Messtechnik, Dép. Synthesist. technique de mesure. Mon père Mvondo Messi Antoine que j'aime beaucoup et son soutien inconditionnel, Mes enseignants de l'école Polytechnique, en particulier M. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. EL OUNI et M. Synthesist. KLAI qui m'ont beaucoup apporté durant tout mon cycle ; Hichem Hamdi, pour son appui professionnel ; La Direction Générale des Barrages et des Grands travaux Hydrauliques, Tunis ; Virginie Solange ADOMA, très spécialement pour tout.
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Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, An Essay on ray bradbury on censorship, Crimes and Punishments  Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria , An Essay on Crimes and Punishments. By the Marquis Beccaria of Milan. With a Commentary by M. de Voltaire. A New Edition Corrected. (Albany: W.C. Little Co., 1872). http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2193. An extremely influential Enlightenment treatise on legal reform in which Beccaria advocates the on pro life, ending of torture and the death penalty.
The book also contains a lengthy commentary by Voltaire which is an indication of high highly French enlightened thinkers regarded the work. The text is in the public domain. This material is ray bradbury on censorship put online to further the teacher, educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit. In rebus quibuscunque difficilioribus non expectandum, ut quis simul, serat, metat, sed pr#xE6;paratione opus est, ut per gradus maturescant. Bacon. Penal Laws, so considerable a part of every system of legislation, and of so great importance to the happiness, peace and security of every member of society, are still so imperfect, and are attended with so many unnecessary circumstances of cruelty in all nations, that an attempt to reduce them to the standard of reason must be interesting to all mankind. Ray Bradbury? It is not surprising then, that this little book hath engaged the essays on pro, attention of all ranks of people in every part of Europe. It is now about eighteen months since the first publication; in which time it hath passed no less than six editions in the original language; the third of which was printed within six months after its first appearance. It hath been translated Edition: current; Page: [ 4 ] into French; that translation hath also been several times reprinted, and perhaps no book, on ray bradbury on censorship, any subject, was ever received with more avidity, more generally read, or more universally applauded.
The author is the Marquis Beccaria, of Milan. Upon considering the nature of the religion and government under which he lives, the reasons for concealing his name are obvious. The whole was read, at different times, in a society of learned men in that city, and was published at their desire. As to the translation, I have preserved the letter, order of the original, except in a paragraph or two, which I have taken the liberty to restore to the chapters to which they evidently belong, and from which they must have been accidentally detached. The French translator hath gone much farther; he hath not only transposed every chapter, but every paragraph in the whole book. But in this, I conceive he hath assumed a right which belongs not to any translator, and which cannot be justified. His disposition may appear more systematical, but certainly the author has as undoubted a right to the arrangement of his own ideas as to ray bradbury on censorship the ideas themselves; and therefore to destroy that arrangement, is to pervert his meaning, if he had any meaning in auto thumbnails his plan, the contrary to which can hardly be supposed.
Edition: current; Page: [ 5 ] With regard to the Commentary, attributed to Mons. de Voltaire, my only authority for ray bradbury, supposing it his, is the voice of the public, which indeed is the only authority we have for most of his works. Let those who are acquainted with the peculiarity of his manner judge for proofreading papers, themselves. The facts above mentioned would preclude all apology for this translation, if any apology were necessary, for translating into ray bradbury our language a work, which, from the nature of the subject, must be interesting to every nation; but must be particularly acceptable to the English, from the essay, eloquent and forcible manner in ray bradbury which the author pleads the cause of liberty, benevolence and humanity. It may however be objected, that a treatise of this kind is useless in England, where, from the excellence of buzzwords, our laws and government, no examples of cruelty or oppression are to essay be found. But it must also be allowed, that much is still wanting to perfect our system of legislation; the confinement of debtors, the filth and horror of our prisons, the cruelty of jailors, and the extortion of the petty officers of justice, to all which may be added the melancholy reflection, that the number of criminals put to good concluding essay death in England is much greater than in any other part of Europe, are considerations which will sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 6 ] answer every objection.
These are my only reasons for endeavouring to diffuse the knowledge of the useful truths contained in this little essay; and I say, with my author, that if I can be instrumental in rescuing a single victim from the hand of tyranny or ignorance, his transports will sufficiently console me for the contempt of all mankind. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury? . . . Make Good Concluding? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury On Censorship? page. 11 Chap. I. Of the Origin of Punishments . Proofreading Papers? . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury? . . . . Thumbnails? . . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay? 15 II. Of the Right to proofreading papers Punish . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . Cover Letter? . . On Censorship? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 III. Consequences of the foregoing Principles . . . Proofreading Papers? . . . Essay? . Proofreading Papers? . . 19 IV.
Of the Interpretation of Laws . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . . . . . . . Abortion? . . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? 21 V. Of the Obscurity of Laws . . Synthesist? . . . . . . . . . . . On Censorship? . . . . . . . . . . 26 VI. Of the Proportion between Crimes and Punishments, 28 VII. Of estimating the Degree of Crimes . . Del Dettmar Synthesist? . . . . . . Essay? . Synthesist? . . . Ray Bradbury? . . 33 VIII. Of the Division of Crimes . Essays On Pro Life? . Ray Bradbury? . . . Abortion? . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury On Censorship? . . . . . . . . 35 IX. Of Honor . . . . . . . . . . Thesis? . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . . . . Abortion? . . Ray Bradbury? . . Thesis Homosexuality? . . . Essay On Censorship? . . . . . . . . Thesis? . . 39 X. Of Duelling . . . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Make Good Sentence? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 XI. Of Crimes which disturb the public Tranquillity . . . 44 XII. Of the Intent of Punishments . . . . . Ray Bradbury? . . . . . . Make Sentence? . . . Ray Bradbury? . . . . 46 XIII. Of the Credibility of Witnesses . . . . . . Teacher? . . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . . . Good Concluding Sentence Essay? . . . . 47 XIV.
Of Evidence and the Proofs of a Crime, and of the on censorship, Form of Judgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . Make? . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . 51 XV. Of secret Accusations . Auto Thumbnails Thesis? . . Ray Bradbury On Censorship? . . . . . . . . . . . . Concluding Essay? . . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . . . Teacher? . . . On Censorship? . . . 55 XVI. Of Torture . Proofreading? . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . Good Concluding Sentence? . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . On Pro? . On Censorship? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 XVII. Of Pecuniary Punishments . . . . . Thesis? . . . . . . . . . . On Censorship? . Make Good Essay? . . 68 XVIII. Of Oaths . . Ray Bradbury? . . . Make Good Concluding? . . . Ray Bradbury? . . . . Teacher Cover? . . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . . . . . . . . . . . . Del Dettmar Synthesist? 71 XIX. Of the Advantage of immediate Punishment . . . . . 73 XX. Of Acts of Violence . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . . Proofreading Papers? . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay On Censorship? . . . . . . . . 77 XXI. Of the Punishment of the teacher cover, Nobles . . Essay On Censorship? . . . . . Auto Thesis? . . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . . . . 78 Edition: current; Page: [ 8 ] XXII. Of Robbery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thumbnails Thesis? . . . . . . . . . . 81 XXIII. Of Infamy, considered as a Punishment . . . . . . 82 XXIV. Of Idleness . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury On Censorship? . . . . . . . . . Foreign Thesis Homosexuality? . Ray Bradbury On Censorship? . . . . Thumbnails? . . . . . Ray Bradbury On Censorship? . . . Proofreading? . 85 XXV.
Of Banishment and Confiscation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 XXVI. Ray Bradbury Essay? Of the thumbnails thesis, Spirit of Family in essay on censorship States . . . . . . . . . . . . Thumbnails? 89 XXVII. Of the Mildness of Punishments . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . . . . 93 XXVIII. Of the Punishment of Death . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreign Thesis About Homosexuality? . . . 97 XXIX. Of Imprisonment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay On Censorship? . . 108 XXX. Of Prosecution and Prescription . . Life Abortion? . . Ray Bradbury On Censorship? . . . . . Del Dettmar Synthesist? . . . . . Ray Bradbury On Censorship? 111 XXXI. Of Crimes of difficult Proof . . . . . . . Cover Letter? . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . . . . . . . Foreign Thesis About? . . 115 XXXII. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? Of Suicide . . Make? . Essay? . Thumbnails? . . . Essay? . . . . . Auto? . . . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury? . . . . . . . . 121 XXXIII. Of Smuggling . Make Concluding Sentence Essay? . . On Censorship? . . . . . . . . . . Synthesist? . . . . . . . . . . . Essay? . . . . 126 XXXIV. Of Bankrupts . . . . . Proofreading? . . . . . . . Essay? . Essays On Pro Life? . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury? . . Essays Life Abortion? . . . . 129 XXXV.
Of Sanctuaries . . Essay? . . . . . . . . On Pro Life Abortion? . . . . . . . . Essay On Censorship? . . . . . . Teacher Cover Buzzwords? . . . . 133 XXXVI. Of Rewards for apprehending or killing Criminals . Essay? . Papers? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay On Censorship? . 135 XXXVII. Of Attempts, Accomplices, and Pardon . . . . . 137 XXXVIII. Of suggestive Interrogations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 XXXIX. Of a particular Kind of Crimes . . . . . . . . . . Del Dettmar Synthesist? . . 143 XL. Of false Ideas of on censorship, Utility . . . . . . . . Concluding? . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . . . . . . . Cover Letter Buzzwords? . . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . 145 XLI. Of the good concluding sentence essay, Means of preventing Crimes . . On Censorship? . . . . . Buzzwords? . On Censorship? . . Thesis Homosexuality? . . . 148 XLII. Of the Sciences . Ray Bradbury Essay? . . . . . . . . . . Thesis? . . . Ray Bradbury On Censorship? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thumbnails? . 150 XLIII. Of Magistrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay? . . . . Synthesist? . . . . . Ray Bradbury On Censorship? . . . 155 XLIV. Of Rewards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . About? . . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . . Foreign Thesis Homosexuality? . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . . . Proofreading Papers? . . Essay? . Thumbnails Thesis? . . 156 XLV. Of Education . Ray Bradbury Essay? . . Synthesist? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . Del Dettmar Synthesist? . . . . . 157 XLVI.
Of Pardons . Ray Bradbury On Censorship? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreign Thesis About? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay On Censorship? . . 158 XLVII. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . Abortion? . . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury? . Good? . . . . Essay? . . . . . . 160 A Commentary on the Book of Crimes and Punishments. Chap. I. The Occasion of essays life, this Commentary . . . Essay On Censorship? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 II. Teacher Cover Letter Buzzwords? Of Punishments . . . Ray Bradbury? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teacher? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 III. Ray Bradbury On Censorship? On the Punishment of Heretics . . . . . . . . . . Life? . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury? 167 IV.
On the Extirpation of good sentence, Heresy . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . . . . . . . Del Dettmar? . . Essay? 172 V. Of Profanation . . . Proofreading Papers? . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury On Censorship? . . . Del Dettmar? . . . . . . . On Censorship? . . . . . Synthesist? . . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . 175 VI. Of the Indulgence of the Romans in Matters of Religion . . Thesis About Homosexuality? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . . . . . . . . . Letter? . . . . . . 180 VII. Of the Crime of ray bradbury on censorship, Preaching; and of Anthony . . . . 183 VIII. The History of Simon Morin . . . . . . . . . . . . Good? . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . . 187 IX. Of Witches . . . . Teacher Cover Letter Buzzwords? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Papers? . . 190 X. On the ray bradbury on censorship, Punishment of Death . Make Good Concluding Sentence Essay? . . . . . . . Essay On Censorship? . . . . . . Auto Thesis? . . On Censorship? . . . . 193 Edition: current; Page: [ 9 ] XI. On Death Warrants . . . . Teacher Letter Buzzwords? . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . . Foreign About? . . . Essay On Censorship? . . Foreign About? . . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . . 195 XII.
On Torture . . . . Teacher Buzzwords? . . . . . . . Essay On Censorship? . . . . Proofreading? . . . . . . . . Essay? . . . . Auto Thumbnails Thesis? . . . On Censorship? . . . . 197 XIII. Of certain sanguinary Tribunals . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thesis? . 199 XIV. On the Difference between Political and Natural Laws . . . . . . Ray Bradbury? . . . . Thumbnails Thesis? . . . . . . . . . . . Essay? . . . . . Thumbnails? . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . Cover Buzzwords? . Essay On Censorship? . . . . . . Thumbnails Thesis? . . . . . . Essay? 202 XV. On the Crime of High Treason, on synthesist, Titus Oates, and on the Death of Augustin de Thou . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? . . . Cover Letter? . 204 XVI. On Religious Confession . . . . . . . . Essay? . Auto? . . . Ray Bradbury? . . . . . . . . . . 209 XVII. Of false Money . . . . Letter Buzzwords? . On Censorship? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synthesist? . . . . Ray Bradbury On Censorship? . . . . . Thesis About Homosexuality? . 214 XVIII. On domestic Theft . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury Essay? . . . . . . . . About? . . . . . . Essay On Censorship? . . Make Concluding Sentence Essay? . . . 215 XIX. On Suicide . . . . . . . . . . Ray Bradbury? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Make Good Concluding? . . . . . . . . Essay? . . 216 XX. On a certain Species of Mutilation . . . . . . . . . . . Concluding Essay? . Essay? . . 219 XXI. On Confiscation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essays On Pro? . . . . . . On Censorship? . Synthesist? . . . Ray Bradbury? . . . . . . 220 XXII.
On criminal Procedure, and other Forms . Auto Thesis? . . . . . 224 XXIII. The Idea of Reformation . . . . . . . . . . . On Censorship? . . . . . . Foreign Thesis About? . . Essay? . 228. In every human society, there is an effort continually tending to foreign about confer on one part the height of on censorship, power and happiness, and to reduce the other to the extreme of weakness and misery. The intent of good laws is to oppose this effort, and to diffuse their influence universally and equally. But men generally abandon the care of del dettmar, their most important concerns to the uncertain prudence and discretion of those, whose interest it is to reject the best and wisest institutions; and it is not till they have been led into a thousand mistakes, in matters the most essential to their lives and ray bradbury essay, liberties, and proofreading, are weary of suffering, that they can be induced to apply a remedy to the evils with which Edition: current; Page: [ 12 ] they are oppressed. It is then they begin to conceive, and acknowledge the most palpable truths, which, from their very simplicity, commonly escape vulgar minds, incapable of analysing objects, accustomed to essay on censorship receive impressions without distinction, and to be determined rather by the opinions of others, than by make good concluding essay, the result of their own examination. If we look into ray bradbury on censorship history we shall find that laws which are, or ought to be, conventions between men in a state of freedom, have been, for make good essay, the most part, the work of the passions of ray bradbury, a few, or the consequences of essays abortion, a fortuitous or temporary necessity; not dictated by a cool examiner of human nature, who knew how to collect in one point the essay on censorship, actions of a multitude, and had this only end in view, the greatest happiness of the greatest number. Auto Thumbnails Thesis? Happy are those few nations who have not waited till the slow succession of essay, human vicissitudes should, from the extremity of evil, produce a transition to good; but, by prudent laws, have facilitated the progress from one to the other!
And how great are the obligations due from mankind to foreign homosexuality that philosopher, who, from the obscurity of his closet, had the courage to scatter among the on censorship, multitude the cover letter buzzwords, seeds of useful truths, so long unfruitful! Edition: current; Page: [ 13 ] The art of printing has diffused the ray bradbury on censorship, knowledge of those philosophical truths, by good sentence, which the relations between sovereigns and their subjects, and between nations, are discovered. By this knowledge commerce is animated, and ray bradbury essay, there has sprung up a spirit of emulation and industry worthy of rational beings. These are the produce of this enlightened age; but the cruelty of make good, punishments, and the irregularity of proceeding in ray bradbury essay criminal cases, so principal a part of the legislation, and so much neglected throughout Europe, has hardly ever been called in question. Errors, accumulated through many centuries, have never been exposed by ascending to general principles; nor has the force of acknowledged truths been ever opposed to the unbounded licentiousness of ill-directed power, which has continually produced so many authorized examples of the del dettmar synthesist, most unfeeling barbarity. Surely, the groans of the weak, sacrificed to the cruel ignorance and indolence of the powerful; the ray bradbury essay, barbarous torments lavished and multiplied with useless severity, for del dettmar, crimes either not proved, or in ray bradbury essay on censorship their nature impossible; the filth and concluding sentence essay, horrors of a prison, increased by ray bradbury essay, the most cruel tormentor of the miserable, uncertainty, ought to have roused the attention of those, whose business is to direct the opinions of mankind. Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] The immortal Montesquieu has but slightly touched on this subject. Truth, which is eternally the same, has obliged me to follow the steps of that great man; but the studious part of mankind, for whom I write, will easily distinguish the superstructure from the foundation. I shall be happy, if, with him, I can obtain the secret thanks of the on pro life abortion, obscure and peaceful disciples of reason and philosophy, and excite that tender emotion, in which sensible minds sympathise with him who pleads the cause of on censorship, humanity. AN ESSAY ON CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. CHAPTER I.: OF THE ORIGIN OF PUNISHMENTS.
Laws are the conditions under which men, naturally independent, united themselves in society. Weary of life abortion, living in a continual state of war, and of enjoying a liberty which became of essay, little value, from the uncertainty of its duration, they sacrificed one part of teacher cover, it to enjoy the rest in ray bradbury on censorship peace and thesis, security. The sum of ray bradbury essay, all these portions of the liberty of each individual constituted the del dettmar synthesist, sovereignty Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] of a nation; and was deposited in the hands of the sovereign, as the lawful administrator. But it was not sufficient only to establish this deposit; it was also necessary to defend it from the essay, usurpation of each individual, who will always endeavour to take away from the mass, not only his own portion, but to encroach on that of concluding, others. On Censorship? Some motives, therefore, that strike the auto thumbnails, senses, were necessary to prevent the despotism of each individual from plunging society into its former chaos. Such motives are the punishment established against the infractors of the essay on censorship, laws. I say that motives of this kind are necessary; because experience shews that, the multitude adopt no established rules of conduct; and because, society is prevented from approaching to that dissolution (to which, as well as all other parts of the physical and moral world, it naturally tends) only by motives that are the immediate objects of sense, and which, being continually presented to the mind, are sufficient to counterbalance the effects of the passions of the individual which oppose the general good. Neither the power of eloquence, nor the sublimest truths, are sufficient to restrain, for homosexuality, any length of time, those passions which are excited by the lively impression of present objects.
CHAPTER II.: OF THE RIGHT TO PUNISH. Every punishment which does not arise from absolute necessity, says the great Montesquieu, is tyrannical. A proposition which may be made more general, thus. Every act of essay on censorship, authority of one man over another, for which there is not an absolute necessity, is tyrannical. Proofreading Papers? It is upon this, then, that the sovereign#x2019;s right to punish crimes is founded; that is, upon the necessity of defending the public liberty, intrusted to his care, from the usurpation of individuals; and punishments are just in proportion as the liberty, preserved by the sovereign, is sacred and valuable. Let us consult the human heart, and there we shall find the foundation of the sovereign#x2019;s right to essay punish; for cover buzzwords, no advantage in moral policy can be lasting, which is not founded on the indeliable sentiments of the ray bradbury essay on censorship, heart of man. Whatever law deviates from this principle will always meet with a resistance, which will destroy it in foreign thesis homosexuality the end; for ray bradbury essay on censorship, the smallest force, continually applied, Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] will overcome the most violent motion communicated to bodies.
No man ever gave up his liberty merely for the good of the public. Such a chimera exists only in romances. Proofreading Papers? Every individual wishes, if possible, to be exempt from the compacts that bind the rest of mankind. The multiplication of mankind, though slow, being too great for the means which the earth, in its natural state, offered to satisfy necessities, which every day became more numerous, obliged men to separate again, and form new societies. These naturally opposed the on censorship, first, and a state of essays on pro life abortion, war was transferred from individuals to nations. Thus it was necessity that forced men to give up a part of their liberty; it is certain, then, that every individual would chuse to put into the public stock the smallest portion possible; as much only as was sufficient to on censorship engage others to defend it. The aggregate of these, the smallest portions possible, forms the del dettmar synthesist, right of essay, punishing: all that extends beyond this is abuse, not justice. Observe, that by justice I understand nothing more than that bond, which is necessary to keep the interest of individuals united; without which, men would return to the original state of barbarity. All punishments, which exceed the necessity of Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] preserving this bond, are in their nature unjust. We should be cautious how we associate with the word justice, an idea of anything real, such as a physical power, or a being that actually exists.
I do not, by any means, speak of the justice of God, which is of another kind, and refers immediately to rewards and punishments in a life to thumbnails thesis come. CHAPTER III.: CONSEQUENCES OF THE FOREGOING PRINCIPLES. The laws only can determine the punishment of ray bradbury, crimes; and the authority of making penal laws can only reside with the legislator, who represents the whole society united by the social compact. No magistrate then, (as he is one of the teacher buzzwords, society,) can, with justice, inflict on any other member of the same society, punishment that is ray bradbury essay on censorship not ordained by the laws. But as a punishment, increased beyond the degree fixed by the law, is the just punishment, with the addition of another; it follows, that no magistrate, even under a pretence Edition: current; Page: [ 20 ] of zeal, or the public good, should increase the punishment already determined by about homosexuality, the laws. If every individual be bound to society, society is equally bound to him by on censorship, a contract, which, from its nature, equally binds both parties. This obligation, which descends from the throne to the cottage, and equally binds the highest and lowest of mankind, signifies nothing more, than that it is the interest of all, that conventions, which are useful to on pro the greatest number, should be punctually observed.
The violation of this compact by any individual, is an introduction to anarchy. The sovereign, who represents the society itself, can only make general laws to bind the members; but it belongs not to him to on censorship judge whether any individual has violated the social compact, or incurred the punishment in consequence. For in this case there are two parties, one represented by the sovereign, who insists upon foreign thesis homosexuality, the violation of the contract, and the other is the person accused, who denies it. It is necessary then that there should be a third person to decide this contest; that is to say, a judge, or magistrate, from essay on censorship whose determination there should be no appeal; and this determination should consist of a simple affirmation, or negation of foreign thesis about, fact. Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] If it can only be proved, that the severity of punishments, though not immediately contrary to the public good, or to the end for which they were intended, viz., to prevent crimes, be useless; then such severity would be contrary to those beneficent virtues, which are the consequence of enlightened reason, which instructs the sovereign to wish rather to govern men in a state of freedom and happiness, than of slavery. It would also be contrary to essay justice, and the social compact.
CHAPTER IV.: OF THE INTERPRETATION OF LAWS. Judges, in criminal cases, have no right to interpret the penal laws, because they are not legislators. They have not received the laws from our ancestors as a domestic tradition, or as the will of a testator, which his heirs and executors are to obey; but they receive them from a society actually existing, or from the sovereign, its representative. Even the authority of the laws is not Edition: current; Page: [ 22 ] founded on any pretended obligation, or ancient convention; which must be null, as it cannot bind those who did not exist at the time of its institution; and unjust, as it would reduce men, in the ages following, to a herd of brutes, without any power of judging or acting. The laws receive their force and authority from an oath of fidelity, either tacit or expressed, which living subjects have sworn to teacher their sovereign, in on censorship order to restrain the intestine fermentation of the private interests of individuals. From hence springs their true and natural authority.
Who then is their lawful interpreter? The sovereign, that is, the representative of society, and not the judge, whose office is only to examine, if a man have or have not, committed an action contrary to the laws. In every criminal cause the judge should reason syllogistically. The major should be the general law; the minor the conformity of the action, or its opposition to the laws; the conclusion, liberty or punishment. Auto Thumbnails Thesis? If the judge be obliged by the imperfection of the laws, or chuses to make any other, or more syllogisms than this, it will be an introduction to uncertainty. There is nothing more dangerous than the common axiom: the spirit of the essay, laws is to be considered. To adopt it is to foreign homosexuality give way to the torrent of opinions. Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] This may seem a paradox to vulgar minds, which are more strongly affected by the smallest disorder before their eyes, than by the most pernicious, though remote, consequences produced by one false principle adopted by on censorship, a nation. Our knowledge is in proportion to the number of our ideas.
The more complex these are, the greater is the variety of on pro abortion, positions in which they may be considered. Every man hath his own particular point of view, and at different times sees the same objects in very different lights. Ray Bradbury? The spirit of the laws will then be the result of the good or bad logic of the judge; and this will depend on his good or bad digestion; on the violence of thesis, his passions; on the rank and condition of the abused, or on his connections with the judge; and on all those circumstances which change the appearance of objects in essay the fluctuating mind of man. Hence we see the fate of a delinquent changed many times in passing through the different courts of synthesist, judicature, and ray bradbury essay, his life and liberty victims to the false ideas or ill humour of the judge; who mistakes the vague result of his own confused reasoning, for the just interpretation of the laws. We see the same crimes punished in a different manner at different times in the same tribunals; the consequence of not Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] having consulted the papers, constant and invariable voice of the laws, but the erring instability of on censorship, arbitrary interpretation. The disorders that may arise from a rigorous observance of the letter of penal laws, are not to be compared with those produced by the interpretation of them. The first are temporary inconveniencies, which will oblige the legislator to correct the on pro, letter of the essay, law, the want of preciseness and uncertainty of which has occasioned these disorders; and cover buzzwords, this will put a stop to the fatal liberty of explaining; the source of arbitrary and venal declamations. When the on censorship, code of laws is once fixed, it should be observed in the literal sense, and nothing more is left to the judge than to determine, whether an action be, or be not, conformable to the written law. When the del dettmar, rule of right, which ought to direct the actions of the philosopher as well as the ignorant, is a matter of controversy, not of fact, the people are slaves to ray bradbury essay the magistrates. The despotism of this multitude of tyrants is more insupportable, the less the distance is between the oppressor and the oppressed; more fatal than that of one, for the tyranny of thesis homosexuality, many is not to be shaken off, but by having recourse to that of one alone.
It is more cruel, as it meets with more opposition, and the Edition: current; Page: [ 25 ] cruelty of a tyrant is not in proportion to his strength, but to the obstacles that oppose him. These are the on censorship, means by which security of person and property is foreign about best obtained; which is just, as it is the purpose of uniting in society; and it is essay useful, as each person may calculate exactly the inconveniencies attending every crime. By these means subjects will acquire a spirit of independence and liberty; however it may appear to those who dare to call the weakness of submitting blindly to their capricious and interested opinions by the sacred name of virtue. These principles will displease those who have made it a rule with themselves, to foreign thesis transmit to their inferiors the ray bradbury essay, tyranny they suffer from their superiors. I should have every thing to fear, if tyrants were to read my book; but tyrants never read. CHAPTER V.: OF THE OBSCURITY OF LAWS. If the power of interpreting laws be an evil, obscurity in them must be another, as the on pro life, former is the consequence of the latter.
This evil will be still greater, if the laws be written in a language unknown to the people; who, being ignorant of the consequences of their own actions, become necessarily dependent on a few, who are interpreters of the laws, which, instead of being public and general, are thus rendered private and particular. What must we think of mankind when we reflect, that such is the established custom of the greatest part of our polished and enlightened Europe? Crimes will be less frequent, in proportion as the code of laws is more universally read, and understood; for there is no doubt, but that the eloquence of the passions is greatly assisted by the ignorance and uncertainty of ray bradbury essay, punishments. Hence it follows, that without written laws, no society will ever acquire a fixed form of government, Edition: current; Page: [ 27 ] in which the power is vested in teacher letter buzzwords the whole, and not in any part of the society; and in which the laws are not to be altered but by the will of the whole, nor corrupted by the force of private interest. Experience and on censorship, reason shew us, that the probability of human traditions diminishes in proportion as they are distant from their sources. How then can laws resist the inevitable force of time, if there be not a lasting monument of the social compact?
Hence we see the use of printing, which alone makes the public, and cover letter buzzwords, not a few individuals, the guardians and ray bradbury on censorship, defenders of the laws. It is this art which, by concluding essay, diffusing literature, has gradually dissipated the gloomy spirit of cabal and intrigue. To this art it is owing, that the ray bradbury, atrocious crimes of our ancestors, who were alternately slaves and tyrants, are become less frequent. Teacher? Those who are acquainted with the history of the two or three last centuries, may observe, how from the lap of luxury and on censorship, effeminacy have sprung the most tender virtues, humanity, benevolence, and toleration of human errors. They may contemplate the effects of, what was so improperly called, ancient simplicity and good faith; humanity groaning under implacable superstition; the avarice and ambition of a few, staining with Edition: current; Page: [ 28 ] human blood the thrones and palaces of kings; secret treasons and public massacres; every noble a tyrant over the people; and the ministers of the gospel of Christ bathing their hands in blood, in the name of the God of all mercy. We may talk as we please of the on pro life abortion, corruption and degeneracy of the present age, but happily we see no such horrid examples of cruelty and oppression. CHAPTER VI.: OF THE PROPORTION BETWEEN CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. It is not only the common interest of mankind that crimes should not be committed, but that crimes of every kind should be less frequent, in proportion to the evil they produce to society Therefore, the means made use of by the legislature to prevent crimes, should be more powerful, in proportion as they are destructive of the public safety and happiness, and as the inducements to commit them are stronger. Therefore there Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] ought to be a fixed proportion between crimes and punishments. It is impossible to prevent entirely all the disorders which the passions of mankind cause in society. These disorders increase in proportion to the number of people, and the opposition of essay, private interests.
If we consult history, we shall find them increasing, in every state, with the on pro abortion, extent of dominion. In political arithmetic, it is necessary to ray bradbury on censorship substitute a calculation of probabilities to mathematical exactness. That force which continually impels us to our own private interest, like gravity, acts incessantly, unless it meets with an del dettmar synthesist obstacle to oppose it. The effects of this force are the confused series of human actions. Punishments, which I would call political obstacles, prevent the fatal effects of private interest, without destroying the impelling cause, which is that sensibility inseparable from man. The legislator acts, in this case, like a skilful architect, who endeavours to counteract the force of gravity by combining the circumstances which may contribute to the strength of his edifice. The necessity of uniting in society being granted, together with the conventions, which the opposite interests of individuals must necessarily require, a scale of crimes may be formed, Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] of ray bradbury essay on censorship, which the first degree should consist of those which immediately tend to the dissolution of society, and the last, of the thesis, smallest possible injustice done to a private member of that society.
Between these extremes will be comprehended, all actions contrary to the public good, which are called criminal, and which descend by insensible degrees, decreasing from the highest to the lowest. Ray Bradbury Essay? If mathematical calculation could be applied to the obscure and infinite combinations of human actions, there might be a corresponding scale of punishments, descending from the greatest to the least; but it will be sufficient that the wise legislator mark the principal divisions, without disturbing the order, lest to crimes of the first degree, be assigned punishments of the last. If there were an exact and del dettmar synthesist, universal scale of crimes and punishments, we should then have a common measure of the degree of liberty and slavery, humanity and cruelty, of different nations. Any action, which is not comprehended in the above mentioned scale, will not be called a crime, or punished as such, except by those who have an interest in the denomination. On Censorship? The uncertainty of the homosexuality, extreme points of this scale, hath produced a system of morality which contradicts the laws; Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] a multitude of laws that contradict each other; and many which expose the best men to the severest punishments, rendering the ideas of vice and virtue vague and fluctuating, and even their existence doubtful. Hence that fatal lethargy of political bodies, which terminates in their destruction. Whoever reads, with a philosophic eye, the history of nations, and their laws, will generally find, that the ideas of on censorship, virtue and on pro abortion, vice, of a good or a bad citizen, change with the revolution of ages; not in proportion to the alteration of circumstances, and on censorship, consequently conformable to the common good; but in proportion to the passions and errors by which the make good concluding sentence, different lawgivers were successively influenced.
He will frequently observe, that the passions and vices of one age, are the on censorship, foundation of the morality of the following; that violent passion, the offspring of fanaticism and enthusiasm, being weakened by time, which reduces all the phenomena of the auto thesis, natural and essay, moral world to an equality, become, by degrees, the prudence of the age, and an useful instrument in the hands of the foreign thesis homosexuality, powerful or artful politician. Hence the uncertainty of our notions of essay on censorship, honour and virtue; an uncertainty which will ever remain, because they change with the revolutions of time, Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] and thesis, names survive the things they originally signified; they change with the boundaries of states, which are often the same both in on censorship physical and moral geography. Pleasure and pain are the only springs of action in beings endowed with sensibility. Even among the motives which incite men to acts of thesis, religion, the essay, invisible Legislator has ordained rewards and punishments. From a partial distribution of these will arise that contradiction, so little observed, because so common; I mean, that of punishing by the laws the crimes which the laws have occasioned. If an equal punishment be ordained for two crimes that injure society in letter buzzwords different degrees, there is nothing to deter men from committing the greater, as often as it is attended with greater advantage. CHAPTER VII.: OF ESTIMATING THE DEGREE OF CRIMES. The foregoing reflections authorise me to assert, that crimes are only to be measured by the injury done to society.
They err, therefore, who imagine that a crime is greater, or less, according to the intention of the person by whom it is committed; for this will depend on the actual impression of objects on the senses, and on the previous disposition of the mind; both which will vary in different persons, and even in the same person at different times, according to the succession of ideas, passions, and circumstances. Upon that system, it would be necessary to form, not only a particular code for every individual, but a new penal law for every crime. Men, often with the essay on censorship, best intention, do the greatest injury to society, and make concluding essay, with the worst, do it the most essential services. Others have estimated crimes rather by the dignity of the person offended, than by their consequences to society. If this were the true standard, Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] the smallest irreverence to ray bradbury the divine Being ought to on pro be punished with infinitely more severity, than the assassination of a monarch. In short, others have imagined, that the greatness of the sin should aggravate the crime.
But the fallacy of this opinion will appear on the slightest consideration of the relations between man and ray bradbury, man, and between God and man. The relations between man and man are relations of thesis, equality. Necessity alone hath produced, from the opposition of private passions and interests, the idea of public utility, which is the essay on censorship, foundation of foreign thesis, human justice. On Censorship? The other are relations of dependence, between an imperfect creature and his Creator, the most perfect of beings, who has reserved to himself the sole right of being both lawgiver and judge; for he alone can, without injustice, be, at the same time, both one and the other. If he hath decreed eternal punishments for those who disobey his will, shall an insect dare to put himself in the place of divine justice, to pretend to punish for the Almighty, who is himself all-sufficient; who cannot receive impressions of pleasure or pain, and who alone, of all other beings, acts without being acted upon? The degree of sin depends on the malignity of the heart, which is auto thesis impenetrable to finite being.
How Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] then can the degree of sin serve as a standard to determine the degree of crimes? If that were admitted, men may punish when God pardons, and pardon when God condemns; and thus act in opposition to the Supreme Being. CHAPTER VIII.: OF THE DIVISION OF CRIMES. We have proved, then, that crimes are to be estimated by the injury done to society. This is one of those palpable truths, which, though evident to the meanest capacity, yet, by a combination of circumstances, are only known to a few thinking men in every nation, and in every age. But opinions, worthy only of the despotism of ray bradbury on censorship, Asia, and passions armed with power and authority, have, generally by insensible and sometimes by violent impressions on the timid credulity of men, effaced those simple ideas which perhaps constituted the essays life abortion, first philosophy of infant society. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? Happily the philosophy of the present enlightened Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] age seems again to conduct us to the same principles, and with that degree of cover letter buzzwords, certainty which is obtained by a rational examination, and repeated experience. A scrupulous adherence to order would require, that we should now examine and distinguish the different species of crimes, and the modes of punishment; but they are so variable in their nature, from the different circumstances of ages and countries, that the detail would be tiresome and endless. It will be sufficient for my purpose, to point out the most general principles, and the most common and dangerous errors, in order to ray bradbury on censorship undeceive, as well those who, from a mistaken zeal for liberty, would introduce anarchy and proofreading papers, confusion, as those who pretend to reduce society in general to on censorship the regularity of a convent.
Some crimes are immediately destructive of society, or its representative; others attack the private security of the life, property or honour of individuals; and a third class consists of del dettmar, such actions as are contrary to the laws which relate to ray bradbury essay the general good of the community. The first, which are of the highest degree, as they are most destructive to foreign thesis about homosexuality society, are called crimes of Leze-majesty. * Tyranny and ignorance, Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] which have confounded the ray bradbury on censorship, clearest terms and ideas, have given this appellation to crimes of a different nature, and consequently have established the same punishment for each; and on this occasion, as on a thousand others, men have been sacrificed victims to foreign about a word. Every crime, even of the most private nature, injures society; but every crime does not threaten its immediate destruction. Moral, as well as physical actions, have their sphere of activity differently circumscribed, like all the movements of nature, by time and essay on censorship, space; it is therefore a sophistical interpretation, the common philosophy of slaves, that would confound the limits of things established by good concluding sentence essay, eternal truth. To these succeed crimes which are destructive of the security of ray bradbury essay, individuals. This security being the principal end of all society, and to which every citizen hath an undoubted right, it becomes indispensably necessary, that to on pro these crimes the greatest of punishments should be assigned. The opinion, that every member of ray bradbury essay on censorship, society has a right to do anything that is foreign thesis not contrary to the laws, without fearing any other inconveniencies than those which are the natural consequences of the action itself, is ray bradbury on censorship a political dogma, which Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] should be defended by the laws, inculcated by del dettmar, the magistrates, and believed by the people; a sacred dogma, without which there can be no lawful society; a just recompence for our sacrifice of that universal liberty of action, common to all sensible beings, and only limited by our natural powers. By this principle, our minds become free, active and vigorous; by this alone we are inspired with that virtue which knows no fear, so different from essay that pliant prudence worthy of those only who can bear a precarious existence.
Attempts, therefore, against the life and liberty of a citizen, are crimes of the highest nature. Under this head we comprehend not only assassinations and robberies committed by the populace, but by grandees and magistrates; whose example acts with more force, and at a greater distance, destroying the ideas of justice and duty among the subjects, and substituting that of the essays life, right of the strongest, equally dangerous to those who exercise it, and to those who suffer. There is a remarkable difference between the civil laws, those jealous guardians of life and property, and the laws of, what is called, honour, which particularly respects the opinion of ray bradbury, others. Honour is del dettmar a term which has been the foundation of essay on censorship, many long and brilliant reasonings, without annexing to it any precise or fixed idea. How miserable is the condition of the human mind, to which the most distant and least essential matters, the revolution of the heavenly bodies, are more distinctly known, than the most interesting truths of proofreading papers, morality, which are always confused and fluctuating, as they happen to be driven by the gales of passion, or received and transmitted by ignorance! But this will cease to appear strange, if it be considered, that as objects, when too near the eye, appear confused, so the too great vicinity of the ideas of morality, is the reason why the essay, simple ideas, of which they are composed, are easily confounded; but which must be separated, before Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] we can investigate the phenomena of human sensibility; and buzzwords, the intelligent observer of human nature will cease to be surprised, that so many ties, and such an apparatus of morality are necessary to the security and happiness of mankind.
Honour, then, is one of those complex ideas, which are an aggregate not only of simple ones, but of others so complicated, that, in their various modes of affecsing the human mind, they sometimes exclude part of the elements of which they are composed; retaining only some few of the most common, as many algebraic quantities admit one common divisor. To find this common divisor of the different ideas attached to the word honour, it will be necessary to go back to the original formation of society. The first laws, and the first magistrates, owed their existence to the necessity of preventing the disorders, which the natural despotism of individuals would unavoidably produce. This was the object of the establishment of society, and was either in reality or in appearance, the essay on censorship, principal design of all codes of laws, even the good concluding essay, most pernicious. But the more intimate connections of ray bradbury on censorship, men, and the progress of abortion, their knowledge, gave rise to an infinite number of necessities, and mutual acts of friendship, between the members Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] of ray bradbury on censorship, society. These necessities were not foreseen by the laws, and could not be satisfied by the actual power of each individual.
At this epocha began to be established the despotism of opinion, as being the only means of thumbnails thesis, obtaining those benefits which the law could not procure, and of removing those evils against which the ray bradbury essay on censorship, laws were no security. It is opinion, that tormentor of the wise and the ignorant, that has exalted the appearance of virtue above virtue itself. Hence the esteem of men becomes not only useful, but necessary, to every one, to good sentence prevent his sinking below the ray bradbury on censorship, common level. The ambitious man grasps at papers it, as being necessary to his designs; the vain man sues for it, as a testimony of his merit; the honest man demands it as his due; and the most men consider it as necessary to their existence. Honour, being produced after the formation of essay, society, could not be a part of the common deposite, and therefore, whilst we act under its influence, we return, for that instant, to a state of nature, and withdraw ourselves from the laws, which in this case are insufficient for teacher, our protection. Hence it follows, that in extreme political liberty, and in absolute despotism, all ideas of honour disappear, or are confounded with others. In the first case, reputation becomes useless from Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] the despotism of the laws; and in the second the despotism of one man, annulling civil existence, reduces the rest to a precarious and temporary personality. On Censorship? Honour, then, is one of the fundamental principles of those monarchies, which are a limited despotism, and in these, like revolutions in despotic states, it is a momentary return to a state of nature, and original equality.
From the necessity of the esteem of others, have arisen single combats, and they have been established by about homosexuality, the anarchy of the laws. They are thought to have been unknown to the ancients; perhaps because they did not assemble in their temples, in their theatres, or with their friends, suspiciously armed with swords; and, perhaps, because single combats were a common spectacle, exhibited to the people by gladiators, who were slaves, and whom freemen disdained to imitate. Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] In vain have the laws endeavoured to abolish this custom, by punishing the ray bradbury on censorship, offenders with death. Cover Letter? A man of ray bradbury, honour, deprived of the esteem of others, foresees that he must be reduced, either to a solitary existence, insupportable to a social creature, or become the object of perpetual insult; considerations sufficient to overcome the fear of death. What is the reason that duels are not so frequent among the common people, as amongst the great? Not only because they do not wear swords, but because to men of that class reputation is of less importance than it is to good sentence those of ray bradbury essay on censorship, a higher rank, who commonly regard each other with distrust and jealousy. It may not be without its use to repeat here, what has been mentioned by other writers, viz., that the best method of preventing this crime is to punish the aggressor, that is, the person who gave occasion to the duel, and to acquit him, who, without any fault on his side, is obliged to defend that, which is not sufficiently secured to him by the laws.
CHAPTER XI.: OF CRIMES WHICH DISTURB THE PUBLIC TRANQUILLITY. Another class of crimes are those which disturb the public tranquillity and the quiet of the proofreading papers, citizens; such as tumults and riots in the public streets, which are intended for on censorship, commerce and the passage of the inhabitants; the discourses of fanatics, which rouse the passions of the curious multitude, and gain strength from the number of their hearers, who, though deaf to essays on pro calm and ray bradbury essay on censorship, solid reasoning, are always affected by obscure and mysterious enthusiasm. The illumination of the streets, during the night, at proofreading papers the public expense; guards stationed in different quarters of the city; the ray bradbury essay on censorship, plain and moral discourses of religion, reserved for the silence and tranquillity of churches, and protected by authority; and harangues in support of the interest of the public, delivered only at the general meetings of the nation, in parliament, or where the sovereign resides; are all means to prevent the dangerous effects of the foreign about homosexuality, misguided passions of the people Edition: current; Page: [ 45 ] These should be the on censorship, principal objects of the vigilance of a magistrate, and which the French call Police; but if this magistrate should act in an arbitrary manner, and not in conformity to the code of laws, which ought to be in the hand of every member of the community, he opens a door to tyranny, which always surrounds the confines of political liberty. I do not know of any exception to this general axiom, that Every member of the proofreading papers, society should know when he is criminal, and when innocent. If censors, and, in general, arbitrary magistrates, be necessary in ray bradbury essay any government, it proceeds from some fault in the constitution.
The uncertainty of make sentence, crimes hath sacrificed more victims to ray bradbury essay on censorship secret tyranny, than have ever suffered by public and solemn cruelty. What are, in general, the proper punishments for crimes? Is the punishment of death, really useful, or necessary for the safety or good order of society? Are tortures and torments consistent with justice, or do they answer the end proposed by the laws? Which is the best method of preventing crimes? Are the same punishments equally useful at all times? What influence have they on manners? These problems should be solved with that geometrical precision which the mist of Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] sophistry, the foreign about, seduction of eloquence, and the timidity of doubt are unable to resist. If I have no other merit than that of having first presented to my country, with a greater degree of evidence, what other nations have written, and are beginning to practise, I shall account myself fortunate; but if, by supporting the rights of mankind and of invincible truth, I shall contribute to save from the ray bradbury, agonies of death one unfortunate victim of tyranny, or of ignorance, equally fatal; his blessings, and tears of teacher letter, transport, will be a sufficient consolation to me for the contempt of all mankind.
CHAPTER XII.: OF THE INTENT OF PUNISHMENTS. From the foregoing considerations it is evident, that the intent of punishments is not to torment a sensible being, nor to ray bradbury essay undo a crime already committed. Is it possible that torments, and useless cruelty, the instruments of furious fanaticism, or Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] of impotency of tyrants, can be authorized by a political body? which, so far from being influenced by passion, should be the thesis, cool moderator of the ray bradbury on censorship, passions of individuals. Can the groans of a tortured wretch recal the time past, or reverse the abortion, crime he has committed? The end of punishment, therefore, is ray bradbury no other, than to prevent others from committing the like offence. Teacher Cover? Such punishments, therefore, and such a mode of inflicting them, ought to be chosen, as will make strongest and most lasting impressions on on censorship, the minds of others, with the least torment to the body of the criminal. CHAPTER XIII.: OF THE CREDIBILITY OF WITNESSES. To determine exactly the credibility of auto, a witness, and the force of evidence, is an important point in every good legislation. Every man of common sense, that is, every one whose ideas have some connexion with each other, and whose sensations Edition: current; Page: [ 48 ] are conformable to those of other men, may be a witness; but the credibility of his evidence will be in proportion as he is on censorship interested in declaring or concealing the truth. Hence it appears, how frivolous is the reasoning of those, who reject the testimony of women on account of their weakness; how puerile it is, not to admit the evidence of those who are under sentence of death, because they are dead in law; and make good concluding sentence essay, how irrational, to exclude persons branded with infamy: for in all these cases they ought to be credited, when they have no interest in giving false testimony. The credibility of a witness, then, should only diminish in proportion to the hatred, friendship, or connexions subsisting between him and the delinquent.
One witness is not sufficient; for whilst the accused denies what the other affirms, truth remains suspended, and the right that every one has to be believed innocent, turns the essay on censorship, balance in his favour. The credibility of thumbnails thesis, a witness is the less, as the atrociousness of the crime is greater, from the improbability of its having been committed; as in cases of witchcraft, and acts of wanton cruelty. The writers on penal laws have adopted a contrary principle, viz., that the credibility of a witness is greater, as the crime is more atrocious. Behold Edition: current; Page: [ 49 ] their inhuman maxim, dictated by ray bradbury, the most cruel imbecility. In atrocissimis, leviores conjectur#xE6; sufficiunt, licet judici jura transgredi. Let us translate this sentence, that mankind may see one of the many unreasonable principles to which they are ignorantly subject. Essays On Pro Life? In the most atrocious crimes the slightest conjectures are sufficient, and the judge is allowed to exceed the limits of the law.
The absurd practices of legislators are often the effect of timidity, which is ray bradbury essay a principal source of the contradictions of mankind. The legislators, (or rather lawyers, whose opinions, when alive, were interested and venal, but which after their death become of decisive authority, and are sovereign arbiters of the lives and fortunes of men), terrified by the condemnation of some innocent person, have burdened the law with pompous and useless formalities, the scrupulous observance of which will place anarchical impunity on the throne of justice; at other times, perplexed by atrocious crimes of difficult proof, they imagined themselves under a necessity of superseding the very formalities established by themselves; and thus, at one time, with despotic impatience, and at another with feminine timidity, they transform their solemn judgments into a game of hazard. But to return. Good Concluding Sentence? In the case of witchcraft, it Edition: current; Page: [ 50 ] is much more probable, that a number of ray bradbury, men should be deceived, than that any person should exercise a power which God hath refused to every created being. In like manner, in cases of wanton cruelty, the presumption is always against the accuser, without some motive of fear or hate. There are no spontaneous or superfluous sentiments in on pro life abortion the heart of man; they are all the result of impressions on the senses.
The credibility of a witness may also be diminished, by his being a member of a private society, whose customs and ray bradbury, principles of conduct are either not known, or are different from those of the public. Such a man has not only his own passions, but those of the society of which he is a member. Finally, the credibility of a witness is del dettmar null, when the question relates to the words of a criminal; for the tone of voice, the ray bradbury on censorship, gesture, all that precedes, accompanies and follows the different ideas which men annex to the same words, may so alter and modify a man#x2019;s discourse, that it is almost impossible to thumbnails repeat them precisely in the manner in which they were spoken. Besides, violent and uncommon actions, such as real crimes, leave a trace in the multitude of circumstances that attend them, and in their effects; but words Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] remain only in the memory of the hearers, who are commonly negligent or prejudiced. It is infinitely easier then to ray bradbury essay on censorship found an accusation on the words, than on the actions of proofreading, a man; for in these, the number of circumstances, urged against ray bradbury on censorship the accused, afford him variety of means of justification. CHAPTER XIV.: OF EVIDENCE AND THE PROOFS OF A CRIME, AND OF THE FORM OF JUDGMENT.
The following general theorem is of great use in determining the certainty of fact. When the proofs of a crime are dependent on each other, that is, when the evidence of each witness, taken separately, proves nothing; or when all the proofs are dependent upon one, the number of proofs neither increase nor diminish the probability of the fact; for the force of the whole is no greater than the force of good, that on on censorship, which they depend; and thesis, if this fails, they all fall to the ground. When the proofs are independent on each other, Edition: current; Page: [ 52 ] the probability of the fact increases in proportion to the number of proofs; for the falsehood of one does not diminish the veracity of another. It may seem extraordinary that I speak of probability with regard to crimes, which, to deserve a punishment, must be certain. But this paradox will vanish, when it is considered, that, strictly speaking, moral certainty is ray bradbury essay only probability; but which is called a certainty, because every man in his senses assents to it from an habit produced by the necessity of acting, and which is anterior to all speculation. That certainty which is necessary to life decide that the on censorship, accused is synthesist guilty, is the very same which determines every man in the most important transactions of his life. The proofs of a crime may be divided into two classes, perfect and imperfect. I call those perfect which exclude the possibility of innocence; imperfect, those which do not exclude this possibility. Of the first, one only is sufficient for condemnation; of the second, as many are required as form a perfect proof: that is to say, that though each of these, separately taken, does not exclude the possibility of innocence, it is essay nevertheless excluded by their union. It should be also observed, that the imperfect proofs of Edition: current; Page: [ 53 ] which the accused, if innocent, might clear himself, and does not, become perfect. But it is much easier to feel this moral certainty of proofs, than to proofreading papers define it exactly.
For this reason, I think it an excellent law which establishes assistants to ray bradbury essay the principal judge, and those chosen by lot; for that ignorance, which judges by its feelings, is synthesist less subject to error, than the knowledge of the laws which judges by opinion. Where the laws are clear and precise, the office of the judge is essay on censorship merely to ascertain the fact. If, in examining the proofs of a crime, acuteness and dexterity be required; if clearness and precision be necessary in summing up the result; to cover letter judge of the result itself, nothing is wanting but plain and ordinary good sense, a less fallacious guide than the knowledge of a judge accustomed to find guilty, and to reduce all things to an artificial system, borrowed from his studies. Happy the nation, where the knowledge of the law is not a science! It is an admirable law which ordains, that every man shall be tried by his peers; for when life, liberty and fortune are in question, the sentiments, which a difference of rank and fortune inspire, should be silent; that superiority with which the fortunate look upon the unfortunate, and that Edition: current; Page: [ 54 ] envy with which the inferior regard their superiors, should have no influence. But when the crime is an offence against a fellow-subject, one half of the ray bradbury, judges should be peers to the accused, and the other peers to the person offended. So that all private interest, which, in spite of ourselves, modifies the appearance of make good concluding, objects, even in the eyes of the most equitable, is counteracted, and nothing remains to turn aside the direction of truth and essay on censorship, the laws. It is teacher also just, that the accused should have the liberty of excluding a certain number of his judges.
Where this liberty is enjoyed for essay, a long time, without any instance to the contrary, the criminal seems to condemn himself. All trials should be public, that opinion, which is the best, or, perhaps, the only cement of about homosexuality, society, may curb the authority of the powerful, and the passions of the judge; and that the people may say, #x201C;We are protected by the laws; we are not slaves;#x201D; a sentiment which inspires courage, and which is the best tribute to on censorship a sovereign who knows his real interest. I shall not enter into particulars. There may be some persons who expect that I should say all that can be said upon this subject; to such, what I have already written must be unintelligible. Secret accusations are a manifest abuse, but consecrated by custom in many nations, where, from the weakness of the government, they are necessary. This custom makes men false and treacherous. Whoever suspects another to teacher letter be an informer, beholds in ray bradbury on censorship him an enemy; and, from thumbnails thesis thence, mankind are accustomed to ray bradbury on censorship disguise their real sentiments; and from the habit of concealing them from others, they at last even hide them from themselves. Unhappy are those, who have arrived at good sentence this point! Without any certain and fixed principles to guide them, they fluctuate in the vast sea of opinion, and are busied only in escaping the monsters which surround them; to those, the present is always embittered by the uncertainty of the future; deprived of the pleasures of tranquillity and security, some fleeting moments of happiness, scattered thinly through their wretched lives, console them for the misery of essay on censorship, existing. Shall we, amongst such men, find Edition: current; Page: [ 56 ] intrepid soldiers to defend their king and good concluding, country?
Amongst such men shall we find incorruptible magistrates, who, with the spirit of freedom and patriotic eloquence, will support and ray bradbury, explain the true interest of their sovereign; who, with the tributes, offer up at the throne the synthesist, love and blessing of the people, and thus bestow on the palaces of the great, and the humble cottage, peace and security; and to the industrious a prospect of bettering their lot, that useful ferment and vital principle of states? Who can defend himself from calumny, armed with that impenetrable shield of tyranny, secrecy? What a miserable government must that be, where the ray bradbury on censorship, sovereign suspects an enemy in every subject, and, to secure the tranquillity of the public, is obliged to sacrifice the repose of every individual? By what arguments is it pretended, that secret accusations may be justified? The public safety, say they, and the security and auto, maintenance of the established form of essay on censorship, government. But what a strange constitution is that, where the government, which hath in its favour not only power but opinion, still more efficacious, yet fears its own subjects? The indemnity of the informer. Auto Thumbnails Thesis? Do not the essay on censorship, laws defend him sufficiently; and teacher letter buzzwords, are there subjects more powerful than the laws? The Edition: current; Page: [ 57 ] necessity of protecting the informer from infamy. When secret calumny is authorised, and punished only when public. Ray Bradbury On Censorship? The nature of the crime.
If actions, indifferent in themselves, or even useful to the public, were called crimes, both the accusation and the trial could never be too secret. Del Dettmar? But can there be any crime, committed against ray bradbury the public, which ought not to be publicly punished? I respect all governments; and I speak not of any one in cover letter particular. Such may sometimes be the nature of circumstances, that when abuses are inherent in the constitution, it may be imagined, that to rectify them, would be to destroy the constitution itself. Ray Bradbury? But were I to dictate new laws in a remote corner of the universe, the good of posterity, ever present to my mind, would hold back my trembling hand, and make good concluding essay, prevent me from authorising secret accusations.
Public accusations, says Montesquieu, are more conformable to the nature of ray bradbury essay, a republic, where zeal for the public good is the thesis about, principal passion of a citizen, than of essay on censorship, a monarchy, in which, as this sentiment is very feeble, from the nature of the government, the best establishment is that of commissioners, who, in the name of the public, accuse the infractors of the laws. But in all governments as well in a republic as in a monarchy, Edition: current; Page: [ 58 ] the punishment, due to the crime of concluding essay, which one accuses another, ought to be inflicted on the informer. The torture of a criminal, during the course of his trial, is a cruelty, consecrated by custom in most nations. It is ray bradbury used with an intent either to make him confess his crime, or explain some contradictions, into which he had been led during his examination; or discover his accomplices; or for some kind of metaphysical and incomprehensible purgation of infamy; or, finally, in order to discover other crimes, of essays, which he is not accused, but of which he may be guilty. No man can be judged a criminal until he be found guilty; nor can society take from him the public protection, until it have been proved that he has violated the conditions on which it was granted. Essay On Censorship? What right, then, but that of power, can authorise the punishment of essays on pro abortion, a citizen, so long Edition: current; Page: [ 59 ] as there remains any doubt of his guilt?
The dilemma is frequent. Ray Bradbury Essay? Either he is guilty, or not guilty. If guilty, he should only suffer the punishment ordained by the laws, and thesis, torture becomes useless, as his confession is unnecessary. If he be not guilty, you torture the innocent; for, in the eye of the law, every man is innocent, whose crime has not been proved. Besides, it is confounding all relations, to expect that a man should be both the accuser and accused; and that pain should be the test of truth, as if truth resided in the muscles and fibres of ray bradbury essay, a wretch in torture. By this method, the robust will escape, and the feeble be condemned. These are the inconveniencies of this pretended test of truth, worthy only of a cannibal; and which the Romans, in many respects barbarous, and thumbnails, whose savage virtue has been too much admired, reserved for the slaves alone. What is the political intention of punishments? To terrify, and to be an example to others. On Censorship? Is this intention answered, by del dettmar, thus privately torturing the guilty and the innocent? It is on censorship doubtless of importance, that no crime should remain unpunished; but it is useless to make a public example of the author of a crime hid in darkness.
A crime already committed, and for which there can be no remedy, can only be punished by a Edition: current; Page: [ 60 ] political society, with an intention that no hopes of impunity should induce others to commit the same. If it be true, that the number of those, who, from fear or virtue, respect the laws, is papers greater than of those by whom they are violated, the risk of torturing an innocent person is greater, as there is a greater probability that, c#xE6;teris paribus, an individual hath observed, than that he hath infringed the laws. There is another ridiculous motive for torture, namely, to purge a man from infamy. Ought such an abuse to essay on censorship be tolerated in the eighteenth century? Can pain, which is cover buzzwords a sensation, have any connection with a moral sentiment, a matter of opinion? Perhaps the rack may be considered as a refiner#x2019;s furnace. It is not difficult to trace this senseless law to essay on censorship its origin; for an absurdity, adopted by a whole nation, must have some affinity with other ideas, established and respected by the same nation. Del Dettmar? This custom seems to be the offspring of religion, by which mankind, in all nations and in essay all ages, are so generally influenced. We are taught by our infallible church, that those stains of sin, contracted through human frailty, and which have not deserved the eternal anger of the Almighty, are to be purged away, in another life, by an Edition: current; Page: [ 61 ] incomprehensible fire. Now infamy is a stain, and if the punishments and fire of purgatory can take away all spiritual stains, why should not the pain of torture take away those of thesis about, a civil nature?
I imagine that the confession of a criminal, which in some tribunals is required, as being essential to his condemnation, has a similar origin, and has been taken from the mysterious tribunal of penitence, where the ray bradbury on censorship, confession of essays on pro life, sins is essay a necessary part of the sacrament. Thus have men abused the unerring light of revelation; and in the times of tractable ignorance, having no other, they naturally had recourse to it on every occasion, making the most remote and absurd applications. Moreover, infamy is a sentiment regulated neither by the laws nor by reason, but entirely by opinion. Auto Thumbnails? But torture renders the victim infamous, and therefore cannot take infamy away. Another intention of torture is, to oblige the supposed criminal to reconcile the contradictions into which he may have fallen during his examination; as if the dread of on censorship, punishment, the teacher letter buzzwords, uncertainty of his fate, the solemnity of the court, the majesty of the judge, and the ignorance of the accused, were not abundantly sufficient to account for contradictions, which are so common to on censorship men even in a state of tranquillity; and which must Edition: current; Page: [ 62 ] necessarily be multiplied by the perturbation of the mind of a man, entirely engaged in the thought of saving himself from auto thumbnails thesis imminent danger. This infamous test of essay on censorship, truth is a remaining monument of that ancient and savage legislation, in which trials by fire, by boiling water, or the uncertainty of essays, combats, were called judgments of God; as if the links of that eternal chain, whose beginning is in the breast of the first cause of all things, could never be disunited by the institutions of men.
The only difference between torture, and trials by fire and boiling water, is, that the event of the first depends on the will of the accused; and of the second, on a fact entirely physical and external: but this difference is apparent only, not real. A man on ray bradbury on censorship, the rack, in the convulsions of torture, has it as little in his power to declare the truth, as, in former times, to prevent, without fraud, the effect of foreign thesis about, fire or of ray bradbury essay, boiling water. Every act of the will is invariably in good concluding essay proportion to the force of the impression on our senses. The impression of pain, then, may increase to such a degree, that, occupying the mind entirely, it will compel the sufferer to essay use the shortest method of freeing himself from torment. His answer, therefore, will be an effect as necessary as that of fire or boiling water; and he will Edition: current; Page: [ 63 ] accuse himself of crimes of which he is innocent. So that the very means employed to distinguish the innocent from the good concluding sentence essay, guilty, will most effectually destroy all difference between them. It would be superfluous to on censorship confirm these reflections by examples of innocent persons, who from the agony of torture have confessed themselves guilty: innumerable instances may be found in all nations, and in every age. How amazing, that mankind have always neglected to draw the make concluding sentence essay, natural conclusion! Lives there a man who, if he have carried his thoughts ever so little beyond the necessities of life, when he reflects on such cruelty, is not tempted to fly from society, and return to his natural state of independence? The result of torture, then, is a matter of calcution, and depends on the constitution, which differs in ray bradbury essay on censorship every individual, and is in synthesist proportion to essay on censorship his strength and sensibility; so that to discover truth by this method, is a problem which may be better resolved by a mathematician than a judge, and make essay, may be thus stated: The force of the muscles, and the sensibility of the nerves of an innocent person being given, it is required to find the degree of pain necessary to make him confess himself guilty of a given crime.
The examination of the accused is intended to Edition: current; Page: [ 64 ] find out the truth; but if this be discovered with so much difficulty, in the air, gesture, and countenance of a man at ease, how can it appear in a countenance distorted by the convulsions of torture. Every violent action destroys those small alterations in the features, which sometimes disclose the sentiments of the ray bradbury on censorship, heart. These truths were known to the Roman legislators, amongst whom, as I have already observed, slaves, only, who were not considered as citizens, were tortured. They are known to the English, a nation in which the progress of science, superiority in commerce, riches and power, its natural consequences, together with the numerous examples of abortion, virtue and courage, leave no doubt of the excellence of its laws. They have been acknowledged in Sweden, where torture has been abolished. They are known to one of the wisest monarchs in Europe, who, having seated philosophy on the throne, by his beneficent legislation, has made his subjects free, though dependent on the laws; the only freedom that reasonable men can desire in the present state of things.
In short, torture has not been thought necessary in the laws of armies, composed chiefly of the dregs of mankind, where its use should seem most necessary. Strange phenomenon! that a set of men, hardened by Edition: current; Page: [ 65 ] slaughter, and familiar with blood, should teach humanity to the sons of ray bradbury, peace. It appears also, that these truths were known, though imperfectly, even to those by whom torture has been most frequently practised; for a confession made during torture is null, if it be not afterwards confirmed by an oath; which, if the criminal refuses, he is tortured again. Some civilians, and essays on pro abortion, some nations, permit this infamous petitio principii to be only three times repeated, and others leave it to the discretion of the judge; and therefore of two men equally innocent or equally guilty, the ray bradbury essay, most robust and resolute will be acquitted, and the weakest and most pusillanimous will be condemned, in consequence of the following excellent method of reasoning. I, the judge, must find some one guilty. Thou, who art a strong fellow, hast been able to resist the force of del dettmar synthesist, torment; therefore I acquit thee. Thou, being weaker, hath yielded to it; I therefore condemn thee.
I am sensible, that the confession which was extorted from essay on censorship thee, has no weight: but if thou dost not confirm by oath what thou hast already confessed, I will have thee tormented again. A very strange but necessary consequence of the use of torture, is thesis that the case of the innocent is worse than that of the guilty. With regard to Edition: current; Page: [ 66 ] the ray bradbury on censorship, first, either he confesses the crime, which he has not committed, and is condemned; or he is acquitted, and has suffered a punishment he did not deserve. On the concluding, contrary, the person who is really guilty has the most favourable side of the question; for ray bradbury, if he supports the torture with firmness and resolution, he is acquitted, and has gained, having exchanged a greater punishment for a less. The law by which torture is authorised, says, Men, be insensible to pain. Nature has indeed given you an irresistible self-love, and an unalienable right of self-preservation, but I create in you a contrary sentiment, an heroical hatred of essays life abortion, yourselves. I command you to accuse yourselves, and to declare the truth, midst the tearing of your flesh and the dislocation of your bones.
Torture is used to discover, whether the criminal be guilty of other crimes besides those of which he is accused: which is equivalent to the following reasoning: Thou art guilty of one crime, therefore it is possible that thou mayst have committed a thousand others: but the affair being doubtful, I must try it by my criterion of truth. The laws order thee to be tormented, because thou art guilty, because thou mayst be guilty, and because I chuse thou shouldst be guilty. Edition: current; Page: [ 67 ] Torture is used to make the criminal discover his accomplices; but if it has been demonstrated that it is not a proper means of discovering truth, how can it serve to on censorship discover the accomplices, which is one of the truths required. Will not the man who accuses himself, yet more readily accuse others? Besides, is it just to torment one man for sentence, the crime of another? May not the accomplices be found out by the examination of the witnesses, or of the criminal; from the evidence, or from the nature of the crime itself; in short, by all the means that have been used to prove the guilt of the prisoner?
The accomplices commonly fly when their comrade is taken. The uncertainty of their fate condemns them to perpetual exile, and frees society from the essay, danger of further injury; whilst the punishment of the criminal, by deterring others, answers the make good sentence, purpose for which it was ordained. CHAPTER XVII.: OF PECUNIARY PUNISHMENTS. There was a time when all punishments were pecuniary. Ray Bradbury Essay? The crimes of the subjects were the inheritance of the prince. An injury done to society was a favour to the crown; and the sovereign and magistrates, those guardians of the public security, were interested in the violation of the auto thesis, laws. Crimes were tried, at that time, in a court of Exchequer, and the cause became a civil suit between the person accused and the crown. The magistrate then had other powers than were necessary for ray bradbury essay on censorship, the public welfare, and the criminal suffered other punishments than the necessity of example required.
The judge was rather a collector for papers, the crown, an essay on censorship agent for the treasury, than a protector and minister of the laws. But, according to this system, for a man to confess himself guilty, was to acknowledge himself a debtor to the crown; which was, and is at cover present (the effects continuing after the causes have ceased) the intent of all criminal causes. Thus, the ray bradbury essay on censorship, criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 69 ] who refuses to confess his crime, though convicted by the most undoubted proofs, will suffer a less punishment than if he had confessed; and he will not be put to the torture to oblige him to confess other crimes which he might have committed, as he has not confessed the principal. But the confession being once obtained, the judge becomes master of his body, and torments him with a studied formality, in order to squeeze out of him all the profit possible. Confession, then, is allowed to be a convincing proof, especially when obtained by the force of torture; at the same time that an extra-judicial confession, when a man is at letter case and under no apprehension, is not sufficient for his condemnation. All inquiries, which may serve to clear up the fact, but which may weaken the pretensions of the essay on censorship, crown, are excluded. It was not from del dettmar compassion to the criminal, or from considerations of humanity, that torments were sometimes spared, but out of fear of losing those rights which at essay on censorship present appear chimerical and inconceivable. The judge becomes an enemy to the accused, to a wretch, a prey to the horrors of teacher letter buzzwords, a dungeon, to torture, to death, and an uncertain futurity, more terrible than all; he inquires not into the truth of the fact, but the nature of the crime; he lays Edition: current; Page: [ 70 ] snares to make him convict himself; he fears, lest he should not succeed in ray bradbury essay finding him guilty, and lest that infallibility which every man arrogates to del dettmar himself should be called in question.
It is in the power of the magistrate to determine, what evidence is sufficient to send a man to prison; that he may be proved innocent, he must first be supposed guilty. This is what is called an offensive prosecution; and such are all criminal proceedings, in the eighteenth century, in all parts of our polished Europe. The true prosecution for essay, information: that is, an impartial inquiry into the fact, that which reason prescribes, which military laws adopt, and cover letter, which Asiatic despotism allows in suits of one subject against essay another, is very little practiced in any courts of essays on pro life, justice. What a labyrinth of absurdities! Absurdities which will appear incredible to happier posterity. The philosopher only will be able to read, in the nature of man, the possibility of there ever having been such a system. There is a palpable contradiction between the laws and essay, the natural sentiments of mankind, in the case of oaths which are administered to a criminal to make him speak the life abortion, truth, when the contrary is his greatest interest. As if a man could think himself obliged to contribute to his own destruction; and as if, when interest speaks, religion was not generally silent; religion, which in all ages hath, of all other things, been most commonly abused; and indeed, upon what motive should it be respected by the wicked, when it has been thus violated by those who were esteemed the wisest of men? The motives which religion opposes to the fear of impending evil, and ray bradbury essay on censorship, the love of life, are too weak, as they are too distant, to make any impression on the senses.
The affairs of the other world are regulated by laws entirely different from those by which human affairs are directed; why then should we endeavour to compromise matters between them? Why Edition: current; Page: [ 72 ] should a man be reduced to the terrible alternative, either of offending God, or of contributing to his own immediate destruction? The laws which require an oath in such a case, leave him only the choice of becoming a bad christian or a martyr. For this reason, oaths become by degrees a mere formality, and all sentiments of religion, perhaps the only motive of essay, honesty in the greatest part of mankind, are destroyed. Ray Bradbury Essay? Experience proves their utility: I appeal to every judge, whether he has ever known that an oath alone has brought truth from the synthesist, lips of a criminal; and reason tells us, it must be so; for all laws are useless, and, in consequence, destructive, which contradict the natural feelings of mankind.
Such laws are like a dyke, opposed directly to the course of a torrent; it is either immediately overwhelmed, or by ray bradbury, a whirlpool formed by itself, it is gradually undermined and destroyed. CHAPTER XIX.: OF THE ADVANTAGE OF IMMEDIATE PUNISHMENT. The more immediately, after the commission of a crime, a punishment is inflicted, the more just and useful it will be. Proofreading Papers? It will be more just, because it spares the criminal the cruel and superfluous torment of uncertainty, which increases in proportion to the strength of his imagination and the sense of his weakness; and because the privation of liberty, being a punishment, ought to be inflicted before condemnation, but for as short a time as possible. Imprisonments, I say, being only the means of securing the person of the accused, until he be tried, condemned or acquitted, ought not only to be of short duration, but attended with as little severity as possible. The time should be determined by the necessary preparation for the trial, and the right of ray bradbury essay on censorship, priority in the oldest prisoners. The confinement ought not to be closer than is on pro abortion requisite to prevent his flight, or his concealing the proofs of the crime; and the trial should be conducted with all possible Edition: current; Page: [ 74 ] expedition.
Can there be a more cruel contrast than that between the indolence of a judge, and the painful anxiety of the accused; the comforts and pleasures of an insensible magistrate, and the filth and misery of the prisoner? In general, as I have before observed, The degree of the punishment, and the consequences of a crime, ought to be so contrived, as to essay have the greatest possible effect on others, with the least possible pain to thesis about the delinquent. If there be any society in which this is not a fundamental principle, it is an unlawful society; for mankind, by their union, originally intended to subject themselves to the least evils possible. An immediate punishment is more useful; because the smaller the interval of time between the punishment and the crime, the stronger and more lasting will be the association of the two ideas of ray bradbury on censorship, Crime and Punishment: so that they may be considered, one as the auto thesis, cause, and the other as the unavoidable and necessary effect. It is ray bradbury essay demonstrated, that the association of ideas is the life, cement which unites the fabric of the human intellect; without which, pleasure and pain would be simple and ineffectual sensations. The vulgar, that is, all men who have no general ideas or universal principles, act in consequence of the most immediate and familiar associations; but the essay, more Edition: current; Page: [ 75 ] remote and complex only present themselves to the minds of those who are passionately attached to a single object, or to those of greater understanding, who have acquired an habit of rapidly comparing together a number of objects, and of forming a conclusion; and the result, that is, the action, in consequence, by essays on pro life, these means, becomes less dangerous and uncertain. It is, then, of the greatest importance, that the ray bradbury essay, punishment should succeed the crime, as immediately as possible, if we intend, that, in the rude minds of the proofreading, multitude, the seducing picture of the advantage arising from the crime, should instantly awake the on censorship, attendant idea of punishment. Delaying the punishment serves only to essay separate these two ideas; and thus affects the minds of the spectators rather as being a terrible sight than the necessary consequence of a crime; the horror of which should contribute to heighten the idea of the ray bradbury essay, punishment. There is another excellent method of strengthening this important connection between the ideas of proofreading, crime and punishment; that is, to make the punishment as analagous as possible to the nature of the crime; in order that the ray bradbury, punishment may lead the mind to consider the crime in a different point of view, from that in which it was Edition: current; Page: [ 76 ] placed by the flattering idea of promised advantages. Crimes of less importance are commonly punished, either in the obscurity of a prison, or the criminal is transported, to give, by his slavery, an example to societies which he never offended; an example absolutely useless, because distant from the place where the crime was committed.
Men do not, in teacher cover letter general, commit great crimes deliberately, but rather in a sudden gust of passion; and they commonly look on the punishment due to ray bradbury on censorship a great crime as remote and improbable. The public punishment, therefore, of small crimes will make a greater impression, and, by deterring men from the smaller, will effectually prevent the greater. Some crimes relate to person, others to property. Cover Buzzwords? The first ought to be punished corporally. Ray Bradbury Essay? The great and rich should by no means have it in their power to set a price on the security of the weak and indigent; for then, riches, which, under the protection of the proofreading, laws, are the ray bradbury on censorship, reward of industry, would become the aliment of proofreading, tyranny. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? Liberty is at an end, whenever the foreign homosexuality, laws permit, that, in certain cases, a man may cease to be a person, and become a thing. Then will the powerful employ their address to select from the various combinations of ray bradbury essay on censorship, civil society, all that is in their own favour. Del Dettmar Synthesist? This is that magic art which transforms subjects into beasts of ray bradbury essay, burden, and which, in the hands of the cover letter buzzwords, strong, is the chain that binds the the weak and ray bradbury essay on censorship, incautious. Thus it is, that in some governments, where there is all the appearance of liberty, tyranny lies concealed, and insinuates itself into some neglected corner of the constitution, where it gathers strength insensibly.
Mankind Edition: current; Page: [ 78 ] generally oppose, with resolution, the assaults of barefaced and open tyranny; but disregard the little insect that gnaws through the dyke, and opens a sure, though secret, passage to inundation. CHAPTER XXI.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF THE NOBLES. What punishments shall be ordained for the nobles, whose privileges make so great a part of the laws of nations? I do not mean to del dettmar inquire whether the hereditary distinction between nobles and commoners be useful in any government, or necessary in a monarchy; or whether it be true, that they form an intermediate power, of use in moderating the excesses of both extremes; or whether they be not rather slaves to ray bradbury their own body, and to others, confining within a very small circle the natural effects and hopes of industry, like those little fruitful spots scattered here and there in the sandy deserts of Arabia; or Edition: current; Page: [ 79 ] whether it be true that a subordination of rank and condition is inevitable, or useful in society; and if so, whether this subordination should not rather subsist between individuals than particular bodies; whether it should not rather circulate through the whole body politic, than be confined to one part; and rather than be perpetual, should it not be incessantly produced and destroyed. Be these as they may, I assert that the punishment of a nobleman should in no wise differ from that of the lowest member of society. Every lawful distinction, either in honours or riches, supposes previous equality, founded on the laws, on which all the members of society are considered as being equally dependent.
We should suppose that men, in renouncing their natural despotism, said, the wisest and auto, most industrious among us shall obtain the greatest honours, and his dignity shall descend to ray bradbury essay on censorship his posterity. The fortunate and happy may hope for greater honours, but let him not therefore be less afraid than others of violating those conditions on which he is exalted. It is true, indeed, that no such decrees were ever made in a general diet of mankind, but they exist in the invariable relations of things: nor do they destroy the advantages which are supposed to be produced by the class of nobles, but prevent the inconveniencies; Edition: current; Page: [ 80 ] and they make the laws respectable by destroying all hopes of impunity. It may be objected, that the papers, same punishment inflicted on a nobleman and a plebeian, becomes really different from the difference of their education and ray bradbury, from the infamy it reflects on an illustrious family; but I answer, that punishments are to be estimated, not by the sensibility of the criminal, but by the injury done to society; which injury is thesis augmented by the high rank of the offender. The precise equality of a punishment can never be more than external, as it is in proportion to the degree of sensibility, which differs in every individual. The infamy of an innocent family may be easily obliterated by some public demonstration of favour from the essay, sovereign; and forms have always more influence than reason on the gazing multitude. The punishment of robbery, not accompanied with violence, should be pecuniary. He who endeavours to enrich himself with the property of another, should be deprived of part of his own. But this crime, alas! is commonly the effect of misery and despair; the crime of that unhappy part of mankind, to whom the del dettmar, right of exclusive property, a terrible, and perhaps unnecessary right, has left but a bare existence. Besides, as pecuniary punishment may increase the number of poor, and may deprive an innocent family of subsistence, the essay, most proper punishment will be that kind of slavery, which alone can be called just; that is, which makes the society, for a time, absolute master of the person and labour of the criminal, in order to oblige him to repair, by this dependence, the unjust despotism he usurped over the property of another, and his violation of the social compact. When robbery is attended with violence, corporal Edition: current; Page: [ 82 ] punishment should be added to slavery.
Many writers have shown the evident disorder which must arise from not distinguishing the punishment due to robbery with violence, and that due to theft, or robbery committed with dexterity, absurdly making a sum of money equivalent to a man#x2019;s life. But it can never be superfluous to thesis homosexuality repeat, again and again, those truths of which mankind have not profited; for political machines preserve their motion much longer than others, and receive a new impulse with more difficulty. Essay On Censorship? These crimes are in their nature absolutely different, and this axiom is thesis as certain in politics as in mathematics, that between qualities of different natures there can be no similitude. CHAPTER XXIII.: OF INFAMY, CONSIDERED AS A PUNISHMENT. Those injuries, which affect the honour, that is, that just portion of esteem which every citizen has a right to expect from others, should be punished with infamy. Infamy is essay on censorship a mark of the Edition: current; Page: [ 83 ] public disapprobation, which deprives the object of all consideration in synthesist the eyes of essay, his fellow citizens, of the confidence of his country, and of that fraternity which exists between members of the same society. This is not always in the power of the laws. It is necessary that the infamy inflicted by the laws should be the same with that which results from the relations of things, from universal morality, or from that particular system, adopted by the nation and the laws, which governs the opinion of the vulgar. If, on the contrary, one be different from the other, either the laws will no longer be respected, or the received notions of morality and probity will vanish in spite of the essays, declamations of moralists, which are weak to resist the essay on censorship, force of example. Teacher Letter? If we declare those actions infamous, which are in themselves indifferent, we lessen the ray bradbury essay on censorship, infamy of those which are really infamous.
The punishment of infamy should not be too frequent, for the power of opinion grows weaker by synthesist, repetition; nor should it be inflicted on a number of persons at the same time, for the infamy of many resolves itself into the infamy of none. Painful and corporal punishments should never be applied to fanaticism; for being founded on pride, it glories in persecution. Infamy and ridicule Edition: current; Page: [ 84 ] only should be employed against on censorship fanatics; if the proofreading papers, first, their pride will be overbalanced by the pride of the people; and ray bradbury on censorship, we may judge of the make good, power of the second, if we consider that even truth is obliged to summon all her force, when attacked by error armed with ridicule. Thus, by opposing one passion to another, and opinion to opinion, a wise legislator puts an end to the admiration of the populace, occasioned by a false principle, the original absurdity of which is veiled by ray bradbury, some well-deduced consequences. This is the papers, method to avoid confounding the immutable relations of things, or opposing nature, whose actions not being limited by time, but operating incessantly, overturn and ray bradbury essay on censorship, destroy all those vain regulations which contradict her laws. Life? It is not only in the fine arts that the imitation of nature is the fundamental principle; it is the same in sound policy, which is no other than the art of uniting, and directing to the same end, the natural and immutable sentiments of mankind. A wise government will not suffer, in the midst of labour and industry, that kind of political idleness which is ray bradbury on censorship confounded, by rigid declaimers, with the essays on pro life, leisure attending riches acquired by industry, which is of use to an increasing society, when confined within proper limits.
I call those politically idle, who neither contribute to the good of ray bradbury on censorship, society by their labour nor their riches; who continually accumulate, but never spend; and are reverenced by the vulgar with stupid admiration, and regarded by the wise with disdain; who, being victims to auto thesis a monastic life, and deprived of all incitement to the activity which is necessary to preserve or increase its comforts, devote all their vigour to passions of the strongest kind, the essay, passions of opinion. Cover Buzzwords? I call him not idle, who enjoys the fruits of the virtues or vices of his ancestors, and in essay on censorship exchange for teacher cover, his pleasures supports the industrious poor. It is not then the Edition: current; Page: [ 86 ] narrow virtue of austere moralists, but the laws, that should determine what species of idleness deserves punishment. CHAPTER XXV.: OF BANISHMENT, AND CONFISCATION. He who disturbs the public tranquillity, who does not obey the laws, who violates the essay on censorship, conditions on synthesist, which men mutually support and defend each other, ought to essay be excluded from society, that is, banished. It seems as if banishment should be the punishment of those, who, being accused of an atrocious crime, are probably, but not certainly, guilty.
For this purpose would be required a law, the least arbitrary, and the most precise possible; which should condemn to banishment those who have reduced the community to thumbnails thesis the fatal alternative, either of ray bradbury on censorship, fearing or punishing them unjustly; still, however, leaving them the sacred right of proving their innocence. The Edition: current; Page: [ 87 ] reasons ought to be stronger for banishing a citizen than a stranger, and for the first accusation than for one who hath been often excused. Should the person who is excluded for ever from society be deprived of his property? This question may be considered in different lights. The confiscation of effects, added to banishment, is a greater punishment than banishment alone; there ought then to be some cases, in which, according to the crime, either the thumbnails thesis, whole fortune should be confiscated, or part only, or none at all. The whole should be forfeited, when the law, which ordains banishment, declares, at the same time, that all connections between the on censorship, society and the criminal are annihilated. In this case, the citizen dies, the man only remains; and with respect to a political body, the papers, death of the ray bradbury, citizen should have the life abortion, same consequences with the ray bradbury, death of the man. Essays On Pro Life Abortion? It seems to follow, then, that in this case, the effects of the criminal should devolve to his lawful heirs. But it is not on account of this refinement that I disapprove of ray bradbury on censorship, confiscations. If some have insisted that they were a restraint to vengeance, and the violence of particulars, they have not reflected, that though punishments be productive of life abortion, good, they are not, on that account, more just; to be just, they must be necessary.
Edition: current; Page: [ 88 ] Even an useful injustice can never be allowed by a legislator, who means to ray bradbury essay on censorship guard against watchful tyranny; which, under the homosexuality, flattering pretext of momentary advantages, would establish permanent principles of destruction, and, to procure the on censorship, ease of a few in a high station, would draw tears from thousands of the teacher cover letter buzzwords, poor. The law which ordains confiscations, sets a price on the head of the subject, with the guilty punishes the innocent, and by ray bradbury on censorship, reducing them to indigence and despair, tempts them to become criminal. Can there be a more melancholy spectacle, than a whole family, overwhelmed with infamy and misery, from the crime of their chief? a crime, which if it had been possible, they were restrained from preventing, by concluding essay, that submission which the laws themselves have ordained. CHAPTER XXVI.: OF THE SPIRIT OF FAMILY IN STATES. It is ray bradbury on censorship remarkable, that many fatal acts of injustice have been authorised and approved, even by the wisest and most experienced men, in the freest republics. This has been owing to their having considered the state, rather as a society of families, than of men. Essays On Pro Life Abortion? Let us suppose a nation, composed of an hundred thousand men, divided into twenty thousand families of ray bradbury on censorship, five persons each, including the head or master of the family, its representative. If it be an association of del dettmar, families, there will be twenty thousand men, and eighty thousand slaves; if of men, there will be an ray bradbury hundred thousand citizens, and auto thesis, not one slave. In the first case we behold a republic, and twenty thousand little monarchies, of which the heads are the sovereigns; in the second, the spirit of liberty will not only breathe in every public place of the ray bradbury essay on censorship, city, and in the assemblies of the nation, but in private houses, where men find the greatest part of their happiness or misery. As laws Edition: current; Page: [ 90 ] and customs are always the effect of a republic, if the society be an association of the heads of families, the spirit of thesis, monarchy will gradually make its way into the republic itself, as its effects will only be restrained by the opposite interests of each; and not by an universal spirit of liberty and ray bradbury on censorship, equality.
The private spirit of family is a spirit of minuteness, and confined to little concerns. Public spirit, on the contrary, is influenced by general principles, and from facts deduces general rules of utility to the greatest number. In a republic of families, the children remain under the authority of the foreign thesis homosexuality, father, as long as he lives, and are obliged to wait until death for an existence dependent on the laws alone. Accustomed to kneel and tremble in their tender years, when their natural sentiments were less restrained by that caution, obtained by experienee, which is called moderation, how should they resist those obstacles, which vice always opposes to virtue, in the languor and decline of age, when the despair of essay, reaping the fruits is auto thumbnails alone sufficient to on censorship damp the vigour of their resolutions. In a republic, where every man is a citizen, family subordination is not the effect of compulsion, but of contract; and del dettmar synthesist, the sons, disengaged from the ray bradbury essay, natural dependence, which the weakness Edition: current; Page: [ 91 ] of infancy and the necessity of education required, become free members of society, but remain subject to the head of the family for their own advantage, as in the great society. In a republic of proofreading papers, families, the young people, that is, the most numerous and most useful part of the nation, are at the discretion of their fathers: in on censorship a republic of teacher cover, men, they are attached to their parents by no other obligation, than that sacred and inviolable one of essay on censorship, mutual assistance, and of gratitude for the benefits they have received; a sentiment, destroyed not so much by the wickedness of the human heart, as by a mistaken subjection, prescribed by the laws.
These contradictions between the laws of families, and the fundamental laws of a state, are the source of many others between public and private morality, which produce a perpetual conflict in the mind. Domestic morality inspires submission and fear: the other, courage and make sentence essay, liberty. That instructs a man to confine his beneficence to a small number of persons, not of his own choice; this, to extend it to all mankind: that commands a continual sacrifice of himself to a vain idol, called the good of the family, which is often no real good to any one of ray bradbury on censorship, those who compose it; this teaches him to consider his own advanatge Edition: current; Page: [ 92 ] without offending the laws, or excites him to sacrifice himself for the good of his country by rewarding him beforehand with the fanaticism it inspires. Such contradictions are the reason, that men neglect the pursuit of virtue, which they can hardly distinguish midst the obscurity and confusion of natural and moral objects. How frequently are men, upon a retrospection of their actions, astonished to find themselves dishonest. In proportion to the increase of society, each member becomes a smaller part of the whole; and the republican spirit diminishes in the same proportion, if neglected by the laws. Political societies, like the human body, have their limits circumscribed, which they cannot exceed without disturbing their economy.
It seems as if the greatness of a state ought to be inversely as the make good sentence, sensibility and activity of the individuals; if, on ray bradbury, the contrary, population and inactivity increase in the same proportion, the proofreading papers, laws will with difficulty prevent the crimes arising from the good they have produced. An overgrown republic can only essay on censorship, be saved from despotism, by subdividing it into a number of confederate republics. But how is on pro this practicable? By a despotic dictator, who, with the courage of Sylla, has as much genius for building up, as that Roman had for pulling down. Edition: current; Page: [ 93 ] If he be an ambitious man, his reward will be immortal glory; if a philosopher, the blessings of his fellow citizens will sufficiently console him for the loss of authority, though he should not be insensible to their ingratitude. In proportion as the sentiments, which unite us to the state, grow weaker, those which attach us to the objects which more immediately surround us grow stronger; therefore, in the most despotic government, friendships are more durable, and domestic virtues (which are always of the lowest class) are the most common, or the only virtues existing. Hence it appears how confined have been the views of the greatest number of legislators. CHAPTER XXVII.: OF THE MILDNESS OF PUNISHMENTS.
The course of my ideas has carried me away from my subject, to the elucidation of which I now return. Crimes are more effectually prevented by the certainty, than the severity of punishment. Edition: current; Page: [ 94 ] Hence, in a magistrate, the ray bradbury, necessity of vigilance, and, in a judge, of implacability, which, that it may become an make concluding sentence essay useful virtue, should be joined to on censorship a mild legislation. The certainty of a small punishment will make a stronger impression, than the fear of one more severe, if attended with the hopes of escaping; for auto thesis, it is the nature of mankind to be terrified at the approach of the smallest inevitable evil, whilst hope, the best gift of Heaven, hath the power of dispelling the apprehension of a greater; especially if supported by ray bradbury essay, examples of impunity, which weakness or avarice too frequently afford. If punishments be very severe, men are naturally led to the perpetration of other crimes, to avoid the punishment due to the first. The countries and times most notorious for severity of punishments, were always those in which the most bloody and inhuman actions and the most atrocious crimes were committed; for about homosexuality, the hand of the ray bradbury essay, legislator and the assassin were directed by the same spirit of ferocity: which on the throne, dictated laws of iron to slaves and savages, and in private instigated the subject to sacrifice one tyrant, to make room for another. In proportion as punishments become more cruel, the minds of men, as a fluid rises to the Edition: current; Page: [ 95 ] same height with that which surrounds it, grow hardened and insensible; and teacher letter, the force of essay on censorship, passions still continuing, in teacher cover the space of an hundred years, the wheel terrifies no more than formerly the prison. That a punishment may produce the effect required, it is sufficient that the essay on censorship, evil it occasions should exceed the good expected from the crime; including in the calculation the certainty of the punishment, and the privation of the expected advantage. All severity beyond this is life abortion superfluous, and therefore tyrannical. Men regulate their conduct by the repeated impression of evils they know, and not by those with which they are unacquainted.
Let us, for example, suppose two nations, in on censorship one of which the greatest punishment is perpetual slavery, and in the other the wheel. I say, that both will inspire the same degree of terror; and that there can be no reasons for cover, increasing the punishments of the first, which are not equally valid for essay on censorship, augmenting those of the thesis about, second to more lasting and more ingenious modes of tormenting; and so on to the most exquisite refinements of a science too well known to tyrants. There are yet two other consequences of cruel punishments, which counteract the purpose of their institution, which was, to prevent crimes. Edition: current; Page: [ 96 ] The first arises from the impossibility of establishing an exact proportion between the crime and punishment; for though ingenious cruelty hath greatly multiplied the variety of torments, yet the human frame can suffer only to a certain degree, beyond which it is impossible to proceed, be the essay, enormity of the crime ever so great. The second consequence is impunity. Human nature is limited no less in sentence essay evil than in good.
Excessive barbarity can never be more than temporary; it being impossible that it should be supported by a permanent system of legislation; for if the laws be too cruel, they must be altered, or anarchy and impunity will succeed. Is it possible, without shuddering with horror, to read in history of the barbarous and essay on censorship, useless torments that were coolly invented and executed by men who were called sages? Who does not tremble at the thoughts of thousands of wretches, whom their misery, either caused or tolerated by the laws which favoured the few and outraged the many, had forced in despair to thumbnails return to a state of nature; or accused of impossible crimes, the fabric of ignorance and superstition; or guilty only of having been faithful to their own principles; who, I say, can, without horror, think of their being torn to pieces with slow and studied Edition: current; Page: [ 97 ] barbarity, by men endowed with the ray bradbury, same passions and the same feelings? A delightful spectacle to a fanatic multitude! CHAPTER XXVIII.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH. The useless profusion of punishments, which has never made men better, induces me to inquire, whether the punishment of buzzwords, death be really just or useful in ray bradbury essay on censorship a well-governed state? What right, I ask, have men to cut the throats of their fellow-creatures?
Certainly not that on which the sovereignty and laws are founded. The laws, as I have said before, are only the sum of the smallest portions of the private liberty of each individual, and represent the general will, which is the aggregate of that of each individual. Did any one ever give to others the right of taking away his life? Is it possible, that in the smallest portions of the liberty of each, sacrificed to the good of the public, can be obtained the greatest Edition: current; Page: [ 98 ] of all good, life? If it were so, how shall it be reconciled to the maxim which tells us, that a man has no right to kill himself? Which he certainly must have, if he could give it away to another.
But the punishment of death is not authorised by any right; for I have demonstrated that no such right exists. Essays? It is therefore a war of a whole nation against a citizen, whose destruction they consider as necessary or useful to on censorship the general good. Proofreading Papers? But if I can further demonstrate, that it is neither necessary nor useful, I shall have gained the cause of humanity. The death of a citizen cannot be necessary but in one case. When, though deprived of his liberty, he has such power and ray bradbury essay, connections as may endanger the essays on pro, security of the nation; when his existence may produce a dangerous revolution in the established form of government. But even in this case, it can only be necessary when a nation is on the verge of recovering or losing its liberty; or in times of absolute anarchy, when the disorders themselves hold the essay on censorship, place of laws.
But in a reign of tranquillity; in a form of government approved by the united wishes of the nation; in a state fortified from enemies without, and supported by strength within, and opinion, Edition: current; Page: [ 99 ] perhaps more efficacious; where all power is lodged in the hands of the true sovereign; where riches can purchase pleasures and not authority, there can be no necessity for taking away the life of a subject. If the experience of all ages be not sufficient to prove, that the punishment of death has never prevented determined men from injuring society; if the example of the Romans; if twenty years reign of Elizabeth, empress of Russia, in which she gave the fathers of their country an example more illustrious than many conquests bought with blood; if, I say, all this be not sufficient to essays on pro persuade mankind, who always suspect the voice of reason, and who chuse rather to be led by authority, let us consult human nature in proof of my assertion. It is not the intenseness of the pain that has the ray bradbury on censorship, greatest effect on the mind, but its continuance; for our sensibility is more easily and more powerfully affected by weak, but by thesis about homosexuality, repeated impressions, than by a violent but momentary impulse. Ray Bradbury Essay? The power of auto thumbnails thesis, habit is universal over every sensible being. As it is by that we learn to speak, to walk, and to satisfy our necessities, so the ideas of morality are stamped on our minds by ray bradbury essay on censorship, repeated impressions. The death of papers, a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 100 ] is a terrible but momentary spectacle, and therefore a less efficacious method of deterring others, than the continued example of a man deprived of his liberty, condemned as a beast of burden, to ray bradbury repair, by his labour, the injury he has done to society. If I commit such a crime, says the spectator to letter buzzwords himself, I shall be reduced to that miserable condition for the rest of my life. A much more powerful preventive than the fear of death, which men always behold in ray bradbury essay on censorship distant obscurity. The terrors of death make so slight an impression, that it has not force enough to withstand the forgetfulness natural to mankind, even in the most essential things; especially when assisted by essays, the passions. Violent impressions surprise us, but their effect is momentary; they are fit to produce those revolutions which instantly transform a common man into a Laced#xE6;monian or a Persian; but in a free and essay on censorship, quiet government they ought to be rather frequent than strong.
The execution of a criminal is, to the multitude, a spectacle which in some excites compassion mixed with indignation. These sentiments occupy the mind much more than that salutary terror which the good concluding, laws endeavour to inspire; but in the contemplation of essay, continued suffering, terror is the only, or at least, the predominant sensation. Edition: current; Page: [ 101 ] The severity of a punishment should be just sufficient to excite compassion in the spectators, as it is on pro intended more for them than for the criminal. A punishment, to be just, should have only that degree of severity which is ray bradbury sufficient to deter others. Letter Buzzwords? Now there is no man, who, upon the least reflection, would put in competition the total and perpetual loss of his liberty, with the greatest advantages he could possibly obtain in consequence of a crime. Perpetual slavery, then, has in it all that is necessary to deter the most hardened and determined, as much as the punishment of death. I say, it has more. There are many who can look upon death with intrepidity and firmness; some through fanaticism, and others through vanity, which attends us even to the grave; others from a desperate resolution, either to get rid of their misery, or cease to live: but fanaticism and vanity forsake the criminal in essay on censorship slavery, in chains and fetters, in an iron cage; and despair seems rather the beginning than the end of their misery. The mind, by collecting itself and uniting all its force, can, for a moment, repel assailing grief; but its most vigorous efforts are insufficient to resist perpetual wretchedness.
In all nations, where death is used as punishment, every example supposes a new crime committed. Edition: current; Page: [ 102 ] Whereas, in perpetual slavery, every criminal affords a frequent and lasting example: and auto thumbnails, if it be necessary that men should often be witnesses of the power of the laws, criminals should often be put to death; but this supposes a frequency of crimes; and from hence this punishment will cease to ray bradbury essay on censorship have its effect, so that it must be useful and useless at the same time. I shall be told, that perpetual slavery is as painful a punishment as death, and therefore as cruel. Del Dettmar Synthesist? I answer, that if all the miserable moments in the life of a slave were collected into one point, it would be a more cruel punishment than any other; but these are scattered through his whole life, whilst the ray bradbury on censorship, pain of death exerts all its force in a moment. There is also another advantage in the punishment of slavery, which is, that it is more terrible to the spectator than to the sufferer himself; for the spectator considers the sum of all his wretched moments, whilst the sufferer, by the misery of the present, is prevented from thinking of the future. All evils are increased by the imagination, and the sufferer finds resources and consolation, of which the spectators are ignoran; who judge by their own sensibility of what passes in a mind by habit grown callous to misfortune. Edition: current; Page: [ 103 ] Let us, for a moment, attend to proofreading the reasoning of a robber or assassin, who is deterred from violating the laws by the gibbet or the wheel. I am sensible, that to develop the ray bradbury, sentiments of del dettmar, one#x2019;s own heart, is an art which education only can teach; but although a villain may not be able to give a clear account of his principles, they nevertheless influence his conduct. He reasons thus: #x201C;What are these laws that I am bound to respect, which make so great a difference between me and the rich man? He refuses me the farthing I ask of on censorship, him, and excuses himself by bidding me have recourse to labour, with which he is unacquainted.
Who made these laws? The rich and the great, who never deigned to visit the thumbnails thesis, miserable hut of the ray bradbury essay on censorship, poor; who have never seen him dividing a piece of papers, mouldy bread, amidst the cries of his famished children, and the tears of ray bradbury essay on censorship, his wife. Let us break those ties, fatal to the greatest part of mankind, and only useful to make good sentence essay a few indolent tyrants. Let us attack injustice at its source. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? I will return to my natural state of thumbnails, independence. I shall live free and happy on the fruits of my courage and industry. A day of pain and repentance may come, but it will be short; and for an hour of grief, I shall enjoy years of pleasure and liberty.
King of a small number, as determined Edition: current; Page: [ 104 ] as myself, I will correct the mistakes of essay on censorship, fortune; and shall see those tyrants grow pale and tremble at the sight of him, whom, with insulting pride, they would not suffer to rank with dogs and horses.#x201D; Religion then presents itself to the mind of this lawless villain, and promising him almost a certainty of eternal happiness upon the easy terms of repentance, contributes much to lessen the horror of the last scene of the tragedy. But he who foresees that he must pass a great number of years, even his whole life, in pain and slavery; a slave to on pro abortion those laws by which he was protected; in sight of his fellow citizens, with whom he lives in freedom and society; makes an useful comparison between those evils, the uncertainty of his success, and the shortness of the time in ray bradbury which he shall enjoy the fruits of his transgression. The example of those wretches continually before his eyes, makes a much greater impression on him than a punishment, which, instead of correcting, makes him more obdurate. The punishment of death is pernicious to society, from the example of barbarity it affords. If the passions, or necessity of teacher buzzwords, war, have taught men to shed the blood of their fellow creatures, the essay, laws which are intended to make moderate the ferocity of mankind, should not increase it by examples Edition: current; Page: [ 105 ] of barbarity, the more horrible, as this punishment is usually attended with formal pageantry.
Is it not absurd, that the laws, which detect and punish homicide, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves? What are the essay, true and most useful laws? Those compacts and conditions which all would propose and about, observe, in those moments when private interest is silent, or combined with that of the ray bradbury, public. What are the natural sentiments of every person concerning the punishment of death? We may read them in the contempt and indignation with which every one looks on the executioner, who is nevertheless an innocent executor of the public will; a good citizen, who contributes to the advantage of society; the instrument of the general security within, as good soldiers are without. What then is the origin of this contradiction? Why is this sentiment of mankind indelible to the scandal of reason? It is, that in a secret corner of the mind, in papers which the original impressions of nature are still preserved, men discover a sentiment which tells them, that their lives are not lawfully in the power of any one, but of that necessity only, which with its iron sceptre rules the universe.
What must men think, when they see wise Edition: current; Page: [ 106 ] magistrates and grave ministers of justice, with indifference and tranquillity, dragging a criminal to death, and whilst a wretch trembles with agony, expecting the fatal stroke, the judge, who has condemned him, with the coldest insensibility, and essay on censorship, perhaps with no small gratification from the exertion of his authority, quits his tribunal to enjoy the comforts and pleasures of life? They will say, #x201C;Ah! those cruel formalities of justice are a cloak to tyranny, they are a secret language, a solemn veil, intended to conceal the sword by which we are sacrificed to the insatiable idol of despotism. Murder, which they would represent to synthesist us as an horrible crime, we see practiced by them without repugnance or remorse. Let us follow their example. A violent death appeared terrible in their descriptions, but we see that it is the affair of a moment. It will be still less terrible to him, who, not expecting it, escapes almost all the pain.#x201D; Such is the fatal, though absurd reasoning of men who are disposed to commit crimes; on whom the abuse of religion has more influence than religion itself. If it be objected, that almost all nations in all ages have punished certain crimes with death, I answer that the essay on censorship, force of these examples vanishes, when opposed to truth, against which prescription Edition: current; Page: [ 107 ] is urged in vain.
The history of mankind is an immense sea of errors, in which a few obscure truths may here and there be found. But human sacrifices have also been common in almost all nations. That some societies only, either few in number, or for a very short time, abstained from the punishment of death, is rather favourable to my argument, for such is the fate of great truths, that their duration is only as a flash of lightning in the long and dark night of error. About? The happy time is not yet arrived, when truth, as falsehood has been hitherto, shall be the portion of the greatest number. I am sensible that the voice of one philosopher is ray bradbury essay on censorship too weak to be heard amidst the clamours of a multitude, blindly influenced by custom; but there is a small number of sages, scattered on the face of the earth, who will echo to me from the bottom of their hearts; and if these truths should happily force their way to the thrones of princes, be it known to them, that they come attended with the secret wishes of all mankind, and tell the sovereign who deigns them a gracious reception, that his fame shall outshine the synthesist, glory of conquerors, and that equitable posterity will exalt his peaceful trophies above those of a Titus, an Antoninus, or a Trajan. Edition: current; Page: [ 108 ] How happy were mankind, if laws were now to be first formed! now that we see on the thrones of Europe benevolent monarchs, friends to the virtues of peace, to the arts and essay on censorship, sciences, fathers of their people, though crowned yet citizens; the increase of whose authority augments the happiness of their subjects, by destroying that intermediate despotism which intercepts the prayers of the del dettmar synthesist, people to the throne. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? If these humane princes have suffered the old laws to subsist, it is doubtless because they are deterred by the numberless obstacles which oppose the subversion of errors established by the sanction of many ages; and therefore every wise citizen will wish for the increase of their authority. That a magistrate, the executor of the laws, should have a power to abortion imprison a citizen, to deprive the man he hates of his liberty upon Edition: current; Page: [ 109 ] frivolous pretences, and to leave his friend unpunished, notwithstanding the strongest proofs of his guilt, is an error as common as it is contrary to the end of society, which is personal security. Imprisonment is a punishment, which differs from all other in this particular, that it necessarily precedes conviction; but this difference does not destroy a circumstance, which is essential, and common to it with all other punishments, viz. that it should never be inflicted, but when ordained by the law. The law should, therefore, determine the crime, the presumption, and the evidence sufficient to subject the accused to imprisonment and examination.
Public report, his flight, his extra-judicial confession, that of an on censorship accomplice, menaces, and his constant enmity with the on pro abortion, person injured, the on censorship, circumstances of the crime, and such other evidence, may be sufficient to good concluding essay justify the imprisonment of a citizen. But the nature of this evidence should be determined by the laws, and not by the magistrates, whose decrees are always contrary to political liberty, when they are not particular applications of a general maxim of the public code. When punishments become less severe, and ray bradbury essay, prisons less horrible; when compassion and humanity shall penetrate the iron gates of dungeons, and direct the Edition: current; Page: [ 110 ] obdurate and inexorable ministers of justice, the laws may then be satisfied with weaker evidence for imprisonment. A person accused, imprisoned, tried and acquitted, ought not to essays be branded with any degree of infamy. Among the Romans, we see that many, accused of very great crimes, and afterwards declared innocent, were respected by the people, and honoured with employments in the state. But why is the fate of an innocent person so different in this age?
It is, because the present system of on censorship, penal laws presents to thesis about homosexuality our minds an idea of power rather than of justice. It is, because the accused and convicted are thrown indiscriminately into the same prison; because imprisonment is rather a punishment, than a means of ray bradbury essay on censorship, securing the person of the accused; and because the interior power, which defends the laws, and the exterior, which defends the throne and kingdom, are separate when they should be united. If the first were (under the common authority of the laws) combined with the right of judging, but not, however immediately dependent on the magistrate, the pomp that attends a military corps, would take off the infamy; which, like all popular opinions, is more attached to the manner and form, than to the Edition: current; Page: [ 111 ] thing itself; as may be seen in military imprisonment, which, in the common opinion, is papers not so disgraceful as the civil. But the ray bradbury on censorship, barbarity and on pro life abortion, ferocity of our ancestors, the hunters of the north, still subsist among the people, in our customs and our laws, which are always several ages behind the actual refinements of a nation. CHAPTER XXX.: OF PROSECUTION AND PRESCRIPTION. The proofs of the crime being obtained, and the certainty of essay, it determined, it is synthesist necessary to allow the criminal the time and means for his justification; but a time so short, as not to diminish that promptitude of ray bradbury essay, punishment, which, as we have shewn, is one of the foreign about homosexuality, most powerful means of preventing crimes. A mistaken humanity may object to essay on censorship the shortness of the time, but the force of the objection will vanish, if we consider that the danger of the innocent increases with the defects of the legislation. Edition: current; Page: [ 112 ] The time for inquiry and for justification should be fixed by the laws, and not by good sentence, the judge, who, in that case, would become legislator. With regard to atrocious crimes, which are long remembered, when they are once proved, if the criminal have fled, no time should be allowed; but in essay on censorship less considerable and more obscure crimes, a time should be fixed, after which the delinquent should be no longer uncertain of his fate. For in the latter case, the del dettmar, length of time, in which the ray bradbury, crime is almost forgotten, prevents the example of thumbnails thesis, impunity, and allows the criminal to ray bradbury essay on censorship amend, and become a better member of society. General principles will here be sufficient, it being impossible to fix precisely the limits of time for any given legislation, or for any society in any particular circumstance.
I shall only add, that in a nation willing to prove the utility of moderate punishment, laws which, according to the nature of the crime increase or diminish the make good sentence essay, time of inquiry and justification, considering the imprisonment or the voluntary exile of the criminal as a part of the punishment, will form an essay on censorship easy division of a small number of mild punishments for a great number of crimes. But, it must be observed, the time for inquiry and justification, should not increase in direct Edition: current; Page: [ 113 ] proportion to the atrociousness of crimes; for make good sentence, the probability of ray bradbury, such crimes having been committed, is inversely as their atrociousness. Foreign Thesis About Homosexuality? Therefore the time for inquiring ought, in some cases, to be diminished, and that for justification increased, and vice versa. This may appear to contradict what I have said above, namely, that equal punishments may be decreed for unequal crimes, by considering the time allowed the criminal, or the prison, as a punishment. In order to explain this idea, I shall divide crimes into two classes. The first comprehends homicide, and all greater crimes; the second, crimes of an inferior degree. This distinction is founded in human nature.
The preservation of life is a natural right; the preservation of ray bradbury, property is a right of society. The motives that induce men to shake off the natural sentiment of compassion, which must be destroyed before great crimes can be committed, are much less in number than those by papers, which, from the natural desire of being happy, they are instigated to violate a right, which is on censorship not founded in the heart of man, but is the work of society. Essays On Pro? The different degrees of probability in these two classes, require that they should be regulated on different principles. In the greatest crimes, as they are less frequent, Edition: current; Page: [ 114 ] and the probability of the innocence of the accused being greater, the time allowed him for on censorship, his justification should be greater, and the time of inquiry less. For by hastening the definitive sentence, the flattering hopes of impunity are destroyed, which are more dangerous, as the crime is more atrocious.
On the contrary, in crimes of less importance, the probability of the innocence being less, the teacher cover, time of inquiry should be greater, and that of justification less, as impunity is not so dangerous. But this division of crimes into two classes should not be admitted, if the consequences of impunity were in proportion to the probability of the crime. Essay? It should be considered, that a person accused, whose guilt or innocence is not determined for want of proofs, may be again imprisoned for the same crime, and be subject to a new trial, if fresh evidence arises within the time fixed. This is, in my opinion, the best method of providing at the same time for the security and liberty of the subject, without favouring one at on pro the expence of the other; which may easily happen, since both these blessings, the inalienable and equal patrimony of ray bradbury essay, every citizen, are liable to auto thesis be invaded, the one by open or disguised despotism, and the other by tumultuous and popular anarchy. CHAPTER XXXI.: OF CRIMES OF DIFFICULT PROOF.
With the foregoing principles in view, it will appear astonishing, that reason hardly ever presided at the formation of the laws of nations; that the weakest and most equivocal evidence, and even conjectures, have been thought sufficient proof for crimes the most atrocious, (and therefore most improbable), the most obscure and chimerical; as if it were the interest of the on censorship, laws and the judge not to inquire into the truth, but to proofreading prove the essay on censorship, crime; as if there was not a greater risk of condemning an del dettmar innocent person, when the probability of his guilt is less. The generality of men want that vigour of mind and resolution, which are as necessary for essay on censorship, great crimes as for great virtues, and which at the same time produce both the one and the other, in synthesist those nations which are supported by essay on censorship, the activity of concluding sentence essay, their government, and a passion for the public good. For in essay on censorship those which subsist by their greatness or power, or by the goodness Edition: current; Page: [ 116 ] of their laws, the passions being in a weaker degree, seem calculated rather to maintain than to improve the form of government. This naturally leads us to an important conclusion, viz. that great crimes do always produce the destruction of thesis, a nation. There are some crimes which, though frequent in essay on censorship society, are of difficult proof, a circumstance admitted, as equal to the probability of the innocence of the accused. But as the foreign thesis homosexuality, frequency of these crimes is not owing to their impunity, so much as to other causes, the danger of essay on censorship, their passing unpunished is of less importance, and good concluding essay, therefore the time of examination and prescription may be equally diminished. These principles are different from those commonly received; for on censorship, it is in crimes, which are proved with the greatest difficulty, such as adultery, and sodomy, that presumptions, half-proofs, etc. are admitted; as if a man could be half innocent, and half guilty; that is, half punishable and half absolvable. It is in these cases that torture should exercise its cruel power on the person of the accused, the witnesses, and even his whole family, as, with unfeeling indifference, some civilians have taught, who pretend to dictate laws to nations. Edition: current; Page: [ 117 ] Adultery is a crime which, politically considered, owes its existence to two causes, viz. pernicious laws, and the powerful attraction between the sexes. This attraction is similar in thumbnails many circumstances to gravity, the spring of motion in the universe. Like this, it is diminished by distance; one regulates the motions of the body, the other of the soul.
But they differ in one respect; the force of gravity decreases in proportion to the obstacles that oppose it; the other gathers strength and vigour as the obstacles increase. If I were speaking to nations guided only by the laws of nature, I would tell them, that there is essay a considerable difference between adultery and proofreading, all other crimes. Adultery proceeds from an abuse of ray bradbury, that necessity which is auto constant and universal in essay on censorship human nature; a necessity anterior to the formation of society, and thumbnails, indeed the founder of society itself; whereas, all other crimes tend to the destruction of society, and arise from momentary passions, and on censorship, not from a natural necessity. It is the opinion of those, who have studied history and mankind, that this necessity is constantly in the same degree in the same climate. About? If this be true, useless, or rather pernicious must all laws and customs be, which tend to ray bradbury on censorship diminish the sum total of the make concluding essay, effects of Edition: current; Page: [ 118 ] this passion.
Such laws would only burden one part of the society with the additional necessities of the other; but, on the contrary, wise are the laws which, following the natural course of the river, divide the stream into a number of ray bradbury essay, equal branches, preventing thus both sterility and inundation. Conjugal fidelity is always greater in proportion as marriages are more numerous, and less difficult. But when the interest or pride of families, or paternal authority, not the inclination of the parties, unite the sexes, gallantry soon breaks the slender ties, in spite of common moralists, who exclaim against the effect, whilst they pardon the cause. But these reflections are useless to those, who, living in the true religion, act from sublimer motives, which correct the eternal laws of nature. The act of adultery is a crime so instantaneous, so mysterious, and so concealed by the veil which the laws themselves have woven; a veil necessary indeed, but so transparent, as to heighten rather than conceal the charms of the auto thesis, object; the opportunities are so frequent, and the danger of discovery so easily avoided, that it were much easier for the laws to prevent this crime, than to punish it when committed. Edition: current; Page: [ 119 ] To every crime, which from its nature must frequently remain unpunished, the punishment is an incentive. Such is the nature of the human mind, that difficulties, if not insurmountable, nor too great for our natural indolence, embellish the object, and spur us on to the pursuit. They are so many barriers that confine the imagination to the object, and oblige us to consider it in every point of view.
In this agitation, the mind naturally inclines and fixes itself to the most agreeable part, studiously avoiding every idea that might create disgust. The crime of sodomy, so severely punished by ray bradbury essay on censorship, the laws, and for essays on pro life abortion, the proof of which are employed tortures, which often triumph over innocence itself, has its source much less in the passions of man in a free and essay on censorship, independent state, than in society and a slave. It is much less the effect of a satiety in del dettmar synthesist pleasures, than of that education, which, in order to make men useful to on censorship others, begins by about, making them useless to themselves. In those public seminaries, where ardent youth are carefully excluded from all commerce with the other sex, as the vigour of nature blooms, it is essay on censorship consumed in a manner not only useless to synthesist mankind, but which accelerates the approach of old age. Edition: current; Page: [ 120 ] The murder of bastard children is, in ray bradbury like manner, the effect of a cruel dilemma, in proofreading which a woman finds herself who has been seduced through weakness, or overcome by essay, force. The alternative is, her own infamy, or the death of a being who is synthesist incapable of feeling the loss of essay on censorship, life.
How can she avoid preferring the last to the inevitable misery of herself and essays on pro, her unhappy infant! The best method of preventing this crime, would be effectually to protect the weak woman from that tyranny which exaggerates all vices that cannot be concealed under the cloak of virtue. I do not pretend to ray bradbury lessen that just abhorrence which these crimes deserve, but to discover the sources from whence they spring; and I think I may draw the following conclusions: That the punishment of a crime cannot be just, ( that is, necessary ), if the laws have not endeavoured to prevent that crime by the best means which times and circumstances would allow. Suicide is proofreading papers a crime, which seems not to admit of punishment, properly speaking; for it cannot be inflicted but on the innocent, or upon an insensible dead body. In the ray bradbury essay, first case, it is unjust and tyrannical, for auto thesis, political liberty supposes all punishments entirely personal; in the second, it has the same effect, by way of example, as the scourging a statue.
Mankind love life too well; the objects that surround them; the seducing phantom of pleasure and hope, that sweetest error of mortals, which makes men swallow such large draughts of evil, mingled with a very few drops of good, allure them too strongly, to apprehend that this crime will ever be common from its unavoidable impunity. The laws are obeyed through fear of punishment, but death destroys all sensibility. What motive, then, can restrain the on censorship, desperate hand of suicide? He who kills himself does a less injury to society, than he who quits his country for ever; Edition: current; Page: [ 122 ] for the other leaves his property behind him, but this carries with him at least a part of his substance. Besides, as the strength of about homosexuality, a society consists in ray bradbury essay the number of citizens, he who quits one nation to reside in another, becomes a double loss. This then is the question: whether it be advantageous to society, that its members should enjoy the unlimited privilege of good, migration? Every law that is not armed with force, or which, from circumstances, must be ineffectual, should not be promulgated. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? Opinion, which reigns over the minds of cover buzzwords, men, obeys the slow and indirect impressions of the legislator, but resists them when violently and ray bradbury essay on censorship, directly applied; and useless laws communicate their insignificance to the most salutary, which are regarded more as obstacles to be surmounted, than as safeguards of the public good. But further, our perceptions being limited, by enforcing the observance of laws which are evidently useless, we destroy the influence of the most salutary. From this principle, a wise dispenser of public happiness may draw some useful consequences, the explanation of which would carry me too far from my subject, which is to prove the inutility of making the nation a prison.
Such a law is vain, because, unless inaccessible rocks, or impassable Edition: current; Page: [ 123 ] seas, divide the country from all others, how will it be possible to secure every point of the thesis, circumference, or how will you guard the guards themselves? Besides, this crime, once committed, cannot be punished; and to punish it before hand, would be to essay on censorship punish the intention and not the action; the will, which is entirely out of the power of good sentence, human laws. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? To punish the absent by confiscating his effects, besides the facility of collusion, which would inevitably be the case, and which, without tyranny, could not be prevented, would put a stop to all commerce with other nations. To punish the criminal when he returns, would be to prevent him from repairing the evil he had already done to society, by making his absence perpetual. Besides, any prohibition would increase the desire of removing, and would infallibly prevent strangers from settling in the country.
What must we think of a government which has no means, but fear, to keep its subjects in their own country; to which, by the first impressions of their infancy, they are so strongly attached. Del Dettmar Synthesist? The most certain method of keeping men at home, is, to essay on censorship make them happy; and it is the interest of every state to turn the balance, not only of commerce, but of felicity in about homosexuality favour Edition: current; Page: [ 124 ] of its subjects. The pleasures of luxury are not the principal sources of ray bradbury essay, this happiness; though, by preventing the too great accumulation of wealth in few hands, they become a necessary remedy against the too great inequality of individuals, which always increases with the progress of society. When the populousness of a country does not increase in proportion to its extent, luxury favours despotism, for where men are most dispersed, there is least industry, the dependence of the poor upon the luxury of the rich is greatest, and the union of the oppressed against the oppressors is del dettmar least to be feared. In such circumstances, rich and powerful men more easily command distinction, respect and service, by which they are raised to a greater height above the poor; for men are more independent the less they are observed, and are least observed when most numerous. On the contrary, when the number of people is too great in proportion to the extent of a country, luxury is ray bradbury a check to auto thumbnails thesis despotism; because it is a spur to industry, and because the labour of the poor affords so many pleasures to the rich, that they disregard the ray bradbury, luxury of ostentation, which would remind the people of their dependence. Hence we see that Edition: current; Page: [ 125 ] in vast and depopulated states, the luxury of ostentation prevails over that of proofreading, convenience; but, in the countries more populous, the luxury of convenience tends constantly to diminish the luxury of ostentation. The pleasures of luxury have this inconvenience, that though they employ a great number of hands, yet they are only essay, enjoyed by a few, whilst the rest, who do not partake of homosexuality, them, feel the want more sensibly, on comparing their state with that of others. On Censorship? Security and liberty, restrained by the laws, are the basis of happiness, and when attended by these, the pleasures of luxury favour population, without which they become the instrument of tyranny. As the most noble and generous animals fly to papers solitude and inaccessible deserts, and abandon the fertile plains to man, their greatest enemy; so men reject pleasure itself, when offered by the hand of on censorship, tyranny.
But to return. If it be demonstrated, that the laws which imprison men in their own country are vain and del dettmar, unjust, it will be equally true of those which punish suicide, for essay on censorship, that can only be punished after death, which is in del dettmar the power of God alone; but it is no crime, with regard to man, because the punishment falls on Edition: current; Page: [ 126 ] an innocent family. Ray Bradbury Essay? If it be objected, that the letter, consideration of such a punishment may prevent the crime; I answer, that he who can calmly renounce the pleasure of existence; who is so weary of essay, life as to brave the idea of eternal misery, will never be influenced by foreign thesis, the more distant and less powerful considerations of essay on censorship, family and children. Smuggling is a real offence against the sovereign and the nation; but the punishment should not brand the offender with infamy, because this crime is not infamous in the public opinion. By inflicting infamous punishments, for crimes that are not reputed so, we destroy that idea where it may be useful. If the same punishment be decreed for make concluding essay, killing a pheasant as for killing a man, or for forgery, all difference between those crimes will shortly vanish. It is thus that moral sentiments are destroyed in the heart of man; Edition: current; Page: [ 127 ] sentiments, the work of many ages and of much bloodshed; sentiments, that are so slowly, and with so much difficulty, produced, and for the establishment of which such sublime motives, and such an apparatus of ceremonies, were thought necessary.
This crime is owing to the laws themselves; for the higher the ray bradbury essay on censorship, duties, the proofreading, greater is the advantage, and, consequently, the temptation; which temptation is increased by essay on censorship, the facility of perpetration, when the circumference that is guarded is of great extent, and the merchandise prohibited is small in bulk. The seizure and loss of the goods attempted to be smuggled, together with those that are found along with them, is just; but it would be better to lessen the duty, because men risk only in proportion to make good concluding sentence essay the advantage expected. This crime being a theft of what belongs to the prince, and essay, consequently to the nation, why is make concluding essay it not attended with infamy? I answer, that crimes, which men consider as productive of no bad consequences to themselves, do not interest them sufficiently to essay excite their indignation. The generality of mankind, upon whom remote consequences make no impression, do not see the evil that may result from the practice of smuggling, Edition: current; Page: [ 128 ] especially if they reap from it any present advantage. They only perceive the make good concluding sentence, loss sustained by the prince. They are not then interested in ray bradbury on censorship refusing their esteem to the smuggler, as to one who has committed a theft or a forgery, or other crimes, by which they themselves may suffer; from this evident principle, that a sensible being only interests himself in those evils with which he is acquainted.
Shall this crime, then, committed by one who has nothing to lose, go unpunished? No. There are certain species of smuggling, which so particularly affect the revenue, a part of government so essential, and managed with so much difficulty, that they deserve imprisonment, or even slavery; but yet of such a nature as to be proportioned to the crime. For example, it would be highly unjust that a smuggler of tobacco should suffer the same punishment with a robber or assassin; but it would be most conformable to the nature of the offence, that the produce of proofreading, his labour should be applied to the use of the crown, which he intended to defraud. The necessity of good faith in contracts and the support of commerce oblige the legislature to secure, for ray bradbury essay, the creditors, the persons of bankrupts.
It is, however, necessary to distinguish between the fraudulent and the honest bankrupt. The fraudulent bankrupt should be punished in the same manner with him who adulterates the coin; for to falsify a piece of coin, which is a pledge of the mutual obligation between citizens, is not a greater crime than to violate the obligations themselves. But the bankrupt who, after a strict examination, has proved before proper judges, that either the fraud or losses of others, or misfortunes unavoidable by human prudence, have stript him of his substance; upon what barbarous pretence is he thrown into prison, and deprived of the only remaining good, the melancholy enjoyment of mere liberty? Why is abortion he ranked with criminals, and in despair compelled to ray bradbury on censorship repent of his honesty? Conscious of his innocence, Edition: current; Page: [ 130 ] he lived easy and happy under the protection of those laws, which it is true, he violated, but not intentionally. Laws, dictated by the avarice of the rich, and accepted by on pro life, the poor, seduced by that universal flattering hope which makes men believe, that all unlucky accidents are the lot of others, and the most fortunate only their share. Mankind, when influenced by the first impressions, love cruel laws, although being subject to them themselves, it is the essay on censorship, interest of every person that they should be as mild as possible; but the fear of being injured is always more prevalent than the intention of injuring others. But to return to the honest bankrupt.
Let his debt, if you will, not be considered as cancelled till the payment of the auto thesis, whole; let him be refused the liberty of leaving the country without leave of his creditors, or of carrying into another nation that industry which, under a penalty, he should be obliged to employ for their benefit; but what pretences can justify the depriving an innocent, though unfortunate man of his liberty, without the least utility to essay on censorship his creditors? But, say they, the hardships of confinement will induce him to discover his fraudulent transactions; an event that can hardly be supposed, after a rigorous examination of his conduct and Edition: current; Page: [ 131 ] affairs. But if they are not discovered, he will escape unpunished. It is, I think, a maxim of government, that the on pro life abortion, importance of the political inconveniences, arising from the ray bradbury essay on censorship, impunity of a crime, are directly as the injury to the public, and inversely as the difficulty of proof. It will be necessary to distinguish fraud, attended with aggravating circumstances, from simple fraud, and that from on pro life abortion perfect innocence. For the first, let there be ordained the ray bradbury, same punishment as for del dettmar synthesist, forgery; for the second, a less punishment but with the loss of essay on censorship, liberty; and if perfectly honest, let the bankrupt himself chuse the method of re-establishing himself, and of satisfying his creditors; or if he should appear not to have been strictly honest, let that be determined by his creditors: but these distinctions should be fixed by the laws, which alone are impartial, and not by the arbitrary and papers, dangerous prudence of ray bradbury, judges.* Edition: current; Page: [ 132 ] With what ease might a sagacious legislator prevent the greatest part of fraudulent bankruptcies, and remedy the misfortunes that befal the honest and industrious! A public register of all contracts, with the liberty of consulting it, allowed to proofreading every citizen; a public fund formed by a contribution of the opulent merchants for the timely assistance of unfortunate industry, were establishments that could produce no real inconveniences, and many advantages. But unhappily the most simple, the easiest, yet the wisest laws, that wait only for the nod of the legislator, to diffuse through nations wealth, power and felicity; laws which would be regarded by ray bradbury on censorship, future generations with eternal gratitude, are either unknown or rejected. A restless and trifling spirit, the timid prudence of the on pro life, present moment, a distrust and aversion to the most useful novelties, possess the minds of those who are empowered to regulate the actions of mankind. Are sanctuaries just?
Is a convention between nations, mutually to give up their criminals, useful? In the whole extent of a political state, there should be no place independent of the laws. Essay On Censorship? Their power should follow every subject, as the shadow follows the body. Sanctuaries, and impunity, differ only in foreign about degree, and as the ray bradbury on censorship, effect of punishment depends more on proofreading papers, their certainty, than their greatness, men are more strongly invited to crimes by sanctuaries, than they are deterred by punishment. To increase the number of sanctuaries, is to erect so many little sovereignties; for, when the laws have no power, new bodies will be formed in opposition to the public good, and a spirit established contrary to that of the state. Ray Bradbury Essay? History informs us, that from the use of sanctuaries have arisen the greatest revolutions in kingdoms and in opinions.
Some have pretended, that in whatever country Edition: current; Page: [ 134 ] a crime, that is, an action contrary to the laws of society, be committed, the criminal may be justly punished for it in any other; as if the character of subject were indelible, or synonimous with, or worse than that of slave; as if a man could live in abortion one country, and ray bradbury, be subject to the laws of another, or be accountable for del dettmar, his actions to two sovereigns, or two codes of laws, often contradictory. There are also who think, that an act of cruelty committed, for example, at Constantinople may be punished at Paris; for this abstracted reason, that he who offends humanity, should have enemies in ray bradbury on censorship all mankind, and be the auto thesis, object of universal execration; as if judges were to be the knights-errant of human nature in general, rather than guardians of particular conventions between men. On Censorship? The place of punishment can certainly be no other, than that where the crime was committed; for the necessity of punishing an individual for the general good subsists there, and there only. A villain, if he has not broke through the conventions of a society of which, by my supposition, he was not a member, may be feared, and by force banished and excluded from teacher cover letter that society; but ought not to be formally punished by the laws, which were only intended to maintain the social compact, Edition: current; Page: [ 135 ] and not to punish the intrinsic malignity of actions. Whether it be useful that nations should mutually deliver up their criminals? Although the certainty of there being no part of the earth where crimes are not punished, may be a means of preventing them, I shall not pretend to determine this question, until, laws more conformable to the necessities and rights of ray bradbury on censorship, humanity, and until milder punishments, and the abolition of the thumbnails, arbitrary power of opinion, shall afford security to virtue and innocence when oppressed; and until tyranny shall be confined to the plains of Asia, and Europe acknowledge the universal empire of reason, by which the interests of sovereigns and subjects are best united. CHAPTER XXXVI.: OF REWARDS FOR APPREHENDING, OR KILLING CRIMINALS. Let us now inquire, whether it be advantageous to society, to set a price on the head of a criminal, and so to ray bradbury essay make of every citizen an executioner. Edition: current; Page: [ 136 ] If the offender hath taken refuge in another state, the sovereign encourages his subjects to commit a crime, and to expose themselves to a just punishment; he insults that nation, and teacher, authorises the subjects to commit on their neighbours similar usurpations. If the criminal still remain in his own country, to set a price upon his head, is the strongest proof of the weakness of the government. He who has strength to defend himself, will not purchase the ray bradbury essay, assistance of another.
Besides, such an edict confounds all the ideas of virtue and morality, already too wavering in the mind of man. At one time treachery is punished by the laws, at another encouraged. With one hand the legislator strengthens the ties of kindred and friendship, and with the proofreading papers, other rewards the violation of both. Always in contradiction with himself, now he invites the suspecting minds of men to mutual confidence, and now he plants distrust in every heart. To prevent one crime, he gives birth to a thousand. Such are the ray bradbury, expedients of weak nations, whose laws are like temporary repairs to thesis about homosexuality a tottering fabric. On the contrary, as a nation becomes more enlightened, honesty and mutual confidence become more necessary, and are daily tending to unite with sound policy. Edition: current; Page: [ 137 ] Artifice, cabal, and obscure and indirect actions are more easily discovered, and the interest of the whole is better secured against the passions of the ray bradbury, individual. Even the times of ignorance, when private virtue was encouraged by public morality, may afford instruction and example to more enlightened ages.
But laws which reward treason, excite clandestine war, and mutual distrust, oppose that necessary union of morality and policy, which is the foundation of happiness and universal peace. CHAPTER XXXVII.: OF ATTEMPTS. ACCOMPLICES AND PARDON. The laws do not punish the intention; nevertheless an attempt which manifests the make good, intention of committing a crime, deserves a punishment, though less, perhaps, than if the crime were actually perpetrated. On Censorship? The importance of preventing even attempts to commit a crime sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 138 ] authorises a punishment; but as there may be an interval of time between the attempt and the execution, it is proper to reserve the greater punishment for the actual commission, that even after the teacher cover letter buzzwords, attempt there may be a motive for desisting. In like manner, with regard to the accomplices, they ought not to suffer so severe a punishment as the immediate perpetrator of the on censorship, crime. But this for a different reason. When a number of synthesist, men unite, and run a common risk, the greater the danger, the more they endeavour to distribute it equally. Now, if the principals be punished more severely than the accessaries, it will prevent the danger from ray bradbury essay on censorship being equally divided, and will increase the difficulty of finding a person to execute the crime, as his danger is greater by the difference of the punishment. There can be but one exception to this rule; and that is, when the principal receives a reward from the accomplices.
In that case, as the del dettmar synthesist, difference of the danger is compensated, the punishment should be equal. These reflections may appear too refined to those who do not consider, that it is of great importance, that the ray bradbury essay, laws should leave the associates as few means as possible of agreeing among themselves. Edition: current; Page: [ 139 ] In some tribunals, a pardon is offered to an accomplice in a great crime, if he discover his associates. This expedient has its advantages. The disadvantages are, that the law authorises treachery, which is papers detested even by ray bradbury essay, the villains themselves; and introduces crimes of cowardice, which are much more pernicious to a nation than crimes of courage. Courage is not common, and only wants a benevolent power to direct it to the public good.
Cowardice, on the contrary, is a frequent self-interested, and del dettmar synthesist, contagious evil, which can never be improved into a virtue. Besides, the tribunal, which has recourse to this method, betrays its fallibility, and the laws their weakness, by imploring the assistance of those by whom they are violated. The advantages are, that it prevents great crimes, the effects of which being public, and the perpetrators concealed, terrify the people. It also contributes to prove, that he who violates the laws, which are public conventions, will also violate private compacts. It appears to me, that a general law, promising a reward to every accomplice who discovers his associates, would be better than a special declaration in every particular case; because it would prevent the union of ray bradbury essay on censorship, those villains, as it would inspire a mutual distrust, and thesis, Edition: current; Page: [ 140 ] each would be afraid of exposing himself alone to danger. The accomplice, however, should be pardoned, on condition of transportation. * * * * * But it is in vain, that I torment myself with endeavouring to ray bradbury essay extinguish the remorse I feel in attempting to induce the sacred laws, the monument of public confidence, the foundation of human morality, to authorise dissimulation and perfidy. But what an example does it offer to thesis a nation, to see the interpreters of the on censorship, laws break their promise of pardon, and on the strength of learned subtleties, and to the scandal of public faith, drag him to punishment who hath accepted of their invitation! Such examples are not uncommon, and this is the reason, that political society is regarded as a complex machine, the springs of which are moved at pleasure by the most dexterous or most powerful. CHAPTER XXXVIII.: OF SUGGESTIVE INTERROGATIONS.
The laws forbid suggestive interrogations; that is, according to the civilians, questions which, with regard to the circumstances of the crime, are special when they should be general; or, in other words, those questions which, having an immediate reference to the crime, suggest to the criminal an immediate answer. Proofreading Papers? Interrogations, according to the law, ought to lead to the fact indirectly and ray bradbury, obliquely, but never directly or immediately. The intent of this injunction is, either that they should not suggest to the accused an immediate answer that might acquit him, or that they think it contrary to nature that a man should accuse himself. But whatever be the motive, the laws have fallen into a palpable contradiction, in condemning suggestive interrogations, whilst they authorise torture. Can there be an interrogation more suggestive than pain? Torture will suggest to a robust villain an obstinate silence, that he may exchange a greater punishment for a less; Edition: current; Page: [ 142 ] and to a feeble man confession, to relieve him from the present pain, which affects him more than the apprehension of the del dettmar synthesist, future. If a special interrogation be contrary to the right of nature, as it obliges a man to accuse himself, torture will certainly do it more effectually. But men are influenced more by ray bradbury on censorship, the names than the nature of teacher letter buzzwords, things. He who obstinately refuses to answer the interrogatories, deserves a punishment, which should be fixed by the laws, and that of the severest kind; that criminals should not, by their silence, evade the ray bradbury on censorship, example which they owe the public.
But this punishment is not necessary when the essays on pro, guilt of the criminal is indisputable, because in that case interrogation is useless, as is likewise his confession, when there are, without it, proofs sufficient. This last case is ray bradbury essay on censorship most common, for experience shews, that in thumbnails thesis the greatest number of criminal prosecutions, the on censorship, culprit pleads not guilty. CHAPTER XXXIX.: OF A PARTICULAR KIND OF CRIMES. The reader will perceive that I have omitted speaking of a certain class of crimes, which has covered Europe with blood, and raised up those horrid piles, from whence, midst clouds of whirling smoke, the groans of human victims, the foreign thesis homosexuality, crackling of their bones, and the frying of their still panting bowels, were a pleasing spectacle and agreeable harmony to the fanatic multitude. But men of understanding will perceive, that the age and country in ray bradbury essay which I live will not permit me to inquire into make good sentence essay the nature of this crime. It were too tedious, and ray bradbury on censorship, foreign to my subject, to prove the foreign, necessity of ray bradbury, a perfect uniformity of opinions in a state, contrary to the examples of many nations; to prove that opinions, which differ from one another only in some subtile and obscure distinctions, beyond the reach of human capacity, may nevertheless disturb the public tranquillity, unless one only religion be established by authority; and that some opinions, by Edition: current; Page: [ 144 ] being contrasted and opposed to each other, in their collision strike out the truth; whilst others, feeble in themselves, require the support of power and good essay, authority. It would, I say, carry me too far, were I to prove, that, how odious soever is the empire of force over the opinions of mankind, from whom it only obtains dissimulation followed by ray bradbury on censorship, contempt; and on pro life, although it may seem contrary to the spirit of humanity and brotherly love, commanded us by reason, and authority, which we more respect, it is nevertheless necessary and ray bradbury on censorship, indispensible. We are to believe, that all these paradoxes are resolved beyond a doubt, and are conformable to the true interest of mankind, if practised by a lawful authority. I write only of crimes which violate the laws of nature and foreign thesis about, the social contract, and on censorship, not of sins, even the temporal punishments of which must be determined from on pro life other principles than those of a limited human philosophy.
CHAPTER XL.: OF FALSE IDEAS OF UTILITY. A principal source of errors and ray bradbury essay, injustice, are false ideas of utility. For example; that legislator has false ideas of synthesist, utility, who considers particular more than general conveniences; who had rather command the sentiments of mankind than excite them, and dares say to reason, #x201C;Be thou a slave;#x201D; who would sacrifice a thousand real advantages to the fear of an essay imaginary or trifling inconvenience; who would deprive men of the use of fire for fear of being burnt, and of water for fear of their being drowned; and who know of no means of preventing evil, but by destroying it. The laws of this nature, are those which forbid to wear arms, disarming those only who are not disposed to commit the thesis about, crime which the laws mean to prevent. Can it be supposed, that those who have the courage to violate the most sacred laws of humanity, and the most important of the essay, code, will respect the less considerable and arbitrary Edition: current; Page: [ 146 ] injunctions, the essays on pro, violation of which is so easy, and of so little comparative importance? Does not the on censorship, execution of this law deprive the subject of that personal liberty, so dear to mankind and to the wise legislator; and does it not subject the innocent to all the disagreeable circumstances that should only fall on the guilty? It certainly makes the situation of the assaulted worse, and the assailants better, and thesis homosexuality, rather encourages than prevents murder, as it requires less courage to attack armed than unarmed persons.
It is a false idea of utility, that would give to a multitude of sensible beings that symmetry and order, which inanimate matter is ray bradbury alone capable of receiving; to neglect the present, which are the only motives that act with force and constancy on the multitude, for foreign about, the more distant, whose impressions are weak and transitory, unless increased by that strength of imagination so very uncommon among mankind. Finally, that is a false idea of utility, which, sacrificing things to names, separates the public good from that of individuals. There is this difference between a state of essay, society and a state of nature, that a savage does no more mischief to another than is necessary to Edition: current; Page: [ 147 ] procure some benefit to himself; but a man in make good sentence essay society is ray bradbury essay on censorship sometimes tempted, from a fault in the laws, to injure another, without any prospect of advantage. The tyrant inspires his vassals with fear and servility, which rebound upon him with double force, and are the cause of his torment. Fear, the more private and thumbnails, domestic it is, the less dangerous is it to him who makes it the instrument of his happiness; but the essay, more it is public, and thumbnails, the greater number of people it affects, the greater is the ray bradbury essay, probability that some mad, desperate or designing person will seduce others to his party, by flattering expectations; and this will be the more easily accomplished, as the danger of the enterprize will be divided amongst a great number, because the value the thesis, unhappy set upon their existence is less, as their misery is greater.
CHAPTER XLI.: OF THE MEANS OF PREVENTING CRIMES. It is ray bradbury better to prevent crimes than to punish them. This is the fundamental principle of teacher cover letter, good legislation, which is the art of conducting men to the maximum of happiness, and to the minimum of misery, if we may apply this mathematical expression to the good and evil of life. But the means hitherto employed for essay on censorship, that purpose, are generally inadequate, or contrary to the end proposed. It is impossible to reduce the tumultuous activity of mankind to absolute regularity; for, midst the various and opposite attractions of pleasure and pain, human laws are not sufficient entirely to prevent disorders in society. Such, however, is the chimera of weak men, when invested with authority. To prohibit a number of indifferent actions, is foreign thesis homosexuality not to prevent the crimes which they may produce, but to create new ones; it is to change at will the ideas of virtue and vice, which, at ray bradbury essay other times, we are told, are eternal and immutable. To what a situation should we be Edition: current; Page: [ 149 ] reduced, if every thing were to thumbnails be forbidden that might possibly lead to a crime?
We must be deprived of the use of our senses. For one motive that induces a man to essay commit a real crime, there are a thousand which excite him to those indifferent actions, which are called crimes by make concluding sentence essay, bad laws. If then, the probability that a crime will be committed be in proportion to the number of motives, to extend the sphere of crimes will be to increase that probability. The generality of laws are only exclusive privileges; the tribute of all to the advantage of a few. Would you prevent crimes? Let the laws be clear and ray bradbury on censorship, simple; let the entire force of the nation be united in their defence; let them be intended rather to teacher cover letter buzzwords favour every individual, than any particular classes of men; let the laws be feared, and the laws only. The fear of the laws is salutary, but the fear of men is a fruitful and fatal source of on censorship, crimes. Men enslaved are more voluptuous, more debauched, and essays on pro abortion, more cruel than those who are in a state of freedom. These study the sciences, the interest of nations, have great objects before their eyes, and imitate them; but those, whose views are confined to essay on censorship the present moment, endeavour, midst the distraction of riot and debauchery, to forget their situation; accustomed Edition: current; Page: [ 150 ] to essays life the uncertainty of all events, for the laws determine none, the consequence of their crimes becomes problematical, which gives an additional force to the strength of their passions.
In a nation, indolent from the nature of the climate, the uncertainty of the laws confirms and increases men#x2019;s indolence and stupidity. On Censorship? In a voluptuous but active nation, this uncertainty occasions a multiplicity of cabals and intrigues, which spread distrust and diffidence through the hearts of all, and thumbnails thesis, dissimulation and treachery are the foundation of their prudence. In a brave and ray bradbury on censorship, powerful nation, this uncertainty of the laws is at last destroyed, after many oscillations from liberty to slavery, and from slavery to liberty again. Would you prevent crimes? Let liberty be attended with knowledge. As knowledge extends, the disadvantages which attend it diminish, and Edition: current; Page: [ 151 ] the advantages increase. A daring impostor, who is always a man of proofreading papers, some genius, is adored by the ignorant populace, and despised by men of understanding. Knowledge facilitates the comparison of objects, by shewing them in different points of view. When the clouds of ignorance are dispelled by essay, the radiance of knowledge, authority trembles, but the force of the laws remains immoveable. Men of enlightened understanding must necessarily approve those useful conventions, which are the foundation of homosexuality, public safety; they compare, with the ray bradbury essay, highest satisfaction, the inconsiderable portion of liberty of about homosexuality, which they are deprived, with the sum total sacrificed by others for their security; observing that they have only given up the pernicious liberty of injuring their fellow-creatures, they bless the throne, and essay, the laws upon which it is established.
It is letter buzzwords false that the sciences have always been prejudicial to mankind. When they were so, the ray bradbury, evil was inevitable. The multiplication of the human species on the face of the earth introduced war, the rudiments of arts, and the first laws, which were temporary compacts arising from necessity, and perishing with it. This was the first philosophy, and its few elements were Edition: current; Page: [ 152 ] just, as indolence and want of sagacity, in the early inhabitants of the world, preserved them from make sentence error. But necessities increasing with the ray bradbury, number of mankind, stronger and more lasting impressions were necessary to about prevent their frequent relapses into ray bradbury on censorship a state of barbarity, which became every day more fatal. The first religious errors, which peopled the earth with false divinities, and created a world of invisible beings to govern the visible creation, were of the utmost service to mankind. The greatest benefactors to humanity were those who dared to deceive, and led pliant ignorance to the foot of the altar. By presenting to the minds of the vulgar, things out of the reach of their senses, which fled as they pursued, and always eluded their grasp; which, as they never comprehended, they never despised, their different passions were united, and attached to a single object. This was the thesis about, first transition of all nations from their savage state. Such was the necessary, and perhaps the essay on censorship, only bond of all societies at their first formation. I speak not of the chosen people of God, to whom the del dettmar, most extraordinary miracles, and the most signal favours, supplied the place of human policy.
But as it is the nature of ray bradbury on censorship, error to subdivide Edition: current; Page: [ 153 ] itself ad infinitum, so the good essay, pretended knowledge which sprung from on censorship it transformed mankind into a blind fanatic multitude, jarring and destroying each other in the labyrinth in which they were inclosed; hence it is not wonderful, that some sensible and philosophic minds should regret the ancient state of barbarity. This was the first epocha in which knowledge, or rather opinions, were fatal. The second may be found in the difficult and terrible passage from teacher cover letter error to truth, from darkness to ray bradbury essay on censorship light. The violent shock between a mass of errors, useful to the few and powerful, and the truths so important to the many and the weak, with the fermentation of passions excited on that occasion, were productive of infinite evils to unhappy mortals. In the study of history, whose principal periods, after certain intervals, much resemble each other, we frequently find, in the necessary passage from the make essay, obscurity of ignorance to ray bradbury essay on censorship the light of philosophy, and from tyranny to liberty, its natural consequence, one generation sacrificed to the happiness of the next. But when this flame is extinguished, and the world delivered from its evils, truth, after a very slow progress, sits down with monarchs on del dettmar, the throne, and is worshiped in the assemblies of Edition: current; Page: [ 154 ] nations. Shall we then believe, that light diffused among the people is more destructive than darkness, and that the knowledge of the relations of ray bradbury on censorship, things can never be fatal to mankind? Ignorance may indeed be less fatal than a small degree of knowledge, because this adds, to the evils of ignorance, the inevitable errors of a confined view of things on this side the bounds of truth; but a man of enlightened understanding, appointed guardian of the laws, is the greatest blessing that a sovereign can bestow on a nation. Such a man is accustomed to behold truth, and not to fear it; unacquainted with the life, greatest part of essay on censorship, those imaginary and insatiable necessities, which so often put virtue to the proof, and accustomed to contemplate mankind from the most elevated point of view, he considers the nation as his family, and his fellow citizens as brothers; the distance between the great and the vulgar appears to him the less, as the number of mankind he has in view is greater. The philosopher has necessities and interests unknown to the vulgar, and the chief of these is not to belie in public the essays, principles he taught in obscurity, and ray bradbury essay, the habit of loving virtue for its own sake. A few such philosophers would constitute the make good concluding sentence essay, happiness of a nation; which however Edition: current; Page: [ 155 ] would be but of short duration, unless by good laws the essay on censorship, number were so increased as to auto thumbnails thesis lessen the probability of an improper choice.
Another method of preventing crimes is, to make the observance of the laws, and not their violation, the interest of the magistrate. The greater the number of those who constitute the tribunal, the less is the danger of corruption; because the attempt will be more difficult, and the power and ray bradbury essay, temptation of each individual will be proportionably less. If the sovereign, by pomp and the austerity of edicts, and by refusing to hear the complaints of the oppressed, accustom his subjects to respect the magistrates more than the laws, the magistrates will gain indeed, but it will be at the expence of public and private security. Yet another method of preventing crimes is, to reward virtue. Upon this subject the laws of all nations are silent. If the rewards, proposed by academies for make, the discovery of useful truths, have increased our knowledge, and multiplied good books, is it not probable that rewards, distributed by the beneficent hand of a sovereign, would also multiply virtuous actions? The coin of honour is inexhaustible, and is abundantly fruitful in the hands of ray bradbury, a prince who distributes it wisely. Finally, the most certain method of preventing crimes, is to perfect the system of foreign homosexuality, education. But this is an object too vast, and exceeds my plan; an object, if I may venture to declare it, which is so intimately connected with the nature of government, that it will always remain a barren spot, cultivated only by ray bradbury essay, a few wise men.
A great man, who is persecuted by that world he hath enlightened, and to whom we are indebted for homosexuality, many important truths, hath most amply detailed the essay, principal maxims of useful education. This chiefly consists in presenting to the mind a small number of select objects; in substituting the originals for the copies, both of physical and moral phenomena; in leading the pupil to teacher cover virtue by the easy road of sentiment, and in withholding him from evil by the infallible power of ray bradbury on censorship, necessary inconveniences, rather than by command, which only obtains counterfeit and momentary obedience. As punishments become more mild, clemency and pardon are less necessary. Happy the nation in buzzwords which they will be considered as dangerous! Clemency, which has often been deemed a sufficient substitute for every other virtue in sovereigns, should be excluded in a perfect legislation, where punishments are mild, and the proceedings in criminal cases regular and expeditious. This truth will seem cruel to ray bradbury those who live in countries, where, from the absurdity of the laws, and the severity of punishments, pardons, and proofreading papers, the clemency of the prince, are necessary. It is indeed one of the noblest prerogatives of the throne, but, at the same time, a tacit disapprobation of the laws. Clemency is a virtue which belongs to the legislator, and not to ray bradbury essay on censorship the executor of the laws; a virtue which ought to shine in the code, and concluding essay, not in private judgment. To shew mankind, that crimes are sometimes pardoned, and ray bradbury on censorship, that punishment is not the necessary consequence, is Edition: current; Page: [ 159 ] to nourish the flattering hope of impunity, and is the cause of their considering every punishment inflicted as an act of injustice and oppression. The prince, in pardoning, gives up the public security in favour of an individual, and, by his ill-judged benevolence, proclaims a public act of impunity.
Let, then, the executors of the laws be inexorable, but let the legislator be tender, indulgent and humane. He is a wise architect, who erects his edifice on foreign, the foundation of self-love, and contrives, that the interest of the public shall be the interest of each individual; who is not obliged by particular laws, and ray bradbury essay on censorship, irregular proceedings, to teacher cover letter buzzwords separate the public good from that of individuals, and erect the image of public felicity on the basis of fear and distrust; but, like a wise philosopher, he will permit his brethren to enjoy, in quiet, that small portion of happiness, which the immense system, established by the first cause, permits them to taste on this earth, which is but a point in the universe. A small crime is sometimes pardoned, if the person offended chuses to forgive the offender. This may be an act of good nature and humanity, but it is contrary to the good of the public. The right of punishing belongs not to any individual in particular, but to society in essay on censorship general, or the Edition: current; Page: [ 160 ] sovereign. He may renounce his own portion of this right, but cannot give up that of abortion, others. I conclude with this reflection, that the severity of punishments ought to be in proportion to the state of the nation. Among a people hardly yet emerged from ray bradbury on censorship barbarity, they should be most severe, as strong impressions are required; but in proportion as the essays on pro life abortion, minds of men become softened by their intercourse in society, the severity of punishments should be diminished, if it be intended, that the necessary relation between the object and the sensation should be maintained.
From what I have written results the following general theorem, of considerable utility, though not conformable to custom, the common legislator of nations. That a punishment may not be an act of violence, Edition: current; Page: [ 161 ] of one or of essay on censorship, many, against a private member of society, it should be public, immediate and necessary; the least possible in the case given; proportioned to the crime, and determined by the laws. A COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. CHAPTER I.: THE OCCASION OF THIS COMMENTARY. Having read, with infinite satisfaction, the little book on Crimes and Punishments, which in morality, as in medicine, may be compared to one of those few remedies, capable of proofreading papers, alleviating our sufferings; I flattered myself that it would be a means of softening the remains of barbarism in essay the laws of many nations; I hoped for some reformation in auto thumbnails thesis mankind, when I was Edition: current; Page: [ 164 ] informed, that, within a few miles of my abode, they had just hanged a girl of eighteen, beautiful, well made, accomplished, and of a very reputable family. She was culpable of having suffered herself to be got with child, and also, of ray bradbury essay, having abandoned her infant. This unfortunate girl, flying from her father#x2019;s house, is taken in labour, and, without assistance, is delivered of teacher cover, her burden by the side of a wood. Shame, which in the sex is a powerful passion, gave her strength to return home, and to conceal her situation. She left her child exposed; it is found the next morning; the mother is essay on censorship discovered, condemned and executed. The first fault of this unhappy victim ought to have been concealed by auto thesis, the family, or rather claims the protection of the laws, because it was incumbent on her seducer to repair the injury he had done; because weakness hath a right to indulgence; because concealing her pregnancy may endanger her life; because declaring her condition destroys her reputation, and because the difficulty of essay on censorship, providing for her infant is a great additional misfortune. Her second fault is more criminal.
She abandons the fruit of her weakness, and exposes it to perish. Edition: current; Page: [ 165 ] But because a child is dead, is it absolutely necessary to kill the mother? She did not kill the child. She flattered herself, that some passenger would have compassion on the innocent babe. It is even possible that she might intend to return and provide for it; a sentiment so natural in auto thumbnails the breast of a mother, that it ought to be presumed. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? The law in the country of which I am speaking is, indeed, positively against her. But is it not an unjust, inhuman, and thumbnails thesis, pernicious law? Unjust, because it makes no distinction between her who murders, and her who abandons her infant; inhuman, because it punishes with death a too great desire of concealing a weakness; pernicious, because it deprives the state of a fruitful subject, in a country that wants inhabitants. Charity hath not yet established, in that nation, houses of reception for exposed infants. Where charity is ray bradbury essay on censorship wanting, the law is always cruel.
It were much better to prevent, than to think only of punishing these frequent misfortunes. The proper object of jurisprudence is, to hinder the commission of del dettmar, crimes, rather than condemn to death a weak woman, when it is evident that her transgression was unattended with malice, and that she hath already been severely punished by the pangs of her own heart. Edition: current; Page: [ 166 ] Insure, as far as possible, a resource to those who shall be tempted to do evil, and you will have less to punish. This misfortune, and this very hard law, with which I was so sensibly affected, prompted me to cast my eyes on the criminal code of nations. The humane author of the Essay on Crimes and Punishments, had but too much cause to complain, that the latter frequently exceed the former, and are sometimes detrimental to the state they were intended to serve. Those ingenious punishments, the ne plus ultra of the human mind, endeavouring to render death horrible, seem rather the inventions of ray bradbury, tyranny than of justice.
The punishment of the wheel was first introduced in Germany in on pro the times of anarchy, when those who usurped the regal power resolved to Edition: current; Page: [ 167 ] terrify, with unheard-of torments, those who should dispute their authority. In England they ripped open the belly of a man guilty of high-treason, tore out ray bradbury on censorship, his heart, dashed it in his face, and then threw it into the fire. And wherein did this high-treason frequently consist? In having been, during a civil war, faithful to an unfortunate king; or, in having spoken freely on the doubtful right of the conqueror. Auto Thumbnails Thesis? At length, their manners were softened; they continued to tear out the heart, but not till after the death of the offender. The apparatus is dreadful, but the death is mild, if death can ever be mild. CHAPTER III.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF HERETICS. The denunciation of death to those who, in certain dogmas, differed from the established church, was peculiarly the act of tyranny.
No Christian emperor, before the tyrant Maximus, ever thought of condemning a man to punishment Edition: current; Page: [ 168 ] merely for points of ray bradbury on censorship, controversy. It is true, indeed, that two Spanish bishops pursued to death the Priscilianists under Maximus; but it is also true, that this tyrant was willing to gratify the reigning party with the blood of foreign thesis homosexuality, heretics. Barbarity and justice were to him indifferent. Essay On Censorship? Jealous of Theodosius, a Spaniard like himself, he endeavoured to deprive him of the empire of the East, as he had already obtained that of the West. Theodosius was hated for his cruelties; but he had found the means of gaining to his party the make sentence essay, heads of the ray bradbury essay on censorship, church. Maximus was willing to display the cover letter buzzwords, same zeal, and to attach the Spanish bishops to his faction. Essay? He flattered both the old and the new religion; he was as treacherous as inhuman, as indeed were all those who at that time either pretended to, or obtained empire. That vast part of the world was then governed like Algiers at present. Teacher Cover? Emperors were created and dethroned by the military power, and were often chosen from among nations that were reputed barbarous. Theodosius opposed to essay his competitor other barbarians from Scythia.
He filled the army with Goths, and surprised Alaric the conqueror of proofreading, Rome. In this horrible confusion, each endeavoured to strengthen his party by every means in essay on censorship his power. Edition: current; Page: [ 169 ] Maximus having caused the Emperor Gratian, the colleague of Theodosius, to be assassinated at Lyons, meditated the destruction of Valentinian the second, who, during his infancy, had been made successor to Gratian. He assembled at essays life abortion Treves a powerful army, composed of Gauls and Germans. He caused troops to be levied in Spain, when two Spanish bishops, Idacio and Ithacus, or Itacius, both men of credit, came and demanded of ray bradbury on censorship, him the foreign about homosexuality, blood of Priscilian, and all his adherents, who were of opinion, that souls were emanations from God; that the Trinity did not contain three hypostases; and moreover, they carried their sacrilege so far as to fast on Sundays. Maximus, half Pagan, and half Christian, soon perceived the enormity of these crimes. The holy bishops, Idacio and Itacius, obtained leave to torture Priscilian and his accomplices before they were put to death.
They were both present, that things might be done according to order, and they returned blessing God, and numbering Maximus, the defender of the faith, among the saints. But Maximus being afterward defeated by Theodosius, and assassinated at the feet of his conqueror, had not the good fortune to be canonized. It is proper to observe, that Saint Martin, Edition: current; Page: [ 170 ] bishop of Tours, who was really a good man, solicited the pardon of Priscilian; but being himself accused of heresy by the bishops, he returned to Tours, for fear of the torture at Treves. As to Priscilian, he had the consolation, after he was hanged, of being honoured by his sect as a martyr. His feast was celebrated, and would be celebrated still, if there were any Priscilianists remaining. This example made the ray bradbury on censorship, entire church tremble; but it was soon after imitated and surpassed. Priscilianists had been put to death by the sword, the halter, and by lapidation. A young lady of thumbnails thesis, quality, suspected to have fasted on a Sunday, was at Bourdeaux only stoned to death. On Censorship? These punishments appeared too mild; it was proved that God required that heretics should be roasted alive.
The peremptory argument, in support of this opinion was, that God punishes them in that manner in the next world, and del dettmar, that every prince, or his representative, even down to ray bradbury on censorship a petty constable, is the image of foreign about homosexuality, God in this sublunary world. On this principle it was, that all over Europe they burnt witches and sorcerers, who were manifestly under the empire of the devil; and also heterodox Christians, which were deemed still more criminal and dangerous. Edition: current; Page: [ 171 ] It is not certainly known, what was the ray bradbury on censorship, crime of those priests who were burnt at Orleans in the presence of king Robert and his wife Constantia, in the year 1022. How indeed should it be known? there being, at that time, but a small number of clerks and monks that could write. All we certainly know is, that Robert and his wife feasted their eyes with this abominable spectacle. One of the sectaries had been confessor to her majesty, who thought she could not better repair the papers, misfortune of having confessed to a heretic, than by seeing him devoured by the flames.
Custom becomes law; from that period to the present time, a space of more than seven hundred years, the church hath continued to burn those that are guilty, or supposed guilty, of an error in opinion. CHAPTER IV.: ON THE EXTIRPATION OF HERESY. It seems necessary to distinguish an ray bradbury essay on censorship heresy of opinion from faction. Auto Thumbnails? From the first ages of Christianity opinions have been different. The Christians of Alexandria were, in many points, of a different opinion from ray bradbury essay on censorship those of Antioch. The Achaians differed from the essays, Asiatics. This diversity of opinion existed from the beginning, and probably will continue for ever. Jesus Christ, who could have united all the faithful in the same sentiments, did it not; and therefore we may conclude that it was not his design; but that he chose rather to exercise all his churches in acts of indulgence and charity, by permitting different systems, yet all agreeing to acknowledge him their lord and master.
These several sects, so long as they were tolerated by the emperors, or concealed from essay on censorship their sight, had it not in their power to prosecute each other, being equally subject to the Roman magistrates; they could only dispute. If they were persecuted, they equally Edition: current; Page: [ 173 ] claimed the privilege of nature: #x201C;Suffer us,#x201D; they said, #x201C;to adore our God in peace, and do not refuse us the liberty you grant to the Jews:#x201D; Every sect may now urge the same argument to their oppressors. They may say to those who want privileges to the Jews; #x201C;Treat us as you treat the sons of synthesist, Jacob; let us, like them, pray to God according to our conscience. Our opinion will no more injure your state, than Judaism. You tolerate the enemies of Jesus Christ, tolerate us who adore him, and who differ from you only in theological subtleties. Do not deprive yourselves of useful subjects; useful in your manufactures, your marine, and the cultivation of your lands. Of what importance is ray bradbury on censorship it, that their creed be somewhat different from yours? You want their labour, and not their catechism?#x201D; Faction is quite a different thing.
It always happens, that a persecuted sect degenerates into faction. The oppressed naturally unite and animate each other; and are generally more industrious in strengthening their party, than their persecutors in their extermination. They must either destroy or be destroyed. So it happened after the good concluding essay, persecution excited in 304, by ray bradbury on censorship, Galerius, in the two last years of del dettmar synthesist, Dioclesian. The Christians, having been favoured by that emperor Edition: current; Page: [ 174 ] during eighteen years, were become too numerous and too rich to be exterminated. They joined Chlorus; they fought for his son Constantine, and a total revolution of the empire was the consequence. Small events may be compared with great, when they are produced by the same spirit. Essay? Revolutions of about, a similar kind happened in Holland, in Scotland, and in Switzerland.
When Ferdinand and Isabella drove the Jews out of Spain, where they were established not only before the reigning family, but before the Moors, the Goths, or even the Carthaginians; if the Jews had been as warlike as they were rich, they might easily, in conjunction with the ray bradbury, Arabs, have effected a revolution. In short, no sect ever changed the government, unless excited by despair. Mahomed himself succeeded only because he was driven from Mecca, and a reward offered for his head. Would you prevent a sect from overturning the make concluding sentence, state, imitate the present wise conduct of England, of Germany, of Holland; use toleration. The only methods, in policy, to be taken with a new sect, are, to put to death the chief and essay on censorship, all his adherents, men, women, and children, without sparing one individual; or to tolerate them, when Edition: current; Page: [ 175 ] numerous. The first method is proofreading that of a monster; the second of a wise man. Chain your subjects to the state by their interest. Essay? Let the Quaker and the Turk find their advantage in living under your laws. Religion is good concluding sentence of God to man; the civil law is of you to your people. Lewis IX. king of France, who for his virtues was numbered among the saints, made a law against blasphemers.
He condemned them to a new punishment; their tongues were pierced with a hot iron. It was a kind of on censorship, retaliation; the sinning member suffering the punishment. But it was somewhat difficult to determine what was blasphemy. Expressions frequently escape from a man in a passion, from about joy, or even in conversation, which are merely expletives, such as the sela and the vab of the Hebrews, the pol and the Edition: current; Page: [ 176 ] #xE6;depol of the Latins, as also per Deos immortales, an expression frequently used, without the least intention of swearing by essay, the immortal gods. The words which are called oaths and blasphemy, are commonly vague terms that may be variously interpreted. The law by make good concluding sentence, which they are punished, seems to be founded on that of the Jews, which says: Thou shalt not take the name of the ray bradbury, Lord thy God in vain.
The best commentators are of opinion, that this commandment relates to perjury; and there is the more reason to believe them right, as the word shave, which is translated in vain, properly signifies perjury. Now, what analogy can there be between perjury and Cabo de Dios, Cadedis, Sangbleu, Ventrebleu, Corpo de Dio, etc.? It was customary with the Jews to swear by the life of God, as the Lord liveth: the phrase was common; so that it was lying in the name of God that was forbidden. Philip Augustus, in letter 1181, condemned the nobility who should pronounce the words which are softened in the terms Tetebleu, Ventrebleu, Corbleu, Sangbleu, to pay a fine, and essay, the plebeians to be drowned. The first part of this law seems puerile, the latter abominable. It was an outrage to nature, to drown one man for a crime for which another paid a few pence of the money of those Edition: current; Page: [ 177 ] times. So that this law, like many other, remained unexecuted, especially when the king was excommunicated, and his kingdom interdicted by del dettmar, Pope Celestine III. Saint Lewis, transported with zeal, ordered indiscriminately, that whosoever should pronounce these indecent words, should have his tongue bored, or his upper lip cut off. On Censorship? A citizen of Paris, having suffered this punishment, complained to Pope Innocent IV. This pontiff remonstrated to the king that the punishment was too great for the crime, which however had no effect upon his majesty.
Happy had it been for mankind, if the popes had never affected any other superiority over kings. The ordinance of Lewis XIV. says, #x201C;Those who shall be convicted of having sworn by, or blasphemed the holy name of God, of his most holy mother, or of his saints, shall, for the first offence, pay a fine; for the second, third, and fourth, a double, triple, and quadruple fine; for the fifth, shall be put in thumbnails the stocks; for the sixth, shall stand in the pillory, and lose his upper lip; for the seventh, shall have his tongue cut out.#x201D; This law appears to essay on censorship be humane and just, as it inflicts a cruel punishment only on a seven-fold repetition, which can hardly be presumed. Edition: current; Page: [ 178 ] But with regard to more atrocious profanations, which are called Sacrilege, the criminal ordinance mentions only robbing of churches; it takes no notice of public impieties, perhaps because they were not supposed to happen, or were too difficult to specify. They are left therefore to the discretion of the judge; and yet nothing ought to be left to discretion. In such extraordinary cases, how is the judge to act? He should consider the age of the offender, the nature and degree of his offence, and particularly the good sentence, necessity of a public example. Pro qualitate person#xE6;, quoque rei conditione et temporis et #xE6;tatis et sexus, vel clementius statuendum. If the law does not expressly say that such a crime shall be punished with death, what judge shall think himself authorised to pronounce that sentence? If the law be silent; if nevertheless a punishment be required, the judge ought certainly, without hesitation, to decree the least severe, because he is a man.
Sacrilegious profanations are never committed except by young debauchees. Would you punish them as severely as if they had murdered a brother? Their youth pleads in their favour. They are not suffered to dispose of their possessions, because they are supposed to want maturity Edition: current; Page: [ 179 ] of judgment, sufficient to foresee the consequences of an imprudent transaction. Is it not therefore natural to suppose, that they are incapable of foreseeing the consequences of their impiety? Would you treat a wild young man, who, in his phrenzy, had profaned a sacred image, without stealing it, with the same rigour that you punished a Brinvilliers, who poisoned his father and his whole family? There is no law against the unhappy youth, and you are determined to make one that shall condemn him to the severest punishment! He deserved chastisement, but did he deserve such excruciating torture, and the most horrible death?
But he had offended God! True, most grievously. Imitate God in your proceedings against him. If he be penitent, God forgives him. Impose a penance, and let him be pardoned. Your illustrious Montesquieu hath said: It is ray bradbury on censorship our duty to homosexuality honour the Deity, and ray bradbury, not to revenge him. Let us weigh these words. They do not mean, that we should neglect the maintenance of public decorum; but, as the judicious author of the preceding Essay observes, that it is absurd for an insect to pretend to revenge the Supreme Being.
A village magistrate, or the magistrate of a city, is neither a Moses nor a Joshua. CHAPTER VI.: OF THE INDULGENCE OF THE ROMANS IN MATTERS OF RELIGION. The amazing contrast between the Roman laws, and the barbarous institutions by which they were succeeded, hath often been the subject of conversation among the speculative part of mankind. Doubtless the Roman senate held the supreme God in essays on pro abortion as great veneration as we; and professed as much esteem for their secondary deities as we for ray bradbury on censorship, our saints. Ab Jove principium was their common formule. Pliny, in his panegyric on the good Trajan, attests, that the Romans never omitted to begin their discourse and affairs by invoking the Deity.
Cicero and Livy tell us the foreign thesis about homosexuality, same thing. No people were more religious; but they were too wise, and too great, to ray bradbury on censorship descend to the punishment of idle language or philosophic opinions. They were incapable of inflicting barbarous punishments on those who, with Cicero, himself an papers augur, had no faith in auguries; or Edition: current; Page: [ 181 ] on those who, like C#xE6;sar, asserted in full senate, that the gods do not punish men after death. It hath often been remarked that the senate permitted the chorus in the Troad to sing, There is nothing after death, and death itself is nothing. You ask, what becomes of the dead? They are where they were ere they were born. * Was ever profanation more flagrant than this? From Ennius to Ausonius all his profanation, notwithstanding the respect for ray bradbury on censorship, divine worship. Why were these things disregarded by the senate? Because they did not, in any wise, affect the government of the state; because they disturbed no institution, nor religious ceremony.
The police of the Romans was nevertheless excellent; they were nevertheless absolute masters of the best part of the world, till the reign of Theodosius the second. It was a maxim of the Romans, Deorum offens#xE6;, Diis cur#xE6;, Offences against life abortion the gods concern the gods only. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? The senate, by the wisest institution, being at the head of religion, were under no apprehensions that a convocation of priests should force them to revenge the priesthood under a pretext of revenging Heaven. They never said, let us tear the essays life abortion, impious asunder, lest we ourselves Edition: current; Page: [ 182 ] be deemed impious; let us shew the priesthood, by our cruelty, that we are no less religious than they. But our religion is more holy than that of the Romans, and consequently impiety is a greater crime. Granted. God will punish it.
The part of man is, to punish that which is criminal in the public disorder which the impiety hath occasioned. But if in the act of impiety the delinquent hath not even stolen a handkerchief; if the ceremonies of religion have been in no wise disturbed, shall we, as I said before, punish the impiety as we would punish parricide? The Marshal d#x2019;Ancre had caused a white cock to be killed when the ray bradbury, moon was at full: ought we therefore to burn the proofreading papers, Marshal D#x2019;Ancre? Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines; Nec scutica dignum horribili sectere flagello. CHAPTER VII.: ON THE CRIME OF PREACHING; AND OF ANTHONY. A Calvanist teacher, who, in certain provinces, preaches to his flock, if he be detected, is punished with death; and those who have given him a supper, or a bed, are sent to the gallies for life. In other countries, if a Jesuit be caught preaching, he is hanged. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? Is it to avenge God that this Calvinist and teacher, this Jesuit are put to death? Have both parties built upon the following Evangelical law? If he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. But the Evangelist does not order that this heathen and this publican should be hanged.
Or have they built on this passage in Deuteronomy:* If among you a prophet arise; and that which he hath said come to pass; and he sayeth unto you, let us follow strange gods; and if thy brother, or thy son, or thy wife, or the friend of thy heart, say unto thee, Come, let us follow strange gods: let them Edition: current; Page: [ 184 ] be straightways killed, strike thou first, and all the people after thee. Essay On Censorship? But neither this Jesuit nor the Calvanist said unto you, Come, let us follow strange gods. The counsellor Dubourg, the monk Jehan Chouvin, named Calvin, the make good concluding sentence, Spanish physician Servetus, the Calabrian Gentilis, all worshipped the same God: and yet the president Minard caused counsellor Dubourg to be burnt; and Dubourg#x2019;s friends caused president Minard to be assassinated; Jehan Calvin caused the physician Servetus to be roasted; and had likewise the consolation to be a principal means of bringing the Calabrian Gentilis to the block; and the successors of Jehan Calvin burnt Anthony. Was it reason, or piety, or justice, that committed these murders? This history of Anthony is one of the ray bradbury, most singular which the annals of phrenzy hath preserved.
I read the teacher buzzwords, following account in a very curious manuscript; it is in part related by Jacob Spon. Anthony was born at Brieu in Lorrain, of catholic parents, and he was educated by the Jesuits at Pont a Mousson. The preacher Feri engaged him in the protestant religion at Metz. Having returned to Nancy he was prosecuted as Edition: current; Page: [ 185 ] a heretic, and, had he not been saved by a friend, would certainly have been hanged. He fled for refuge to Sedan, where, being taken for a Papist, he narrowly escaped assassination. Seeing by what strange fatality his life was not in safety, either among Papists or Protestants, he went to Venice and turned Jew. He was positively persuaded, even to the last moments of his life, that the religion of the on censorship, Jews was the only true religion; for that, if it was once true, it must always be so.
The Jews did not circumcise him, for fear of offending the state; but he was no less internally a Jew. He now went to thumbnails Geneva, where, concealing his faith, he became a preacher, was president of the college, and finally what is called a minister. The perpetual combat in his breast between the religion of essay on censorship, Calvin, which he was obliged to preach, and auto thumbnails thesis, that of Moses, which was the only religion he believed, produced a long illness. He became melancholy, and at last quite mad, crying aloud, that he was a Jew. The ministers of the gospel came to visit him, and endeavoured to bring him to himself; but he answered, #x201C;that he adored none but the God of Israel; that it was impossible for God to change; that God could never have given a law, and inscribed it with his Edition: current; Page: [ 186 ] own hand, with an essay intention that it should be abolished.#x201D; He spoke against Christianity, and afterwards retracted all he had said, and even wrote his confession of faith, to escape punishment; but the unhappy persuasion of his heart would not permit him to sign it. The council of the city assembled the clergy, to consult what was to be done with the unfortunate Anthony. The minority of these clergy were of opinion, that they should have compassion on him, and rather endeavour to cure his disease than punish him. The majority determined that he should be burnt, and he was burnt.
This transaction is of the year 1632.* A hundred years of reason and virtue are scarce sufficient to expiate such a deed. CHAPTER VIII.: THE HISTORY OF SIMON MORIN. The tragical end of thesis about, Simon Morin is not less horrible than that of poor Anthony. It was midst the feasting, pleasures, and gallantry of on censorship, a brilliant court; it was even in the times of the greatest licentiousness, that this unfortunate madman was burnt at Paris, in the year 1663. Imagining that he had seen visions, he carried his folly so far, as to believe that he was sent from God, and that he was incorporated with Jesus Christ.
The Parliament very wisely condemned him to be confined in a mad-house. What was very remarkable, there happened to be confined in the same mad-house another fool, who called himself God the Father. Simon Morin was so struck with the folly of his companion, that he acknowledged his own, and appeared for a time to have recovered his senses. He declared his repentance, and, unfortunately for himself, obtained his liberty. Edition: current; Page: [ 188 ] Some time after, he relapsed into his former nonsense, and began to dogmatize. His unhappy destiny brought him acquainted with St. Sorlin Desmarets, who, for some months, was his friend, but who afterwards, from jealousy, became his most cruel persecutor. This Desmarets was no less a visionary than Morin. Del Dettmar Synthesist? His first follies indeed were innocent. He printed the Tragi-Comedies of Erigone and Mirame, with a translation of the Psalms; the Romance of Ariane, and the Poem of Clovis, with the office of the holy Virgin turned into verse.
He likewise published dithyrambic poems, enriched with invectives against Homer and Virgil. From this kind of ray bradbury, follies he proceeded to others of a more serious nature. Del Dettmar? He attacked Port-Royal, and after confessing that he had perverted some women to atheism, he commenced prophet. He pretended that God had given him, with his own hand, the key to the treasure of the Apocalypse, that with this key he would reform the whole world, and that he should command an army of an hundred and forty thousand men against the Jansenists. Nothing could have been more reasonable and more just, than to have confined him in the same place with Simon Morin; but can it be Edition: current; Page: [ 189 ] believed, that he found credit with the Jesuit Annat, the king#x2019;s confessor? whom he persuaded, that this poor Simon Morin would establish a sect almost as dangerous as the Jansenists themselves. In short, carrying his infamy so far as to turn informer, he obtained an order to seize the person of his rival.
Shall I tell it! Simon Morin was condemned to be burnt alive? In conducting him to essay the stake, there was found, in one of his stockings, a paper in which he begged forgiveness of God for thesis about, all his errors. This ought to have saved him; but no: the sentence was confirmed, and he was executed without mercy. Such deeds are enough to make a man#x2019;s hair bristle with horror.
Yet where is the country that hath not beheld such shocking spectacles? Mankind universally forget that they are brothers, and persecute each other even to death. Let us console ourselves with the ray bradbury essay on censorship, hope, that such dreadful times are passed, never more to return. In the year 1748, in the bishopric of Wurtsburg, an old woman was convicted of thesis about homosexuality, witchcraft and burnt. This was an extraordinary phenomenon in the present century. But how incredible it seems, that a people, who boasted of their reformation, and of having trampled superstition under their feet, and who flattered themselves that they had brought their reason to perfection; is it not wonderful, I say, that such a people should have believed in ray bradbury on censorship witchcraft; should have burnt old women accused of this crime, and that above a hundred years after the pretended reformation of their reason?. In the year 1652, a country woman, named Michelle Chaudron, of the little territory of Geneva, met the essays on pro, devil in her way from the city. The devil gave her a kiss, received her homage, and imprinted on her upper lip and on her right breast, the on censorship, mark which he is wont to bestow upon his favourites. This seal of the devil is a Edition: current; Page: [ 191 ] little sign upon the skin, which renders it insensible, as we are assured by all the good essay, demonographical civilians of those times. The devil ordered Michelle Chaudron to essay bewitch two young girls. She obeyed her master punctually.
The parents of the two girls accused her of dealing with the devil. The girls, being confronted with the criminal, declared, that they felt a continual prickling in some parts of their bodies, and that they were possessed. Physicians were called, at least men that passed for physicians in those days. They visited the girls. They sought for the seal of the synthesist, devil on the body of Michelle, which seal is essay on censorship called, in the verbal process, the Satanical mark. Into one of these marks they plunged a long needle, which was already no small torture. Essay? Blood issued from the wound, and Michelle testified by her cries that the part was not insensible. The judges not finding sufficient proof that Michelle Chaudron was a witch, ordered her to be tortured, which infallibly produced the proof they wanted. The poor wretch, overcome by torment, confessed at ray bradbury essay last every thing they desired. The physicians sought again for the Satanical mark, and found it in a little black spot on one of her thighs. Into this they plunged their Edition: current; Page: [ 192 ] needle.
The poor creature, exhausted and almost expiring with the pain of the torture, was insensible to the needle, and did not cry out. Proofreading Papers? She was instantly condemned to on censorship be burnt; but the foreign thesis homosexuality, world beginning at this time to be a little more civilized, she was previously strangled. At this period every tribunal in Europe resounded with such judgments, and fire and faggot were universally employed against on censorship witchcraft as well as heresy. The Turks were reproached with having amongst them neither sorcerers, witches, nor demoniacs; and the want of the latter was considered as an infallible proof of the falsity of their religion. A zealous friend to the public welfare, to essays life humanity, and to true religion, in one of ray bradbury, his writings in favour of innocence, informs us, that there have been above a hundred thousand witches condemned to die by Christian tribunals.
If, to these lawful massacres, we add the much superior number of heretics sacrificed, our part of the globe will appear one vast scaffold covered with executioners and victims, and surrounded by judges, guards, and spectators. CHAPTER X.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH. It hath long since been observed, that a man after he is hanged is make good for nothing, and that punishments invented for the good of society, ought to be useful to society. It is evident, that a score of stout robbers, condemned for ray bradbury, life to some public work, would serve the state in their punishment, and that hanging them is a benefit to nobody but the proofreading papers, executioner. On Censorship? Thieves, in England, are seldom punished with death, but are transported to cover the colonies. This is also practised in Russia, where not one criminal was executed during the whole reign of the autocratical Elisabeth. Catherine II. who hath succeeded her, with much more genius, follows her example; yet crimes are not multiplied by this humanity; and it generally happens that the criminals sent to Siberia in time become honest people. The same is observed in the English colonies.
We are astonished at the change, and yet nothing can be more natural. The condemned are forced to ray bradbury essay on censorship Edition: current; Page: [ 194 ] continual labour for a livelihood. The opportunities of vice are wanting. They marry and multiply. Oblige men to work, and you certainly make them honest. It is well known, that atrocious crimes are not committed in the country, unless when there is too much holiday, and consequently too much idleness, and consequently too much debauchery.
The Romans never condemned a citizen to auto thumbnails thesis death, unless for crimes which concerned the safety of the state. Ray Bradbury Essay? These our masters, our first legislators, were careful of the blood of proofreading papers, their fellow-citizens; but we are extravagant with the blood of ray bradbury essay, ours. The question hath been frequently debated, whether a judge ought to have the power to punish with death, when the punishment is undetermined by the law? This question was solemnly agitated in the presence of the Emperor Henry VII. Foreign About? who decreed that no judge should have such a power.* There are some criminal cases which are either so new, so complicated, and so unaccountable as to have escaped the provision of the ray bradbury on censorship, laws, and which, therefore, in some countries are left to the discretion of the proofreading, judge. But for ray bradbury on censorship, one case in which the laws permit the del dettmar, death of a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 195 ] whom they have not condemned, there are a thousand wherein humanity should save whom the laws have condemned to suffer. The sword of justice is in our hands, but we ought rather to blunt than to sharpen its edge. It remains within its sheath in the presence of kings, to inform us that it ought seldom to be drawn.
There have been some judges who were passionately fond of spilling human blood; such was Jefferies in England, and such in ray bradbury France was the man whom they called Coupe-tete. Nature never intended such men for magistrates, but for executioners. Must we go to the end of the world, must we have recourse to good sentence the laws of China, to learn how frugal we ought to be of human blood? It is now more than four thousand years that the tribunals of that empire have existed; and essay, it is also more than four thousand years that the Edition: current; Page: [ 196 ] meanest subject, at the extremity of the empire, hath not been executed without first transmitting his case to the emperor, who causes it to be thrice examined by one of teacher letter buzzwords, his tribunals; after which he signs the death warrant, alters the essay, sentence, or entirely acquits. But it is unnecessary to travel so far for examples of del dettmar, this nature; Europe will abundantly supply us. In England, no criminal is ray bradbury essay on censorship put to death, whose death warrant is not signed by the king. Foreign Thesis Homosexuality? It is also practised in Germany, and in most parts of the north. Such likewise was formerly the custom in France, and such it ought to be in all polished nations. A sentence, at a distance from the throne, may be dictated by cabal, prejudice, or ignorance. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? Such little intrigues are unknown to monarchs, who are continually surrounded by great objects. The members of the supreme council are more enlightened, less liable to cover buzzwords prejudice, and ray bradbury essay, better qualified than a provincial judge, to determine whether the state require severe punishments.
In short, when inferior courts have judged according to the letter of the on pro life, law, which possibly may be rigorous, the council mitigates the sentence according to the true spirit of all laws, which teaches, never to sacrifice a man, but in evident necessity. All mankind being exposed to the attempts of violence or perfidy, detest the crimes of which they may possibly be the ray bradbury, victims: all desire that the principal offender and his accomplices may be punished; nevertheless, there is proofreading papers a natural compassion in the human heart, which makes all men detest the cruelty of torturing the accused in order to on censorship extort confession. The law has not condemned them, and yet, though uncertain of their crime, you inflict a punishment more horrible than that which they are to suffer when their guilt is confirmed. #x201C;Possibly thou mayst be innocent; but I will torture thee that I may be satisfied: not that I intend to make thee any recompence for the thousand deaths which I have made thee suffer, in lieu of that which is preparing for thee.#x201D; Who does not shudder at the idea? St. Augustin opposed such cruelty. Auto Thumbnails? The Romans tortured their slaves only; and Quintilian, recollecting that they Edition: current; Page: [ 198 ] were men, reproved the Romans for ray bradbury, such want of humanity. If there were but one nation in the world which had abolished the use of torture; if in make concluding sentence essay that nation crimes were no more frequent than in others; and if that nation be more enlightened and more flourishing since the abolition, its example surely were sufficient for the rest of the world. England alone might instruct all other nations in this particular; but England is not the ray bradbury essay on censorship, only nation.
Torture hath been abolished in other countries, and with success; the foreign homosexuality, question therefore is decided. Shall not a people, who pique themselves on on censorship, their politeness, pride themselves also on their humanity? Shall they obstinately persist in their inhumanity, merely because it is an ancient custom? Reserve, at least, such cruelty for the punishment of those hardened wretches, who shall have assassinated the father of a family, or the father of his country; but that a young person, who commits a fault which leaves no traces behind it, should suffer equally with a parricide; is not this an useless piece of barbarity? I am ashamed of having said any thing on this subject, after what hath been already said by the author of the Essay on Crimes and Punishments. Edition: current; Page: [ 199 ] I ought to have been satisfied with wishing, that mankind may read with attention the work of that friend to humanity. CHAPTER XIII.: OF CERTAIN SANGUINARY TRIBUNALS. Is it credible, that there formerly existed a supreme tribunal more horrible than the Inquisition, and that this tribunal was established by Charlemagne? It was the judgment of Westphalia, otherwise called the Vhemic Court.
The severity, or rather cruelty, of this court, went so far as to punish with death, every Saxon who broke his fast during Lent. The same law was also established in Franche-Comte, in the beginning of the seventeenth century. In the archives of a little place called St. Claude, situated in a remote corner of the most mountainous part of the thesis about homosexuality, county of Burgundy, are preserved the particulars of the sentence and verbal process of execution of a poor gentleman named Claude Edition: current; Page: [ 200 ] Guillon, who was beheaded on the 28th of July, 1629. Being reduced to the utmost poverty, and urged by the most intolerable hunger, he eat, on a fish-day, a morsel of horse flesh, which had been killed in a neighbouring field. This was his crime. He was found guilty of sacrilege. Had he been a rich man, and had spent two hundred crowns in a supper of sea-fish, suffering the poor to die of ray bradbury, hunger, he would have been considered as a person fulfilling every duty.
The following is a copy of his sentence: #x201C;Having seen all the papers of the process, and heard the opinions of the doctors learned in the law, we declare the said Claude Guillon to papers be truly attainted and convicted of having taken away part of the flesh of a horse, killed in the meadow of that town; of having caused the ray bradbury, said flesh to be dressed, and of eating the same on Saturday the 31st of March,#x201D; etc. What infamous doctors must these have been, who gave their opinions on this occasion? Was it among the Topinambous, or among the Hottentots, that these things happened? The Vhemic Court was yet more horrible. Delegates from this court were secretly spread over homosexuality all Germany, taking informations unknown to the accused, who were condemned without being heard; and frequently, Edition: current; Page: [ 201 ] in on censorship want of an executioner, the youngest judge performed the office himself.* It was requisite, in order to be safe from the assassination of this court, to procure letters of exemption from the emperor; and even these were sometimes ineffectual.
This chamber of assassins was not entirely abolished till the reign of Maximilian I. It ought to have been dissolved in the blood of its members. The Venetian Council of Ten was, in comparison with this, a court of mercy. What shall we think of such horrid proceedings? Is it sufficient to bewail humanity? There were some cases that cried aloud for vengeance. CHAPTER XIV.: ON THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POLITICAL AND NATURAL LAWS.
I call natural laws, those which nature dictates in all ages to all men, for the maintenance of that justice which she (say what they will of her) hath implanted in our hearts. Theft, violence, homicide, ingratitude to about homosexuality beneficent parents, perjury against innocence, conspiracies against one#x2019;s country, are crimes that are universally and justly punished, though with more or less severity. I call political laws, those that are made in compliance with present necessity, whether it be to give stability to the government, or to prevent misfortune. For example; being apprehensive that the enemy may receive intelligence from the inhabitants of the city, you shut the gates, and forbid any one to pass the ramparts on pain of death. Or, fearful of a new sect of people, who publicly disclaim all obedience to on censorship their sovereign, Edition: current; Page: [ 203 ] and secretly consult of means to divest themselves of that obedience; who preach, that all men are equal, and that obedience is due to God alone; who, accusing the reigning sect of superstition, mean to teacher cover letter buzzwords destroy that which is ray bradbury essay on censorship consecrated by the state; you denounce death against those who, in auto thumbnails publicly dogmatizing in favour of this sect, may instigate the people to revolt. Or, two ambitious princes contend for a crown: the on censorship, strongest gains the prize, and punishes with death the partizans of the weaker. The judges become the teacher letter, instruments of vengeance of the new sovereign, and the supports of his authority. When Richard the Third, the murderer of his two nephews, was acknowledged king of England, the jury found Sir William Collinburn guilty of having written to a friend of the Duke of Richmond, who was at that time raising an army, and who afterwards reigned by the name of Henry VII. They found two ridiculous lines of Sir William#x2019;s writing, which were sufficient to condemn him to a horrible death. History abounds with such examples of justice. The right of reprisal is also a law adopted by nations.
For example, your enemy has hanged one of your brave captains, for having defended an old ruined castle against a whole army. One Edition: current; Page: [ 204 ] of his captains falls into your hands; he is a worthy man, and you esteem him; nevertheless you hang him by way of reprisal. You say it is the law: that is to say, because your enemy has been guilty of an enormous crime, you must be guilty of another. These political sanguinary laws exist but for a time; they are temporary, because they are not founded in truth. They resemble the necessity which, in ray bradbury on censorship cases of extreme famine, obliges people to eat each other: they cease to eat men as soon as bread is to be had. CHAPTER XV.: ON THE CRIME OF HIGH-TREASON. ON TITUS OATES, AND ON THE DEATH OF AUGUSTIN DE THOU. High-treason is an offence committed against on pro abortion the security of the commonwealth, or of the king its representative. It is considered as parricide, and therefore ought not to be extended to offences which bear no analogy to that crime. Edition: current; Page: [ 205 ] In making it high-treason to commit a theft in any house belonging to ray bradbury the state, or even to speak seditious words, you lessen the horror which the crime of high-treason ought to inspire. In our ideas of great crimes, there should be nothing arbitrary.
If a theft from, or imprecation against, a father be considered as parricide, you break the bond of filial piety; the son will then regard his parent as a terrible monster. Every exaggeration in a law tends to its destruction. In common crimes, the laws of England are favourable to the accused; but in cases of high-treason they are against him. The Jesuit Titus Oates being legally interrogated in the House of papers, Commons, and having upon his oath declared, that he had related the whole truth, yet afterwards accused the secretary of the Duke of York, and several others, of high-treason, and his information was admitted. He likewise swore before the king#x2019;s council, that he had not seen the secretary, and afterwards that he had. Notwithstanding these illegalities and contradictions, the secretary was executed. The same Titus Oates and another witness deposed, that fifty Jesuits had conspired to assassinate Charles II. and that they had seen commissions, Edition: current; Page: [ 206 ] signed by father Oliva, general of the Jesuits, for the officers that were to command an army of rebels. This evidence was sufficient to authorize the tearing out the hearts of several people, and essay, dashing them in their faces. But seriously, can two witnesses be thought sufficient to convict a man whom they have a mind to destroy? At least one would imagine they ought not to make essay be notorious villains; neither ought that which they depose to be improbable.
Let us suppose that two of the essay on censorship, most upright magistrates in the kingdom were to accuse a man of thesis, having conspired with the Mufti, to circumcise the whole Council of State, the Parliament, the Archbishop and the Sorbonne; in ray bradbury essay on censorship vain these two magistrates might swear, that they had seen the letters of the Mufti: it would naturally be supposed that they were wrong in make good their heads. It was equally ridiculous to imagine, that the general of the Jesuits should raise an army in England, as that the Mufti intended to circumcise the Court of France. But unhappily Titus Oates was believed; that there might remain no species of atrocious folly, which hath not entered into ray bradbury on censorship the heart of man. The laws of England do not consider as guilty of conspiracy those who are privy to it, and thesis homosexuality, do Edition: current; Page: [ 207 ] not inform. They suppose the informer as infamous as the conspirator is culpable. Essay? In France, if any one be privy to a conspiracy, and does not reveal it, he is punished with death. Lewis XI. against whom conspiracies were frequent, made this law; a law which a Lewis XII. Foreign Thesis About Homosexuality? or a Henry IV. could never have imagined. It not only obliges an essay honest man to divulge a crime, which, by his resolution and advice, he might possibly prevent; but it renders him liable to be punished as a calumniator, it being easy for the accused to manage their affairs in such a manner as to elude conviction.
This was exactly the case of the truly respectable Augustin de Thou, counsellor of state, and son of the thesis about homosexuality, only good historian of which France can boast; equal to Guicciardini in point of abilities, and perhaps superior in point of impartiality. This conspiracy was against Cardinal de Richelieu, rather than against Lewis XIII. The design was not to betray France to an enemy; for on censorship, the king#x2019;s brother, who was the principal author of the essays abortion, plot, could never intend to betray a kingdom to which he was the essay, presumptive heir, there being only between him and the crown a dying brother, and cover letter buzzwords, two children in the cradle. Edition: current; Page: [ 208 ] De Thou was neither guilty in ray bradbury on censorship the sight of God nor man. One of the agents of the king#x2019;s brother, of the Duke of Bouillon, sovereign prince of Sedan, and of the synthesist, grand Equerry d#x2019;Effiat St. On Censorship? Mars, had communicated their intention to de Thou, who immediately went to St. Mars, and endeavoured to dissuade him from the enterprize. Essays Abortion? If he had informed against him, he had no proof, and must inevitably have fallen a sacrifice to the resentment of the presumptive heir of ray bradbury essay, a sovereign prince, of the king#x2019;s favourite, and to public execration.
In short, he would have been punished as a malignant calumniator. The chancellor Seguier was convinced of this in auto thumbnails confronting de Thou with the grand Equerry, when de Thou asked the latter the following question: #x201C;Do you not remember, Sir, that there never passed a day, in which I did not endeavour to dissuade you from the attempt?#x201D; St. Mars acknowledged it to ray bradbury on censorship be true. So that de Thou deserved a recompence, rather than death, from a tribunal of Equity. He certainly deserved to del dettmar synthesist have been saved by ray bradbury on censorship, Cardinal Richelieu; but humanity was not his virtue. There is in this case something more than summum jus summa injuria. Auto? In the sentence of this worthy man we read, #x201C;for having had knowledge and participation Edition: current; Page: [ 209 ] of the said conspiracy.#x201D; It does not say for not having revealed. So that his crime was, his having been informed of ray bradbury, a crime; and he was punished for del dettmar, having had ears and eyes.
All that we can say in extenuation of the severity is, that it was not the act of Justice herself, but of a delegated power. The letter of the essay on censorship, law was positive; but I appeal not only to the lawyers, but to all mankind, whether the spirit of the law was not perverted? It is a melancholy absurdity, that a small number of people should condemn as criminal, a man judged innocent by a whole nation, and worth their esteem! CHAPTER XVI.: OF RELIGIOUS CONFESSION. Jaurigny and Balthazar Gerard, who assassinated William I. Prince of Orange; Clement the Dominican, Chatel, Ravaillac, and all the other parricides of those times, went to confession before they committed their crimes. Fanaticism, Edition: current; Page: [ 210 ] in that deplorable age, was carried to such excess, that confession was an additional engagement to the perpetration of villainy; an engagement deemed sacred, because confession is a sacrament. Strada himself says, that Jaurigny non ante facinus aggredi sustinuit quam expiatam necis animam apud Dominicanum sacerdotem c#xE6;lesti pane firmaverit. It appears in the interrogatory of Ravaillac that coming from the Feuillants, and going towards the Jesuits college, he addressed himself to the Jesuit d#x2019;Aubigny; that after talking to del dettmar him of several apparitions which he had seen, he shewed him a knife, on the blade of on censorship, which was engraved a heart and a cross; and thesis, that he said, this heart signifies, that the heart of the king should be induced to make war against the Huguenots. If this d#x2019;Aubigny had informed the essay, king of these words, and good concluding essay, described the man, the best of kings might possibly have escaped assassination.
On the 20th of August, 1610, three months after the death of Henry IV. Ray Bradbury On Censorship? whose wounds were yet bleeding in the hearts of his subjects, the advocate-general Servin, of illustrious memory, required that the Jesuits should be obliged to sign the four following articles: I. That the Council is superior to the Pope. Edition: current; Page: [ 211 ] II. That the Pope cannot deprive the king of any of his rights by proofreading, excommunication. III.
That the ecclesiastics are, like other people, entirely subject to the king. IV. That a priest who, by confession, is apprized of a conspiracy against the king or the state, should reveal it to the magistrates. On the 22d, the parliament published an arret, forbidding the Jesuits to instruct youth, until they had signed those four articles. But the ray bradbury, court of Rome was at del dettmar synthesist that time so powerful, and that of France so weak, that the arret was disregarded. It is worth notice, that this court of Rome, which would not suffer confession to be revealed when the life of a sovereign was concerned, obliged the confessors to inform the Inquisition in case any female should accuse another priest of having seduced or attempted to seduce her. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? Paul IV. Pius IV. Clement VIII. and Gregory XV. ordered this revelation.
It was a dangerous snare both for the confessor and the penitent. It was converting a sacrament into a register of accusations and sacrilege; for by the ancient canons, and particularly by life, the Lateran council, under Innocent III. every confessor who reveals confession, of whatsoever nature it may be, shall be interdicted and imprisoned for life. Edition: current; Page: [ 212 ] Thus we see four different Popes, in essay on censorship the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, ordering the revelation of a sin of impurity, and forbidding it in cases of parricide. A woman confesses, or supposes in her confession to a Carmelite, that a Cordelier attempted to papers seduce her; the Carmelite must impeach the essay on censorship, Cordelier. Cover Buzzwords? A fanatical assassin, believing that he shall serve God by essay on censorship, killing his prince, consults his confessor on this case of conscience; the confessor is guilty of sacrilege if he save the life of his sovereign. This horrible absurdity is one of the unhappy consequences of the continual opposition, which hath subsisted for so many ages, between the ecclesiastical and civil law. Mankind have in a thousand instances been suspended between the crimes of abortion, sacrilege and high-treason, and the distinctions of right and wrong have been buried in ray bradbury essay a chaos, from which they are not yet emerged. Confession of sins hath been authorised in all times and in all nations.
The ancients accused themselves in auto thumbnails the mysteries of Orpheus, of Isis, of Ceres, of Samothrace. The Jews confessed their sins on the day of solemn expiation, and still continue the same practice. Each penitent chuses his confessor, who becomes his penitent in turn, and each receives from his companion Edition: current; Page: [ 213 ] thirty-nine lashes whilst he is essay on censorship repeating, three times, the make good sentence, formule of confession, which consists only in thirteen words, and which consequently must be general. None of these confessions were particular, and consequently could never serve for a pretence to those secret consultations, under the shadow of which fanatical penitents think to sin with impunity; a pernicious practice, by which a salutary institution is corrupted. Confession, which was intended as a curb to iniquity, hath frequently, in ray bradbury essay on censorship times of confusion and seduction, become an incentive to wickedness.
Probably it was for this reason, that so many Christian states have abolished a holy institution, which appeared to be as dangerous as useful. The crime of coining false money is deemed high-treason in the second degree, and justly. To rob all the people is to be a traitor to the state. But it is asked whether a merchant who imports ingots of gold from America, and privately converts them into good money, be guilty of thesis, high-treason, and merit death? which is the ray bradbury essay on censorship, punishment annexed to this crime in almost all countries. Nevertheless, he has robbed nobody; on the contrary, he has done service to the state by increasing the concluding sentence essay, currency. But he hath defrauded the king of the small profit upon the coin. He hath indeed coined good money; but he hath led others into essay the temptation of letter buzzwords, coining bad. Yet death is ray bradbury on censorship a severe punishment. I knew a lawyer who was of opinion, that such a criminal should be condemned, as a useful hand, to work in the royal mint, with irons to his legs. In countries where a trifling domestic theft, or breach of trust, is punished with death, is not the disproportioned punishment dangerous to society?
Is it not even an encouragement to larceny? If, in this case, a master prosecutes his servant, and the unhappy wretch suffer death, the on pro life, whole neighbourhood hold the master in abhorrence: they perceive that the law is contrary to on censorship nature, and consequently that it is a bad law. What is the make essay, result? Masters, to avoid opprobrium, content themselves with discharging the thief, who afterwards steals from essay another, and gradually becomes familiar with dishonesty. The punishment being the same for a small theft as for a greater, he will naturally steal as much as he can, and at last will not scruple to turn assassin to prevent detection.
If, on the contrary, the punishment be proportioned to the crime; if those who are guilty Edition: current; Page: [ 216 ] of a breach of trust be condemned to labour for the public, the master will not hesitate to bring the offender to justice, and the crime will be less frequent: so true it is, that rigorous laws are often productive of crimes. The celebrated Du Verger de Hauranne, Abb#xE8; de St. Cyran, one of the founders of Port Royal, in the year 1608, wrote a treatise on suicide, which is papers become one of the scarcest books in Europe. #x201C;The Decalogue,#x201D; says that author, #x201C;forbids us to commit murder; in which precept self-murder seems no less to be understood, than the murder of another: if, therefore, there be cases in which it is lawful to kill another, there may be cases also wherein suicide may be allowed. But a man ought not to attempt his own life, till after having consulted his reason. Public Edition: current; Page: [ 217 ] authority, which is the representative of God, may dispose of our lives. On Censorship? The reason of man may also represent that of the Deity, it being a ray of the eternal light.#x201D; St. Cyran extends his argument to a great length, which after all is a mere sophism.
But when he comes to exemplify, he is not quite so easily answered. #x201C;A man may kill himself,#x201D; says he, #x201C;for the good of his prince, for the good of his country, or for the good of his parents.#x201D; It does not appear, that we could with justice condemn a Codrus, or a Curtius. What prince would dare to punish the proofreading, family of a man who had sacrificed himself for his service? Or rather, is essay on censorship there any prince who would dare not to reward them. St. Del Dettmar? Thomas, before St. Cyran, said the same thing. But there was no need of either of ray bradbury essay on censorship, Thomas, of Bonaventure, nor of Huranne, to inform us, that a man who dies for papers, his country deserves our praise. St. Cyran concludes, that it is lawful to do for ray bradbury, one#x2019;s own sake, that which is praise-worthy if done for another. The arguments of Plutarch, of Seneca, of Montaigne, and a hundred others, are well known.
I do not pretend to apologise for an action which the del dettmar, laws have condemned; but I do not recollect, that either the Old or Edition: current; Page: [ 218 ] New Testament forbid a man to relinquish his life, when it is no longer supportable. Ray Bradbury Essay? By the Roman laws, suicide was not forbidden; on the contrary, in a law of Mark Antony, which was never repealed, we find it thus written: #x201C;If your brother or your father, being convicted of no crime, hath put himself to death, either to avoid pain, or being weary of life, or from despair or madness, his will shall nevertheless be valid, or his heirs inherit according to law.#x201D; Notwithstanding this humane law of our ancient masters, we ordain, that a stake shall be driven through the good, corps of the offender, and his memory becomes infamous. We do all in our power to dishonour his family. We punish a son for having lost a father, and a widow because she is deprived of her husband. We even confiscate the effects of the deceased, and rob the living of that which is justly their due. This custom, with many others, is derived from our canon law, which denies Christian burial to those who are guilty of suicide, concluding thence, that it is not lawful to inherit on ray bradbury essay, earth from one who hath himself no inheritance in heaven. The cannon law assures us, that Judas committed a greater crime in hanging himself, than in betraying Jesus Christ. CHAPTER XX.: ON A CERTAIN SPECIES OF MUTILATION.
We find, in the Pandect, a law of Adrian, which denounces death to the physicians who should make an eunuch, either by castration or by bruising the foreign homosexuality, testes. By the same law, the possessions of those who suffered castration were confiscated. Origen ought certainly to have been punished, who submitted to this operation, from the rigid interpretation of that passage in St. Matthew, which says, There be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven#x2019;s sake. Things changed in the reigns of succeeding emperors, who adopted the luxury of Asia; especially in the lower empire of Constantinople, where eunuchs became patriarchs and generals of armies. In these our own times, it is the custom at Rome to castrate young children, to render them worthy of being musicians to his Holiness; so that Castrato and ray bradbury on censorship, Musico del Papa are synonimous. It is not long since you might have seen at Naples, Edition: current; Page: [ 220 ] written in great letters over the doors of certain barbers, Qui si castrano mar avigliosamente i puti: here boys are castrated in the best manner. It is make concluding sentence a maxim received at the bar, that he who forfeits his life forfeits his effects; a maxim which prevails in ray bradbury essay those countries where custom serves instead of law.
So that, as we have already observed, the children of one who puts an end to his own life, are condemned to proofreading papers perish with hunger, equally with those of an assassin. Thus, in every case, a whole family is punished for the crime of an individual. Ray Bradbury On Censorship? Thus when the father of a family is proofreading papers condemned to the gallies for life, by an arbitrary sentence, whether it be for ray bradbury on censorship, having harboured a preacher, or for hearing his sermon in a cavern or a desert, his wife and children are reduced to beg their bread. That law which consists in depriving an orphan Edition: current; Page: [ 221 ] of support, and in giving to one man the possessions of another, was unknown in the times of the Roman republic. It was first introduced by Sylla, in teacher cover his proscriptions, whose example one would scarce have thought worthy imitation. Nor indeed was this law adopted by Cesar, by Trajan, or by Antoninus, whose name is still pronounced with respect by all nations; and under Justinian, confiscation took place only in case of high-treason. It seems that, in the times of feudal anarchy, princes and lords not being very rich, sought to increase their revenue by the condemnation of essay, their subjects. Their laws being arbitrary, and the Roman jurisprudence unknown, customs either cruel or ridiculous prevailed. But now that the power of princes is founded on immense and certain revenues, there can be no need to swell their treasuries with the inconsiderable wreck of an unfortunate family. In countries where the Roman law is established, confiscation is not admitted, except within the jurisdiction of the parliament of Toulouse.
It was formerly the make concluding, law at Calais, but was abolished by the English, whilst that city was in their possession. It is strange, that the ray bradbury, inhabitants of the capital should be subject to a severer law Edition: current; Page: [ 222 ] than the people in the country: but laws, like the cottages in a village, were generally established by accident, and without attention to the regularity of foreign, a general plan. Who would believe that, in the year 1673, in the most brilliant period of the kingdom of France, the advocate-general, Omer Talon, did in full parliament express himself, on the subject of a young lady named Canillac, in the following words: #x201C;God says, in the 13th chapter of essay, Deuteronomy, If thou comest into a city where idolatry reigneth, thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the proofreading papers, sword, destroying it utterly and all that is therein. And thou shalt gather all the ray bradbury on censorship, spoil thereof into the midst of the street, and shalt burn with fire the city, and all the spoil thereof, for the Lord thy God; and it shall be an heap for ever; and there shall cleave nought of the cursed thing to thine hand.#x201D; #x201C;In like manner, in the crime of high-treason, the children were deprived of papers, their inheritance, which became forfeited to ray bradbury essay the king. Naboth being prosecuted quia maledixerat regi, king Ahab took possession of his effects. David being informed that Mephibosheth had rebelled, gave all his possessions to abortion Ziba who brought him the news: tua sint omnia qu#xE6; fuerunt Mephibosheth. #x201D; Edition: current; Page: [ 223 ] The question in dispute was, who should inherit the paternal estate of Mlle. de Canillac, which having been confiscated, was abandoned by the king to a lord of the treasury, and on censorship, afterwards bequeathed by him to the testatrix.
In this cause concerning a girl of Auvergne it was, that an advocate-general referred to Ahab, king of foreign thesis, a part of Palestine, who confiscated the vineyard of Naboth, after assassinating the owner with the sword of justice: an ray bradbury on censorship action so abominable as to have passed into a proverb, intended to inspire mankind with detestation for buzzwords, such acts of tyranny. There was certainly no analogy between the vineyard of Naboth and the inheritance of Mlle. de Canillac; nor hath the murder and confiscation of the possessions of essay, Mephibosheth, the grandson of Saul, and make good concluding sentence essay, son of Jonathan, the friend and protector of David, the least affinity with the will of this lady. It was with such pedantry, with such foolish quotations foreign to the subject, with such ignorance of the first principles of human nature, with such prejudices ill conceived and ill applied, that laws have been explained and executed, by men who acquired reputation in their sphere. I leave to the reader that, which to tell him were superfluous. CHAPTER XXII.: ON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, AND OTHER FORMS. If, in France, it should ever happen that the laws of humanity soften some of our rigorous customs, without facilitating the commission of crimes, we may hope for reformation in ray bradbury essay on censorship those legal proceedings, wherein our legislators seem to life abortion have been influenced by too much severity. Essay? Our criminal procedure appears in papers many instances to point only at ray bradbury essay the destruction of the accused. It is the only law which is uniform throughout the whole kingdom; a law which ought certainly to be no less favourable to the innocent, than terrible to the guilty. In England a man may recover damages for false imprisonment. In France, on the contrary, an innocent person, who has had the misfortune to be thrown into del dettmar synthesist a dungeon and tortured almost to death, has no consolation, no damages to hope for, no action against any one; and to add to essay his misfortune, he has for ever lost his reputation. Why?
Because his joints have been dislocated; Edition: current; Page: [ 225 ] a circumstance which ought rather to inspire compassion and respect. Synthesist? The discovery of crimes, say they, requires severity: it is a war of ray bradbury essay, human justice against iniquity. But there is generosity and compassion even in war. Foreign? The brave are ever compassionate; and shall the law delight in barbarity? Let us compare the criminal procedure of the Romans with ours. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? With them, the foreign thesis, evidence were heard publicly in presence of the accused, who might answer or interrogate them, or employ counsel. This procedure was open and noble; it breathed Roman magnanimity. With us, all is conducted in secret.
A single judge, only attended by his clerk, hears each witness separately. This custom, established by Francis I. was confirmed by the commissioners who were employed to digest the ordinance of Lewis XIV. in 1670; which confirmation was entirely owing to a mistake. They imagined, in reading the code de Testibus, that the words testes intrare judicii secretum, signified that the witnesses were examined in private; but secretum means here the chamber of the judge. Intrare secretum, if intended to signify private interrogation, would be false Latin. This part of our law therefore is ray bradbury on censorship founded on a solecism. Edition: current; Page: [ 226 ] The evidence in these cases are commonly the dregs of the people, whom the judge may, in such private examination, make say whatever he pleases. They are examined a second time, but still privately; and if, after this re-examination, they retract from their deposition, or vary in any material circumstance, they are punished as false evidence. So that if a simple honest fellow, recollecting that he has said too much, that he misunderstood the judge, or the judge him, revoke his deposition from a principle of justice, he is punished as a reprobate.
The natural consequence of this is, that men will confirm a false testimony rather than expose themselves, for their honesty, to certain punishment. The law seems to oblige the magistrate to be the essays on pro abortion, enemy of the accused, rather than his judge; it being left in the power of the magistrate to confront the ray bradbury essay, evidence with the accused, or not, as he shall think proper. Amazing! that so necessary a part of the procedure should be left undetermined. A man being suspected of a crime, knowing that he is denied the benefit of counsel, flies his country; a step to which he is encouraged by every maxim of the del dettmar, law. But he may be condemned in his absence, whether the crime be Edition: current; Page: [ 227 ] proved or not. Strange laws!
If a man be charged with owing a sum of money, before he can be condemned to pay the demand, it is required that the debt be proved; but if his life be in question, he may be condemned, by default, without any proof of the crime. Is money then of more importance than life? O ye judges and ray bradbury essay, legislators! Consult the pious Antoninus, and the good Trajan: they suffered not the absent to be condemned. Do your laws then allow the privilege of counsel to make concluding essay an extortioner, or a fraudulent bankrupt, and refuse it to one who may possibly be a very honest and honourable man?
If there ever were an instance of innocence being justified by means of counsel, the law, which deprives the accused of that benefit, is evidently unjust. The parliament of Toulouse hath a very singular custom relative to the validity of evidence. In other places demi-proofs are admitted, which is ray bradbury on censorship a palpable absurdity, there being no such thing as demi-truth; but at Toulouse they admit of del dettmar, quarters and eighths of a proof. For instance, an ray bradbury on censorship hearsay may be considered as a quarter, and another hearsay, more vague than the former, as an eighth: so that eight hearsays, which in fact are no other than an essays echo of a groundless report, Edition: current; Page: [ 228 ] constitute a full proof. Upon this principle it was, that poor Calas was condemned to the wheel. CHAPTER XXIII.: THE IDEA OF REFORMATION. Magistrates are in themselves so respectable, that the inhabitants of the ray bradbury on censorship, only country in teacher cover which they are venal, sincerely pray to be delivered from this custom: they wish that the civilian may by his merit establish that justice, which in his writings he hath so nobly defended. We may then possibly hope to see a regular and uniform system of laws. Shall the law of the provinces be always at variance with the law in the capital? Shall a man be right in Britanny, and wrong in Languedoc?
Nay, there are as many laws as there are towns; and, even in the same parliament, the maxims of one chamber are not the maxims of another. Edition: current; Page: [ 229 ] What astonishing contrariety in the laws of ray bradbury on censorship, one kingdom! In Paris, a man who has been an inhabitant during one year and foreign thesis, a day, is reputed a citizen. In Franche-Comte, a freeman who, during a year and a day, inhabits a house in mortmain, becomes a slave; his collateral heirs are excluded from inheriting his foreign acquisitions, and even his children are deprived of their inheritance, if they have been a year absent from the house in which the father died. This province is called Franche, but where is ray bradbury essay on censorship their freedom? Were we to attempt to draw a line between civil authority and ecclesiastical customs, what endless disputes would ensue? In short, to what side soever we turn our eyes, we are presented with a confused scene of contradictions, uncertainty, hardships, and arbitrary power. In the present age, we seem universally aiming at perfection; let us not therefore neglect to perfect the laws, on auto thumbnails, which our lives and fortunes depend. It may be alledged, that the interest of commerce and property should be secured; but commerce and property are not the end of the social compact, but the means of obtaining that end; and to oppose all the members of society to cruel laws, to ray bradbury essay preserve them from evils, necessarily occasioned by del dettmar, the infinite combinations which result from the actual state of political societies, would be to make the end subservient to the means, a paralogism in all sciences, and particularly in politics. In the essay, former editions of this work, I myself fell into thesis about this error, when I said that the honest bankrupt should be kept in custody, as a pledge for his debts, or employed as a slave to work for his creditors. I am ashamed of having adopted so cruel an opinion.
I have been accused of impiety; I did not deserve it. I have been accused of sedition; I deserved it as little. But I insulted all the rights of humanity, and was never reproached. Post mortem nihil est, mors ipsaque nihil, etc. Seneca. Spon, p. 500. Guy Vances. Boudin de Republica, lib. iii, c. 5.
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How can I write an essay on Censorship for Fahrenheit 451 (including
stage management forms / templates. This is something I've only thought of lately. Naturally when starting a document, especially one that evolves over the course of production, like a scene breakdown, entrance-exit table, etc., I find myself using a lot of question marks. Sometimes it's helpful to ray bradbury on censorship, know at a glance how many things are left to be decided. Sometimes I forget to update things once I have an answer. If you're using a spreadsheet, database, or a word processor with advanced spreadsheet-like table features, you can create conditional formatting to proofreading papers, automatically highlight your question marks. Essay On Censorship? I like to set a condition that if a cell contains ? that it fills the background in a light pink and makes the text red. The moment I remove the question mark, it goes back to being a regular cell. It's a very low-maintenance way to really make my questions stand out. I'm using a new template for make good concluding essay, this season's rehearsal and performance reports at The Reagle Players.
It's based on the performance report I developed on the Acting Company tour earlier this year, except the ray bradbury on censorship, fancy graphics are toned down a bit so that it will paste directly into abortion, an email without losing its formatting. I do my reports using the on censorship, app Pages, which is part of Apple's iWork suite. The reports look basically the same in Word, except that the cover letter buzzwords, best part of the performance report -- the automatic calculation of the running time -- doesn't work, but you can just put it in on censorship by hand. The other thing that I like about it is that if you do your daily schedule as a table in another document, you can paste it right in within the teacher cover letter, Tomorrow's Schedule table. Here are some sample pictures of ray bradbury on censorship what the reports look like, and you can download a zip file containing both reports in either format. Essays Abortion? Have fun!
It seems nobody makes a calendar that allows you to control what it looks like. I came into the business at the tail end of the era of the ray bradbury essay, standalone calendar app. Time was, people sold programs that would allow you to thumbnails, design a calendar to look just how you like it, and to contain the ray bradbury on censorship, information you want to teacher letter buzzwords, share. Now, I guess they expect you to use Outlook or iCal, or some similar all-in-one app, which is a terrible way to go about producing a calendar for other people to use that has nothing to do with your own personal schedule. When I was production coordinator for the Florida premiere of the musical Bingo , I was lamenting this sad state of affairs over the phone to the company manager, and she said that she had a great Excel spreadsheet that I could use to essay on censorship, make my very own calendar. She sent it to auto thumbnails thesis, me, and I have used it (with some of my own modifications) on ray bradbury on censorship every show I have done since, and have in turn passed it on to many other stage managers and company managers. My favorite thing about this format is that it's completely flexible.
If you're doing a show that runs a month from the 15th to the 15th, you don't need two separate pages for both months. Just make a calendar that starts with the first week and ends with the last. If your show runs seven weeks, there's nothing to stop you from making a seven-week calendar (aside from having to squish things a little). Teacher Buzzwords? I use the squares on either upper corner for show logos. You can just drag your logo (or perhaps one show logo and one company logo) into the box and it should size appropriately. I have two basic formats I use for contact sheets. The one I'm really proud of is this one for what I would call fancy shows -- shows that are expected to run a long time and/or need a really robust contact sheet with lots of info beyond just the cell numbers and ray bradbury essay, emails of the cast and creative team.
It can expand to as many categories as you need -- vendors, transportation, unions, alumni, etc. Appropriate uses would be Broadway, Off-Broadway, and tours. The other type I use is for more informal shows, or shorter runs. This is my standard for summer stock, where I need to foreign about, fit tons of names but not a lot of information -- just job title, phone and email. The office keeps their own records of addresses and other info for payroll purposes, but in the few weeks the on censorship, show lasts, there's not much need to hand out a big long contact sheet. Teacher Buzzwords? Generally even with a 50-person cast, I can fit it on the front and back of a single piece of on censorship paper, which is much easier for people to keep track of than one that's seven or eight pages long. Thesis? In a perfect world if you are doing a fancy show you probably want to also have a contact sheet of ray bradbury essay this style so that folks can carry around a quick list of the people they would need to call most often. An important consideration for me when designing a contact sheet (or any paperwork, really) is that it can use color to make it easier to read (especially on a computer screen), but the color contrast has to be such that it will still make sense when it's printed in black and white. A contact sheet in thesis particular is ray bradbury essay something that's likely to be photocopied, so if you use color to separate different types of buzzwords information, you have to make sure that it's still legible and that any differences in color that are used to identify something can still be told apart. I find that every show I do requires a little bit of creativity to ray bradbury, shape my default contact sheet into something most appropriate for the situation. Auto Thesis? My templates have a bit of dummy information filled in to give you ideas of how I might use it, but feel free to ray bradbury on censorship, make it your own.
I've used this template for a couple years, most notably for my weekly schedules on good The Acting Company tour. I found people either loved it or hated it. When I came back for my second year, I intended to ray bradbury essay on censorship, come up with something different. I gave up when I started receiving schedules before we started production, and buzzwords, found that in the intervening months it had become the default template in the office. I very rarely used this template myself, mostly it was the domain of the company manager, whose weekly schedule outlines the travel and other things that take the cast from on censorship, point A to point B, and abortion, then when we started touring our TD used the same format for essay on censorship, the crew's schedule. Proofreading? I guess if everybody else liked using it so much, it's not too bad. Above is an example of one of our tour schedules. Download the blank in .doc format, though if you're a Mac user, I suggest working with this or similar templates in Pages, as it makes working with tables much more fluid and predictable. The .doc above will open nicely in Pages.
Here's another format of on censorship schedule that I've used primarily for readings and other relatively simple events (it's filled out here for a reading). It's good when there's not a need for very detailed information, or multiple events happening at once. It gives a good overview what the week (or in this case, the whole process) is going to look like. There's no reason each entry needs to be just one line -- you could beef it up with more detail in each box if you wanted to. If the above schedule is sufficient to communicate everything that's happening, good for you! If you're doing a musical or another project where you are bound to have simultaneous things going on everyday, this one may be more helpful. It's less of a template and foreign thesis homosexuality, more of an idea, since the ray bradbury, exact layout will conform to cover letter, whatever your schedule is on ray bradbury on censorship a given day, but take a look at this example from Hello, Dolly! (this is not technically a weekly schedule, but a mid-week revision, so it only foreign homosexuality, has three days on it). Click to make big.
As I said, you will have to set up the ray bradbury on censorship, tables and cells specifically for how your day breaks down, but you can download a .doc of the above schedule if you just want to play around with how it's set up. Same as the foreign thesis about homosexuality, simple schedule above, perhaps even moreso, if you're on a Mac and ray bradbury on censorship, can use Pages, you will enjoy this format much more. My daily schedule for thesis, musicals with multiple rehearsal rooms is exactly the essay, same as the Complicated Weekly Schedule above. So similar, in fact, that I'm not going to essays life, link to it separately, because it's exactly the same, except instead of having six days on it, it just has one. Ray Bradbury On Censorship? You can use the above template, just delete a couple of the days. On the last Acting Company tour I had my daily schedule generated by my database, which is well beyond the auto, scope of ray bradbury essay this page, and not yet ready for public consumption.
So I can't actually share it with you, but I can show you the end result, which would be easy to thumbnails thesis, replicate in a word processor. When I built the database, I thought this linear format was going to be an ray bradbury on censorship absolute disaster -- impossible to follow and too inflexible for things that might come up. I was kind of restricted by the type of layouts that are possible in order for the schedule to be generated dynamically by proofreading papers, the database, where it would be difficult to show things side-by-side appropriately. Ray Bradbury Essay? I was pleasantly surprised at how well it worked. Nobody ever said they couldn't read it, even on some crazy, crazy days.
And most important -- not a single actor ever missed a call because they mis-read the del dettmar, schedule , which is something I don't think I have ever experienced with any other format. The reason some rooms are listed in essay red is because the database knows what the default room for make good concluding sentence, the show is -- in this case Rehearsal Room 2 at ray bradbury essay on censorship the Guthrie -- and del dettmar, will mark any other locations in essay red to catch the actors' attention that they're not going to teacher, the usual place. It was apparently effective: everybody always seemed to essay on censorship, know where they were going. So in short, I didn't think this format would work out very well, but I was building the database a few days ahead of when I needed each part to be functional, and this was the best I could come up with for the schedule by first rehearsal. I can't explain why it works, but it does. I got this template from my former ASM on the Acting Company tour, Meaghan Rosenberger. The moment she presented her first draft of a prop list in this format, I declared that I was stealing it. It has a very simple but easy-to-read layout, with just the right amount of color to focus your attention on the important parts without being distracting. This is a slightly simplified version of the one we used, as you can customize it to whatever other areas of the teacher cover letter buzzwords, theatre you may need to ray bradbury essay, set props. I have added one touch of my own, a master prop list on the first page, so you can track the design notes and acquisition of props, and then add them to the preset list once you know where they need to go, all in one document. The hardest thing about wallet cards is getting them printed.
The template I'm about to essays on pro abortion, share is ray bradbury designed for the Avery business card paper that has ten cards per sheet. Even with this information, there are so many different ways you can buy the wrong paper, it's mind-boggling (I screwed it up again this year). Most of the ways you can fail involve printing on the back. Now if you don't want to del dettmar synthesist, print on the back, your choices are much easier, but it's a nice place to on censorship, put some extra information -- I like to use it for the company's unemployment ID number, and the worker's comp policy number. So first you need to buy the kind of paper that can be printed on both sides. However, what I learned this week is that it's not enough to buy the two-sided paper. You also have to be careful if you use an del dettmar inkjet that you find paper specifically designed for inkjets. What I bought was not particularly emblazoned with anything saying otherwise, except in the corner where there was a little rainbow thing that said, Now optimized for color laser printers! as if the essay, fact that I have ink all over my hands and ruined $10 worth of life paper is essay a good thing. I guess part of optimizing it for laser printing is that they use the same coating on essays on pro life abortion the back that they use on ray bradbury on censorship the single-sided paper, which inkjet ink comes right off of. Papers? So watch out for ray bradbury, what you buy, and foreign, be aware that your local office-supply store may not carry all the ray bradbury on censorship, various types to do a direct comparison. OK, now that you hopefully have the right paper, here's the template, in proofreading Word format.
It's based on my wallet cards for the Acting Company tour. I have left the logo, colors and ray bradbury essay, addresses in so you can see how I had it laid out. Feel free to change it, unless of course you are working for auto thumbnails thesis, The Acting Company, in which case, most of your work is ray bradbury essay on censorship done! Once I have gotten the first card layout the way I like it, then I group all the elements and copy and paste them into each of the ten cells. Foreign Thesis Homosexuality? It can sometimes be a little tricky because Word doesn't like playing with tables very much, from my experience. It's always a good idea to print on plain paper first so you can make sure everything looks good, and hold it up to your card paper so you can make sure the edges line up properly. You will probably also want to think about designing the cards in such a way that they won't look wrong if the printing is a few millimeters off. When rehearsing a musical, unless there's really not much movement or dance, it's usually required to have the ray bradbury on censorship, edge of the papers, stage marked with numbers in two-foot increments to facilitate choreography and spacing. If you're going to be really fancy you can use pre-made sturdy numbers that you would find in a hardware store. If you don't need something so permanent, or for a rehearsal room where you need to be able to remove the numbers cleanly (maybe even every day), printing your own is much cheaper and easier. It's also an ray bradbury essay excellent solution for moments of oh crap we have to move studios for the next 4 hours and foreign thesis about, don't have numbers!
All you need is a printer, scissors, and one of my favorite tools: a folded piece of construction paper 2 feet long, which when you need to throw down some numbers in a quick-and-dirty manner, is essay faster and teacher cover letter buzzwords, less obtrusive than using a tape measure. I have a PDF with a full set of numbers that goes up to 20. Ray Bradbury On Censorship? Here it is, if you'd like to del dettmar, use it. On Censorship? It also has guide lines for where to cut the numbers apart, and the centerlines of the numbers. When you're really, seriously, doing a dance show, sometimes you need an additional number line upstage. Hiding it is a lot more difficult because if you've got a balcony the audience is probably going to be looking at it all night. When I did White Christmas the stickers we were given weren't discrete or attractive enough even for foreign about homosexuality, downstage. We decided to customize my standard number line (which is big and ugly for rehearsal purposes) for a gray-on-black version with just the ray bradbury essay, right amount of visibility. Originally we made two sets, with the thesis homosexuality, upstage numbers even darker, but it didn't pass the hey can you guys see this? test, so we used the lighter gray for both. You're going to need a lot of ink for ray bradbury essay, this, so make sure they're taped down well.
Also your upstage line is probably going to get danced all over, so for everyone's sake, make sure it's nice and smooth! This production shot gives a good view of what the numbers look like onstage. When working under an Actors' Equity contract, one of the synthesist, first things to essay, happen in the rehearsal period is the Equity meeting. Here votes are taken on a number of subjects, such as the length of the lunch break, and a number of other rules mostly pertaining to how the rehearsal hours are used. Auto Thumbnails Thesis? The stage manager needs to ray bradbury essay, provide ballots for everyone to cast their votes, and then calculate the essays life, results. I have an Excel spreadsheet I use for this purpose. The one shown above, which you can download is set up for essay, four different votes (which in letter buzzwords this case are the length of lunch break, whether the company can do straight-six rehearsals all week, straight-six mixed with full-length rehearsals, and can rehearse on a two-show day). The options are different under different contracts, this one happens to be for LORT.
The spreadsheet is set up for 15 ballots (in this case, 13 actors plus 2 stage managers). As the ray bradbury on censorship, ballots are anonymous, the numbers 1-15 mean simply the order in which you open the ballots. If ballot #1 voted YES for the 1-hour lunch, put a 1 in the YES column for that question, and so forth. Make Concluding Essay? The sheet will add up the number of votes, and based on the number you enter in row 21 (check your Equity rule book for what kind of majority you need -- i.e. simple majority, unanimous, 3/4, etc.) will tell you if it passed or not. The discuss section at essay on censorship the bottom is something I added to remind myself of any pertinent information I should tell the company to clarify what they're voting on. For instance, in foreign about voting on ray bradbury essay on censorship the length of the lunch break, they should be made aware of how far they have to homosexuality, travel to get food. There comes a sad day in any stage manager's life when a show closes. Ray Bradbury Essay On Censorship? And then there usually comes the even sadder realization that for some reason you're responsible for packing up the props.
If you're lucky, your show may be intended to have a life after the current production closes, in which case things need to on pro life, be clearly labeled so they can be pulled out of ray bradbury storage and proofreading papers, easily found if the show is remounted. Here's a very simple template for listing the contents of on censorship any kind of container.
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In The Introductory Paragraph To This Essay About Essays. introductory paragraph to this essay about essays I will tell you that you don’t need an introductory paragraph, at . least not of the 1) topic sentence 2) structural methodology 3) thesis statement varity that we were all taught in high school. What you do need is That Thing; maybe a question, a fear or a fury. Auto Thesis. It makes your blood boil. It’s all you can talk about when you sit down with your friends over a glass of wine or two or five, or maybe you can’t talk about it with anyone, just your own heart. Education , Essay , Essays 1304 Words | 4 Pages. ?A report about my city Here you have the report written by one of you classmates. You can use it as a model . if you haven't given it in yet or I case you wanna improve the one you wrote. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. Note how this student - writes an introduction of the city . - organizes his ideas into synthesist paragraphs, without mixing topics - writes about both positive and negative aspects (nobody is perfect!) - uses lots of essay advanced structures and vocab we have seen in class - uses objective language - sticks to synthesist the. Castile and ray bradbury Leon , City , County 461 Words | 2 Pages. college preparatory boarding school in USA.
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Mirza Professor Marsh ENG 1104 38 25 Feb. 2013 My favorite Poet Throughout the . twenty one years of ray bradbury on censorship my life. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. I have had the privilege of knowing about essay many poets and dramatists. However, there is essays life, one particular poet whose name is etched in my memory. Whenever somebody asks about my favorite poet, his name will automatically flash into my mind. He is essay on censorship, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, was a popular 19th century Bengali poet, dramatist and the first sonnet. Bengal , Bengali literature , Bengali poetry 831 Words | 3 Pages. activities I spend most of my liesure on, however, are reading, jogging and painting. I enjoy reading very much.
I read widely, ranging from . fairy tales to non-fiction books on outer-space and nature. Reading help widen my general knowledge and omproves my writing skill. Therefore, my parents think well of my hobby and often buy me books that I can’t find in the library. When my eyes get tired from reading too much. I would for a slow jog with my dog in the park near my house. Jogging ragularly make. A Great Way to foreign thesis about Care , Eating , Friendship 1211 Words | 3 Pages. About Narrative Essay Narrative essay is ray bradbury, a popular topic on the Continuous Writing section and students should . take note that this topic has appeared in the SPM examination almost every year since the paper was introduced.
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The essay brings up differences and ray bradbury similarities between city and country, and how these influenced Susan’s life. Susan Cheever is without any doubt our main character in the. A Little Bit , City , Essay 955 Words | 3 Pages. Project: My favorite book 2012 Recently I`ve . Del Dettmar Synthesist. read a very interesting book that impressed me greatly. It was the novel by Vera Kryzhanovskaya “Hellish charms”. Russian writer and spiritualist Vera Kryzhanovskaya was the first woman writer of science fiction in the world, and the first professional science fiction writer in Russia.
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Still what is amazing about ray bradbury on censorship this country is that you can find more than four different civilizations. Couscous , Gnawa , Islam 1007 Words | 3 Pages. Sanela Orucevic English 101 Argument Essay Final Draft 03/01/13 Most people think that age difference between two people that love each . other won’t work out because one of the partners is letter buzzwords, 18 and the other is under age. Age is nothing but a number and ray bradbury on censorship it shouldn’t stop people from being together. Synthesist. Age is a problem to people because they think that there is no way the relationship will work out since one person is immature and the other is an adult and is mature. Age difference between two people. AIDS , Chlamydia infection , Human sexual behavior 1125 Words | 3 Pages.
nuclear disaster that happened at the Chernobyl power plant was one of the ray bradbury essay on censorship most catastrophic nuclear accidents that the world had ever seen. Cover Letter Buzzwords. It left the . world shocked and scarred. The event occurred on April 26, 1986 at ray bradbury 1:23 a.m. at Chernobyl near the sentence city of ray bradbury essay Pripyat in Ukraine (former USSR). Reactor number four at cover letter buzzwords the power plant had a massive power surge that caused the reactor to blow up. As a result to the explosion, very dangerous amounts of ray bradbury on censorship lethal radiation were spread throughout the atmosphere. Chernobyl , Chernobyl disaster , Nuclear meltdown 906 Words | 3 Pages. English 111 N4 February 12th, 2015 Dr.
Crumpler motivated to change my career goal into becoming a biomedical technologist Dr. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. Crumpler . motivated me to change my career goal into becoming a biomedical technologist. It all started when was reading an article online for a black history story for a program at my church on someone famous from the past. Ray Bradbury On Censorship. So I decided to do some research about Dr. Rebecca Crumpler. I found an article about Dr. Crumpler. Foreign Homosexuality. Although I could had have chosen other people but I. African American , Black people , Rebecca Lee Crumpler 1244 Words | 6 Pages. City of Glass by Paul Auster Essay.
The New York Triology: City of Glass By Paul Auster City of Glass is ray bradbury, a novel written by Paul Auster in 1985, and foreign thesis homosexuality its one of . the ray bradbury essay stories included in the series of novels The New York Trilogy (1987). One of the essential themes that recur in many of Austers works is the search for identity and proofreading personal meaning, and this is exactly one of the ray bradbury essay main elements of synthesist City of Glass. It deals with this detective writer, who descends into madness when he becomes a private investigator himself by ray bradbury essay on censorship mistake. In. Daniel Quinn , David Mazzucchelli , Fiction 1556 Words | 4 Pages.
? My Little Bit of Country ” My Little Bit of Country” is an teacher cover essay from 2012, written by Susan Cheever. The main . character is Susan Cheever herself and her life is descripted from she was a child until she got kids of ray bradbury on censorship her own, who grew up and became adults. The story mainly takes place in auto thumbnails thesis New York, while it illustrates how the big city life is to prefer compared to the life in essay on censorship the suburbs. One of the consequences caused by the industrialization in western society is proofreading, how most people now live in the.