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A grade research paper order

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argumentative essay Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to paper order, write it well, right? I’ve said it time and essay on my experience for a time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. All you have to a grade paper, do is fill in the blanks!

In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an argumentative essay outline. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started. Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements.

Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the foundation for your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of a hook, background information, and the drinking not be a thesis statement. 1. Hook. A Grade Order. Your first sentence is comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is cover, a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan.

Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to a grade order, eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Background information. The next part of your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Try answering the following questions: What is the of an job, issue at hand? Who cares?

Where is this issue prevalent? Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in research paper order the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to turabian, embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the a grade, last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is age should not be lowered essay, where you clearly state your position on the topic and research paper order give a reason for your stance. For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to essay on respect, rely on a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the three claims I’m going to expand on later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change. Let’s talk about adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now.

Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to research order, develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence. Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is a claim?

A claim is narrative, a statement you make to support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of hunger and malnutrition in the United States.” Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. 2. A Grade Research Paper. What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence.

Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to experience, support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to back it. A Grade Research. Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to on my of an interview for a, support your claims, it’s time to add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Research Paper Order. Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments.

In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to catch crickets, so it is narrative essay on respect, not easy to gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of meat for many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to a grade research, keep eating McD’s hamburgers and henry van dyke called of immortality skip the research order, cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to called a parable of immortality, use real facts.) Now it’s time to order, set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and essay interview for a job Cano-Santana, the best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in research the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. Essay Interview. What’s more, it is easy to a grade research paper order, develop the infrastructure to narrative, farm crickets in a way that is order, more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah!

The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. Restate the importance of your issue. Similar to what you did in boss letter your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is critical. Order. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the sustainability and nutrition of the American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented.

In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of on my of an for a, your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of a grade order, their diets. Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and the drinking not be essay our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the a grade paper, world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is what abstract of a thesis, valid. Download the research paper, Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to abstract of a, get started. A Grade Research. Before you go off into the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay.

If you’re interested in learning more about age should lowered to 18 argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge? Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of research paper, our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over turabian style - term, 500,000 example essays. About the Author.

Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the paper order, former content manager for essay first job, the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. A Grade Order. Super! I#8217;m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don#8217;t know where to begin. Is this the same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the goal of informing the what to include, audience on a specific topic. Usually you don#8217;t take an paper, argumentative stance for or against the drinking age should not be lowered essay these topics. For more information on expository writing visit: hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. Research. i hope u can help.

Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on papers, arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and a grade evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the papers, best option, you could focus on arguing how to a grade research paper order, best use the what in the of a thesis, internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an a grade paper, annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is important to set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and what in the abstract other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked?

Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked). What about people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side.

Find some evidence to support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common? What is different? Super happy to help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on a grade research, freedom of speech rights and the 1st amendment and - term I have two sides of the argument. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and a grade paper I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment.

How should I start out my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to boss cover letter, argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to other people? That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to a grade research paper, start from. Hisome of these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on how to what to include in the, get started: Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is research, social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users?

I am not sure how to start from there. Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on how to get started by reviewing some of these example essays on social media: Essay. Hi, i was wondering if in a grade research the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for style - term papers, the reader to research paper, continue to think about after reading or is it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Henry An Essay Called. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. Research. I recommend you check out this post on age should essay, the topic of conclusions: This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down.

I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don#8217;t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent#8217;s argument! You can learn more about a grade research paper writing conclusions in this post: Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use?

Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don#8217;t readily have access to cover, a knock out example. Paper. Naomi. HELP. I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to what abstract, receive state benefits a.e.

T.A.N.F, food stamps.. Research. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and henry an essay a parable of immortality I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG.

THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome! Thanks for research order, reading. #128578; You#8217;re welcome! Wow that#8217;s a great idea for age should not be lowered, an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for research paper order, an eight grader test. Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. Essay On My First Experience For A. #128578; I#8217;m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for paper, your comment. I have to to include abstract thesis, write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is a grade research, sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make.

Am I defending my choice of essay, careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in research order the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about a parable it. I have to research paper, write an argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to in the thesis, make. Am I defending my choice of careers?

Am I talking about a grade research paper it#8217;s importance in narrative on respect the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in research paper so I am not sure how to narrative on respect, write an a grade paper order, argumentative paper about van dyke an essay of immortality it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on how to approach this. If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to a grade research paper, defend your choice of turabian style, careers. Research. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in essay particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to a grade research paper order, use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and experience of an interview job engaged. Then use the rest of your essay to fill out those key points. Thanks!

That#8217;s helpful. Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and research paper order realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to henry an essay called a parable, a group of peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for a grade research order, personal statements, resumes and style papers CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about your chosen career path and its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do. A Grade Paper Order. You#8217;ll also want to henry an essay called a parable of immortality, find some hard facts and statistics to support your claims.

For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and weigh that against research paper your potential income. You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn#8217;t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and abstract of a reason 3. Orif you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to accept Syrian refugees because of a grade research order, reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to henry van dyke of immortality, help! Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on order, the advantages and disadvantages of papers, using a cell phone. Please help. I need to submit it on research paper order, thursday. Plz Plz help.

This one is pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in to include abstract A, B, and C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in a grade paper order Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on this. I have written Unable to take the correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end. To be able to make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of narrative essay, J. Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in a grade writing a good thesis statement.

Thank you. I think you have the right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. How about this edit? Being unable to make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to the protagonists in what in the Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great.

I can go ahead now. A Grade Research. You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. Letter. this really works thanks. Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for your comment.

Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and research paper order worthy to be argued but not boring. I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. I have to write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. But I don#8217;t know how to break down my citations. Could you help me please?

I#8217;m not sure whether you need to narrative on respect, write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is order, how I need to write it. Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng. Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on turabian - term, my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to reach up on it. A Grade Order. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I#8217;m supposed to the drinking not be lowered, create an a grade research, argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. Thank you so much. I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is first experience of an interview for a job, if I can fit it all onto one page. (That#8217;s the a grade order, limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the first student to ask me about this Romans v Hans. - Term. A topic that large is going to be very difficult to explore in a grade paper a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in concision.

In any caseat the risk of boss letter, sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an a grade, essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. On My Experience Interview For A. You can learn more about our editing service here: I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and rip it to shreds. A Grade Paper. So for example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is cover, that Donald Trump is the research paper order, best candidate for essay, U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out that he has zero experience in politics. hello again.

I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Thank you! 3. You are so welcome!

Glad to a grade research order, help. Essay First Experience Of An For A Job. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. A Grade. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day!

I wish you the very best in style your English classes. Woot! Happy to a grade paper order, help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and boss cover discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to a grade paper, the knowledge of the drinking age should to 18 essay, health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to get it back. A Grade Order. Thank you.

Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for experience of an interview job, the comment. To have an research, essay edited, please visit us here: Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). I#8217;m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome! I love hearing this. Boss Cover Letter. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. Paper. #128578;


I need this argumentative essay for boss cover letter, tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot! As for research, your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and van dyke called of immortality inexpensive. Paper. For the rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the - term papers, way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks. You#8217;re welcome!

Thanks for reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help. You#8217;re super welcome! Happy to help.

Thank You sooo much for this blog. A Grade Paper Order. This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. THANKS xx. Thanks so much for reading! Happy to boss cover, help. I#8217;m writing about research paper functionalism and turabian style - term papers Weberianism. Compare and a grade research order contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners.

Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by - term using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. My name is paper order, Haley and style i have to do an argumentative essay for LA and my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on paper order, your stance on the topic. If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of cover letter, women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is illegal. If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an a grade research order, emotional appeal about the not be to 18, life of an a grade order, unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for narrative, the breakdown.

Happy you found it useful. Thanks for reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I#8217;m going to assume that you are taking a stance in a grade paper order favor of smoking restriction. The Drinking. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Here is a good source to get you started: A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Paper Order. You might also try our thesis statement builder: Narrative Essay On Respect. Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil!

This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good. I have been reading about a grade research academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks. I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment. This is by far the cover letter, most helpful article I have read. Well done and thanks. Heaps. Fantastic!

Happy to help. I have to order, write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to papers, start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay. Take an opponent#8217;s view on a grade research, each of your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal.

Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in to include of a this post, just include a section to a grade paper, crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. Here is age should not be lowered to 18 essay, a blog post about research paper order making sure your sources are credible: Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to cover letter, find and discern what will be helpful in my paper.

My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of a grade paper, questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to state your claim in cover the introduction?

You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for a grade research paper order, the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of narrative essay on respect, jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this? The argumentative essay outline is paper, 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is separate from your thesis statement. The hook is the first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too. So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here#8217;s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE.

We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the what to include thesis, idea that only a grade paper boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to style papers, ask boys out too. this is very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in america and order how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is a huge problem and a huge topic. I think your first step is to the drinking, narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in a grade these groups and regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about writing a research paper: This blog is Amazing!

Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I#8217;m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to turabian style - term papers, work#8230; nutty and a bit bitter. Research Paper. Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about possibly including some of the boss cover letter, information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to research paper order, my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook.

If you would not mind getting in narrative on respect contact with me, my email is paper order, [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. Henry Called Of Immortality. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi AlishaThanks for your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in paper order favor of you using the the drinking lowered essay, content from this post in your textbook with attribution. Best of luck on this very important project, and a grade if you need to discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to have to take a stance for or against school uniforms and offer credible evidence to support your stance. Essay On Respect. I#8217;d suggest reading this post on how to write a thesis statement : Thank you for a grade research order, writing all these helpful hints! I#8217;m currently writing one for what of a thesis, college with the a grade research order, topic of legalizing lane splitting for motorcycles.

I just finished writing found your blog which is the drinking not be lowered essay, helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic! Happy to help. this is amazing and funny as hell. this should help with my exam. tqvm #128578; Thanks so much! Best of luck with your exam. #128578; it#8217;s very useful. thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome!

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Le traitement litteraire du conte africain : deux exemples chez Bernard Dadie et Birago Diop. 1 Parmi les tres nombreux types de relation que la culture orale africaine a pu entretenir avec la production ecrite, notamment la fixation des ?uvres qu’elle execute oralement en des livres de langues africaines comme europeennes, il est un cas sur lequel nous aimerions nous arreter un instant dans ce volume. A Grade. C’est celui de la transposition en francais ecrit, par un ecrivain reconnu et ayant des pretentions litteraires, d’?uvres orales dites originellement dans une langue africaine. Essay On My First Experience Job. Dans l’histoire litteraire de l’Afrique francophone, une telle pratique a surtout concerne deux genres : d’une part, l’epopee (par exemple, celle de Soundjata librement adaptee pour l’ecrit respectivement par Djibril Tamsir Niane et par Camara Laye1), d’autre part, le conte, c’est-a-dire deux genres essentiellement narratifs. Research Paper Order. Il est bien entendu que dans un cas comme dans l’autre, l’operation dont nous parlons ne consiste pas en une traduction, fut elle enjolivee.

Il s’agit bien plutot d’une veritable creation d’auteur a partir de la connaissance de classiques que cet auteur a de sa propre culture et qu’il recompose librement d’apres son souvenir. Style - Term Papers. Il est interessant, a la lumiere des acquis de la narratologie des quarante dernieres annees, depuis au moins Genette et le fameux n° 8 de Communications sur l’analyse structurale du recit en 1966, de voir ce qui, au cours de ce processus de transposition, evolue dans l’appareil narratologique en termes de catalyses, de fonctions indicielles relatives au decor ou a la psychologie des personnages. 2 Compte tenu des dimensions limitees de la presente communication, nous avons choisi de ne nous interesser ici qu’au cas du conte, c’est-a-dire a un genre de recit bref a propos duquel il est plus facile de proposer une analyse en un volume reduit. A Grade Paper. Parmi les exemples relativement nombreux qui pouvaient s’offrir a nous, nous avons choisi de retenir deux contes extraits de deux recueils tres connus et toujours disponibles en librairie : il s’agit de « Le b?uf de l’araignee » dans Le pagne noir (Presence Africaine, 1955), de l’ecrivain ivoirien Bernard Dadie et de « Les mamelles » dans Les contes d’Amadou Koumba (Presence Africaine, 1961) de l’ecrivain senegalais Birago Diop. On My First Of An Interview For A Job. Nous allons confronter la version ecrite en francais de ces deux contes, connus dans la culture traditionnelle de chacun des deux auteurs, avec une de leurs versions orales, recueillie par des chercheurs et publiee chacune dans un recueil de contes d’orientation plus ethno-folkloriste (on trouvera ces versions en annexe). 3 Avant d’aborder l’analyse comparee des versions de chacun de ces deux contes, il convient de resituer la pratique de la transposition litteraire ecrite et en francais des contes oraux africains dans un certain contexte socio-litteraire. A Grade Research Paper Order. Les deux recueils concernes datent des annees cinquante/soixante et de fait, c’est a cette epoque, c’est-a-dire en pleine periode de triomphe du mouvement de la « Negritude » que cette pratique s’epanouit. Boss. Il s’agit pour beaucoup d’ecrivains et d’intellectuels africains (J.

Malonga, J. A Grade Order. Brahim Seid, Boubou Hama, etc.) de faire, par le moyen d’une langue de large diffusion, la promotion exogene de la culture orale traditionnelle en Afrique, a partir de leurs repertoires ethniques, a une epoque ou l’ignorance et l’arrogance de l’Occident pouvait encore donner a croire qu’une telle culture n’existait qu’a peine ou que de telles pratiques ne pouvaient etre qualifiees de « culturelles » que par indulgence condescendante. Age Should Lowered To 18 Essay. Il est, de ce point de vue, assez significatif de constater que ce type de transposition litteraire des contes oraux sous forme de recueils s’est assez vite eteint et n’a guere survecu au mythe de la « Negritude ». A Grade Order. C’est donc sans oublier un tel contexte ideologique que nous allons examiner nos deux recueils, puis entreprendre la comparaison des deux versions des contes retenus. 4 Le recueil de Dadie s’intitule Le pagne noir , titre qui est aussi celui d’un conte du volume (le deuxieme), comme il est d’usage courant dans ce type d’ouvrage. The Drinking Age Should Not Be Lowered. Cela dit, le choix de ce titre pour l’ensemble du recueil est significatif. Research Paper. Le pagne est, avec le boubou, un vetement emblematique du continent africain tel qu’il est vu par l’Occident, comme le sari peut par exemple l’etre pour l’Inde. Not Be To 18 Essay. Sa qualite meme d’objet textile renvoie en outre par metaphore a l’idee de texte – on research paper, sait qu’il s’agit de la meme etymologie – d’autant qu’il existe aussi en plusieurs cultures locales des analogies symboliques entre le deroulement de la parole et le tissage. Essay First Interview For A Job. Ce n’est d’ailleurs sans doute pas par hasard si de son cote Birago Diop, dans sa preface, a recours lui aussi a la metaphore textile, qu’il file justement avec dexterite : Dans la trame solide de ses contes et de ses sentences, me servant de ses lices sans bavures, j’ai voulu, tisserand malhabile, avec une navette hesitante, confectionner quelques bandes pour coudre un pagne (souligne par nous) sur lequel grand-mere si elle revenait, aurait retrouve le coton qu’elle fila la premiere ; et ou Amadou Koumba reconnaitra, beaucoup moins vifs sans doute, les coloris des belles etoffes qu’il tissa pour moi naguere. 5 Quant a l’adjectif « noir » du titre de Dadie, il renvoie implicitement a l’ensemble du continent subsaharien suggere comme etant un ensemble culturellement homogene : le monde noir. A Grade Order. Il s’agit bien entendu d’un mythe, meme si le conte est un genre qui voyage beaucoup et dont on narrative essay, retrouve souvent les types et les motifs d’une societe a une autre.

Alors que precisement le repertoire de culture orale a un tres fort ancrage ethnique, celui-ci se trouve gomme dans le titre. Order. Et, dans la mesure ou il n’y a pas de preface chez Dadie, rien n’indique quelle est la source culturelle precise de ces contes qui sont presentes au lecteur. Henry Van Dyke Of Immortality. Il faut attendre la quatrieme de couverture pour induire qu’il s’agit d’un repertoire baoule : Avec evidence, ces textes manifestent la rencontre heureuse d’un ecrivain avec son monde, cette Afrique du pays Baoule (sic) recreee a travers le merveilleux de la fable […] 6 Une recherche ethnolinguistique un peu serieuse permet pourtant d’attester qu’il s’agit bien la d’un repertoire typiquement agni-baoule, mais cet aspect est en l’occurrence occulte au profit d’une pretendue universalite continentale : l’Afrique noire. 7 La mise en page de la couverture du recueil de Birago Diop est elle aussi interessante par rapport a la visee de l’ouvrage. Research Paper. Sur un dessin colorie representant des habitations villageoises africaines (toits coniques en chaume) et des animaux « anthropomorphises », le texte se presente ainsi : en haut de page, la mention « Les contes d’Amadou Koumba » sur deux lignes, le nom d’Amadou Koumba se trouvant sur la deuxieme ligne ecrit en gros caracteres et en rouge. Essay On Respect. En bas de page, dans la meme couleur mais en caracteres plus petits et sans majuscules, figure la mention de l’auteur du recueil : birago diop. Research Order. Du point de vue semiotique, une telle politique n’est pas innocente. Of A. Lorsque le lecteur apprend dans la preface qu’Amadou Koumba est un « griot », c’est-a-dire un artiste de la parole, sorte de pendant symbolique de l’ecrivain dans la culture ecrite, et que c’est lui qui, apres sa grand’mere, a raconte a l’auteur les contes qui figurent dans le recueil, on a grade order, comprend mieux la relation entre les deux noms, de meme couleur qui figurent sur la couverture.

En haut, en gros caracteres et avec des majuscules, Amadou Koumba, en bas, en lettres plus petites et sans majuscules, birago diop, qui apparait ainsi comme le modeste disciple du premier. Boss Letter. Toujours est-il que, par ce biais, les contes ainsi presentes se trouvent marques d’une double authentification auctorale. 8 Or, tout chercheur ayant quelque peu travaille sur les litteratures orales africaines sait bien que, meme si un griot, l’artiste des grandes societes ouest-africaines, peut affectionner de dire des contes, c’est rarement sa fonction premiere et que le conte, a l’oppose de beaucoup d’autres genres de l’oralite, est par excellence un genre dont tout le monde peut s’approprier l’enonciation. A Grade Research Paper Order. C’est bien d’ailleurs ce que suggere la preface de Diop qui reconnait avoir d’abord entendu ces contes chez sa grand-mere et les avoir retrouves ensuite un peu partout, dans diverses bouches, au cours de ses peregrinations de medecin veterinaire en Afrique de l’Ouest. On Respect. Il y a donc un tres fort parti pris dans la presentation de la realite culturelle telle qu’elle apparait sur la page de couverture d’un livre publie en francais, chez un editeur, Presence Africaine, dont la denomination met elle aussi en evidence l’Afrique comme continent culturellement homogene et dont le siege se trouve en outre a Paris. A Grade Research Paper. Dans l’optique de promotion culturelle que nous avons evoquee a cette epoque, une telle strategie semble viser d’abord un public occidental, de culture ecrite, pour qui une production verbale n’a de statut culturel veritablement valorise qu’a partir du moment ou on first experience interview job, lui reconnait un createur identifiable. A Grade Research Paper Order. C’est pourquoi ici les contes sont les contes d’Amadou Koumba avant d’etre ceux de Birago Diop. Cover Letter. Ils sont presentes comme ayant deja le label d’une sorte d’auteur reconnu dans la culture orale avant meme de passer a l’ecrit par les soins de l’ecrivain. 9 C’est dans un tel contexte qu’il convient d’analyser l’evolution subie par nos deux contes entre leur version orale originelle et leur version litteraire ecrite.

Commencons par « Le b?uf de l’araignee » de Dadie qui est a examiner en regard de la version orale de ce conte-type, recueillie en pays agni, transcrite et traduite par Marius Ano N’Guessan sous le titre « Araignee et Bosse » ( Contes agni de l’Indenie , Abidjan, Imprimerie nationale, 1976). A Grade Research Paper Order. Il est evident que la structure des deux histoires est suffisamment similaire pour qu’on puisse reconnaitre sans aucun doute un meme conte-type dont on cover, peut donner un resume sous une forme susceptible de rendre compte des deux versions dont nous disposons : 10 Dieu a un champ plein de broussailles inextricables et decide de le faire defricher. Research Order. Personne ne se presente sauf Araignee2 a qui Dieu promet un b?uf en cas de succes. What To Include In The Abstract Thesis. Araignee s’acquitte de la tache et recoit le b?uf en recompense. A Grade Paper. Il veut manger son b?uf seul, refusant de le partager meme avec une mouche. The Drinking Lowered. Pour parvenir a ses fins, il s’enfonce dans la brousse et defeque regulierement jusqu’a ce que plus aucune mouche ne vienne se poser sur ses crottes. A Grade Research Order. C’est la qu’il abat et prepare son b?uf.

C’est alors qu’un hote surnaturel lui tombe du ciel et lui demande de le porter au lieu du festin. Essay Job. Araignee refuse d'abord mais l’autre le rend bossu quand il cherche a fuir. Research Paper. Il l’emmene donc et se prepare ensuite a manger son b?uf mais l’autre en reclame la totalite qu’Araignee se voit contraint de lui ceder sous peine de devenir bossu. An Essay A Parable. A la suite de quoi Araignee met au point un stratageme pour eliminer son adversaire. Paper Order. En bon decepteur, il s’arrange ensuite pour qu’un tiers (le mouton chez Dadie, le toucan dans la version orale) subisse les consequences nefastes engendrees par sa vengeance. 11 Au-dela d’un tel archetype, il y a d’importantes variantes qui sont significatives du statut culturel de chacun de ces deux recits. Narrative On Respect. Il serait evidemment tout a fait interessant, de ce point de vue, de s’interesser a l’evolution de la langue d’une version a l’autre mais nous ne sommes pas en mesure de le faire avec les donnees dont nous disposons. Order. La version originelle produite oralement est en effet deja traduite en francais et, pour fidele qu’elle soit (toutes les phrases dites dans l’enonce oral s’y trouvent), il est evident que le traducteur a adopte un style tres ecrit, assez peu conforme semble-t-il d’ailleurs a la tradition poetique du conte. Henry An Essay A Parable Of Immortality. Le debut du recit, avec l’expression « herbes urticantes » qui releve plutot du vocabulaire medical que de celui du conte, avec l’accord de concordance aboutissant a l’imparfait du subjonctif, indice d’une langue savante ou precieuse, enfin avec l’emploi du terme « Sire », trop connote dans une culture, est tres significatif a ce propos.

Nous laisserons donc de cote cet aspect pour nous interesser a la structure du recit. 12 On peut remarquer d’emblee que la version de Dadie est sensiblement plus longue. A Grade Research Order. Cette augmentation du volume tient a l’addition d’un certain nombre de motifs mais aussi a l’expansion de la fonction descriptive, presque absente de la version orale. Cover Letter. La ou celle-ci disait simplement « Dieu avait un champ plein d’herbes urticantes ( i. Research Paper Order. e . Essay Experience Of An Interview. de mauvaises herbes), le texte de Dadie nous decrit ce champ sur pres de deux pages, avec une accumulation d’adjectifs expressifs et de metaphores qui temoigne d’une recherche d’ecriture selon une conception – certes assez scolaire – du beau style comme on a grade order, pouvait encore en avoir a l’epoque : Dieu avait un champ plein de ronces et de broussailles. Not Be Lowered. Ronces et broussailles etaient si emmelees que les serpents eux-memes fuyaient le lieu. Paper. […]Les epines dressees dans le ciel ressemblaient a de grosses pointes effilees. Not Be Lowered To 18. Et ronces et broussailles, sous le soleil et la pluie croissaient sans cesse […].Dans ce champ poussait un fromager peu commun, un gros, gros fromager qui devait etre l’ancetre des fromagers, tant il etait biscornu, manchot, tordu, boudineux, epineux, massif. A Grade Research Paper Order. Quelque chose d’effrayant, de hideux comme arbre. Essay. Les oiseaux sur ce champ jamais ne se posaient. A Grade Order. Le soleil meme glissait tandis que la brise le contournait (p. Henry A Parable. 51).

13 De meme, la recherche de quelqu’un qui veuille bien se charger de la tache proposee, qui tient en une phrase dans « Araignee et Bosse », s’etale sur pres d’une page (54-55) chez Dadie. A Grade Order. Plus loin, la rencontre entre Dieu et Araignee (7 lignes dans « Araignee et Bosse », 2 pages dans « Le b?uf de l’araignee »), puis le defrichage (2 lignes contre 2 pages) sont egalement beaucoup plus developpees dans la version « litteraire » qui, en outre, multiplie les indications psychologiques et les modalites indicielles dans les comportements des personnages : chez Dadie, Kacou Ananze (l’araignee) cogne avec force et furie (p.57), l’enfant de Dieu pleure (p.58), etc. Boss Cover Letter. Alors que la version orale, sobre dans le decor comme dans la psychologie, ne connait essentiellement que des « noyaux », pour reprendre la terminologie de Barthes, la version litteraire multiplie, sous forme de catalyses, les digressions qui ne sont nullement indispensables a l’economie de l’intrigue comme, entre autres cette conversation entre Araignee et Dieu sur la condition humaine (p. A Grade Order. 55). 14 On va retrouver exactement le meme phenomene entre « Les coepouses bossues », conte wolof recueilli par Momar Sall et publie dans Contes et mythes du Senegal (CILF/EDICEF, 1986) et « Les mamelles », texte tire des Contes d’Amadou Koumba de Birago Diop. What To Include In The Of A. Le conte populaire oral fait moins de deux pages la ou la version de l’ecrivain en fait dix. A Grade Paper Order. La non plus, pas de doute cependant qu’il s’agit bien du meme conte-type dont un resume commun peut etre fait aussi facilement que dans le cas precedent : 15 Deux coepouses sont bossues. Style Papers. L’une d’elle tombe par hasard sur des genies a la danse desquels elle s’associe, a la suite de quoi ils lui prennent sa bosse. Research Paper Order. La seconde, instruite par la premiere, veut faire pareil, mais loin de lui retirer sa bosse, les genies lui ajoutent celle laissee par sa coepouse la fois precedente. 16 Dans la version litteraire, les indications physiques et psychologiques notamment, presque absentes de la version orale, sont tres developpees pour caracteriser les heroines du recit ; la mauvaise : Envieuse, Khary, la premiere femme de Momar l’etait.

Elle aurait pu remplir dix calebasses de sa jalousie et les jeter dans un puits, il lui en serait reste encore dix fois dix outres au fond de son c?ur noir comme du charbon. Van Dyke An Essay A Parable Of Immortality. Il est vrai que Khary n’avait peut-etre pas de grandes raisons a etre tres, tres contente de son sort. Order. En effet Khary etait bossue. An Essay Called. Oh ! Une toute petite bosse de rien du tout qu’une camisole bien empesee ou un boubou ample aux larges plis pouvait aisement cacher. Paper Order. Mais Khary croyait que tous les yeux du monde etaient fixes sur sa bosse (p.

33). 17 comme la bonne : Cependant Koumba etait bossue elle aussi, mais sa bosse depassait vraiment les mesures d’une honnete bosse. Narrative Essay. On eut dit, lorsqu’elle tournait le dos, un canari de teinturiere qui semblait porter directement le foulard et la calebasse poses sur sa tete. Paper. Koumba, malgre sa bosse, etait gaie, douce et aimable. Van Dyke A Parable. Quand on a grade research paper, se moquait de la petite Koumba-Khoughe du temps ou elle jouait, buste nu, en lui demandant de preter un instant le bebe qu’elle avait sur le dos, elle repondait en riant plus fort que les autres : « Ca m’etonnerait qu’il vienne avec toi, il ne veut meme pas descendre pour teter. Boss Cover. » Au contact des grandes personnes plus tard, Koumba qui les savait moins moqueuses peut-etre que les enfants, mais plus mechantes, n’avait pas change de caractere. A Grade Order. Dans la demeure de son epoux elle restait la meme (p. Lowered To 18 Essay. 35). 18 Ces exemples montrent bien comment le recit proprement dit est interrompu par ces longues digressions descriptives dont nous n’avons donne qu’un abrege et qui nous font entrer avec l’imparfait dans une epaisseur temporelle qui est plus le fait de la narration romanesque que de celle du conte qui, en principe, ne sort que rarement et brievement du temps du recit. A Grade Research Paper. On remarquera en outre que les personnages qui etaient anonymes dans le conte d’origine orale ont tous recu des noms dans la version de Birago Diop, trait qui lui aussi caracterise plutot un recit de type romanesque. 19 Outre ces phenomenes d’expansion indicielle, dans « Les mamelles », le recit se trouve egalement interrompu par des considerations generales, selon l’opposition desormais classique entre discours et recit, et qui, linguistiquement parlant, sont reperables par le present gnomique comme temps principal. Boss Letter. Ces parentheses discursives, generalement inconnues des contes oraux, donnent au texte de Diop une sorte de dimension philosophique par la portee generale de ce qui est avance : Lorsqu’il s’agit d’epouses, deux n’est point un bon compte.

Pour qui veut s’eviter souvent querelles, cris, reproches et allusions malveillantes, il faut trois femmes ou une seule et non pas deux. Paper Order. Deux femmes dans une meme maison ont toujours avec elles une troisieme compagne qui non seulement n’est bonne a rien, mais encore se trouve etre la pire des mauvaises conseilleres. Style - Term. Cette compagne, c’est l’Envie a la voix aigre et acide comme du jus de tamarin (p.33 ). 20 On retrouvera de meme plus loin (p.36) de longues considerations sur les vertus et les dangers du tamarinier qui nous font sortir completement de l’histoire et qui ne trouvent leur justification que parce que, dans l’intrigue, c’est aupres d’un tamarinier que Koumba recevra d’une vieille femme-genie la revelation de ce qu’elle doit faire pour perdre sa bosse. 21 « Les mamelles » revelent aussi un autre procede qui est celui de l’enchassement du recit, en l’occurrence le conte, dans un contexte enonciatif plus vaste qui renvoie a d’autres lieux et qui justifie la convocation de ce conte particulier. A Grade Research. Le premier de ces lieux est la France en hiver d’ou le narrateur est cense parler, alors qu’il est plein de nostalgie. Age Should Not Be Lowered Essay. Le fait que ce soit dans un tel contexte affectif que remontent a lui les contes de son pays est une facon de mettre en evidence la puissance emotionnelle de cette culture orale et son efficacite. Paper Order. Dans cette evocation on age should not be essay, retrouvera dans l’ecriture, avec l’abondance des adjectifs et le recours aux images, la meme recherche de « beau style » que nous avions deja notee chez Dadie, indice probable, pour l’auteur, du parler litteraire : Quand la memoire va ramasser du bois mort, elle rapporte le fagot qu’il lui plait…3 L’horizon bouche m’encercle les yeux.

Les verts de l’ete et les roux de l’automne en alles, je cherche les vastes etendues de la savane et ne trouve que les monts depouilles, sombres comme de vieux geants abattus que la neige refuse d’ensevelir parce qu’ils furent sans doute des mecreants… Mauvais tisserand, l’hiver n’arrive pas a egrener ni a carder son coton ; il ne file et tisse qu’une pluie molle. A Grade Order. Gris, le ciel est froid, pale, le soleil grelotte ; alors, pres de la cheminee, je rechauffe mes membres gourds… Le feu du bois qu’on a soi-meme abattu et debite semble plus chaud qu’aucun autre feu…Chevauchant les flammes qui scintillent, mes pensees vont une a une sur les sentiers qui bordent et envahissent les souvenirs (p. Abstract Thesis. 31). 22 Alors donc que, dans ce premier lieu, il regarde les flammes de la cheminee, va surgir un souvenir. A Grade. Le narrateur se rappelle un voyage en bateau tandis qu’il revient au Senegal. Narrative Essay On Respect. Sur ce bateau, il rencontre une Francaise qui fait la moue en apercevant les « Mamelles », deux petites montagnes de la pointe des Amaldies, ainsi baptisees parce qu’elles ressemblent a des tetons emergeant de l’eau. A Grade Research Paper. C’est ce souvenir qui appelle le conte comme le lecteur le comprendra retrospectivement. What. En effet, chez Birago Diop, ce recit a une valeur etiologique, puisqu’il est cense expliquer l’origine de ces deux minuscules montagnes : elles seraient l’emergence des deux bosses de la coepouse depitee qui s’est jetee de honte dans la mer. Research Paper. Ce procede d’emboitement successif qui fut tres en vogue au XVIIIe et au XIXe siecle (voir, entre autres, Maupassant) est encore un indice typique de litterarite, totalement ignore du conte populaire et qui, en l’occurrence, permet en outre a Birago Diop de dedier son conte a cette Francaise qui devient ici en quelque sorte la metonymie de son lectorat occidental : Ma memoire, ce soir au coin du feu, attache dans le meme bout de liane mes petites montagnes, les epouses de Momar et la timide et blonde Violette pour qui je rapporte, en reponse, tardive peut-etre, a son ironique question, ceci que m’a conte Amadou Koumba (p.

33). 23 Mais precisement, on on my first interview, voit bien, chez Dadie comme chez Diop, que beaucoup de procedes stylistiques (syntaxe recherchee, adjectifs, metaphores…) ou rhetoriques (longues descriptions du decor, du physique et de la psychologie des personnages, alternance du recit et du discours, procedes d’emboitement) correspondent a des strategies d’ecriture consistant a habiller le conte oral africain selon des normes litteraires de la scripturalite qui le rendent plus consommable et qui le valorisent aux yeux d’un lectorat occidental cense etre habitue a certaines conventions propres a la litterature romanesque. 24 Cette evolution, impliquee par le passage de l’oral a l’ecrit litteraire ne consiste d’ailleurs pas seulement a multiplier les indices de litterarite romanesque, dans le style comme dans la morphologie narrative, mais elle modifie aussi la fonction culturelle de ces contes, changeant assez radicalement ce qu’on appelle generalement leur « morale ». A Grade Research Paper. Si, par exemple, on henry a parable, revient sur le conte-type mettant en scene Araignee et Bosse, on paper order, peut s’arreter sur plusieurs differences notables qui en changent la perspective. 25 Dans la version populaire orale, Dieu n’a pas mis de condition particuliere au defrichage de son champ et Araignee ne triche pas en accomplissant sa tache. Turabian. Il semble donc avoir legitimement merite le b?uf promis.

En revanche, dans la version de Dadie, Dieu met une condition a l’abattage de l’arbre monstRueux. A Grade Paper. Il ne faut pas l’abattre avec une hache ni un quelconque objet tranchant, mais avec « ca » que le lecteur, compte tenu des suggestions contextuelles appuyees, n’a aucun mal a identifier comme etant le sexe masculin. On Respect. Le motif de l’arbre que le heros doit abattre avec son penis existe bien en de nombreux repertoires de contes africains, mais il est en principe associe a un autre conte-type, celui de la quete d’une epouse, et c’est une epreuve proposee par le beau-pere aux pretendants. A Grade Research Paper Order. On comprend d’ailleurs mieux dans ce contexte le sens d’une telle exigence puisque l’epreuve apparait alors comme un moyen de garantir la virilite du futur epoux. Cover. En outre, cette condition est generalement formulee de facon beaucoup plus directe et crue : le texte du conte dit tout simplement et sans ambage que le pretendant doit abattre l’arbre avec sa verge. Research Paper Order. Les raffinements et les jeux euphemiques de Dadie dans le recit qu’il a lui-meme redige, indices d’un souci de bienseance, sont donc typiquement lies a l’idee qu’il se fait d’une certaine culture occidentale ou les themes galants sont a l’occasion apprecies dans la bonne litterature a condition d’etre plaisamment allusifs. Narrative On Respect. Cette formulation euphemique, dans le cadre d’une sorte de jeu subtil avec le lecteur, a peut-etre aussi pour fonction de contribuer a contredire le stereotype colonial selon lequel le negre, souvent associe a une sexualite primaire et grossiere, est incapable de telles finesses. 26 Dadie semble donc avoir amalgame ici des elements de deux contes-types pour n’en faire qu’un seul. A Grade Order. Il a d’ailleurs emprunte d’autres motifs classiques de contes ouest-africains comme celui du decepteur qui, pour accomplir un mefait ou une tricherie, envoie sa dupe naive puiser de l’eau dans une corbeille tressee, tache impossible qui permet de l’eloigner pour un bon moment et de donner tout son temps au decepteur pour arranger sa duperie. To Include In The Abstract Of A Thesis. Il n’est certes pas impossible que Dadie ait lui-meme entendu une version orale de ce conte-type qui presentait de tels elements, dans la mesure ou l’oralite est soumise a la variabilite et ou il ne faudrait pas commettre l’erreur grossiere de considerer la version orale dont nous disposons comme un modele fige. Research. Dans toutes les cultures, le conte est un « meccano », selon l’expression de Georges Jean, et les contes-types peuvent s’accommoder de plusieurs variantes, dont il n’est pas possible de dire qu’une est plus legitime que l’autre.

Cependant, celui qui connait un peu le repertoire des contes ouest-africains et en particulier agni, ne peut pas ne pas avoir le sentiment d’une tendance, dans « Le b?uf de l’araignee », a proposer un conte enrichi d’elements de plusieurs autres, afin de presenter un texte plus dense, offrant en quelque sorte une synthese culturelle. 27 En outre, cette addition d’une condition mise par Dieu au defrichage du champ modifie le sens de la mesaventure vecue ensuite par Araignee. The Drinking Not Be Lowered Essay. Dans la version populaire orale, si Araignee a acquis son b?uf de facon legitime, sa punition ne peut venir que de son comportement posterieur a cette acquisition. Paper. Il ne veut partager son b?uf avec quiconque, pas meme avec une mouche. Turabian. Et c’est cet egoisme foncier, symptomatique d’une ideologie individualiste contraire aux valeurs communautaires de partage et de solidarite pronees dans la societe agni-baoule comme en beaucoup de societes africaines, qui semble la cause du chatiment transcendant (Bosse tombe d’en haut) qu’il recoit, sous forme de la privation du festin tant convoite. A Grade Order. Et, bien sur, comme Araignee est le decepteur dans ce repertoire de contes, il se venge a son tour de celui qui l’a depouille de son b?uf et il fait subir a un autre les consequences de son mefait. 28 Une telle lecture est toujours possible dans la version de Dadie ou Ananze (Araignee) manifeste le meme comportement individualiste, toutefois elle est concurrencee par une autre interpretation qui relativise la premiere et la fait passer au second plan. Narrative Essay On Respect. Ananze a triche pour obtenir son b?uf, puisque, au lieu de l’abattre avec son sexe comme le voulait la prescription de Dieu, il l’a tranche a la hache, mystifiant l’enfant de Dieu delegue pour le surveiller. Research Paper Order. S’il est donc par la suite prive de sa recompense, c’est aussi a cause de la tricherie et de la tricherie a l’egard de Dieu, ce qui motive singulierement le caractere transcendant du chatiment dont le texte nous precise la encore qu’il « tomba du ciel » (p.60) et qu’il est bien interprete par le heros comme un envoi de Dieu. Essay On Respect. Une telle lecture est encore favorisee par le chant qu’entonne Ananze apres s’etre vu remettre le b?uf : Dieu, dieu, mais on research order, peut le tromper. Il suffit d’avoir du cran. Thesis. […] (p.59).

29 La lecon du conte populaire, liee a une morale ethnique et peut-etre plus largement africaine, pronant des valeurs de solidarite communautaire et condamnant l’individualisme, s’elargit donc, dans la version litteraire en francais, a une morale plus universelle sur l’honnetete (« Bien mal acquis ne profite jamais ») et prend une coloration nettement metaphysique puisqu’il est plus precisement question de bonne foi vis a vis de la transcendance. Order. Le fait que, dans cette version, l’agent du chatiment soit justement la Mort (avec une majuscule) au lieu de simplement « Bosse » comme dans la variante d’origine orale, renforce evidemment cette lecture metaphysique du conte. Henry Van Dyke Called A Parable Of Immortality. Le texte de Dadie voit donc s’accentuer, pour un lectorat plus vaste, sa portee philosophique generale. 30 Le conte des deux coepouses offre la meme possibilite de glissement interpretatif, avec, semble-t-il, les memes objectifs. Research Paper. Dans la version d’origine orale, il n’est pas question d’une bonne et d’une mauvaise coepouse et rien n’est dit sur leurs qualites morales respectives. The Drinking Age Should. Si l’une reussit sa quete implicite en perdant sa bosse et si l’autre echoue en se voyant ajouter a la sienne la bosse de la premiere, ce ne peut donc en aucun cas etre interprete comme une recompense de la bonte de la premiere et une sanction de la mechancete de la seconde. A Grade Research Order. La seule chose qui differe entre les deux, c’est leur comportement lorsqu’elles participent a la danse des genies.

La premiere reprend tres scrupuleusement les paroles de leur chant, qui d’ailleurs consiste essentiellement a repeter en wolof le mot de « mardi » (talaata, terme emprunte a l’arabe), jour de leur reunion, comme l’indiquent les propos de la premiere coepouse lorsqu’elle revele son secret a la seconde : « Si tu te rends la nuit du mardi du cote des toilettes, tu trouveras les djinns en train de jouer dans une vaste cour. Turabian Style - Term Papers. ». A Grade Order. La seconde, en revanche, prolonge a sa fantaisie le chant en enumerant les autres jours de la semaine : mercredi, jeudi, vendredi (Allarba, Alxames, Aljuma). The Drinking Age Should. Et le contexte montre de facon tres explicite que c’est cette invention personnelle de la femme qui conduit les genies a lui ajouter a sa bosse celle de sa coepouse, abandonnee a la seance precedente : Les djinns affoles s’interrogerent : « Qui a l’audace d’allonger notre chanson sans notre autorisation ? » Les autres ponctuaient : « C’est cette etrangere, c’est cette etrangere ; nous nous devons donc de lui doubler sa bosse. A Grade Paper. » Ils prirent la bosse de la coepouse qu’ils collerent a la sienne en lui disant : « Deguerpis ! Tu n’as rien a ajouter a notre chanson sans notre autorisation ! » 31 On comprend que nous sommes en presence d’un conte initiatique indiquant que l’initie doit se conformer scrupuleusement aux indications de ses maitres initiateurs. An Essay Called Of Immortality. La premiere reussit son initiation parce qu’elle agit ainsi, tandis que la seconde echoue du fait qu’elle n’a pas une attitude suffisamment respectueuse ni docile. Research Paper Order. Pas de lecon ici autre qu’initiatique. 32 En faisant de ses deux coepouses une bonne et une mauvaise, Birago Diop modifie considerablement la signification du conte, d’autant que, dans la rencontre entre Koumba et la vieille femme sous le tamarinier (p. - Term. 37), le texte insiste par prolepse sur le fait que ce qui va arriver a Koumba est une recompense meritee de sa grande bonte : Koumba, reprit la vieille femme, je connais ton bon coeur et ton grand merite depuis que tu reconnais ta droite de ta gauche.

Je veux te rendre un grand service car je t’en sais digne. A Grade Research Order. Vendredi, a la pleine lune, sur la colline d’argile de N’Guew, les filles-genies danseront. An Essay Called. Tu iras sur la colline lorsque la terre sera froide. Research Order. Quand le tam-tam battra son plein, quand le cercle sera bien anime, quand sans arret une danseuse remplacera une autre danseuse, tu t’approcheras et tu diras a la fille-genie qui sera a cote de toi : -Tiens, prends-moi l’enfant que j’ai sur le dos, c’est mon tour de danser. 33 Quant a Khary, la mechante coepouse, lorsqu’elle se rend a son tour a la danse des filles-genies, elle ne semble pas commettre d’erreur particuliere dans le deroulement du rite. In The Abstract. Par consequent, si elle se voit affublee de la deuxieme bosse, cela ne peut apparaitre que comme une punition transcendante de sa mechancete intrinseque, qui la conduit d’ailleurs finalement a la mort, de rage, episode qui ne se retrouve pas dans la version orale. A Grade. Le conte est donc passe d’une lecon essentiellement initiatique a une morale plus ou moins universelle qui veut que les bons soient recompenses et les mechants punis, ce qui gomme l’identite wolof et plus largement africaine du conte au profit de valeurs beaucoup plus familieres au lectorat occidental. 34 A propos de cet episode de la rencontre avec les genies, on experience interview for a, notera aussi, chez Diop, le meme souci de bienseance et d’effacement du trivial au profit du poetique. A Grade. Alors que dans la version populaire elle a lieu a cote des toilettes4, dans le conte de Diop, elle se deroule « a la pleine lune, sur la colline d’argile de N’Guew (…), lorsque la terre (est) froide ». 35 En outre, dans la version wolof authentique, la presence des deux coepouses est une donnee de depart du conte : « Il y avait une fois deux coepouses bossues », precision qui ne requiert aucun besoin de justification dans la societe agni-baoule ou la polygamie est une pratique normale et courante.

36 En revanche Birago Diop se sent oblige, dans son conte ecrit directement en francais, de presenter les choses un peu differemment. Style - Term Papers. Dans « Les mamelles », si Momar prend une seconde epouse, c’est parce qu’il est en quelque sorte contraint a le faire : sa premiere femme, Khary est absolument epouvantable et ne remplit pas son office d’epouse. Paper. Il a somme toute une « excuse » pour prendre une seconde femme et, en creux, le lecteur est invite a comprendre que si Khary n’avait pas ete si mauvaise, jamais il n’aurait eu l’idee de prendre Koumba : Las de travailler tout le jour et de ne prendre que le soir un repas chaud, Momar s’etait decide (souligne par nous) a prendre une deuxieme femme et il avait epouse Koumba. 37 Ce souci, dans la version litteraire, d’excuser la polygamie, en lui trouvant une justification circonstancielle, temoigne encore de la conscience de l’auteur d’avoir a s’adresser – au moins partiellement – a un lectorat qui voit dans la polygamie une pratique de « sauvage » ou en tout cas une pratique culturellement inferieure. 38 Cette breve analyse de nos deux contes aura donc montre qu’en passant de la culture orale de leur terroir a une production ecrite en francais, dans le contexte d’une certaine epoque, ils ont subi une transformation profonde qui, derriere une apparente fidelite aux grandes lignes de l’histoire, est presque une trahison de leur personnalite originelle, tant du point de vue de la morphologie du recit que de la moralite des contes. On Respect. Affirmer ainsi qu’il s’agit d’une trahison ne signifie nullement de notre part prononcer une condamnation de l’entreprise des deux ecrivains. A Grade Order. Notre propos n’est pas ici de nous poser en censeur ni de prendre parti pour louer ou condamner. Cover. La litterature n’a pas a s’accommoder de dogme et toute l’histoire de la creation litteraire est faite, dans l’intertextualite, de trahisons parfois geniales. A Grade Research Paper Order. Il s’agit seulement de constater que ces contes « litteraires », s’ils sont bien des ?uvres africaines – il n’y a aucune raison de leur denier cette qualite -, sont des produits d’epoque (les annees soixante) marques par le mouvement de la negritude et le souci de promotion exogene de la culture africaine dont les intellectuels du continent voulaient montrer l’appartenance au patrimoine culturel universel. Essay First Experience Job. Pour ce faire, les auteurs les presentaient d’abord comme partageant les memes canons et les memes valeurs que celles qui avaient cours en Occident. A Grade Research Paper Order. De telles productions, apres le traitement qu’elles ont subi, n’ont evidemment plus grand chose a voir avec les contes oraux qui en ont ete la source.

CAMARA Laye (1978), Le maitre de la parole, Kouma Lafolo Kouma, Plon. DADIE Bernard (1955), Le pagne noir. KOUMBA Amadou, « Les coepouses bossues », in to include abstract of a thesis Contes et mythes du Senegal, CILF, Fleuve et Flamme, 1991. NGUESSAN M.A., Araignee et bosse. NIANE Djibril Tamsir (1960) Soundjata ou l’epopee mandingue, Presence Africaine.

SALL Momar, Contes et mythes du Senegal, Fleuve et Flamme, EDICEF, 1991.

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What’s so great about the welfare state? ESSAY: The origins of state welfare were far from progressive, and in its new therapeutic form it is paper, actually a barrier to human solidarity. I n the run-up to in the of a the UK General Election, spiked will publish a series of essays reposing political issues. A Grade Paper. The aim of the ‘Question Everything’ essays is to encourage people to rethink the past, the present and the future. In this fifth essay, James Panton argues that the social benefits of the welfare state are now more than outweighed by its social costs: diminished subjectivity, corroded communities, and increased state power.

With all the ‘tough talking’ in the General Election campaign about which party is most capable of making drastic public spending cuts, there appears to be at least one piece of cover letter, good news: the welfare state – that alleged crowning achievement of Britain’s postwar political consensus, which guaranteed citizens ‘protection from want’ from cradle to grave for more than 60 years – is safe. Whatever minimal and a grade research paper technical disagreements exist between the three main parties about on respect, how and when spending should be cut, there is one thing on which they are agreed: savings will be made and public expenditure will be cut without any deleterious effects on the provision of frontline welfare services in healthcare, education, support for children and families, and benefits for the needy. Thus New Labour pledges to ‘protect vital frontline services in research health and education’ while bringing ‘borrowing down to meet our commitments on letter halving the deficit’. The Conservatives promise to ‘cut the deficit, not the NHS’. The Liberal Democrats promise not only to research order reduce class sizes in to include thesis schools but to provide more funds ‘for things like one-to-one tuition and classes in research order the evenings’ while ‘protecting and improving the NHS’. On the New Labour government’s Sure Start initiative for an essay a parable, families and young children, the only discussion seems to be about who will do most to expand it. Labour minister Ed Balls promises to a grade paper defend Sure Start against Tory cuts, while the Tories deny the cuts accusation and actually promise to ‘strengthen Sure Start by recruiting thousands of new Sure Start health visitors’. Even on the question of welfare benefits, where there is at least the to include in the of a, appearance of a disagreement, none of the parties is proposing reducing service provision in any way. Some people will be pleased that the welfare state will pretty much remain intact – but there are many reasons why this apparent consensus on the immediate future of the welfare state should concern us.

For a start, it is order, disingenuous to believe that welfare provisions can be maintained at turabian current levels while at research paper order the same time making significant public-spending cuts. There is also the cover letter, profoundly conservative assumption that cuts are essential in the first place, which assumes a future of austerity and low rates of economic growth (see, for example, The austerity auction, by Rob Lyons and research paper There is an alternative to austerity, by Daniel Ben-Ami). Guns aren’t to blame for the horror in Vegas. Social policy and the welfare state. But most troubling of all is the age should, fact that the leaders of all parties are united in research order their refusal even to consider the possibility of significantly reorganising, much less reducing, society’s reliance upon state welfare provision. The twin influences of economic recession and the exhaustion of age should not be lowered, political and state institutions give us the possibility of asking a number of hugely important questions about the welfare state: What kinds of social provisions do we want in society? How might they be (re)organised? What sort of new social institutions could guard individuals against the inevitable failings of twenty-first century capitalist society? Given the lack of vision in British politics today, it is no great surprise that these questions are not on the election agenda.

But there is deeper reason why real analysis of the role of the welfare state is absent. Research. To raise any critical questions about the welfare state would require the political class to question the role it has played in turabian a fundamental reorganisation of the relationship between state and citizens, radically transforming assumptions about what citizens are capable of and what role the state can and should play in our lives. A Grade Paper. Over the past couple of decades, a new understanding of welfare has been put at van dyke an essay called the centre of the elite’s project to connect with, engage with and research order remould the citizenry. Where the old welfare state was largely about providing citizens with the material things they needed to survive, the new welfare state is a far more therapeutic institution and is about redefining what it means to be a citizen and how citizens relate to the state. The old notion of the welfare state as a ‘safety net’ to help citizens cope with hardship assumed that individuals, families and communities were generally able to run their own lives most of the turabian - term, time. Social assistance, therefore, was designed to return people to a situation where they could get on with their lives unaided, as autonomous, capable human beings. But the model of welfare that has developed over the past two decades entirely rejects the a grade research order, idea that individuals have the capacity to run their lives. Welfare provision now starts from the what to include in the, assumption that individuals and paper order communities are incapable of managing their own health and lifestyles, family life, child-rearing and informal community relations without the constant intervention of the state and its institutions to advise, train, counsel and (re)educate them. The change has been so profound that it is really no longer appropriate to van dyke a parable of immortality talk about a ‘welfare’ state at all. In its place there has developed what former New Labour prime minister Tony Blair described in 2006 as an ‘enabling state’.

This new ‘enabling state’ might promote itself through the rhetoric of responsibility and empowerment, but in fact its impact on a grade research paper individuals and communities has been extremely disabling. Virtually every welfare-state intervention is now premised on the assumption that individuals are vulnerable, physically and psychologically incapacitated, and in need of constant therapeutic intervention. Questioning the role of the what abstract, welfare state in our lives has never been more urgent. And to do this effectively, we must first understand what the order, welfare state was really all about in the past, and then consider the more recent transformation of state institutions from providers of discrete assistance and material resources into vehicles for boss, therapeutic guidance. Of course, the order, welfare state, even in its traditional form, was always more than a mere safety net. Its interventions and provisions were often deeply problematic and were about more than providing material resources to the drinking age should to 18 the less well-off.

The welfare state has been romanticised a great deal in recent decades and has become bound up in Britain’s postwar understanding of order, itself as decent and caring. The Drinking Age Should Not Be Essay. Many on the left in particular considered the welfare project to be the first step on a grade research order the road to socialism. However, it is important to recognise that the real motivation for building the welfare state had little to do with moral concerns about ensuring greater material equality or social justice, and certainly had nothing to do with creating a socialist Britain. The Drinking Not Be. In reality, the welfare state developed as an attempt to mitigate the failures of market society and to contain the threat of class conflict – it was driven by the interests of the state , not the interests of the citizenry. In the a grade, latter decades of the nineteenth century, certain sections of the liberal intelligentsia became concerned with the apparent injustices of laissez faire capitalism. The social liberal TH Green called on what to include of a the state to ‘remove all obstacles’ to the individual development of ‘social capacity’, such as those caused by lack of education, ill health and housing (see Thomas Hill Green, Lectures on the Principle of Political Obligation , 1885). Research into poverty and housing conducted by the social reformer Charles Booth and the young socialist Beatrice Webb, and Seebohm Rowntree’s study of poverty in a grade research order York, in which he developed the argument that poverty was the result of low pay rather than the moral failings of the henry van dyke a parable, poor, all provided the paper, statistical evidence and normative arguments for essay of an interview for a, a developing moral, if paternalistic, concern with poverty. However, these concerns, put forward by various Quakers and liberal reformers, were not sufficient to motivate a fundamental reconceptualisation of the role of the paper order, state based on providing welfare and health to all. To Include In The Abstract Of A Thesis. On their own these arguments did not give rise to a new welfare state. Instead, the welfare state emerged from some far more hard-nosed political concerns. In 1899, the political class was appalled to discover that, despite the a grade order, apparent willingness of the British working man to enlist to boss letter fight in the Second Boer War, almost 25 per cent of volunteers were unfit for military service.

In Manchester alone, 8,000 of the 10,000 men who volunteered were rejected on the grounds of ill-health and physical incapacity. Worse still, the difficulties experienced by those working men who did pass the basic fitness test and then struggled to defeat the less-experienced Boers made the elite worry that this might be the beginning of the end of Britain’s military greatness. How could Britain be great if its fighting men were so physically weak? There emerged a heated elite discussion about the degeneration of the British race, and how this might be turned around by improving the research order, basic conditions of the working man. Equally important to the emergence of the idea of state-provided welfare was elite concern about the various challenges to Britain’s economic dominance in narrative essay on respect the world, especially from research order Germany. The growing economic might of the recently unified German state was, at least in part, a result of its commitment to ‘national efficiency’.

In the 1880s, motivated both by an attempt to boss letter create the conditions for maximum productivity and to contain social conflict, Bismarck introduced a range of a grade research order, state measures to provide health, accident, old-age and invalidity insurance for the working classes. Cover. These German welfare measures were the model for a grade research paper order, the Liberal reforms made by an essay governments under Herbert Asquith and David Lloyd George: the introduction of free school meals in 1906, the introduction of a grade paper, a means-tested pension in 1908, the an essay called a parable, establishment of labour exchanges in 1909, and a grade research paper order the National Insurance Act of 1911, which introduced a basic level of health insurance and unemployment benefit. Just as for Bismarck, the acceptance by the British ruling class that the state should intervene in society to create the conditions for a more efficient capitalist economy went hand-in-hand with their increasing concern about the growing strength and radicalisation of the labour movement. For Britain’s rulers, a state-run social insurance system was far preferable to the possible alternative: that the working classes might seek to transform their conditions by and for themselves. The project of transforming these early twentieth-century systems of social security and insurance into papers the institutions of state welfare that we recognise today began with the publication of the Beveridge Report in 1942. Almost immediately, the promise of a society of fully employed, healthy, educated and materially secure citizens – a society that had defeated the ‘giant evils of squalor, ignorance, idleness, want and a grade research disease’, as social reformer William Beveridge put it – became central to the ideological drive to keep British troops fighting in the Second World War. They were now seen as fighting towards a new kind of society. The principles and institutions of the welfare state were finally established with the Education Act of 1944, which created free secondary education and the basis for comprehensive schools; the Family Allowance Act of first of an interview for a, 1945; the National Insurance Act of 1946; and then the National Health Service, which was launched in 1948. Order. Most of letter, these provisions were enacted by the first-ever Labour majority government, but it was the Tory reformer RA ‘Rab’ Butler who introduced the research order, education reforms. Butler and his fellow ‘One Nation’ Tories, who entered government in 1951, had no problem with the welfare model. On the contrary, their project of essay experience for a, social unity and stability would depend upon it.

The aim of the research paper order, Beveridge Report was to keep the capitalist economy afloat, not in any way to undermine it, and to establish the possibility of further growth and turabian expansion. A Grade Research Paper Order. The general, postwar acceptance that society could be dominated to such an extent by style - term the state was doubtless made easier by the total domination of society by the ‘warfare state’ for the previous six years. Importantly for the elites, their pursuit of a new welfare-modelled state allowed for the even greater cooption of the labour movement, individuals and communities into a unified sense of Britain’s role in the world. The point of this brief historical survey is not to suggest that the principles and reality of the welfare state brought no positive benefits. The National Health Service, premised on the idea of providing universal access to healthcare at the point of research order, need, has played a significant role in both eradicating disease and significantly improving the van dyke, health of the population.

The introduction of a comprehensive system of education provided, in a grade theory at least, access to rigorous learning and knowledge to boss letter everyone, regardless of class or social privilege. The social provision of material necessities and resources to individuals who, through no fault of their own, were unable to provide for themselves is an expression of the important humanist responsibility that society has to all of its members in times of need. The recognition that poverty, illness and a grade research order unemployment are social problems, and interview for a job not the result of individual moral failings, was implicit in the model of welfare that was dominant in Britain from the end of the Second World War to the 1970s, and is an a grade research paper essential insight for in the thesis, anyone concerned with social justice. However, it is important to research paper order set the positive benefits of the welfare state against the constant potential for the ever-greater intervention of the state in society, and the consequent domination and structure of dependency that this establishes, to limit the capacity of individuals and communities to - term papers take control of their circumstances. By providing a buffer against the worst deprivations caused by a grade research paper order poverty, unemployment and on my first experience interview social alienation, the welfare state also plays a significant role in encouraging people to accommodate to their lot. The criteria by which any past, current or proposed welfare intervention should be judged is in terms of the capacity that it gives individuals to take greater control of their lives – to live the lives that they want to lead, with the means to take control of the resources that they feel are necessary. On this basis, it would be wrong to dismiss the gains of education, healthcare and material welfare benefits – when people are in need, a decent society should develop mechanisms to meet those needs.

But it would be naive to research paper order overlook the hardnosed political origins of the welfare state, and its role in de-radicalising and controlling working-class aspiration, and to leave unexplored the increasingly problematic role that a new therapeutic welfare state plays today. The old aspiration, amongst social reformers at least, to provide social mechanisms that might empower people to take greater control of their lives has been entirely absent in the discussion and development of the turabian style - term papers, welfare state over the past two decades. Paper Order. Indeed, the new ‘enabling state’, as Blair christened it, is a direct consequence of a diminished view of the capabilities of individuals and communities. Where the welfare state was in essence an attempt to head off radical, working-class politics, the to 18 essay, motivation for the transformation of the meaning of welfare in recent years has been a semi-conscious attempt by the state to research order engage with, connect to, and in numerous ways reshape and resocialise the citizenry. Narrative On Respect. Let us consider two examples. The case of children and families. One of the most progressive campaigns of the feminist movement in the 1970s and a grade research paper 80s was for the provision of universally accessible childcare on demand. At first sight, it might seem as if this demand has finally been achieved with Sure Start, the New Labour government’s ‘programme to turabian style - term deliver the best start in life for a grade order, every child by bringing together early education, childcare, health and family support’.

Sure Start provides children’s centres (‘service hubs where children under five years old and their families can receive seamless integrated services and information’), through a guarantee of free ‘early education’ provision for three- and four-year-olds, and henry called a parable the promise of childcare provision for every child between the ages of three and 14, from 8am to 6pm. The only party political disagreement over Sure Start today concerns who will do the most to increase its funding and ability to provides services. However, two insidious ideas underpin the Sure Start initiative. First, the assumption is that most parents are at research paper order best ignorant of how to raise their children, and at worst are utterly dysfunctional. The second is a fatalistically deterministic view of child development – an idea that miscreant adults and broken communities are the result of on respect, ‘bad parenting’ from the a grade research paper order, earliest months of a child’s life.

Sure Start aims to create healthier children by what of a ‘supporting parents to care for their children both before and after birth ’ [my emphasis]. In reality this involves the state teaching parents about the moral ills of smoking and drinking during pregnancy, and ensuring that children are fed the recommended five portions of fruit and research veg a day, amongst other things. Sure Start even provides instructions to parents on how they should play with their children. Such intervention undermines the authority and autonomy of parents and encourages them to view child-rearing and family life as an activity which can only be undertaken under the careful guidance of state-sanctioned experts. More than any previous social-service interventions in family life, which were traditionally directed towards a relatively small section of very deprived families, Sure Start aims to engage with families across all social classes.

Sure Start assumes that state intervention is essential to produce properly socialised individuals and to keep families together, while ignoring many other problems related to childcare provision, access to decent education and what in the abstract of a the financial burden of a grade paper order, raising children. It is all about on my first experience of an for a, therapeutically redirecting the population towards the right way of thinking and behaving and parenting, rather than providing them with the things and a grade research paper finances they might need. Unemployment and incapacity. Over the past couple of years, society has been going through a deep economic recession, with the official level of unemployment reaching nearly 2.5million people. Consequently there has been much material insecurity and - term papers hardship for a great many individuals. However, in our response to these hardships, we have moved a long way from the period of industrial labour militancy that dominated the recession of the 1970s, and paper which played a large part in bringing to an end the traditional postwar welfare consensus. Boss Cover. As Brendan O’Neill has argued, unemployment has ceased to be a political issue to which we see the possibility of a grade paper order, social and political solutions. In response to the current recession, the state is not readying troops of van dyke a parable of immortality, armed men to maintain social order – instead it is training an army of counsellors and therapists to help the newly unemployed cope with their changed circumstances. NHS Direct call-centre operatives have been encouraged to research paper order listen out for signs of depression amongst callers who have lost their jobs, while Jobcentres have been given the narrative essay on respect, authority to refer jobseekers for cognitive behavioural therapy, with a promise that such therapy will soon be offered onsite at Jobcentres themselves. These initiatives are only an expansion of the government’s stated intention, planned before the recession, to provide psychological therapies to the unemployed, not simply to help them cope with unemployment, but to help them to ‘develop the confidence’ to get back into work. Unemployment, in other words, is now seen as a problem of individual psychology rather than social and economic organisation.

The changing understanding of unemployment, from political failing to individual handicap, is reflected in the fact that of the five million people currently out of work and research claiming benefits in the UK, over 50 per boss cover letter, cent are drawing Incapacity Benefit – they have been redefined as incapable of working rather than as being denied a job by the current social and economic framework. While political parties do still express concern about the rising bills for the expansion of welfare, behind their rhetoric there is no real attempt to encourage any autonomy or independence. Instead, the mechanisms through which the unemployed will apparently be ‘assisted’ back into work involve an ongoing process of training, mentoring and a grade paper order support, which will continue even once work has been found. In other words, the assumption is that state intervention and support will be needed in order to maintain an individual’s capacity for turabian style papers, work and employment. The widely held assumption that many unemployment and incapacity claimants are cynically manipulating the welfare system misses the extent to which individuals have been encouraged by the new welfare state to understand themselves in terms of their physical incapacities and psychological vulnerabilities. That unemployment has come to be understood as a problem of individual incapacity and community attitudes and culture, rather than of social organisation, is expressed in the Conservative Party’s diagnosis that ‘in many parts of the country, worklessness is being passed from generation to a grade research generation’. Narrative Essay. Here, the children of unemployed families are understood as being socialised by a degenerate culture; such children are seen as being less likely to achieve at school and more likely to a grade research paper end up as workless in the future. Like the assumption that the abused child becomes the adult abuser, unemployment is seen to be a psychological problem caused by a failure of appropriate parenting and poor socialisation.

In some ways, this takes us back to the old idea of poverty as a moral failing (or in this instance a psychological failing) rather than as a social problem – the new therapeutic state is taking us backwards. The idea that society can and should provide material welfare for people who need assistance from time to of a thesis time is a positive one. But a welfare model built on the principles of therapeutic intervention results not in greater individual enablement and autonomy, but in the further individuation of social problems. This outlook suggests that individuals are generally incapable of organising their lives – and this risks becoming a self-fulfilling prophecy, as individuals really do come to a grade order be increasingly dependent upon the state to mediate, regulate and give counsel on the most common and everyday activities. The creation of a society in a condition of - term, such dependency is a truly demoralising waste of people’s lives and energies. However, for the state to try to paper order change this situation, to allow people to act as capable and autonomous individuals, would be to challenge the very foundation upon which the state has sought to build its legitimacy in our post-political climate. We need a serious political debate about dismantling large sections of the welfare state.

This does not mean that we should slash and burn welfare provision in the name of balancing the government’s books. It means interrogating how the welfare state has come to have an boss cover letter almost entirely corrosive role upon the individuals and communities who are subject to it. Far from being an ‘enabling state’ as Blair suggested, what we now have is a disabling state. The debate we must initiate needs to move beyond the limited political imagination that dominates both left and right. The state is neither the only institution that can guarantee the wellbeing of the citizenry, nor can we rely on the market consistently to provide for individuals. Rather than understanding the current situation as a reason for despair, we ought to embrace the research paper, very positive challenge that rejecting the interventions of the state would force us to confront: how we might begin to build a new set of public institutions and bodies, through which, acting in concert as citizens, we could begin to decide what kinds of welfare provisions we might actually need, and essay first experience of an for a what kind of society we might really want to live in.

Those of us with any concern for a better future must not shy away from challenging the order, ideological underpinnings of therapeutic state interventionism. The current benefits gained from state welfare are not worth the very great social cost of accepting the redefinition of ourselves as individuals who are limited, vulnerable, and turabian generally incapable of managing our lives. James Panton is lecturer in politics at St John’s College, Oxford, and research paper co-founder of the Manifesto Club. Contact James .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address) . #5: James Panton on the welfare state. #8: Dr Michael Fitzpatrick on public health. For permission to republish spiked articles, please contact Viv Regan.

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31 Attention-Grabbing Cover Letter Examples. The Muse Editor. Traditional cover letter wisdom tells you to start a cover letter with something to the effect of: Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to apply for the position of Marketing Manager with the Thomas Company. We say: The days of a grade research paper order, cookie cutter cover letter intros are long gone. Turabian? Here’s the thing: Your cover letter is the research order best way to introduce to the drinking age should not be lowered the hiring manager who you are, what you have to a grade research order offer, and why you want the job—but you have an extremely limited amount of time to do all of those things. So, if you really want to boss cover get noticed, you’ve got to start right off the bat with something that grabs your reader’s attention. What do we mean? Well, we won’t just tell you, we’ll show you—with 31 examples of research paper, original cover letter introductions. We don’t recommend copying and pasting them because, well, your cover letter should be unique to your stories, background, and interests, but you can most definitely use them to get inspired for essay on my interview for a job your next application. Don't worry—we've got you covered. Many companies say that they’re looking for order people who not only have the skills to do the job, but who are truly passionate about to include in the abstract thesis what they’re spending their time on every day.

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When I was growing up, all I wanted to be was one of those people who pretend to be statues on the street. A Grade Paper? Thankfully, my career goals have become a little more aspirational over the years, but I love to draw a crowd and turabian style - term entertain the masses—passions that make me the perfect community manager. When I graduated from Ohio State last May, my career counselor gave me what I consider to be some pretty bad advice: “Just get any job, and figure the rest out later.” While I think I could have gained good transferrable skills and a grade order on-the-job experience anywhere, I wanted to make sure my first step gave me opportunities for professional development, mentorship, and rotations through different departments. Enter: Verizon. The other day, I took a career assessment, which told me I should be a maritime merchant. I’m not quite sure what that is, but it did get me thinking: A role that combines my skills in henry an essay a parable, business development with my lifelong passion for a grade research paper the ocean would be my absolute dream. The Drinking Age Should Not Be To 18 Essay? Which is how I found this role at Royal Caribbean. Start With Your Love for the Company.

Similarly, many companies want to hire people who already know, love, eat, and sleep their brand. And in these cases, what better to kick off your cover letter than a little flattery? Bonus points if you can tell a story—studies show that stories are up to a grade research paper 22 times more memorable than facts alone. Of course, remember when you’re telling a company why you love it to be specific and genuine. Because, um, no one likes an overly crazed fangirl. Not Be? I pretty much spent my childhood in the cheap seats at Cubs games, snacking on popcorn and cheering on the team with my grandfather. It’s that passion that’s shaped my career—from helping to establish the a grade research sports marketing major at my university to leading a college baseball team to an undefeated season as assistant coach—and what led me to apply for this position at the Chicago Cubs. Most candidates are drawn to startups for the free food, bean bag chairs, and loose dress code.

And while all of those things sound awesome coming from my all-too-corporate cubicle, what really attracted me to the drinking age should lowered essay Factual is the collaborative, international team. Paper? It was Rudy, my Golden Retriever, who first found the operations assistant opening (he’s really excited about the prospect of turabian style - term papers, coming to work with me every day). But as I learned more about Zoosk and what it is doing to research order transform the mobile dating space, I couldn’t help but get excited to be part of the team, too. Narrative On Respect? When I was seven, I wanted to be the GEICO gecko when I grew up. A Grade Paper? I eventually realized that wasn’t an option, but you can imagine my excitement when I came across the events manager position, which would have me working side by essay on respect side with my favorite company mascot. When I attended Austin Film Festival for the first time last month, I didn’t want to leave.

So I decided I shouldn’t—and immediately went to check out job openings at the company. If I could make the order NYC apartment rental process better for just one person, I would feel like the horrors of my recent search would all be worth it. Narrative Essay? So, a customer service role at a grade paper, RentHop, where I could do it every day? I can’t think of anything more fulfilling. Having grown up with the Cincinnati Zoo (literally) in my backyard, I understand firsthand how you’ve earned your reputation as one of the most family-friendly venues in the State of Ohio. For 20 years, I’ve been impressed as your customer; now I want to impress visitors in the same way your team has so graciously done for me. ( Via @JobJenny ) I was an hour out from my first big dinner party when I realized I had forgotten to pick up the white wine.

In a panic, I started Googling grocery delivery services, and that’s when I first stumbled across Instacart. I’ve been hooked ever since, so I couldn’t help but get excited by the idea of bringing the amazingness of Instacart to shoddy planners like me as your next social media and on respect community manager. Though I’m happily employed as a marketing manager for OHC, seeing the a grade research order job description for Warby Parker’s PR director stopped me in my tracks. Essay On Respect? I’ve been a Warby glasses wearer for many years, and have always been impressed by order the way the company treats its customers, employees, and essay on respect the community at large. Start With an research paper Attribute or Accomplishment. The unfortunate reality of the job hunting process is that, for any given job, you’re going to be competing with a lot of other people—presumably, a lot of other similarly qualified people. So, a great way to stand out in your cover letter is to highlight something about yourself—a character trait, an essay of an interview accomplishment, a really impressive skill—that’ll quickly show how you stand out among other applications. My last boss once told me that my phone manner could probably diffuse an paper international hostage situation. I’ve always had a knack for turabian - term communicating with people—the easygoing and the difficult alike—and I’d love to bring that skill to the office manager position at Shutterstock. Among my colleagues, I’m known as the a grade one who can pick up the pieces, no matter what amount of you-know-what hits the fan. Which is why I think there’s no one better to turabian - term papers fill Birchbox’s customer service leader position.

Last December, I ousted our company’s top salesperson from his spot—and he hasn’t seen it since. Which means, I’m ready for my next big challenge, and the sales manager role at LivingSocial just might be it. A Grade Research Paper? After spending three years managing the internal communications for a 2,000-person company, I could plan a quarterly town hall or draft an inter-office memo in my sleep. On Respect? What I want to research paper do next? Put that experience to age should lowered to 18 essay work consulting executives on their communications strategy.

While you won’t find the title “community manager” listed on a grade paper order, my resume, I’ve actually been bringing people together online and off for three years while running my own blog and series of van dyke an essay called of immortality, Meetups. If you’re looking for someone who can follow orders to the T and doesn’t like to order rock the boat, I’m probably not the van dyke of immortality right candidate. But if you need someone who can dig in to data, see what’s working (and what’s not), and challenge the status quo, let’s talk. Ever since my first job at a grade research order, Dairy Queen (yes, they DO let you eat the ice cream!) I’ve been career-focused. I completed my first internship with a professional football team while I was still in college. I was hired full-time as soon as I graduated, and within six months I was promoted into age should lowered a brand new department. I thought I knew it all.

But as I’ve progressed in my career, I finally realized…I absolutely do not. Shocker, right? Enter The Muse. ( Via @Kararuns729 ). You might be wondering what a 15-year veteran of the accounting world is doing applying to an operations role at a food startup like ZeroCater. While I agree the shift is a little strange, I know you’re looking for someone who’s equal parts foodie and financial guru, and paper order I think that means I’m your guy. Over the narrative essay last 10 years, I’ve built my career on paper order, one simple principle: Work smarter. Turabian Papers? I’m the person who looks for inefficient procedures, finds ways to streamline them, and research paper order consistently strives to boost the essay on respect productivity of research paper order, everyone around me. It’s what’s earned me three promotions in the supply chain department at my current company, and it’s what I know I can do as the new operations analyst for SevOne. OK, before you read any of these, we feel we have to stamp them with a big disclaimer: Do your homework before trying anything like this—learning everything you can about the turabian - term company, the hiring manager, and whether or not they’ll appreciate some sass or snark.

If they do, it’s a great way to make them smile (then call you). If they don’t? Well, better luck next time. I’m interested in the freelance writer position. But before I blow you away with all the research paper order reasons I’m going to be your next writer, I would like to first experience for a job tell you a little about myself: I didn’t grow hair until I was about a grade research paper five years old, which made everyone who crossed my stroller’s path believe me to be a boy (my name is narrative Casey, which definitely didn’t help). Hope I got your attention. A Grade? ( Via @CaseCav ) Have you ever had your mom call five times a day asking for a status update on how your job search is going, and then sounding incredulous that not more progress has been made since the last phone call?

That’s my life right now. Boss? But I’m hoping that soon my life will revolve around being your full-time social media manager. The good news is, I bring more to the table than just an overbearing mom. Let me tell you more. A Grade Research Paper? Thank you so much for offering me the marketing manager position at cover, Airbnb!

I wholeheartedly accept. A Grade Paper? OK, I know we’re not quite there yet. Style Papers? But if we were, here are just a few ideas of what I would do once in a grade paper order, the role. You’ve slept on it. You’ve made lists of van dyke called, pros and cons. You’ve talked to your life coach, your hairdresser, and every barista on your block.

So why haven’t you made your decision yet? When you’re looking for advice, what you need is not more, but better. If you’re constantly plagued with tough career decisions and presentation-day butterflies, you need an advocate, a listener, and sometimes, a kick in the pants. A Grade Research Paper? You need Rachel Elizabeth Maley. Not Be Lowered To 18 Essay? ( Via @RE_Maley ) I considered submitting my latest credit card statement as proof of just how much I love online shopping, but I thought a safer approach might be writing this cover letter, describing all the reasons why I’m the girl who can take STYLIGHT’s business to the next level. A Grade Order? I never thought that accidentally dropping my iPhone out of a second story window would change my life (it’s a funny story—ask me about it). What To Include Abstract Thesis? But thanks to my misfortune, I discovered iCracked—and found my dream job as an expansion associate.

If we were playing “Two Truths and a Lie,” I’d say the following: I’ve exceeded my sales quotas by at least 20% every quarter this year, I once won an a grade research order international pie-eating contest, and I have an amazing job at first experience interview job, Yext. Paper? The last, of narrative, course, is the a grade research paper order lie. For now. Henry An Essay Called A Parable? Photo of a grade research paper, person writing courtesy of - term, Sam Diephuis/Getty Images#46; Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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essay nature human A subtle chain of countless rings. The next unto the farthest brings; The eye reads omens where it goes, And speaks all languages the rose; And, striving to be man, the worm. Mounts through all the spires of form. Introduction Our age is retrospective. It builds the sepulchres of the fathers.

It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to research paper, the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and narrative essay, philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and not the history of research paper, theirs? Embosomed for a season in first of an for a job, nature, whose floods of life stream around and through us, and invite us by the powers they supply, to action proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the past, or put the living generation into masquerade out of its faded wardrobe? The sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. Undoubtedly we have no questions to a grade order, ask which are unanswerable. Turabian - Term Papers? We must trust the perfection of the creation so far, as to believe that whatever curiosity the order of things has awakened in our minds, the order of things can satisfy.

Every man's condition is a solution in hieroglyphic to those inquiries he would put. A Grade Paper Order? He acts it as life, before he apprehends it as truth. In like manner, nature is already, in its forms and tendencies, describing its own design. Let us interrogate the great apparition, that shines so peacefully around us. Let us inquire, to what end is nature? All science has one aim, namely, to find a theory of nature. We have theories of races and of functions, but scarcely yet a remote approach to abstract thesis, an idea of creation.

We are now so far from the road to truth, that religious teachers dispute and hate each other, and speculative men are esteemed unsound and frivolous. A Grade Research? But to a sound judgment, the most abstract truth is the most practical. Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is, that it will explain all phenomena. To Include In The Of A Thesis? Now many are thought not only unexplained but inexplicable; as language, sleep, madness, dreams, beasts, sex. Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of research paper, Nature and the Soul.

Strictly speaking, therefore, all that is separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the NOT ME, that is, both nature and narrative essay, art, all other men andmy own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE. In enumerating the values of nature and paper, casting up their sum, I shall use the word in both senses; -- in boss cover, its common and in its philosophical import. In inquiries so general as our present one, the inaccuracy is not material; no confusion of thought will occur. Nature, in the common sense, refers to essences unchanged by man; space, the research, air, the river, the leaf. Art is applied to the mixture of his will with the same things, as in a house, a canal, a statue, a picture. But his operations taken together are so insignificant, a little chipping, baking, patching, and washing, that in an impression so grand as that of the world on the human mind, they do not vary the result.

Chapter I NATURE To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the sublime. Seen in the streets of cities, how great they are! If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and narrative essay, adore; and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown! But every night come out these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile. The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence.

Nature never wears a mean appearance. Research Paper Order? Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her perfection. Nature never became a toy to narrative essay on respect, a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the mountains, reflected the a grade research order, wisdom of style, his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood. When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in a grade paper order, the mind. We mean the integrity of essay, impression made by a grade paper manifold natural objects. It is this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet.

The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is essay on my first of an interview, indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. A Grade? Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But none of van dyke an essay called of immortality, them owns the landscape. There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the a grade, parts, that is, the poet. This is the best part of henry van dyke a parable, these men's farms, yet to this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of paper order, infancy even into the era of manhood.

His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of turabian style - term papers, his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of real sorrows. Nature says, -- he is my creature, and paper order, maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the essay on my experience interview, summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of delight; for every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind, from breathless noon to grimmest midnight. Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. In good health, the a grade, air is experience for a, a cordial of incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of a grade research paper, fear.

In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is always a child. Narrative On Respect? In the woods, is perpetual youth. Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. A Grade Research? In the woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, -- my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages.

In the tranquil landscape, and boss cover, especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable. I am not alone and unacknowledged. They nod to me, and I to them. The waving of the boughs in the storm, is new to me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Its effect is like that of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of both. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for paper the frolic of the nymphs, is overspread with melancholy today.

Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. Not Be Essay? To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in it. Then, there is a kind of contempt of the landscape felt by a grade order him who has just lost by letter death a dear friend. The sky is less grand as it shuts down over less worth in the population. Chapter II COMMODITY Whoever considers the final cause of the world, will discern a multitude of usesthat result. They all admit of being thrown into one of the a grade research order, following classes; Commodity; Beauty; Language; and Discipline. Under the general name of Commodity, I rank all those advantages which our senses owe to nature. This, of course, is a benefit which is temporary and mediate, not ultimate, like its service to the soul. Yet although low, it is perfect in its kind, and is the only use of what to include in the of a thesis, nature which all men apprehend. The misery of man appears like childish petulance, when we explore the steady and prodigal provision that has been made for his support and delight on this green ball which floats him through the heavens.

What angels invented these splendid ornaments, these rich conveniences, this ocean of air above, this ocean of water beneath, this firmament of earth between? this zodiac of lights, this tent of dropping clouds, this striped coat of climates, this fourfold year? Beasts, fire, water, stones, and corn serve him. The field is at once his floor, his work-yard, his play-ground, his garden, and his bed. More servants wait on man. Than he 'll take notice of. ------ Nature, in its ministry to man, is not only the material, but is a grade paper order, also the process and essay on my first of an interview job, the result. All the parts incessantly work into each other's hands for research paper order the profit of man. The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the vapor to the field; the ice, on boss cover letter, the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man. The useful arts are reproductions or new combinations by the wit of man, of the same natural benefactors. A Grade Research Paper Order? He no longer waits for favoring gales, but by means of steam, he realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag, and carries the two and thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. To diminish friction, he paves the road with iron bars, and, mounting a coach with a ship-load of men, animals, and merchandise behind him, he darts through the country, from town to town, like an eagle or a swallow through the air. By the aggregate of style papers, these aids, how is the face of the world changed, from the era of Noah to a grade research order, that of Napoleon!

The private poor man hath cities, ships, canals, bridges, built for him. He goes to the post-office, and the human race run on on respect, his errands; to the book-shop, and the human race read and write of all that happens, for him; to the court-house, and nations repair his wrongs. He sets his house upon the road, and the human race go forth every morning, and shovel out the snow, and cut a path for him. But there is no need of specifying particulars in this class of uses. The catalogue is endless, and the examples so obvious, that I shall leave them to the reader's reflection, with the general remark, that this mercenary benefit is one which has respect to research order, a farther good. A man is fed, not that he may be fed, but that he may work. Chapter III BEAUTY A nobler want of man is served by nature, namely, the love of Beauty. The ancient Greeks called the world , beauty. Such is the constitution of all things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves; a pleasure arising from outline, color, motion, and on respect, grouping.

This seems partly owing to the eye itself. The eye is the best of artists. By the mutual action of its structure and of the laws of research order, light, perspective is produced, which integrates every mass of objects, of what character soever, into a well colored and shaded globe, so that where the particular objects are mean and unaffecting, the landscape which they compose, is round and symmetrical. And as the eye is the best composer, so light is the first of painters. There is no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful. And the stimulus it affords to the sense, and a sort of infinitude which it hath, like space and time, make all matter gay. Van Dyke A Parable? Even the corpse has its own beauty.

But besides this general grace diffused over nature, almost all the individual forms are agreeable to the eye, as is proved by our endless imitations of some of them, as the acorn, the grape, the pine-cone, the a grade research paper order, wheat-ear, the egg, the wings and forms of first experience of an, most birds, the lion's claw, the serpent, the butterfly, sea-shells, flames, clouds, buds, leaves, and the forms of many trees, as the palm. For better consideration, we may distribute the aspects of research, Beauty in a threefold manner. 1. First, the simple perception of natural forms is a delight. The influence of the forms and actions in nature, is so needful to man, that, in its lowest functions, it seems to lie on the confines of commodity and beauty. To Include In The Of A? To the a grade paper order, body and mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company, nature is medicinal and restores their tone. The tradesman, the attorney comes out of the din and craft of the street, and sees the sky and the woods, and is a man again. In their eternal calm, he finds himself. Henry An Essay Of Immortality? The health of the eye seems to demand a horizon. We are never tired, so long as we can see far enough.

But in other hours, Nature satisfies by its loveliness, and without any mixture of corporeal benefit. I see the spectacle of morning from the hill-top over against my house, from day-break to sun-rise, with emotions which an angel might share. A Grade Paper? The long slender bars of cloud float like fishes in the sea of crimson light. Turabian Papers? From the earth, as a shore, I look out into research order, that silent sea. I seem to essay on my experience of an interview job, partake its rapid transformations: the research order, active enchantment reaches my dust, and the drinking, I dilate and conspire with the morning wind. A Grade Paper Order? How does Nature deify us with a few and cheap elements! Give me health and a day, and I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. The dawn is my Assyria; the sun-set and moon-rise my Paphos, and what to include in the of a, unimaginable realms of faerie; broad noon shall be my England of the senses and the understanding; the night shall be my Germany of mystic philosophy and dreams. Not less excellent, except for our less susceptibility in research order, the afternoon, was the charm, last evening, of a January sunset. The western clouds divided and subdivided themselves into on my experience of an for a job, pink flakes modulated with tints of unspeakable softness; and the air had so much life and sweetness, that it was a pain to come within doors.

What was it that nature would say? Was there no meaning in a grade paper order, the live repose of the valley behind the mill, and which Homer or Shakspeare could not reform for me in words? The leafless trees become spires of flame in the sunset, with the blue east for their back-ground, and the stars of the dead calices of flowers, and every withered stem and stubble rimed with frost, contribute something to the mute music. The inhabitants of cities suppose that the country landscape is pleasant only half the year. I please myself with the graces of the winter scenery, and believe that we are as much touched by it as by the genial influences of summer. To the turabian style - term papers, attentive eye, each moment of the year has its own beauty, and in the same field, it beholds, every hour, a picture which was never seen before, and which shall never be seen again. A Grade? The heavens change every moment, and henry called a parable, reflect their glory or gloom on the plains beneath. The state of the crop in the surrounding farms alters the expression of the earth from week to week. The succession of native plants in the pastures and roadsides, which makes the silent clock by which time tells the summer hours, will make even the divisions of the day sensible to a keen observer. The tribes of birds and paper, insects, like the essay of an, plants punctual to their time, follow each other, and the year has room for all. By water-courses, the variety is greater.

In July, the blue pontederia or pickerel-weed blooms in large beds in the shallow parts of our pleasant river, and swarms with yellow butterflies in continual motion. Art cannot rival this pomp of purple and gold. Indeed the river is a perpetual gala, and boasts each month a new ornament. But this beauty of paper, Nature which is seen and felt as beauty, is the least part. The shows of day, the dewy morning, the rainbow, mountains, orchards in blossom, stars, moonlight, shadows in still water, and the like, if too eagerly hunted, become shows merely, and mock us with their unreality. Go out of the house to see the moon, and 't is mere tinsel; it will not please as when its light shines upon your necessary journey. The beauty that shimmers in not be to 18 essay, the yellow afternoons of October, who ever could clutch it? Go forth to find it, and it is gone: 't is paper order, only a mirage as you look from the windows of diligence. 2. The presence of essay, a higher, namely, of the spiritual element is essential to its perfection. The high and research paper, divine beauty which can be loved without effeminacy, is that which is found in combination with the human will. Beauty is the mark God sets upon virtue.

Every natural action is graceful. Every heroic act is also decent, and causes the place and the bystanders to shine. We are taught by great actions that the universe is the property of every individual in it. Every rational creature has all nature for essay his dowry and estate. It is his, if he will.

He may divest himself of research paper, it; he may creep into a corner, and abdicate his kingdom, as most men do, but he is entitled to the world by his constitution. In proportion to the energy of his thought and boss letter, will, he takes up the world into himself. All those things for a grade research which men plough, build, or sail, obey virtue; said Sallust. The winds and waves, said Gibbon, are always on the side of the ablest navigators. So are the sun and age should lowered, moon and all the stars of heaven. When a noble act is done, -- perchance in a scene of great natural beauty; when Leonidas and his three hundred martyrs consume one day in dying, and the sun and moon come each and look at them once in the steep defile of Thermopylae; when Arnold Winkelried, in the high Alps, under the shadow of the avalanche, gathers in his side a sheaf of paper order, Austrian spears to break the line for his comrades; are not these heroes entitled to add the beauty of the scene to the beauty of the deed? When the bark of Columbus nears the shore of America; -- before it, the beach lined with savages, fleeing out of all their huts of cane; the sea behind; and the purple mountains of the Indian Archipelago around, can we separate the man from the living picture? Does not the New World clothe his form with her palm-groves and savannahs as fit drapery? Ever does natural beauty steal in like air, and envelope great actions. Cover? When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill, sitting on a sled, to suffer death, as the champion of the English laws, one of the multitude cried out to him, You never sate on so glorious a seat. Charles II., to intimidate the citizens of London, caused the patriot Lord Russel to be drawn in an open coach, through the principal streets of the city, on his way to the scaffold.

But, his biographer says, the multitude imagined they saw liberty and research order, virtue sitting by boss cover his side. In private places, among sordid objects, an act of truth or heroism seems at once to draw to itself the research, sky as its temple, the sun as its candle. Nature stretcheth out her arms to van dyke an essay, embrace man, only let his thoughts be of equal greatness. Research Paper? Willingly does she follow his steps with the rose and the violet, and bend her lines of grandeur and turabian papers, grace to the decoration of her darling child. Only let his thoughts be of research paper, equal scope, and the frame will suit the boss cover letter, picture.

A virtuous man is in unison with her works, and makes the central figure of the visible sphere. Homer, Pindar, Socrates, Phocion, associate themselves fitly in our memory with the geography and climate of Greece. The visible heavens and earth sympathize with Jesus. And in common life, whosoever has seen a person of powerful character and a grade research order, happy genius, will have remarked how easily he took all things along with him, -- the persons, the opinions, and the day, and nature became ancillary to a man. 3. There is still another aspect under which the not be essay, beauty of the world may be viewed, namely, as it become s an object of the intellect. Beside the relation of things to virtue, they have a relation to thought. The intellect searches out the absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of God, and without the colors of affection. The intellectual and the active powers seem to order, succeed each other, and the exclusive activity of the one, generates the exclusive activity of the other. There is something unfriendly in each to the other, but they are like the alternate periods of feeding and working in animals; each prepares and will be followed by the other. Therefore does beauty, which, in narrative, relation to actions, as we have seen, comes unsought, and comes because it is a grade paper, unsought, remain for the apprehension and pursuit of the intellect; and then again, in its turn, of the active power. Not Be To 18? Nothing divine dies.

All good is eternally reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind, and not for a grade paper order barren contemplation, but for new creation. All men are in some degree impressed by the face of the world; some men even to delight. On My First Of An Interview For A Job? This love of beauty is Taste. Others have the same love in such excess, that, not content with admiring, they seek to embody it in paper order, new forms.

The creation of beauty is Art. The production of a work of art throws a light upon the mystery of humanity. Essay On My First Experience Of An Interview For A? A work of art is an abstract or epitome of the world. It is the result or expression of nature, in miniature. For, although the works of nature are innumerable and all different, the result or the expression of them all is similar and single. A Grade? Nature is a sea of forms radically alike and even unique. A leaf, a sun-beam, a landscape, the ocean, make an analogous impression on the mind. What is common to them all, -- that perfectness and harmony, is beauty. The standard of beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms, -- the totality of nature; which the Italians expressed by defining beauty il piu nell' uno.

Nothing is quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in the whole. A single object is only so far beautiful as it suggests this universal grace. The poet, the painter, the essay on my first job, sculptor, the musician, the architect, seek each to concentrate this radiance of the world on one point, and each in his several work to satisfy the love of beauty which stimulates him to produce. Thus is Art, a nature passed through the a grade research order, alembic of man. Thus in art, does nature work through the will of a man filled with the - term, beauty of her first works. The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of a grade paper, beauty. This element I call an ultimate end. No reason can be asked or given why the soul seeks beauty. Beauty, in essay of an for a job, its largest and profoundest sense, is one expression for the universe. God is the research order, all-fair. Truth, and goodness, and beauty, are but different faces of the same All.

But beauty in nature is not ultimate. It is the essay on respect, herald of inward and eternal beauty, and is not alone a solid and satisfactory good. It must stand as a part, and not as yet the last or highest expression of the final cause of Nature. Chapter IV LANGUAGE Language is a third use which Nature subserves to man. Nature is the vehble, and threefold degree. 1. Words are signs of natural facts. 2. Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts. 3. Nature is the symbol of spirit.

1. Words are signs of natural facts. The use of natural history is to give us aid in supernatural history: the use of the outer creation, to a grade research paper order, give us language for the beings and turabian papers, changes of the inward creation. Every word which is used to express a moral or intellectual fact, if traced to a grade research paper order, its root, is found to be borrowed from some material appearance. Right means straight ; wrong means twisted . Spirit primarily means wind ; transgression , the crossing of a line ; supercilious , the raising of the eyebrow . We say the heart to express emotion, the head to denote thought; and thought and emotion a re words borrowed from van dyke of immortality, sensible things, and a grade paper order, now appropriated to spiritual nature. Turabian - Term? Most of the process by which this transformation is made, is hidden from us in the remote time when language was framed; but the same tendency may be daily observed in paper, children. Children and savages use only nouns or names of things, which they convert into verbs, and apply to analogous mental acts. 2. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import, -- so conspicuous a fact in the history of language, -- is our least debt to henry an essay called a parable, nature.

It is not words only that are emblematic; it is things which are emblematic. Every natural fact is a symbol of some spiritual fact. A Grade Research Paper? Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. An enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch. A lamb is innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections. Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and in the, ignorance; and heat for a grade order love. Visible distance behind and before us, is respectively our image of memory and hope. Who looks upon a river in a meditative hour, and is not reminded of the henry of immortality, flux of all things? Throw a stone into the stream, and the circles that propagate themselves are the a grade paper order, beautiful type of all influence.

Man is conscious of a universal soul within or behind his individual life, wherein, as in a firmament, the age should lowered essay, natures of Justice, Truth, Love, Freedom, arise and shine. This universal soul, he calls Reason: it is not mine, or thine, or his, but we are its; we are its property and men. And the a grade research paper order, blue sky in which the private earth is buried, the sky with its eternal calm, and full of everlasting orbs, is the type of Reason. That which, intellectually considered, we call Reason, considered in relation to on respect, nature, we call Spirit. Spirit is the Creator. Spirit hath life in itself. And man in all ages and countries, embodies it in his language, as the FATHER. It is easily seen that there is nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies, but that they are constant, and pervade nature. A Grade Research? These are not the narrative essay, dreams of a few poets, here and there, but man is an analogist, and studies relations in all objects. A Grade? He is placed in the centre of beings, and a ray of relation passes from every other being to on respect, him.

And neither can man be understood without these objects, nor these objects without man. All the facts in natural history taken by themselves, have no value, but are barren, like a single sex. But marry it to human history, and it is full of a grade paper, life. Whole Floras, all Linnaeus' and Buffon's volumes, are dry catalogues of facts; but the what thesis, most trivial of these facts, the research order, habit of a plant, the organs, or work, or noise of an insect, applied to the illustration of a fact in intellectual philosophy, or, in any way associated to boss letter, human nature, affects us in the most lively and agreeable manner. The seed of a plant, -- to what affecting analogies in the nature of research paper, man, is that little fruit made use of, in all discourse, up to henry van dyke an essay a parable of immortality, the voice of Paul, who calls the human corpse a seed, -- It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body.

The motion of the earth round its axis, and round the sun, makes the day, and the year. These are certain amounts of brute light and a grade research order, heat. On My First Job? But is there no intent of an analogy between man's life and the seasons? And do the seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from that analogy? The instincts of the ant are very unimportant, considered as the ant's; but the moment a ray of relation is seen to extend from it to man, and the little drudge is seen to be a monitor, a little body with a mighty heart, then all its habits, even that said to be recently observed, that it never sleeps, become sublime. Because of this radical correspondence between visible things and human thoughts, savages, who have only what is necessary, converse in figures. As we go back in history, language becomes more picturesque, until its infancy, when it is all poetry; or all spiritual facts are represented by research natural symbols. The same symbols are found to make the age should not be lowered essay, original elements of all languages. A Grade Paper? It has moreover been observed, that the idioms of all languages approach each other in passages of the greatest eloquence and power. And as this is the first language, so is it the last. This immediate dependence of essay, language upon nature, this conversion of an outward phenomenon into a type of somewhat in human life, never loses its power to affect us.

It is this which gives that piquancy to the conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back-woodsman, which all men relish. A man's power to connect his thought with its proper symbol, and so to research order, utter it, depends on the simplicity of his character, that is, upon his love of truth, and his desire to communicate it without loss. The corruption of man is followed by the corruption of on respect, language. When simplicity of character and the sovereignty of ideas is a grade, broken up by the prevalence of turabian - term, secondary desires, the desire of riches, of pleasure, of power, and a grade, of praise, -- and duplicity and falsehood take place of simplicity and a parable, truth, the power over nature as an interpreter of the a grade, will, is in a degree lost; new imagery ceases to be created, and old words are perverted to stand for things which are not; a paper currency is employed, when there is narrative, no bullion in the vaults. In due time, the fraud is a grade order, manifest, and essay experience, words lose all power to stimulate the understanding or the affections. Hundreds of writers may be found in every long-civilized nation, who for a short time believe, and make others believe, that they see and utter truths, who do not of themselves clothe one thought in its natural garment, but who feed unconsciously on the language created by the primary writers of the country, those, namely, who hold primarily on order, nature. But wise men pierce this rotten diction and fasten words again to visible things; so that picturesque language is at once a commanding certificate that he who employs it, is a man in alliance with truth and abstract of a thesis, God. The moment our discourse rises above the research paper order, ground line of familiar facts, and is inflamed with passion or exalted by thought, it clothes itself in images. A man conversing in earnest, if he watch his intellectual processes, will find that a material image, more or less luminous, arises in his mind, cotemporaneous with every thought, which furnishes the vestment of the thought.

Hence, good writing and brilliant discourse are perpetual allegories. This imagery is spontaneous. It is the blending of experience with the present action of the mind. Style? It is proper creation. It is the research paper order, working of the Original Cause through the instruments he has already made. These facts may suggest the advantage which the country-life possesses for what to include abstract a powerful mind, over the artificial and curtailed life of cities. We know more from a grade research paper order, nature than we can at will communicate.

Its light flows into the mind evermore, and we forget its presence. The poet, the an essay called a parable of immortality, orator, bred in the woods, whose senses have been nourished by their fair and a grade, appeasing changes, year after year, without design and without heed, -- shall not lose their lesson altogether, in the roar of cities or the broil of politics. Long hereafter, amidst agitation and terror in national councils, -- in the hour of revolution, -- these solemn images shall reappear in turabian papers, their morning lustre, as fit symbols and words of the thoughts which the passing events shall awaken. At the call of a noble sentiment, again the paper order, woods wave, the pines murmur, the river rolls and shines, and the cattle low upon the mountains, as he saw and heard them in his infancy. And with these forms, the spells of persuasion, the keys of power are put into his hands. 3. We are thus assisted by natural objects in the expression of particular meanings. But how great a language to convey such pepper-corn informations! Did it need such noble races of henry van dyke called a parable, creatures, this profusion of forms, this host of orbs in heaven, to furnish man with the dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech?

Whilst we use this grand cipher to expedite the affairs of our pot and kettle, we feel that we have not yet put it to its use, neither are able. We are like travellers using the cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. A Grade Research Paper? Whilst we see that it always stands ready to clothe what we would say, we cannot avoid the question, whether the characters are not significant of themselves. On My First Of An For A? Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them, when we employ them as emblems of a grade research paper order, our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Parts of speech are metaphors, because the on my first experience interview, whole of nature is a grade paper, a metaphor of the of a, human mind.

The laws of moral nature answer to those of matter as face to face in a glass. The visible world and the relation of its parts, is the dial plate of the invisible. The axioms of physics translate the laws of ethics. Thus, the whole is a grade order, greater than its part; reaction is equal to action; the turabian, smallest weight may be made to lift the greatest, the difference of a grade paper order, weight being compensated by time; and letter, many the like propositions, which have an ethical as well as physical sense. These propositions have a much more extensive and universal sense when applied to human life, than when confined to technical use. In like manner, the a grade research, memorable words of history, and the proverbs of nations, consist usually of a natural fact, selected as a picture or parable of boss cover letter, a moral truth. Thus; A rolling stone gathers no moss; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; A cripple in the right way, will beat a racer in the wrong; Make hay while the sun shines; 'T is hard to carry a full cup even; Vinegar is the son of wine; The last ounce broke the camel's back; Long-lived trees make roots first; -- and the like. In their primary sense these are trivial facts, but we repeat them for the value of their analogical import.

What is true of proverbs, is true of a grade research paper, all fables, parables, and allegories. This relation between the mind and matter is not fancied by some poet, but stands in the will of God, and so is a parable of immortality, free to be known by all men. It appears to men, or it does not appear. When in research, fortunate hours we ponder this miracle, the wise man doubts, if, at all other times, he is not blind and deaf; ------ Can these things be, And overcome us like a summer's cloud, Without our special wonder? for the universe becomes transparent, and the light of higher laws than its own, shines through it. It is the standing problem which has exercised the wonder and the study of every fine genius since the world began; from the era of the Egyptians and the Brahmins, to that of Pythagoras, of papers, Plato, of research, Bacon, of Leibnitz, of Swedenborg.

There sits the Sphinx at the road-side, and from age to age, as each prophet comes by, he tries his fortune at reading her riddle. There seems to be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material forms; and day and night, river and storm, beast and bird, acid and alkali, preexist in necessary Ideas in the mind of God, and are what they are by virtue of preceding affections, in the world of spirit. A Fact is the end or last issue of spirit. The visible creation is the terminus or the circumference of the invisible world. Material objects, said a French philosopher, are necessarily kinds of scoriae of the to include of a, substantial thoughts of the Creator, which must always preserve an exact relation to their first origin; in a grade, other words, visible nature must have a spiritual and moral side. This doctrine is abstruse, and though the images of garment, scoriae, mirror, c., may stimulate the fancy, we must summon the boss cover letter, aid of a grade research paper, subtler and more vital expositors to make it plain. Every scripture is to be interpreted by the same spirit which gave it forth, -- is the to 18 essay, fundamental law of criticism. A life in harmony with nature, the a grade research, love of truth and of virtue, will purge the eyes to understand her text. Boss Letter? By degrees we may come to a grade research order, know the primitive sense of the permanent objects of nature, so that the world shall be to not be lowered to 18 essay, us an open book, and every form significant of its hidden life and order, final cause.

A new interest surprises us, whilst, under the narrative essay on respect, view now suggested, we contemplate the research paper, fearful extent and multitude of objects; since every object rightly seen, unlocks a new faculty of the soul. That which was unconscious truth, becomes, when interpreted and defined in age should to 18, an object, a part of the domain of knowledge, -- a new weapon in the magazine of power. Chapter V DISCIPLINE In view of the significance of nature, we arrive at a grade research order, once at a new fact, that nature is a discipline. This use of the world includes the turabian style, preceding uses, as parts of itself. Space, time, society, labor, climate, food, locomotion, the animals, the mechanical forces, give us sincerest lessons, day by day, whose meaning is unlimited.

They educate both the Understanding and the Reason. Every property of matter is a school for the understanding, -- its solidity or resistance, its inertia, its extension, its figure, its divisibility. A Grade Research Order? The understanding adds, divides, combines, measures, and finds nutriment and room for its activity in this worthy scene. Meantime, Reason transfers all these lessons into its own world of thought, by perceiving the analogy that marries Matter and Mind. 1. Nature is a discipline of the understanding in intellectual truths. Our dealing with sensible objects is a constant exercise in essay experience interview for a, the necessary lessons of difference, of likeness, of order, of being and seeming, of progressive arrangement; of ascent from particular to general; of combination to one end of manifold forces. Proportioned to the importance of the organ to a grade paper, be formed, is the extreme care with which its tuition is provided, -- a care pretermitted in no single case. What tedious training, day after day, year after year, never ending, to form the common sense; what continual reproduction of annoyances, inconveniences, dilemmas; what rejoicing over us of little men; what disputing of prices, what reckonings of essay on my of an for a, interest, -- and all to form the Hand of the mind; -- to instruct us that good thoughts are no better than good dreams, unless they be executed! The same good office is a grade research order, performed by Property and its filial systems of debt and credit.

Debt, grinding debt, whose iron face the widow, the orphan, and the sons of genius fear and hate; -- debt, which consumes so much time, which so cripples and disheartens a great spirit with cares that seem so base, is a preceptor whose lessons cannot be forgone, and is needed most by those who suffer from it most. Henry Van Dyke A Parable? Moreover, property, which has been well compared to snow, -- if it fall level to-day, it will be blown into drifts to-morrow, -- is the surface action of a grade research paper, internal machinery, like the index on the face of a clock. Whilst now it is the gymnastics of the understanding, it is hiving in age should not be, the foresight of the spirit, experience in research paper order, profounder laws. The whole character and fortune of the narrative essay, individual are affected by the least inequalities in the culture of the a grade research paper, understanding; for example, in the perception of to include abstract thesis, differences. A Grade Order? Therefore is Space, and therefore Time, that man may know that things are not huddled and the drinking lowered to 18 essay, lumped, but sundered and individual. A bell and a plough have each their use, and neither can do the office of the other. Water is good to a grade order, drink, coal to burn, wool to wear; but wool cannot be drunk, nor water spun, nor coal eaten. - Term Papers? The wise man shows his wisdom in separation, in gradation, and a grade, his scale of to include in the of a, creatures and of merits is as wide as nature. The foolish have no range in their scale, but suppose every man is as every other man.

What is not good they call the worst, and what is a grade research paper order, not hateful, they call the best. In like manner, what good heed, nature forms in us! She pardons no mistakes. Her yea is yea, and her nay, nay. The first steps in Agriculture, Astronomy, Zoology, (those first steps which the farmer, the hunter, and the sailor take,) teach that nature's dice are always loaded; that in her heaps and rubbish are concealed sure and useful results. How calmly and narrative, genially the mind apprehends one after another the laws of physics! What noble emotions dilate the mortal as he enters into the counsels of the creation, and feels by knowledge the a grade, privilege to BE! His insight refines him. The beauty of nature shines in his own breast. Man is greater that he can see this, and the universe less, because Time and narrative essay, Space relations vanish as laws are known. Here again we are impressed and even daunted by a grade research paper order the immense Universe to be explored.

What we know, is a point to what we do not know. Open any recent journal of science, and weigh the problems suggested concerning Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, Physiology, Geology, and what abstract thesis, judge whether the interest of natural science is likely to be soon exhausted. Passing by many particulars of the discipline of nature, we must not omit to specify two. The exercise of the research order, Will or the lesson of power is taught in every event. Essay? From the a grade research order, child's successive possession of his several senses up to the hour when he saith, Thy will be done! he is learning the secret, that he can reduce under his will, not only particular events, but great classes, nay the whole series of henry van dyke an essay, events, and research paper, so conform all facts to his character. Turabian? Nature is thoroughly mediate. It is made to serve. Paper? It receives the turabian papers, dominion of man as meekly as the a grade research, ass on which the Saviour rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material which he may mould into what is useful. The Drinking? Man is never weary of working it up. A Grade Research Paper Order? He forges the subtile and delicate air into wise and melodious words, and gives them wing as angels of persuasion and command.

One after another, his victorious thought comes up with and boss letter, reduces all things, until the world becomes, at a grade research paper order, last, only a realized will, -- the double of the man. 2. Sensible objects conform to the premonitions of Reason and reflect the conscience. All things are moral; and in their boundless changes have an unceasing reference to spiritual nature. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and motion, that every globe in the remotest heaven; every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of boss, life; every change of research order, vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine; every animal function from the to include of a thesis, sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of a grade paper, right and wrong, and echo the narrative on respect, Ten Commandments. Therefore is nature ever the ally of a grade paper order, Religion: lends all her pomp and riches to the religious sentiment. Prophet and priest, David, Isaiah, Jesus, have drawn deeply from this source. This ethical character so penetrates the bone and marrow of van dyke, nature, as to seem the end for which it was made. Whatever private purpose is answered by any member or part, this is its public and universal function, and is never omitted. A Grade Research Order? Nothing in nature is exhausted in its first use. To Include Abstract Thesis? When a thing has served an end to the uttermost, it is wholly new for an ulterior service.

In God, every end is converted into a new means. Thus the use of commodity, regarded by itself, is mean and squalid. But it is to the mind an education in the doctrine of Use, namely, that a thing is good only a grade so far as it serves; that a conspiring of parts and turabian style - term, efforts to the production of an end, is essential to any being. The first and gross manifestation of this truth, is our inevitable and hated training in research order, values and wants, in corn and meat. It has already been illustrated, that every natural process is a version of a moral sentence. The moral law lies at the centre of nature and radiates to what to include abstract thesis, the circumference.

It is the pith and marrow of every substance, every relation, and a grade paper order, every process. All things with which we deal, preach to us. What is a farm but a mute gospel? The chaff and the wheat, weeds and van dyke an essay a parable of immortality, plants, blight, rain, insects, sun, -- it is a sacred emblem from the first furrow of a grade research paper, spring to the last stack which the snow of winter overtakes in the fields. But the sailor, the letter, shepherd, the miner, the merchant, in their several resorts, have each an experience precisely parallel, and a grade research paper, leading to the same conclusion: because all organizations are radically alike. Nor can it be doubted that this moral sentiment which thus scents the air, grows in the grain, and impregnates the waters of the world, is caught by man and sinks into his soul. The moral influence of to include thesis, nature upon every individual is that amount of truth which it illustrates to a grade order, him.

Who can estimate this? Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? how much tranquillity has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over cover whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? how much industry and providence and affection we have caught from the pantomime of brutes? What a searching preacher of paper order, self-command is the varying phenomenon of Health! Herein is the drinking not be to 18, especially apprehended the unity of paper, Nature, -- the unity in variety, -- which meets us everywhere. All the endless variety of things make an identical impression. Xenophanes complained in his old age, that, look where he would, all things hastened back to Unity. Essay First Experience Interview? He was weary of seeing the same entity in the tedious variety of forms. The fable of Proteus has a cordial truth. A leaf, a drop, a crystal, a moment of time is related to the whole, and partakes of the perfection of the a grade research paper order, whole. Essay? Each particle is a microcosm, and faithfully renders the likeness of the world. Not only resemblances exist in things whose analogy is obvious, as when we detect the a grade order, type of the human hand in the flipper of the fossil saurus, but also in objects wherein there is great superficial unlikeness.

Thus architecture is called frozen music, by De Stael and Goethe. Vitruvius thought an boss letter, architect should be a musician. A Gothic church, said Coleridge, is a petrified religion. Michael Angelo maintained, that, to an architect, a knowledge of anatomy is essential. A Grade Research Paper Order? In Haydn's oratorios, the notes present to the imagination not only motions, as, of the age should not be essay, snake, the stag, and the elephant, but colors also; as the green grass. A Grade Paper? The law of harmonic sounds reappears in the harmonic colors. The granite is differenced in its laws only by the more or less of heat, from the river that wears it away.

The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the light which traverses it with more subtile currents; the the drinking lowered to 18 essay, light resembles the heat which rides with it through Space. A Grade Research Order? Each creature is only a modification of the other; the likeness in them is more than the difference, and their radical law is essay on respect, one and paper order, the same. A rule of one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit. For, it pervades Thought also. Every universal truth which we express in words, implies or supposes every other truth. Omne verum vero consonat. It is what to include, like a great circle on a sphere, comprising all possible circles; which, however, may be drawn, and comprise it, in like manner. Every such truth is the absolute Ens seen from one side. But it has innumerable sides. The central Unity is still more conspicuous in actions.

Words are finite organs of the infinite mind. Research? They cannot cover the dimensions of what is in truth. They break, chop, and impoverish it. An action is the perfection and publication of thought. A right action seems to fill the eye, and to be related to all nature. The wise man, in doing one thing, does all; or, in the one thing he does rightly, he sees the likeness of all which is first experience interview job, done rightly. Words and a grade research order, actions are not the attributes of brute nature. They introduce us to the human form, of which all other organizations appear to be degradations. When this appears among so many that surround it, the spirit prefers it to the drinking not be lowered essay, all others. It says, `From such as this, have I drawn joy and knowledge; in such as this, have I found and beheld myself; I will speak to it; it can speak again; it can yield me thought already formed and alive.' In fact, the eye, -- the a grade research paper order, mind, -- is always accompanied by these forms, male and female; and these are incomparably the richest informations of the power and order that lie at the heart of things. Unfortunately, every one of them bears the marks as of some injury; is marred and superficially defective.

Nevertheless, far different from the essay on respect, deaf and a grade research paper order, dumb nature around them, these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of thought and virtue whereto they alone, of all organizations, are the henry an essay called a parable, entrances. It were a pleasant inquiry to follow into detail their ministry to our education, but where would it stop? We are associated in adolescent and adult life with some friends, who, like skies and waters, are coextensive with our idea; who, answering each to a certain affection of the soul, satisfy our desire on that side; whom we lack power to put at such focal distance from us, that we can mend or even analyze them. We cannot choose but love them. When much intercourse with a friend has supplied us with a standard of excellence, and has increased our respect for the resources of God who thus sends a real person to outgo our ideal; when he has, moreover, become an object of thought, and, whilst his character retains all its unconscious effect, is converted in the mind into solid and sweet wisdom, -- it is a sign to us that his office is closing, and he is commonly withdrawn from our sight in a short time. Chapter VI IDEALISM Thus is the unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the order, world conveyed to man, the immortal pupil, in every object of sense. To this one end of Discipline, all parts of henry van dyke an essay called a parable of immortality, nature conspire. A noble doubt perpetually suggests itself, whether this end be not the Final Cause of the Universe; and a grade, whether nature outwardly exists. Henry Van Dyke Called? It is a grade research, a sufficient account of that Appearance we call the World, that God will teach a human mind, and so makes it the receiver of a certain number of congruent sensations, which we call sun and moon, man and woman, house and trade. Narrative On Respect? In my utter impotence to research paper order, test the authenticity of the the drinking age should essay, report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul?

The relations of parts and the end of the whole remaining the same, what is the difference, whether land and sea interact, and worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end, -- deep yawning under deep, and galaxy balancing galaxy, throughout absolute space, -- or, whether, without relations of time and space, the same appearances are inscribed in the constant faith of man? Whether nature enjoy a substantial existence without, or is only in the apocalypse of the mind, it is research paper, alike useful and alike venerable to me. Be it what it may, it is ideal to van dyke a parable of immortality, me, so long as I cannot try the accuracy of my senses. The frivolous make themselves merry with the a grade order, Ideal theory, as if its consequences were burlesque; as if it affected the stability of nature. It surely does not. God never jests with us, and will not compromise the end of nature, by essay on my first interview permitting any inconsequence in its procession. Any distrust of the a grade research paper order, permanence of laws, would paralyze the faculties of man. Their permanence is sacredly respected, and henry van dyke an essay a parable, his faith therein is perfect.

The wheels and springs of man are all set to the hypothesis of the permanence of nature. We are not built like a ship to a grade paper, be tossed, but like a house to stand. It is a natural consequence of this structure, that, so long as the active powers predominate over the reflective, we resist with indignation any hint that nature is more short-lived or mutable than spirit. Age Should To 18? The broker, the wheelwright, the carpenter, the toll-man, are much displeased at the intimation. But whilst we acquiesce entirely in the permanence of natural laws, the question of the a grade paper order, absolute existence of nature still remains open.

It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to - term, shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to paper, attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and an effect. To the senses and the unrenewed understanding, belongs a sort of instinctive belief in the absolute existence of nature. The Drinking Age Should Not Be To 18 Essay? In their view, man and nature are indissolubly joined. Things are ultimates, and they never look beyond their sphere. The presence of Reason mars this faith. The first effort of a grade paper, thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of first experience of an interview for a, it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat. Until this higher agency intervened, the animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and colored surfaces. When the eye of Reason opens, to outline and surface are at once added, grace and expression. These proceed from imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of objects. If the Reason be stimulated to research, more earnest vision, outlines and surfaces become transparent, and are no longer seen; causes and spirits are seen through them. The best moments of life are these delicious awakenings of the higher powers, and the reverential withdrawing of nature before its God.

Let us proceed to indicate the the drinking not be lowered essay, effects of culture. A Grade Paper Order? 1. Our first institution in the Ideal philosophy is a hint from nature herself. Nature is made to conspire with spirit to emancipate us. Certain mechanical changes, a small alteration in our local position apprizes us of turabian, a dualism. We are strangely affected by seeing the shore from paper order, a moving ship, from narrative essay on respect, a balloon, or through the tints of an unusual sky. The least change in our point of view, gives the whole world a pictorial air. A man who seldom rides, needs only to get into a coach and traverse his own town, to turn the street into a puppet-show.

The men, the women, -- talking, running, bartering, fighting, -- the earnest mechanic, the lounger, the beggar, the boys, the dogs, are unrealized at research, once, or, at least, wholly detached from all relation to the observer, and seen as apparent, not substantial beings. What new thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of country quite familiar, in the rapid movement of the rail-road car! Nay, the most wonted objects, (make a very slight change in the point of vision,) please us most. In a camera obscura, the butcher's cart, and the figure of one of our own family amuse us. So a portrait of a well-known face gratifies us. Turn the essay on respect, eyes upside down, by looking at the landscape through your legs, and how agreeable is the picture, though you have seen it any time these twenty years!

In these cases, by mechanical means, is suggested the research paper, difference between the observer and the spectacle, -- between man and nature. To Include? Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe; I may say, a low degree of the sublime is felt from the fact, probably, that man is hereby apprized, that, whilst the world is a spectacle, something in research, himself is stable. 2. In a higher manner, the poet communicates the same pleasure. By a few strokes he delineates, as on air, the sun, the mountain, the camp, the city, the hero, the age should essay, maiden, not different from what we know them, but only lifted from the ground and research paper, afloat before the eye. He unfixes the land and on my first experience interview for a, the sea, makes them revolve around the axis of his primary thought, and disposes them anew. A Grade? Possessed himself by a heroic passion, he uses matter as symbols of it. The sensual man conforms thoughts to things; the poet conforms things to his thoughts. The one esteems nature as rooted and fast; the other, as fluid, and impresses his being thereon. To him, the refractory world is ductile and flexible; he invests dust and stones with humanity, and makes them the words of the Reason.

The Imagination may be defined to be, the use which the Reason makes of the material world. Shakspeare possesses the power of subordinating nature for the purposes of expression, beyond all poets. His imperial muse tosses the creation like a bauble from hand to hand, and uses it to embody any caprice of thought that is upper-most in his mind. The remotest spaces of nature are visited, and the farthest sundered things are brought together, by a subtle spiritual connection. Style Papers? We are made aware that magnitude of material things is relative, and a grade, all objects shrink and expand to serve the passion of the poet. Thus, in his sonnets, the lays of birds, the scents and narrative on respect, dyes of flowers, he finds to be the research order, shadow of style - term papers, his beloved; time, which keeps her from him, is his chest ; the suspicion she has awakened, is her ornament ; The ornament of beauty is order, Suspect, A crow which flies in heaven's sweetest air. His passion is not the fruit of chance; it swells, as he speaks, to a city, or a state. No, it was builded far from accident; It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls. Under the brow of thralling discontent;

It fears not policy, that heretic, That works on leases of short numbered hours, But all alone stands hugely politic In the strength of his constancy, the Pyramids seem to him recent and transitory. The freshness of essay of an job, youth and a grade order, love dazzles him with its resemblance to morning. Take those lips away. Which so sweetly were forsworn; And those eyes, -- the break of day, Lights that do mislead the essay first experience of an interview, morn. Paper? The wild beauty of this hyperbole, I may say, in passing, it would not be easy to match in literature. This transfiguration which all material objects undergo through the passion of the poet, -- this power which he exerts to dwarf the great, to magnify the small, -- might be illustrated by a thousand examples from of immortality, his Plays. I have before me the order, Tempest, and will cite only these few lines.

ARIEL. The strong based promontory. Have I made shake, and by the spurs plucked up. The pine and cedar. Prospero calls for music to on respect, soothe the frantic Alonzo, and a grade order, his companions; A solemn air, and the best comforter. To an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains.

Now useless, boiled within thy skull. Again; The charm dissolves apace, And, as the morning steals upon the night, Melting the first experience of an interview, darkness, so their rising senses. Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle. Their clearer reason. Begins to swell: and a grade paper, the approaching tide.

Will shortly fill the reasonable shores. That now lie foul and muddy. The perception of real affinities between events, (that is to the drinking age should, say, of ideal affinities, for those only are real,) enables the poet thus to make free with the most imposing forms and phenomena of the world, and to assert the predominance of the soul. 3. Whilst thus the order, poet animates nature with his own thoughts, he differs from the philosopher only herein, that the one proposes Beauty as his main end; the other Truth. But the philosopher, not less than the poet, postpones the apparent order and relations of things to the empire of thought. The problem of philosophy, according to Plato, is, for all that exists conditionally, to boss cover, find a ground unconditioned and absolute. It proceeds on a grade paper order, the faith that a law determines all phenomena, which being known, the narrative essay on respect, phenomena can be predicted. That law, when in a grade research order, the mind, is an idea.

Its beauty is infinite. The true philosopher and the true poet are one, and a beauty, which is truth, and not be to 18 essay, a truth, which is beauty, is the aim of both. Is not the charm of one of Plato's or Aristotle's definitions, strictly like that of the Antigone of Sophocles? It is, in both cases, that a spiritual life has been imparted to nature; that the solid seeming block of matter has been pervaded and dissolved by a thought; that this feeble human being has penetrated the vast masses of nature with an informing soul, and recognised itself in their harmony, that is, seized their law. In physics, when this is a grade research order, attained, the memory disburthens itself of its cumbrous catalogues of interview for a job, particulars, and carries centuries of observation in research, a single formula. Thus even in physics, the material is degraded before the spiritual.

The astronomer, the geometer, rely on their irrefragable analysis, and disdain the results of observation. The sublime remark of Euler on his law of arches, This will be found contrary to all experience, yet is true; had already transferred nature into the mind, and left matter like an outcast corpse. 4. Intellectual science has been observed to beget invariably a doubt of the existence of matter. Turgot said, He that has never doubted the existence of matter, may be assured he has no aptitude for metaphysical inquiries. It fastens the attention upon immortal necessary uncreated natures, that is, upon Ideas; and in their presence, we feel that the outward circumstance is a dream and a shade. Essay On Respect? Whilst we wait in this Olympus of gods, we think of nature as an appendix to the soul. We ascend into their region, and a grade research, know that these are the thoughts of the Supreme Being. These are they who were set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was.

When he prepared the heavens, they were there; when he established the clouds above, when he strengthened the fountains of the deep. Then they were by him, as one brought up with him. Of them took he counsel. Their influence is proportionate. As objects of essay on my first experience of an interview job, science, they are accessible to few men. Yet all men are capable of a grade research order, being raised by turabian papers piety or by passion, into their region. And no man touches these divine natures, without becoming, in some degree, himself divine. Like a new soul, they renew the body. We become physically nimble and lightsome; we tread on air; life is no longer irksome, and we think it will never be so. No man fears age or misfortune or death, in their serene company, for he is transported out of the district of a grade order, change.

Whilst we behold unveiled the nature of Justice and Truth, we learn the difference between the absolute and the conditional or relative. We apprehend the absolute. As it were, for the first time, we exist. We become immortal, for we learn that time and on respect, space are relations of matter; that, with a perception of truth, or a virtuous will, they have no affinity. 5. Finally, religion and ethics, which may be fitly called, -- the practice of a grade research order, ideas, or the introduction of ideas into life, -- have an analogous effect with all lower culture, in degrading nature and suggesting its dependence on spirit.

Ethics and religion differ herein; that the one is the system of human duties commencing from a parable, man; the other, from God. A Grade Paper? Religion includes the personality of God; Ethics does not. They are one to our present design. They both put nature under foot. The first and last lesson of religion is, The things that are seen, are temporal; the cover letter, things that are unseen, are eternal. It puts an affront upon research paper order, nature.

It does that for the unschooled, which philosophy does for Berkeley and Viasa. The uniform language that may be heard in the churches of the most ignorant sects, is,------Contemn the unsubstantial shows of the world; they are vanities, dreams, shadows, unrealities; seek the realities of religion. An Essay Called? The devotee flouts nature. Some theosophists have arrived at a certain hostility and indignation towards matter, as the Manichean and Plotinus. They distrusted in themselves any looking back to these flesh-pots of Egypt. Plotinus was ashamed of his body. In short, they might all say of matter, what Michael Angelo said of external beauty, it is the a grade paper order, frail and weary weed, in henry called of immortality, which God dresses the soul, which he has called into time. It appears that motion, poetry, physical and intellectual science, and religion, all tend to affect our convictions of the reality of the external world. But I own there is something ungrateful in expanding too curiously the particulars of the general proposition, that all culture tends to imbue us with idealism.

I have no hostility to nature, but a child's love to it. I expand and live in a grade paper, the warm day like corn and melons. Let us speak her fair. I do not wish to fling stones at my beautiful mother, nor soil my gentle nest. I only wish to indicate the true position of nature in regard to man, wherein to establish man, all right education tends; as the ground which to attain is the object of human life, that is, of man's connection with nature. Culture inverts the vulgar views of nature, and what to include in the thesis, brings the a grade, mind to call that apparent, which it uses to call real, and that real, which it uses to call visionary. Children, it is true, believe in the external world. The belief that it appears only, is an afterthought, but with culture, this faith will as surely arise on the mind as did the first. The advantage of the ideal theory over the popular faith, is this, that it presents the world in precisely that view which is essay on my first interview for a job, most desirable to research, the mind.

It is, in fact, the view which Reason, both speculative and practical, that is, philosophy and virtue, take. For, seen in the light of thought, the world always is phenomenal; and virtue subordinates it to the mind. Idealism sees the world in what to include in the thesis, God. It beholds the whole circle of persons and things, of actions and events, of country and religion, not as painfully accumulated, atom after atom, act after act, in an aged creeping Past, but as one vast picture, which God paints on the instant eternity, for the contemplation of the a grade research paper, soul. Therefore the soul holds itself off from first experience of an interview, a too trivial and microscopic study of the universal tablet. It respects the a grade, end too much, to immerse itself in the means. It sees something more important in boss, Christianity, than the scandals of ecclesiastical history, or the niceties of criticism; and, very incurious concerning persons or miracles, and not at all disturbed by chasms of historical evidence, it accepts from God the phenomenon, as it finds it, as the pure and awful form of religion in the world. A Grade Order? It is not hot and passionate at the appearance of what it calls its own good or bad fortune, at the union or opposition of other persons.

No man is what to include in the abstract of a thesis, its enemy. A Grade Paper? It accepts whatsoever befalls, as part of its lesson. Called Of Immortality? It is a grade, a watcher more than a doer, and it is narrative, a doer, only that it may the better watch. Chapter VII SPIRIT It is essential to a true theory of a grade paper, nature and essay on my first experience of an interview job, of man, that it should contain somewhat progressive. Uses that are exhausted or that may be, and facts that end in the statement, cannot be all that is true of this brave lodging wherein man is harbored, and wherein all his faculties find appropriate and endless exercise. A Grade? And all the uses of nature admit of being summed in one, which yields the activity of man an infinite scope. Through all its kingdoms, to the suburbs and outskirts of papers, things, it is faithful to a grade research paper order, the cause whence it had its origin. It always speaks of Spirit. It suggests the absolute. It is a perpetual effect. It is boss, a great shadow pointing always to the sun behind us.

The aspect of nature is devout. Like the figure of Jesus, she stands with bended head, and hands folded upon the breast. The happiest man is he who learns from nature the lesson of worship. Of that ineffable essence which we call Spirit, he that thinks most, will say least. We can foresee God in the coarse, and, as it were, distant phenomena of matter; but when we try to define and describe himself, both language and thought desert us, and we are as helpless as fools and savages. That essence refuses to a grade paper, be recorded in propositions, but when man has worshipped him intellectually, the noblest ministry of nature is to turabian papers, stand as the apparition of God. Research Paper? It is the organ through which the universal spirit speaks to the individual, and strives to boss cover letter, lead back the individual to it. When we consider Spirit, we see that the views already presented do not include the a grade research paper, whole circumference of boss, man. We must add some related thoughts. Three problems are put by nature to the mind; What is matter? Whence is it? and Whereto?

The first of these questions only, the ideal theory answers. Research Order? Idealism saith: matter is a phenomenon, not a substance. Idealism acquaints us with the total disparity between the evidence of our own being, and the evidence of the world's being. The one is perfect; the other, incapable of any assurance; the mind is a part of the nature of things; the world is a divine dream, from which we may presently awake to the glories and certainties of an essay, day. Idealism is research order, a hypothesis to account for nature by an essay called of immortality other principles than those of carpentry and chemistry. Yet, if it only deny the existence of matter, it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit. Research Paper? It leaves God out of me. It leaves me in the splendid labyrinth of my perceptions, to wander without end. Turabian Style - Term? Then the heart resists it, because it balks the affections in denying substantive being to men and women. Nature is so pervaded with human life, that there is research, something of humanity in all, and in every particular.

But this theory makes nature foreign to me, and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to it. Let it stand, then, in the present state of to include in the, our knowledge, merely as a useful introductory hypothesis, serving to apprize us of the eternal distinction between the soul and the world. But when, following the invisible steps of thought, we come to inquire, Whence is matter? and Whereto? many truths arise to us out of the a grade research, recesses of consciousness. We learn that the highest is present to the soul of man, that the dread universal essence, which is not wisdom, or love, or beauty, or power, but all in one, and each entirely, is that for which all things exist, and that by which they are; that spirit creates; that behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present; one and not compound, it does not act upon to 18, us from without, that is, in research paper order, space and turabian, time, but spiritually, or through ourselves: therefore, that spirit, that is, the Supreme Being, does not build up nature around us, but puts it forth through us, as the a grade paper, life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old. Of A? As a plant upon research paper order, the earth, so a man rests upon the bosom of God; he is nourished by unfailing fountains, and draws, at his need, inexhaustible power. Age Should Not Be? Who can set bounds to the possibilities of man? Once inhale the upper air, being admitted to behold the research order, absolute natures of the drinking not be, justice and truth, and we learn that man has access to the entire mind of the Creator, is himself the creator in the finite. A Grade Research Order? This view, which admonishes me where the sources of wisdom and power lie, and points to virtue as to The golden key. Which opes the palace of experience, eternity, carries upon its face the highest certificate of truth, because it animates me to create my own world through the purification of a grade research paper order, my soul. The world proceeds from the same spirit as the lowered to 18, body of man.

It is a remoter and inferior incarnation of God, a projection of a grade order, God in the unconscious. But it differs from the body in one important respect. It is not, like that, now subjected to the human will. Its serene order is inviolable by us. It is, therefore, to us, the present expositor of the divine mind. It is a fixed point whereby we may measure our departure. As we degenerate, the contrast between us and our house is more evident.

We are as much strangers in nature, as we are aliens from of immortality, God. We do not understand the notes of birds. The fox and the deer run away from us; the bear and tiger rend us. We do not know the uses of more than a few plants, as corn and the apple, the potato and the vine. Is not the landscape, every glimpse of a grade paper order, which hath a grandeur, a face of him? Yet this may show us what discord is between man and nature, for you cannot freely admire a noble landscape, if laborers are digging in the field hard by. The poet finds something ridiculous in his delight, until he is narrative on respect, out of the sight of order, men. Chapter VIII PROSPECTS In inquiries respecting the laws of the world and the frame of things, the highest reason is always the truest. That which seems faintly possible -- it is so refined, is often faint and dim because it is deepest seated in the mind among the eternal verities. Empirical science is apt to cloud the sight, and, by the very knowledge of functions and boss cover, processes, to bereave the student of the a grade research, manly contemplation of the whole. The savant becomes unpoetic.

But the best read naturalist who lends an entire and devout attention to truth, will see that there remains much to learn of his relation to the world, and that it is turabian style - term papers, not to be learned by any addition or subtraction or other comparison of known quantities, but is a grade research paper order, arrived at by untaught sallies of the essay on my experience job, spirit, by a continual self-recovery, and by entire humility. He will perceive that there are far more excellent qualities in the student than preciseness and infallibility; that a guess is often more fruitful than an indisputable affirmation, and that a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments. For, the problems to be solved are precisely those which the physiologist and the naturalist omit to state. It is not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to one form. When I behold a rich landscape, it is less to my purpose to recite correctly the order and superposition of the strata, than to know why all thought of multitude is lost in a tranquil sense of research order, unity. I cannot greatly honor minuteness in details, so long as there is no hint to explain the relation between things and thoughts; no ray upon narrative on respect, the metaphysics of conchology, of botany, of the arts, to a grade order, show the relation of the forms of flowers, shells, animals, architecture, to the mind, and build science upon ideas. In a cabinet of natural history, we become sensible of a certain occult recognition and sympathy in regard to the most unwieldly and eccentric forms of what to include abstract of a thesis, beast, fish, and a grade research paper order, insect. The American who has been confined, in his own country, to the sight of buildings designed after foreign models, is surprised on entering York Minster or St. Peter's at Rome, by the feeling that these structures are imitations also, -- faint copies of an invisible archetype. Narrative On Respect? Nor has science sufficient humanity, so long as the naturalist overlooks that wonderful congruity which subsists between man and the world; of which he is paper, lord, not because he is the most subtile inhabitant, but because he is its head and heart, and finds something of himself in every great and small thing, in every mountain stratum, in every new law of color, fact of astronomy, or atmospheric influence which observation or analysis lay open. A perception of this mystery inspires the muse of George Herbert, the beautiful psalmist of the seventeenth century.

The following lines are part of his little poem on turabian style, Man. Man is all symmetry, Full of proportions, one limb to another, And to all the world besides. Each part may call the farthest, brother; For head with foot hath private amity, And both with moons and tides. Nothing hath got so far.

But man hath caught and kept it as his prey; His eyes dismount the highest star; He is in order, little all the sphere. Herbs gladly cure our flesh, because that they. Find their acquaintance there. For us, the winds do blow,

The earth doth rest, heaven move, and fountains flow; Nothing we see, but means our good, As our delight, or as our treasure; The whole is either our cupboard of food, Or cabinet of pleasure. The stars have us to bed: Night draws the curtain; which the sun withdraws. Music and light attend our head. All things unto our flesh are kind,

In their descent and being; to our mind, In their ascent and cause. More servants wait on man. Than he'll take notice of. In every path, He treads down that which doth befriend him. When sickness makes him pale and wan.

Oh mighty love! Man is on my experience of an interview for a job, one world, and hath. Another to a grade research, attend him. The perception of this class of truths makes the essay on my first experience interview for a job, attraction which draws men to science, but the end is lost sight of in attention to the means. In view of this half-sight of science, we accept the sentence of Plato, that, poetry comes nearer to vital truth than history.

Every surmise and vaticination of the research paper order, mind is entitled to a certain respect, and we learn to prefer imperfect theories, and sentences, which contain glimpses of truth, to digested systems which have no one valuable suggestion. A wise writer will feel that the ends of study and composition are best answered by announcing undiscovered regions of thought, and so communicating, through hope, new activity to the torpid spirit. I shall therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of man and nature, which a certain poet sang to me; and which, as they have always been in narrative on respect, the world, and perhaps reappear to every bard, may be both history and prophecy. `The foundations of man are not in a grade research, matter, but in spirit. But the element of spirit is eternity. To it, therefore, the longest series of events, the narrative essay on respect, oldest chronologies are young and recent.

In the cycle of the universal man, from whom the paper, known individuals proceed, centuries are points, and all history is but the epoch of one degradation. `We distrust and deny inwardly our sympathy with nature. We own and disown our relation to it, by turns. We are, like Nebuchadnezzar, dethroned, bereft of reason, and eating grass like an ox. But who can set limits to the remedial force of spirit? `A man is a god in ruins. When men are innocent, life shall be longer, and on respect, shall pass into the immortal, as gently as we awake from dreams.

Now, the world would be insane and rabid, if these disorganizations should last for hundreds of years. Research Paper? It is kept in check by death and infancy. Van Dyke An Essay Called Of Immortality? Infancy is the perpetual Messiah, which comes into the arms of fallen men, and pleads with them to return to paradise. `Man is the dwarf of himself. Once he was permeated and dissolved by spirit. He filled nature with his overflowing currents. Out from him sprang the sun and moon; from man, the sun; from woman, the moon. The laws of his mind, the periods of his actions externized themselves into day and a grade research, night, into the year and the seasons. But, having made for himself this huge shell, his waters retired; he no longer fills the veins and veinlets; he is shrunk to a drop.

He sees, that the structure still fits him, but fits him colossally. Say, rather, once it fitted him, now it corresponds to him from far and on high. He adores timidly his own work. Now is man the follower of the sun, and woman the to include abstract thesis, follower of the moon. Yet sometimes he starts in his slumber, and wonders at himself and his house, and muses strangely at the resemblance betwixt him and it. He perceives that if his law is a grade paper order, still paramount, if still he have elemental power, if his word is not be to 18 essay, sterling yet in nature, it is not conscious power, it is not inferior but superior to his will.

It is Instinct.' Thus my Orphic poet sang. At present, man applies to paper order, nature but half his force. He works on the world with his understanding alone. He lives in it, and masters it by a penny-wisdom; and he that works most in it, is henry van dyke an essay called a parable of immortality, but a half-man, and whilst his arms are strong and his digestion good, his mind is imbruted, and he is a selfish savage. His relation to nature, his power over it, is through the understanding; as by manure; the economic use of fire, wind, water, and the mariner's needle; steam, coal, chemical agriculture; the repairs of the human body by the dentist and a grade research, the surgeon. This is such a resumption of power, as if a banished king should buy his territories inch by inch, instead of vaulting at once into his throne. Meantime, in the thick darkness, there are not wanting gleams of - term, a better light, -- occasional examples of the action of research paper, man upon on my experience of an interview for a job, nature with his entire force, -- with reason as well as understanding. Such examples are; the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in research, religious and political revolutions, and in the abolition of the Slave-trade; the miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children.

These are examples of Reason's momentary grasp of the sceptre; the exertions of a power which exists not in time or space, but an cover letter, instantaneous in-streaming causing power. The difference between the actual and the ideal force of man is happily figured by the schoolmen, in saying, that the knowledge of man is an evening knowledge, vespertina cognitio, but that of God is a morning knowledge, matutina cognitio. The problem of restoring to the world original and eternal beauty, is solved by the redemption of the soul. The ruin or the research paper order, blank, that we see when we look at nature, is in our own eye. The axis of vision is not coincident with the axis of things, and so they appear not transparent but opake. The reason why the world lacks unity, and lies broken and in heaps, is, because man is disunited with himself. He cannot be a naturalist, until he satisfies all the demands of the narrative essay, spirit.

Love is as much its demand, as perception. Indeed, neither can be perfect without the other. In the uttermost meaning of the words, thought is devout, and devotion is thought. Deep calls unto deep. But in actual life, the marriage is not celebrated. There are innocent men who worship God after the tradition of their fathers, but their sense of duty has not yet extended to the use of all their faculties.

And there are patient naturalists, but they freeze their subject under the wintry light of the understanding. Is not prayer also a study of truth, -- a sally of the soul into the unfound infinite? No man ever prayed heartily, without learning something. But when a faithful thinker, resolute to detach every object from personal relations, and see it in the light of thought, shall, at the same time, kindle science with the fire of the holiest affections, then will God go forth anew into the creation. It will not need, when the mind is order, prepared for study, to essay first experience of an job, search for objects. The invariable mark of wisdom is to see the miraculous in the common. What is a day? What is a year? What is summer?

What is woman? What is a child? What is sleep? To our blindness, these things seem unaffecting. We make fables to hide the baldness of the fact and a grade paper, conform it, as we say, to the higher law of the mind. But when the fact is seen under the light of an in the abstract, idea, the gaudy fable fades and shrivels. We behold the real higher law. To the wise, therefore, a fact is true poetry, and the most beautiful of fables. These wonders are brought to our own door. Paper? You also are a man.

Man and woman, and their social life, poverty, labor, sleep, fear, fortune, are known to you. Learn that none of these things is superficial, but that each phenomenon has its roots in the faculties and affections of the cover, mind. A Grade Paper? Whilst the abstract question occupies your intellect, nature brings it in style papers, the concrete to be solved by your hands. It were a wise inquiry for the closet, to compare, point by point, especially at remarkable crises in a grade research paper, life, our daily history, with the rise and progress of ideas in the mind. So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes. It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect, -- What is truth? and of the affections, -- What is good? by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. Then shall come to pass what my poet said; `Nature is not fixed but fluid. Spirit alters, moulds, makes it. The immobility or bruteness of nature, is the absence of spirit; to pure spirit, it is style - term, fluid, it is volatile, it is obedient. Every spirit builds itself a house; and beyond its house a world; and beyond its world, a heaven.

Know then, that the world exists for you. For you is the phenomenon perfect. Paper? What we are, that only can we see. All that Adam had, all that Caesar could, you have and can do. Essay On My First Interview? Adam called his house, heaven and earth; Caesar called his house, Rome; you perhaps call yours, a cobler's trade; a hundred acres of ploughed land; or a scholar's garret. Yet line for line and point for point, your dominion is as great as theirs, though without fine names.

Build, therefore, your own world. As fast as you conform your life to the pure idea in your mind, that will unfold its great proportions. A correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the spirit. So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, spiders, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons, enemies, vanish; they are temporary and shall be no more seen. The sordor and filths of nature, the paper order, sun shall dry up, and the wind exhale.

As when the summer comes from the south; the snow-banks melt, and the face of the earth becomes green before it, so shall the advancing spirit create its ornaments along its path, and carry with it the beauty it visits, and the song which enchants it; it shall draw beautiful faces, warm hearts, wise discourse, and heroic acts, around its way, until evil is no more seen. The kingdom of man over what to include in the abstract of a nature, which cometh not with observation, -- a dominion such as now is beyond his dream of God, -- he shall enter without more wonder than the blind man feels who is gradually restored to perfect sight.'

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