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Benjamin Carson: The Pediatric Neurosurgeon with Gifted Hands. Benjamin S. Carson, M.D., one of the world's foremost pediatric neurosurgeons, is professor and msc health promotion dissertation chief of pediatric neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins University Medical School. 1 Born on September 18, 1951, in Detroit to a single mother in a working class neighborhood, Ben showed promise from a young age. Me Essay""! 2 A graduate of Yale and the University of msc health promotion Michigan Medical School, he was rated by death by landscape critical essay, a Time issue titled America's Best as a super surgeon. 3 Dr. Carson was also selected by CNN and Time as one of the nation's top 20 physicians and scientists, and by the Library of Congress as one of 89 living-legends. 4. Msc Health Dissertation! Dr. Carson is a leading research scientist. A voracious reader of the medical and scientific literature from his graduate school days, he has long been very interested in scientific research and death by landscape critical has been very active in this area for his entire career, 5, 6 with over 120 major scientific publications in peer reviewed journals, 38 books and book chapters, and grant awards of almost a million dollars. His achievements have so far earned him 51 honorary doctorates, including from Yale and Columbia Universities.
A Master Surgeon and msc health Scholar. Ben Carson revolutionized his field in several areas, including hemispherectomies (removal of half of the brain to prevent untreatable severe seizures, such as those caused by Rasmussen's encephalitis). He dramatically increased the death critical, safety of the procedure by developing several major surgical innovations, which include better ways of controlling bleeding and infection, as well as an innovative system of promotion dissertation incrementally removing specific brain parts as units rather than in whole sections. 3. Dr. Carson has also contributed to new techniques used for conjoined twin separation 7 and accomplished one of the most complex surgical feats in history as the lead surgeon of a team that separated twins joined at the back of the head in a 22-hour-long operation.
Known as the doctor who takes cases that no other doctor will risk, Dr. Carson has had outstanding success in spite of this challenge. Me Essay""! For example, he has achieved an amazing 80 to 90 percent success rate for difficult-to-treat trigeminal neuralgia. 8. After Dr. Carson reviewed in detail the evidence for design in nature, he concluded, I just don't have enough faith to believe that the living world happened by evolutionary processes. 9 He added that 150 years after Darwin, there is still no evidence for evolution. It's just not there. But when you bring that up to the proponents of Darwinism, the best explanation they can come up with is Welluhit's lost!I find it requires too much faith for me to believe that explanation given all the fossils we have found without any fossilized evidence of the direct, step-by-step evolutionary progression from simple to complex organisms or from one species to another species. Shrugging and saying, Well, it was mysteriously lost, and we'll probably never find it, doesn't seem like a particularly satisfying, objective, or scientific response.
10. Carson concluded that the msc health dissertation, plausibility of evolution is further strained by how to a research paper, Darwin's assertion that within fifty to promotion dissertation one hundred years of his time, scientists would become geologically sophisticated enough to find the fossil remains of the entire evolutionary tree in an unequivocal step-by-step progression of life from amoeba to man. 11. As a neurosurgeon, he stresses the factors that contribute to the failure to utilize fully the most amazing God-given resource, our brain, such as peer pressure and political correctness, which often limits our willingness, even as objective scientists, to have thoughtful, rational discussions about evolution versus creationism. 9 It is even harder for 5 paragraph, him to accept how so many people who can't explain how evolution can account for all life claim that it is a fact, while at the same time insisting anyone who wants to consider or discuss creationism as a possibility cannot be a real scientist. 10. In Dr Carson's latest best-selling book, Take the msc health promotion, Risk, he discusses the by landscape, need to balance the risks and benefits of any activity that one considers undertaking. For example, although Dr. Carson has addressed students and general audiences hundreds of times, he took a big risk to explain his creation views as the keynote speaker at the National Science Teachers convention in promotion Philadelphia. He told the science teachers that evolution and creationism both require faith.
It's just a matter of where you choose to place that faith. I find it as hard to accept the claims of evolution as it is to think that a hurricane blowing through a junkyard could somehow assemble a fully equipped and flash flight-ready 747.Which is why not one of us has ever doubted that a 747, by its very existence, gives convincing evidence of someone's intelligent design. 12. He then stressed the fact that the promotion dissertation, human body and brain are immeasurably more complex, more versatile, more amazing in death by landscape a gazillion ways than any airplane man has ever created. In short, only an intelligent creator explains how such a complex, intelligently designed universe could come into existence. 13. Talking to 15,000 science teachers about dissertation, evolution and creation was a challenge, yet the most formidable audience Dr. Carson has ever faced was the ultra-prestigious Academy of on abortion Achievement, which invited him to be part of a panel discussion on Faith and Science during its annual International Summit. Dr.
Carson writes that the membership was so imposing he had to ask himself whether he really wanted to discuss his spiritual beliefs in front of an organization that included every living former president of the United States, along with numerous other heads of states and Nobel Peace Prize recipients. My years of membership in the Academy had provided some wonderful experiences, and I had made a lot of friends whose opinions, goodwill, and respect still matter to msc health dissertation me. But did I want to risk all that to share honestly with them my views on faith and science? 14. He felt that the essay against flash, stakes were higher this time than in all of his previous lectures because of the possibility of embarrassing himself in front of numerous Nobel scientists.
Still, the promotion, same positive potential--the chance that this opportunity could open objective discussion and might help others find the courage to thesis based talk about what they truly believe--also seemed like a better best . That wasn'tbecause I thought anything I said would change the thinking of the Academy's distinguished members, but because we invite as guests to our summit each year three hundred or so of the next generation's best and brightest (Rhodes Scholars, Fullbright Scholars, White House Fellows, and the like). 14. The experience proved to be both very challenging and rewarding. One reason was that the noted paleoanthropologist Dr. Donald Johanson was one of the other panelists. [Johanson] is famous for his claims that the fossilized specimen he discovered in Africa named Lucy represented an extinct species from which the msc health, human race descended. Essay! In the course of our discussion, he madea condescending remark when he asserted that true scientists base everything they do and msc health promotion decide upon facts, unlike those people who choose to thesis essay format depend on God. So when it was my turn to dissertation speak, I made the point that true scientists often overlook many, many gaps in what they purport to jobs essay against flash be factwhen in reality some of their own theories require a great deal of msc health promotion faith to teaching write school accept. 15. The paleoanthropologist responded by msc health dissertation, jumping out of teaching his chair and rudely interrupting Dr. Promotion! Carson, who calmly responded by noting that he was. only making a general observation based on my experience. But if the shoe fits . Teaching Write A Research Paper! Laughter rolled through the audience before I went on to say that religion and dissertation science both require faith, that the two disciplines don't always have to be mutually exclusive, that people have to choose where to about put their faith, and that choice doesn't make you superior to promotion dissertation those who believe differently.
15. Dr. A Research Paper School! Johanson's arrogance was apparent in view of the fact that we know next to nothing about how the living brain actually works, not to dissertation mention that of our putative evolutionary ancestors. 8 Dr. Essay Flash! Carson concluded that the most affirming responses came from the graduate students who thanked him for his presentation. One scholar from Oxford even told him that, although an atheist, after hearing Dr. Carson's talk he is now seriously rethinking his atheism. Carson concluded, That seemed reason enough to risk talking about faith.
16. Promotion Dissertation! Ben Carson, one of the most respected and successful neurosurgeons in the world today, is a creationist who is not afraid of openly voicing his conclusions to august audiences the world over. Called the man with gifted hands for his surgical skill, his example of overcoming poverty to become a leading scholar and scientist has inspired millions. 6 His openness about dgge thesis, creation may inspire millions as well. Note: I wish to promotion dissertation thank Dr.
Ben Carson for jobs essay, reviewing and correcting an earlier draft of this paper. Bishop, R. 1999. Beyond Brain Power. Christian Reader. Msc Health Promotion Dissertation! July-August, 19-28. McMurray, E. 1995. Benjamin S. Carson. Notable Twentieth-Century Scientists. New York: Gale Research, 320-321.
Gorman, C. 2001. Super Surgeon. Time . 158 (7): 34-35. Asimakoupoulos, G. 2003. Ben Carson: A Doctor in dgge thesis Patients Clothing. Focus on promotion dissertation, the Family Physician . 15 (4): 4-6. Green-Bishop, J. February 2004.
The Healing of a Healer. Dallas Weekly. Carson, B. Death By Landscape Critical! S. 1990. Gifted Hands. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Ryan, M. If You Can't Teach Me, Don’t Criticize Me. Parade , May 11, 1997, 6-7.
Dreifus, C. 2001. Msc Health Promotion! Scientific Conversations . Against Flash! New York: W. H. Promotion Dissertation! Freeman Book, 200-201. Carson, B. S. 2008. Take the Risk . Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 126. Ibid, 130. Ibid, 129. About Me Essay""! Ibid, 128. Ibid, 128-129. Ibid, 137-138.
Ibid, 138-139. Promotion! Ibid, 140. * Dr. Bergman is an Adjunct Associate Professor at the University of Toledo Medical School in Ohio. Cite this article: Bergman, J. 2009. Benjamin Carson: The Pediatric Neurosurgeon with Gifted Hands.
Acts Facts . 38 (1): 10. About Me Essay""! 2017 Institute for Creation Research. All Rights Reserved.
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How to Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote from Sources. As you identify and evaluate research sources, you must make accurate notes of promotion, information you think might be useful in your essay. There are many ways to take notes—from jotting down single words or phrases to photocopying entire articles. (For instruction on note-taking, see “Taking Good Research Notes” in How to Research Your Topic on dgge thesis, this Web Site.) There are three ways of incorporating source information into dissertation your own writing: summary , paraphrase , and direct quotation . When you summarize or paraphrase, you restate in your own words the death critical idea(s) of another speaker or writer. When you quote, you reproduce the exact words of another speaker or writer.
Of the three ways to introduce ideas from a source into dissertation your research papers for college and university, direct quotation is the one you should use leastЂ”except for literary essays (see Writing the essay format Literary Essay on dissertation, this Web site). When you are writing about literature, quotations from the original work(s) are the primary evidence in your argument. Literary essays can also rely on quotations from secondary sources (critics). Write School. For an dissertation example of dgge thesis, a research essay that relies on non-fiction literature for its sources, see Jessica MarloweЂ™s ЂњWhat Makes You Happy?Ђќ on page 20 (APA format) and msc health promotion dissertation 441 (MLA format). Before we examine how to use source information in your research papers, let’s review what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. Plagiarism is the single most troublesome problem faced by students writing research papers and by by landscape the teachers who mark them. You can avoid it by citing (acknowledging) every piece of information that you found in the sources you used for your paper. Use an approved documentation style. See Format and Documentation on this Web site.
Here are the guidelines to follow: You do not need to give sources for facts or sayings that are common knowledge (e.g., “Edmonton is the msc health dissertation capital of Alberta”; “Sir John A. Macdonald was Canada’s first prime minister”; “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder”). Any words taken directly from a source must be marked as a quotation, and you must give full information about the source. (See the “Quoting” section below). Facts, opinions, and ideas that you found on the Internet, in a book or article, or in any other source must be acknowledged even if you express the information in your own words. (See Format and Documentation .) Facts, opinions, and ideas that you remember reading or hearing somewhere cannot be presented as your own. If you cannot find and acknowledge a source, you should not use the information. Note: Google is helpful in death essay, tracking down sources of information. If you aren’t sure if a fact, opinion, or idea should be acknowledged, err on the side of promotion dissertation, caution and cite it. Thesis. (It’s better to dissertation, be safe than sorry.) When you summarize information, you find the main ideas in an article, essay, report, or other document, and rephrase them.
You shorten (condense) the most important idea or ideas in about me essay"", the source material and express them in your own words. The purpose of summarizing is to give the reader an overview of the article, report, or chapter. If the reader is msc health dissertation interested in the details, he or she will read the original. It’s hard to about, overstate how valuable the ability to summarize is. Dissertation. Note-taking in school is one form of teaching a research school, summarizing. Abstracts of articles, executive summaries of reports, market surveys, legal decisions, research findings, and msc health promotion records (called “minutes”) of meetings, to name only a few kinds of 5 paragraph essay on abortion, formal documents, are all summaries. Thesis statements and topic sentences are essentially summaries; so, often, are conclusions. Msc Health Dissertation. In committee, group, or teamwork, imagination and creativity are valuable, but the dgge thesis ability to msc health promotion dissertation, summarize is even more so.
There is no communication skill that you will need or use more than summarizing. In conversation, we all summarize every day: for example, with friends, you may summarize the plot of a movie you’ve just seen or what happened in class this morning; when your mother calls, you’ll summarize the events of the past week that you want her to know about. But most of us are not very good at summarizing efficiently, especially in writing. Written summaries, unlike conversational ones, require planning. Summarizing effectively is against a skill that doesn’t come naturally. You need to practise it . The work you summarize can be as short as a paragraph or a poem, or as long as a book. Before you can summarize anything, you need to read and understand it. The material you summarize is usually an article, essay, or chapter (or some portion of it). A typical summary for an undergraduate research paper ranges from a few sentences to one or two paragraphs.
HereЂ™s how to proceed: Read through the msc health promotion piece carefully, looking up any words you don’t understand. Write the meanings above the persuasive essay words they apply to. The title often identifies the subject of the article, and a subtitle usually indicates its focus. If the piece is long, the writer will often divide it into a number of smaller sections, each with its own heading. These headings usually signal key ideas. If there are no headings, pay particular attention to the introduction, where you are likely to find an overview of the subject, together with a statement of the thesis; the topic sentence of each paragraph (topic sentences identify key ideas); and the conclusion, which often summarizes the thesis and points to its significance. In his essay “Put What Where? 2,000 Years of Bizarre Sexual Advice,” John Naish provides us with a history of sex manuals ranging from the oldest surviving examples written by msc health dissertation the Chinese in 300 B.C. to the current mind-boggling array of about, books, videos, and promotion dissertation DVDs available to consumers at the beginning of the 21st century. Then state, in order, the author’s key ideas. After each sentence in which you identify a key idea, add in your own words any necessary explanation or clarification of by landscape critical, that point. (The author, remember, developed each idea in his or her supporting details; your job is to condense those details into general statements that capture the gist of the author’s point.)
Resist the temptation to look back at the article or essay as you write your summary. If you have truly understood the source you are summarizing, you should be able to explain each point from memory. The time to check your work against promotion dissertation, the source is about when you’ve finished the first draft of your summary. If the author’s conclusion contains any new information (i.e., is more than a summary and memorable statement), briefly reword that information in msc health dissertation, your conclusion. Revise your draft until it is coherent, concise, and makes sense to someone who is unfamiliar with the original work. Jobs Against. It’s a good idea to get someone to read through your summary to check it for msc health promotion dissertation, clarity and completeness. HereЂ™s an example of summarizing in 5 paragraph essay on abortion, action. Turn to page 112 of Canadian Content , where you will find Wade DavisЂ™s ЂњThe End of the Wild.Ђќ Read this essay, highlighting the main ideas as you read. Now read our summary of this essay, below, and see how close you came to identifying what we think are its key points. In his essay, The End of the dissertation Wild,Ђќ Wade Davis provides us with three telling examples of the destruction humans have visited on EarthЂ™s life forms over the last 150 years. He begins with the plight of the dgge thesis passenger pigeon, which once constituted 40% of promotion, North AmericaЂ™s bird population.
Between 1850 and 1900, the entire population of passenger pigeons was wiped out. Then Davis turns to the Great Plains buffalo, a species that outnumbered humans as late as 1871 but fell prey to commercial market hunters. Finally, Davis recounts his own experience working as a logger in the pristine rainforest of west coast British Columbia. DavisЂ™s point is that humans are bringing ecological disaster to about, the planet. (113-115) This five-sentence paragraph (117 words) captures the msc health dissertation gist of DavisЂ™s 4150 -word essay.
Admittedly, it isnЂ™t very interesting. All of the details that make WadeЂ™s piece such a compelling read are missing. Summaries are useful for conveying an outline or a brief overview of someoneЂ™s ideas, but by themselves they are not memorable. Details and specifics are what stick in a readerЂ™s mind. These are what your own writing should provide. A summary should be written entirely in your own words. Your ability to identify and interpret the authorЂ™s ideas is evidence of your understanding of the source you are summarizing.
If you must include a short phrase from the source because there is dgge thesis no other way to msc health promotion, word it, enclose the write a research in middle school quoted material in quotation marks and provide a page reference. Now that weЂ™ve provided you with the ЂњdoЂ™sЂќ about summarizing, itЂ™s time to warn you about the ЂњdonЂ™ts.Ђќ. Introduce any ideas that are not mentioned in your source change the proportion or emphasis of the ideas represented in your source introduce your own opinion of the ideas or opinions discussed in your source use the same or similar working of the ideas that you found in your source. When you paraphrase, you restate someone else’s ideas in msc health promotion dissertation, your own words. Unlike a summary, a paraphrase includes both the main and supporting ideas of your source. The usual purpose of a paraphrase is to how to paper in middle school, express someone else’s ideas more clearly and more simply—to translate what may be complex in the original into easily understandable prose. A paraphrase may be longer than the original, it may be about the same length, or it may be shorter. Whatever its length, a good paraphrase satisfies three criteria: It is clear, concise, and easy to understand. Occasionally, you may need to clarify technical language or explain an aphorism, a proverb, or other saying that states a principle, offers an insight, or teaches a point.
Statements that pack a lot of msc health promotion, meaning into few words can be explained only at greater length. For example, a phrase familiar to all baseball fans is Ђњhitting for the cycle.Ђќ It simply isnЂ™t possible to restate this phrase in three words. (It means that a batter gets a single, a double, a triple, and about a home run in promotion, a single game.) To paraphrase a passage, you need to dig down through your sourceЂ™s words to the underlying ideas and then reword those ideas as clearly and simply as you can. Like summarizing, the ability to paraphrase is not an inborn talent; it takes patience and much practice to perfect it. But the rewards are worth your time and effort.
First, paraphrasing improves your reading skill as well as your writing skill. Second, it improves your memory. In order to paraphrase accurately, you must thoroughly understand what youЂ™ve readЂ”and once you understand something, youЂ™re not likely to forget it. HereЂ™s an example of howЂ”and how notЂ”to paraphrase. LetЂ™s assume we are writing an by landscape critical essay on the topic of alcoholic beverages you can make at home. Msc Health Promotion Dissertation. To begin with, read the following passage, an excerpt from Paul QuarringtonЂ™s ЂњHome BrewЂќ:
Malt and yeast are all you truly need to make beer, and humankind has been making it for something like 8,000 years. (Q: What has humankind been making for 8,000 years? A: Beer!) Hops did not appear on the European scene until the 12th century, and even at that time, there was a resistance in the form of laws forbidding their use. Hops are the flowers of the female hop vine (an aggressive spreader, it has earned the based format lovely nomenclature Humulus lupulus and dissertation is also known as the Ђњwolf of the willowsЂќ), and their resins and oils impart flavour of on abortion, a slightly bitter nature to the beer. (73) There are two pieces of information in this paragraph that we want to include in our essay: Humans have been making beer from malt and yeast for msc health, 8,000 years. The hops that give beer its bitter taste were a late addition to beer-making. If we are not careful, or if we don’t have much experience with paraphrasing, our first attempt at a paraphrase might look something like this: In his essay entitled ЂњHome Brew,Ђќ Paul Quarrington explains that malt and jobs essay against flash yeast are the only essentials in beer-making, an activity that humans have been doing for 8,000 years. Msc Health Promotion. The use of hops did not appear in European beer-making until the essay against flash 12th century, and it was resisted by many. Hops are the dissertation flowers of the based essay format female hop vine ( Humulus lupulus , also known as Ђњwolf of the msc health dissertation willowsЂќ), and their resins and oils add a bitter taste to the beer. This is not paraphrasingЂ”itЂ™s plagiarism.
Although we have indicated the source of the information and left out QuarringtonЂ™s stylistic flourishes, the wording is almost identical to that of the about me essay"" original. There are no visual or verbal cues to alert the reader that these are QuarringtonЂ™s words, not ours. LetЂ™s try again. In his essay ЂњHome Brew,Ђќ Paul Quarrington tells us that for about 80 centuries, humans have been using malt and promotion yeast to brew beer. Hops were added to European beer in the 12th century; in 5 paragraph persuasive on abortion, some places, laws were passed prohibiting their use. Hops are the dissertation flowers of the female hop vine, which is known both by its Latin name, Humulus lupulus , and by me essay"" the name Ђњwolf of the msc health dissertation willows.Ђќ The resins and oils of the hop flowers add a bitter taste to the beer. Although this version avoids much of QuarringtonЂ™s original phrasing, it doesnЂ™t demonstrate any work on our part.
We have replaced the dgge thesis sourceЂ™s words with synonyms and changed the sentences, but our paragraph is dissertation still too close to the original. An acceptable paraphrase does not pass off someone elseЂ™s ideas as your own by changing a few words and sentence constructions. A good paraphrase goes further. It uses source information but rearranges it, rephrases it, and combines it with the writerЂ™s own ideas (and sometimes ideas taken from other research) to create something new. LetЂ™s try once more: In ЂњHome Brew,Ђќ Paul Quarrington tells us that humans have been making beer for at least 8,000 years. While the essay only ingredients necessary to promotion dissertation, the brewing of beer are malt (made from grains) and yeast, other ingredients have been added over time to enhance the taste. The most successful and persistent addition to the basic malt and yeast mixture was hops, the flower of about me essay"", Humulus lupulus , which Europeans first introduced in the 12th century.
The addition of hops was not greeted with universal enthusiasm: many beer lovers believed the bitter flavour spoiled the msc health promotion purity of their beer. In some regions, this exotic addition to the basic brew was banned by law. (73) Here we have used paraphrase to incorporate information from essay on abortion a published source, identified in the first sentence, into a paragraph whose topic and structure are our own. Msc Health. Our paraphrase is roughly the same length as the 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion original passage. If you want to take ideas more directly from a source, retaining the original arrangement and some of the wording, you should follow the guidelines given below for quotations. When learning to write research papers, students tend to use quotations more often than paraphrases or summaries to introduce other writers’ ideas into their own work. In fact, a good research paper (unless it is an essay on a work of literature) usually relies more heavily on summary and paraphrase than it does on quotation. If you use too many quotations, your paper will be a patchwork of the msc health promotion dissertation ideas of others, in thesis, their words. Msc Health Dissertation. Very little of your own thinking will be communicated to persuasive essay, the reader. Remember that the main reason teachers assign research papers is to promotion, test your ability to find, digest, and make sense of specific information about a topic.
If what you hand in consists of a string of quotations, your paper will demonstrate only the first of death by landscape, these three skills. In most research papers, the ideas, facts, and statistics are the promotion important things, not the wording of an idea or the explanation of facts or statistics. Occasionally, however, you will find that someone else—an expert in a particular field, a well-known author, or a respected public figure—has said what you want to say but eloquently, vividly, more memorably than you could ever hope to teaching how to paper in middle, say it. In such cases, quotations, as long as they are short and promotion not used too frequently , are useful in developing your topic. Carefully woven into your own paragraph, they help convince the reader of the validity of what you have to say. Use quotations in writing the way you use salt in cooking: sparingly.
You can quote from two kinds of jobs essay against, sources— people you know, or have heard speak, or have interviewed print, electronic, or recorded materials (e.g., books, articles, CD-ROMs, Web sites, films, tapes) —and your quotation may be long or short. If the material you are quoting is msc health promotion more than 40 words or four typed lines, it is a long—or block—quotation. After you have introduced it in a phrase or sentence, you begin the quoted passage on dgge thesis, a new line and indent all lines of the quotation 10 spaces or 2.5 cm from the left margin. Promotion Dissertation. Do not put quotation marks around a block quotation . The 10-space indentation is the persuasive reader’s visual cue that this portion of the paragraph is someone else’s words, not yours. In the paragraph that follows, prize-winning author Diane Ackerman quotes David Bodanis at some length in her book A Natural History of the msc health promotion dissertation Senses (New York: Random House, 1990: 142–43). She signals that she is based essay quoting by indenting the entire passage she has borrowed from Bodanis: Committees put a lot of thought into the design of fast foods. Dissertation. As David Bodanis points out with such good humour in The Secret House , potato chips are.
an example of total destruction foods. The wild. attack on the plastic wrap, the slashing and. tearing you have to write school, go through is exactly what the manufacturers wish. For the thing about crisp. foods is that they’re louder than non-crisp ones . . . Destructo-packaging sets a favourable mood. . . . Crisp foods have to be loud in the upper. register. They have to msc health, produce a high-frequency.
shattering; foods which generate low-frequency. rumblings are crunchy, or slurpy but not crisp. . . . Companies design potato chips to dgge thesis, be too large to fit into the mouth, because in order to hear the high-frequency crackling, you need to keep your mouth open. Chips are 80 percent air, and each time we bite one we break open the air-packed cells of the chip, making that noise we call “crispy.” Bodanis asks: How to get sufficiently rigid cell walls to twang at these squeaking harmonics? Starch them.
The starch granules in msc health promotion, potatoes are identical to based essay, the starch in stiff shirt collars. . . . [In addition to starch,] all chips are soaked in fat. . . . So it’s a shrapnel of flying starch and promotion fat that produces the conical air-pressure wave when our determined chip-muncher finally gets to finish her chomp. Notice that Ackerman is careful to tell her readers the source of her quotations. To introduce the first one, she gives the author’s full name and the title of critical, his book. To introduce the dissertation second quotation, which is from the same book, she simply identifies the author by surname. 5 Paragraph Persuasive On Abortion. Thus, she doesn’t waste words by repeating information, nor does she leave readers wondering where the quotation came from. (The only information missing is the Bodanis book’s publication data—city, publisher, and date—which would be provided in msc health promotion, the list of sources. (See Format and Documentation .) A spot quotation is a word, a phrase, or a short sentence that is incorporated into essay one of msc health dissertation, your own sentences.
Put quotation marks before and after a spot quotation . The quotation marks are a signal to jobs flash, the reader that these aren’t your words; a new voice is speaking. Promotion. The following paragraph from an article by me essay"" Robert Fulford contains several spot quotations (The Use and Abuse of Quotations, The Globe and Mail , Nov. 11, 1992). “You are what you quote,” in the words of the promotion American essayist Joseph Epstein, himself a heavy user of persuasive essay on abortion, quotations and the writer who introduced “quotatious” into my vocabulary. Promotion. Winston Churchill understood the value of a well-aimed quotation: as a young man he read a few pages of Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations every day to spruce up his style and compensate for essay format, his lack of a university education. [Gradually,] he transformed himself from a quotatious writer into the most quoted politician of the dissertation western world. . . . Fowler’s Modern English Usage warns against quoting simply to demonstrate knowledge: “The discerning reader detects it and is contemptuous,” while the undiscerning reader finds it tedious. A few years ago Garry Trudeau made fun of format, George Will’s compulsive quoting by promotion inventing a researcher who served as “quote boy” in Will’s office: “‘Quote boy! Need something on the banality of contemporary society.’ ‘Right away, Dr. Will!’” . . . As for me, I say don’t judge, because you might get judged, too. That’s how the quotation goes, right? (C1) In addition to illustrating how to introduce and format block quotations and how to punctuate spot quotations, the examples given above also show you how to modify a quotation to fit your space and essay against suit your purpose. Although you must quote exactly and promotion never misrepresent or distort your source’s intention , you may, for reasons of death essay, conciseness or smoothness, omit or add a word or phrase or even a sentence or two.
To leave out a word or words , indicate the omission by msc health promotion replacing the word(s) you’ve omitted with three spaced dots called ellipses (. . .). If the omission comes at the end of your sentence, add a fourth dot as the period. Essay Flash. If you need to add or change a word or words to make the msc health promotion dissertation quoted passage more readable within your paragraph, use square brackets around your own words, as we did when we added “[In addition to starch,]” in about me essay"", Ackerman’s second block quotation from Bodanis and msc health “[Gradually,]” to Fulford’s paragraph. Another reason for changing words in a quoted passage is to keep the verb tenses consistent throughout your paragraph. If you are writing in the present tense and the passage you are quoting is in the past tense, you can change the essay verbs to present tense (as long as the change doesn’t distort the meaning) and promotion put square brackets around them so the reader knows you have made these changes. Modifying short quotations to make them fit smoothly into your own sentences without altering the source’s meaning takes practice.
Reread the paragraphs we borrowed from Ackerman and Fulford, above. Dgge Thesis. Notice that both authors omitted material to msc health, make the quoted passages shorter and easier to read, and that they have signalled these omissions to critical, the reader by the use of msc health, ellipses (. . .). How to Integrate Quotations into Your Writing. When you decide to quote source material, you should introduce it so that it will blend as seamlessly as possible into your writing. Essay. Don’t simply park someone else’s words in the middle of msc health promotion dissertation, your paragraph; you’ll disrupt the flow of essay, thought. Msc Health. If Diane Ackerman were not so skillful a writer, she might have “dumped” quotations into her paragraph instead of integrating them. Contrast the readability of the me essay"" paragraph below with that of msc health promotion dissertation, Ackerman’s second Bodanis quotation. Companies design potato chips to be too large to fit into the mouth because, in order to hear the high-frequency crackling, you need to keep your mouth open. Chips are 80 percent air, and about each time we bite one, we break open the air-packed cells of the msc health promotion dissertation chip, making that crispy noise. ЂњThe starch granules in potatoes are identical to the starch in stiff shirt collars.Ђќ Starch is just one of the dgge thesis ingredients that contribute to the crispiness of potato chips. Msc Health. ЂњAll chips are soaked in fat.Ђќ ЂњSo itЂ™s a shrapnel of about, flying starch and fat that produces the conical air pressure wave when our determined chip-muncher finally gets to finish her chomp.Ђќ. Without transitional phrases, the paragraph lacks coherence and doesn’t make sense.
Not convinced? Try reading Ackerman’s version and msc health the above version aloud. Every quotation should be introduced and integrated into based format an essay in a way that makes clear the relationship between the msc health quotation and your own argument. There are four ways to integrate a spot quotation . You can introduce it with a phrase such as “According to X,” or “Y states” (or observes , or comments , or writes ), followed by a comma. Against Flash. Different verbs suggest different attitudes toward the quoted material.
For example, “Fulford suggests that writers should not overuse quotations” is more tentative than “Fulford warns that writers should not overuse quotations.” Other verbs you can use to introduce quotations are asserts, notes, points out, maintains, shows, reports, and claims . Choose your introductory verbs carefully, and promotion dissertation be sure to use a variety of phrases. Based Essay Format. Repeating “X says,” “Y says,” and “Z says,” is a sure way to promotion, put your reader to thesis essay, sleep. George Bernard Shaw's poor opinion of teachers is well known: “Those who can, do; those who can't, teach.” If the passage you are quoting is a couple of words, a phrase, or anything less than a complete sentence, do not use any punctuation to introduce it. Oscar Wilde defined fox hunters as the “unspeakable in msc health promotion, full pursuit of the by landscape essay uneatable.” If you insert your own words into the middle of a quotation, use commas to separate the source's words from msc health promotion yours. “It is a truth universally acknowledged,” writes Jane Austen at the beginning of Pride and Prejudice , “that a single man in possession of teaching write a research in middle, a good fortune must be in want of a wife.” In general, periods and commas are placed inside the quotation marks (see the dissertation examples above). Unless they are part of the quoted material, colons, semicolons, question marks, exclamation marks, and 5 paragraph essay dashes are placed outside the quotation marks.
Use single quotation marks to mark off a quotation within a quotation. A ccording to John Robert Colombo, “The most widely quoted Canadian aphorism of all time is Marshall McLuhan’s ‘The medium is the message.’” Block quotations are normally introduced by a complete sentence followed by a colon (for example, “X writes as follows:”). Then you copy the quotation, beginning on a new line and indenting the promotion dissertation entire quotation 10 spaces or 2.5 cm. If your introductory statement is not a complete sentence, use a comma or no punctuation, whichever is appropriate. The passage by Diane Ackerman contains examples of me essay"", both ways to introduce block quotations. Can you explain why Ackerman used no punctuation to introduce the first block quotation and a colon to introduce the second one?
Tips on Using Quotations in msc health, Your Writing. Use quotations sparingly and for a specific purpose, such as for emphasis or to reinforce an important point. Avoid the temptation to produce a patchwork paper—one that consists of bits and pieces of other people's writing stuck together to look like an original work. Far from impressing your readers, overuse of quotations will give them the impression you have nothing of your own to say. Be sure every quotation is an accurate reproduction of the original passage.
If you need to change or omit words, indicate those changes with square brackets or ellipses, as appropriate. Be sure every quotation is relevant . No matter how interesting or well worded, a quotation that does not clearly and teaching how to write a research paper school directly relate to your subject does not belong in your essay. An irrelevant quotation will either confuse readers or annoy them (they’ll think it’s padding), or both. Dissertation. Make clear the link between the me essay"" quotation and msc health promotion your controlling idea . Don’t assume that readers will automatically see the connection you see between the quotation and your topic sentence. Me Essay"". Comment on the quotation so that they will be sure to make the connection you intend.
If you have used a block quotation, your explanatory comment can sometimes form the conclusion of your paragraph. Always identify the dissertation source of a quotation . This can be done by mentioning in your paragraph the name of the author and, if appropriate, the title of the source of the quotation. 5 Paragraph Persuasive Essay. Include the page number(s) in msc health dissertation, a parenthetical citation.
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Aeschylus' Oresteia and Prometheus Bound: Hubris and the Chorus. Autor: reviewessays • April 26, 2011 • Essay • 1,626 Words (7 Pages) • 1,081 Views. The dramatic presentations of ancient Greece developed out of promotion religious rites performed to honor gods or to mark the coming of spring. Playwrights such as Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides composed plays to be performed and judged at competitions held during the yearly Dionysian festivals. Those plays were chosen by a selection board and evaluated by a panel of dgge thesis judges. To compete in the contest, Greek playwrights had to submit three tragedies, which could be either based on a common theme or unrelated, and one comedy. However, relatively few of these ancient Greek plays survive today. Known as the promotion dissertation, father of tragedy, Aeschylus introduced a second actor on stage, allowing for action and interaction to take place and establishing a caste of professional actors (Bloom, 45).
He let the chorus converse with the characters, introduced elaborate costumes and stage designs. Two of about Aeschylus' plays, Oresteia and Prometheus Bound, illustrate the importance of Chorus and the characteristic concept of hubris, or excessive pride, focusing on man's social and political consequences in the universe in relation to the Greek gods. Aeschylus was a native of Eleusis, a Greek town near Athens. The year of promotion his birth was 525 B.C. He was the first of the great Greek tragedians, preceding both Sophocles and Euripides.
He witnessed political and social changes when he spent much of his life in Athens. Aeschylus was a soldier; his military experience included fighting in the battle of Marathon against the Persians in 490 B.C. He later fought against the Persians at Salamis and Platea in 480 B.C. (Bloom, 58). Athens, at that time, was part of a federation of by landscape essay small Greek states allied against the forces of the Persian army, which was led by King Xerxes. Aeschylus fought against the Persians who invaded Athens and lost his brother in the final battle.
Over eighty plays are credited to promotion dissertation, his name, of which only dgge thesis, seven have been preserved in full by msc health dissertation, the efforts of essay ancient historians. Of the seven surviving plays, the promotion, Suppliants is dgge thesis generally agreed to be the earliest and is usually assigned to promotion dissertation, the first decade of the century. The Persians was produced in 472 B.C., the Seven Against Thebes in 467, and the Oresteia in 458 (Bloom, 43). Based Format? In Aeschylus' trilogy, the msc health, Oresteia, he dramatizes the phenomenon of the teaching how to school, ancestral curse upon msc health dissertation the House of Atreus. Agamemnon and Menelaus, sons of Atreus, have inherited the curse.
Agamemnon, the powerful king in all Greece, has marshaled an expedition to attack Troy and return Helen to Menelaus. Encountering the wrath of Artemis, Agamemnon must in appeasement sacrifice his daughter, Iphigenia. Agamemnon is the first of a triology, the Oresteia, the other two parts of which are The Libation Bearers and The Eumenides. Agamemnon depicts the assassination of the title character by his wife, Clytemnestra, and her lover, Aegisthus. In Middle? The Libation Bearers continues the story with the return of Agamemnon's son, Orestes, who kills his mother and avenges his father. In The Eumenides, Orestes is pursued by the Furies in punishment for his matricide, and finally finds refuge in msc health promotion, Athens where the thesis essay, god Athena relives him of his persecution. Aeschylus wrote the Prometheus Bound in about 456 B.C. The play is a tragedy that details the sufferings of Prometheus for his rebellion against msc health promotion Zeus. This play is how to write in middle composed of msc health dissertation almost entirely of speeches and contains little action since its protagonist is chained throughout the play. At the dgge thesis, beginning of the play, Cratos and Bia and Hephaestus chain Prometheus to a mountain in the Caucasus and then depart. The daughters of Oceanus, who make up the chorus, appear and attempt to promotion, comfort Prometheus by conversing with him.
Prometheus is then visited by Io, who has been changed into a cow by Zeus to save her from the wrath of Hera. Prometheus gives her knowledge of against her own future, telling her that one of msc health her descendants will release him from his torment. Finally, Hermes is sent down by essay against, the angered Zeus to demand that Prometheus tell him who threatens to overthrow Zeus. Prometheus refuses along with his excessive stubbornness, and faces the unfortunate wrath. The role of hubris, or excessive pride, comes before the death of Agamemnon. This can be illustrated through the dissertation, speeches of the Chorus when they discuss the dangers of being too successful in life: The gods fail not to mark/Those who have killed many/The black Furies stalking the man/Fortunate beyond all right/Wrench back again the set of his life/And drop him to darkness. There among/The ciphers there is no more comfort/in power.
And the vaunt of high glory/Is bitterness; For Gods thunderbolts/Crash on the towering mountains/Let me attain no envied wealth/Let me not plunder cities/Neither be taken in turn, and face/Life in jobs essay against flash, the power of another. (Grene Lattimore, 461-474). This scene describes when Clytemnestra induces her husband to tread on the purple robes strewn in his path; this is the symbolic act of hubris, an act that foreshadows his death. When it comes to focusing on those lines of the Chorus, it appears that the knowledge of the Greek gods is msc health necessary. Those Greek gods are too good in their jealousies, and rather than reward human greatness, they tend to see mortal achievement as a threat to their own power. When a Greek human like Agamemnon rises too high, he is seen as a threat to those gods.
The main theme of gods is heavily used in Prometheus Bound. When Prometheus gets angered by essay on abortion, Io's suffering, He shouts out the following lines: But aren't you childish, I mean/Sillier than any child, expecting me to tell you/Anything?/Zeus doesn't have one torture, not one ingenious device/To pry this out of me/Not till He eases/These shameful chains/Let Him rocket His lighting/The bolts trailing smoke!/With white wings of snowflakes/With earth shattering/Thunder/Let Him heave together everything there is/In one confusion!/None of this will make me stoop to tell/Who's fated to overthrow/Him from His tyranny. (Scully Herington, 1510-1525). In those lines, Prometheus mocks Hermes and says that he will tell nothing, after Hermes enters and orders Prometheus to reveal the identity of Zeus's son. Dissertation? Hermes accuses Prometheus of being overly disobedient, and Prometheus deflects each accusation with sarcasm. This shows that Prometheus displays no fear of his destiny, indicating that he is too stubborn.
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Essay: The Smart Emergency First Aid Kit. The smart emergency first aid kit would be convenient and easy to use by a normal technical person. It would be having compartment of materials to be used during particular emergency which would show LED indication. Simultaneously it will show the promotion dissertation, instructions related to particular emergency on LCD. It would also give an indication for the refilling of the compartments when they are empty. It would also have an by landscape critical, additional feature of pre-recorded instructions in promotion dissertation, local language useful for guiding the laymen handling the teaching write, emergency case.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION. 1.1 What is a First Aid Kit? Currently available first aid kits are mainly used during: Accidents- cuts, wounds, injuries, fractures. Emergencies- Absence of breathing, absence of msc health heartbeat, choking, sunstroke, drowning, electric shock, poisoning. It comprises of: Band aids and elastic bandages. Gauze and Adhesive tape. Antiseptic wipes and cotton wool. Safety pins and Scissors.
Fig. 1(a) Ordinary First aid kits. Courtesy: Meditrain first aid kits. 1.2 Aim #038; Objective of the Project. Developing an innovative Smart Emergency First Aid Kit to cater different medical emergencies. Following medical emergencies would be covered: 6. Unconscious not breathing. 7. Unconscious breathing. 1.3 Problem Identification: The following are the problems that are faced:
No first aid kit available in the market which caters all or major medical emergencies. Improperly assembled kits. Inefficient interface between user and a kit. No serial communication or software integration with kit. No telemedicine integrated first aid kit. No Innovative design to cater individualized industry specific kit. Peripheral areas of the against flash, country having dispensaries are unable treat the patients effectively during emergencies.
Fig.1 (b) Currently available first aid kit. Courtesy: Meditrain first aid kits. CHAPTER 2: PROJECT DESCRIPTION. The Smart Emergency First Aid Kit is the device containing a collection of materials useful for giving first aid to msc health the person suffering from an emergency. During any emergency conditions, a layman would feel it difficult to help the person in emergency due to physical or mental instability developed by looking at the emergency condition. We have worked upon this condition and developed a novel kit where in a layman-ordinary person can help the person in emergency by following the predefined and simplified steps. These steps (protocols) have been defined using our extensive research and data collection from clinicians working in emergency department of renowned hospitals. The steps to death by landscape essay be followed pertaining to any defined emergency has three potential ways of msc health promotion communication with the user. First, once the switch pertaining to predefined emergency is thesis based format pressed, the materials required for the emergency gives LED indication in the compartments. This helps the user to easily identify the materials required for promotion dissertation particular emergency. Second, the predefined steps which needs to be followed pertaining to particular emergency has a visual display in the form instructions.
Third, there are predefined audio instructions pertaining to particular emergency which will help user to jobs essay against flash follow the steps easily. The kit is a well-organized and comprises of compartments for msc health promotion dissertation arranging the materials according to the emergencies. Flash? In addition, there is a provision of indication for refilling the supplies whenever the compartment is empty. 2.2 Layout of the msc health promotion dissertation, kit: Fig.2 (a) Layout of the smart First Aid Kit. 2.3 Description of the about, kit: Push buttons are provided to select a particular type of emergency. There are total 10 push buttons. One push button is assigned to one emergency condition in following manner: 1.2 Heart attack. 1.6 Unconscious not breathing.
1.7 Unconscious breathing. LCD display will show the instructions related to particular emergency when it is msc health promotion dissertation selected. There are LED indicators provided which will glow when a particular material is required during the specific emergency. Example: If 1 button is pushed then for bleeding as the required materials are cotton and sterile piece of cloth and about me essay"", bandage then the compartments having these materials will be indicated by their respective LEDs. 4. Weight Sensors: Weight sensors will be IR sensors which will be in dissertation, each compartment. This will show that the particular compartment is teaching write paper empty or is filled. If it shows red indication it means compartment is empty and needs to be refilled.
If it shows green indication it means that the msc health dissertation, compartment is not empty. 5. Instructions to based be displayed: Immobilize the injured part. Don’t remove the bandage. LED: 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 5.2 Heart attack. Chew and swallow an msc health promotion, aspirin. Begin CPR if unconscious.
Immobilize the injured part. Don’t move the injured part. LED: 3, 8, 9, 10, 12. Keep the person still. Stop any bleeding. Watch for by landscape breathing. If not give CPR. LED:2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
Stop bleeding using sanitary pads. 5.6 Unconscious not breathing. If not give CPR. Lay down on the back. 5.7 Unconscious breathing. Give CPR if irregular breathing. Keep the person warm. Give sugar to avoid faint. Lay on the back. Place other hand on the first hand. Give 100 compressions per minute.
Remove sharp objects. Soft thing under head. Hospital within 24 hrs. Cooling pads on head. Hospital within 1 hr. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY. 3.1 Block Diagram. Fig.3 (a) Block diagram. 1) ATmega 2560 R3: The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560.
It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the msc health, microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. Essay Flash? The Mega is compatible with most shields designed for the Arduino Duemilanove or Diecimila. 2) Weight Sensors: IR sensors. Infrared sensors are the msc health promotion dissertation, sensor which helps to detect whether a particular object is present or not. Teaching How To A Research Paper In Middle School? These will be present in msc health dissertation, each compartment for the purpose of refilling the thesis, materials. 20*4 LCD display for the display of the instructions related to the particular emergency. It is 20 character 4 line displays. 4) LED Indicators:
LEDs to indicate particular material to be used during the particular type of an emergency. Also it will indicate that a particular material is dissertation present or not. Database includes the information regarding each emergency and instructions to be displayed on the LCD screen . These instructions will be fed in death essay, the controller. 6) Micro SD Memory Card Socket: The memory card socket is used to store the instruction in the different languages if the person is unable to read the msc health promotion dissertation, instructions displayed on the LCD screen. 3.3 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION: a) ATmega 2560 R3:
The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on dgge thesis, the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and dissertation, a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to how to write a research paper in middle a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Mega is compatible with most shields designed for the Arduino Duemilanove or Diecimila. The Mega 2560 is an msc health, update to the Arduino Mega which it replaces. The Mega2560 differs from me essay"" all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the ATmega16U2 (ATmega8U2 in the revision 1 and revision 2 boards) programmed as a USB-to-serial converter.
Revision 2 of the Mega2560 board has a resistor pulling the 8U2 HWB line to ground, making it easier to put into msc health promotion dissertation, DFU mode. Revision 3 of the against, board has the following new features: Added SDA and SCL pins that are near to the AREF pin and two other new pins placed near to promotion dissertation the RESET pin, the IOREF that allow the shields to adapt to the voltage provided from the board. In future, shields will be compatible both with the board that use the AVR, which operate with 5V and with the Arduino Due that operate with 3.3V. The second one is death essay a not connected pin that is reserved for future purposes. Stronger RESET circuit. Atmega 16U2 replace the 8U2. Schematic, Reference Design #038; Pin Mapping. Operating Voltage 5V.
Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V. Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V. Digital I/O Pins 54 (of which 15 provide PWM output) Analog Input Pins 16. DC Current per dissertation I/O Pin 40 mA. DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA. Flash Memory 256 KB of dgge thesis which 8 KB used by boot loader. Clock Speed 16 MHz. The Arduino Mega can be powered via the msc health promotion, USB connection or with an external power supply.
The power source is essay against flash selected automatically. External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected by dissertation, plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the board’s power jack. Dgge Thesis? Leads from msc health promotion dissertation a battery can be inserted in essay format, the Gnd and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector. The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and dissertation, the board may be unstable.
If using more than 12V, the thesis based essay format, voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to msc health 12 volts. The power pins are as follows: The input voltage to the Arduino board when it’s using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin. This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the regulator on the board.
The board can be supplied with power either from the DC power jack (7 – 12V), the thesis based format, USB connector (5V), or the VIN pin of the board (7-12V). Supplying voltage via the msc health promotion, 5V or 3.3V pins bypasses the regulator, and can damage your board. Death By Landscape Critical? We don’t advise it. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current draw is 50 mA. This pin on the Arduino board provides the voltage reference with which the microcontroller operates. A properly configured shield can read the IOREF pin voltage and select the promotion dissertation, appropriate power source or enable voltage translators on the outputs for working with the 5V or 3.3V. The ATmega2560 has 256 KB of flash memory for storing code (of which 8 KB is used for the boot loader), 8 KB of SRAM and based format, 4 KB of EEPROM (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library) Input and dissertation, Output: Each of the 54 digital pins on the Mega can be used as an dgge thesis, input or output, using pin Mode(), digitalWrite() and digitalRead() functions. They operate at 5 volts.
Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40mA and has an msc health dissertation, internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. In addition, some pins have specialized. Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX); Serial 1: 19 (RX) and 18 (TX); Serial 2: 17 (RX) and 16 (TX); Serial 3: 15 (RX) and 14 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. Pins 0 and 1 are also connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega16U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip. 2 (interrupt 0), 3 (interrupt 1), 18 (interrupt 5), 19 (interrupt 4), 20 (interrupt 3), and 21 (interrupt 2). These pins can be configured to thesis trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library.
The SPI pins are also broken out on the ICSP header, which is physically compatible with the dissertation, Uno, Duemilanove and Diecimila. 13. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. 5 Paragraph Persuasive Essay? When the pin is msc health dissertation HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it’s off. 20 (SDA) and 21 (SCL). Support TWI communication using the Wire library. Note that these pins are not in dgge thesis, the same location as the TWI pins on msc health, the Duemilanove or Diecimila. The Mega2560 has 16 analog inputs, each of which provides 10 bits of resolution (i.e. Thesis Based Essay Format? 1024 different values). Dissertation? By default they measure from ground to 5 volts, though is it possible to dgge thesis change the upper end of msc health their range using the thesis essay format, AREF pin and msc health promotion dissertation, analog Reference() function.
There are a couple of other pins on the board: AREF. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with analog Reference(). Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a reset button to shields which block the one on the board. The Arduino Mega2560 has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another Arduino, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega2560 provides four hardware UARTs for TTL (5V) serial communication.
An ATmega16U2 (ATmega 8U2 on the revision 1 and revision 2 boards) on the board channels one of these over USB and provides a virtual com port to software on the computer (Windows machines will need a .inf file, but OSX and Linux machines will recognize the board as a COM port automatically. The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the thesis based format, board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the ATmega8U2/ATmega16U2 chip and USB connection to the computer (but not for serial communication on pins 0 and 1).A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial communication on any of msc health promotion the. Mega2560’s digital pins: The ATmega2560 also supports TWI and SPI communication.
The Arduino software includes a Wire library to simplify use of the TWI bus; see the thesis, documentation (http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/Wire) for details. For SPI communication, use the SPI library. The Arduino Mega can be programmed with the Arduino software . The ATmega16U2 (or 8U2 in the rev1 and rev2 boards) firmware source code is promotion available in the Arduino repository. Against? The ATmega16U2/8U2 is loaded with a DFU bootloader, which can be activated by: On Rev1 boards: connecting the solder jumper on the back of the promotion, board (near the map of Italy) and then resetting the based format, 8U2. On Rev2 or later boards: there is msc health promotion a resistor that pulling the 8U2/16U2 HWB line to ground, making it easier to put into DFU mode. You can then use. Atmel’s FLIP software to based essay load a new firmware. Or you can use the ISP header with an external programmer. Automatic (Software) Reset. Rather then requiring a physical press of the reset button before an upload, the Arduino Mega2560 is designed in a way that allows it to be reset by software running on a connected computer.
One of the dissertation, hardware flow control lines (DTR) of the thesis based essay, ATmega8U2 is. connected to msc health dissertation the reset line of the ATmega2560 via a 100 nanofarad capacitor. When this line is asserted (taken low), the reset line drops long enough to reset the chip. The Arduino software uses this capability to allow you to upload code by simply pressing the upload button in the Arduino environment. This means that the bootloader can have a shorter timeout, as the how to a research in middle, lowering of DTR can be well-coordinated with the msc health promotion, start of the thesis format, upload.
This setup has other implications. Msc Health Promotion? When the Mega2560 is connected to either a computer running Mac OS X or Linux, it resets each time a connection is made to it from software (via USB). For the persuasive on abortion, following half-second or so, the bootloader is running on the Mega2560. While it is programmed to msc health promotion ignore malformed data (i.e. anything besides an upload of new code), it will intercept the first few bytes of data sent to the board after a connection is opened. If a sketch running on 5 paragraph on abortion, the board receives one-time configuration or other data when it first starts, make sure that the msc health dissertation, software with which it communicates waits a second after opening the connection and dgge thesis, before sending this data. The Mega2560 contains a trace that can be cut to msc health promotion disable the auto-reset. The pads on either side of the trace can be soldered together to re-enable it. It’s labeled “RESET-EN”. You may also be able to disable the essay, auto-reset by connecting a 110 ohm resistor from 5V to the reset line. USB Overcurrent Protection: The Arduino Mega2560 has a resettable polyfuse that protects your computer’s USB ports from msc health promotion shorts and overcurrent.
Although most computers provide their own internal protection, the fuse provides an extra layer of protection. If more than 500 mA is applied to the USB port, the thesis based essay, fuse will automatically break the connection until the short or overload is removed. Physical Characteristics and Shield Compatibility. The maximum length and width of the Mega2560 PCB are 4 and 2.1 inches respectively, with the USB connector and power jack extending beyond the former dimension. Three screw holes allow the dissertation, board to be attached to a surface or case.
Note that the distance between digital pins 7 and 8 is 160 mil (0.16?), not an even multiple of the 100 mil spacing of the other pins. The Mega2560 is designed to be compatible with most shields designed for the Uno, Diecimila or Duemilanove. Digital pins 0 to 13 (and the adjacent AREF and GND pins), analog inputs 0 to 5 paragraph on abortion 5, the power header, and ICSP header are all in equivalent locations. Further the main UART (serial port) is located on the same pins (0 and promotion, 1), as are external interrupts 0 and jobs essay flash, 1 (pins 2 and msc health promotion, 3 respectively). Persuasive On Abortion? SPI is available through the ICSP header on msc health, both the Mega2560 and Duemilanove / Diecimila. Please note that I2C is not located on the same pins on dgge thesis, the Mega (20 and 21) as the Duemilanove / Diecimila (analog inputs 4 and 5). Fig. Msc Health Promotion? 3(b) Arduino mega 2560 R3 board. Fig. 3(c) Arduino mega 2560 R3 Schematic. DISPLAY CONTENT’20 CHAR x 4ROW.
c) IR proximity sensor: Fig. 3(e) IR sensor. IR proximity sensor module has 3 pins. One pin is VCC, one pin is Ground and essay flash, one pin is Negative.
By connecting it to msc health dissertation LED and resistor we can obtain the interfacing with LED which is used for LED indication. d) Micro SD memory card and thesis essay format, socket. Accepts standard Micro SD memory cards for mounting in your embedded projects. These are the same sockets we use in our Micro SD memory card interface boards model 1102 and dissertation, 1103 and they work great. Against? The Micro SD memory cards are the same memory cards used in mobile phones which are available at very low cost, making it ideal for using in embedded projects like memory card storage, audio mp3 players and such. The socket is Push Push type, means. ‘ Push again to Eject. Fig. 3(f) Micro SD memory card and socket. CHAPTER 4: SOFTWARE PROGRAMMING.
#define SD_ChipSelectPin 53 //example uses hardware SS pin 53 on Mega2560. const byte ROWS = 4; //four rows. const byte COLS = 3; //four columns. //define the msc health promotion, cymbols on the buttons of the keypads. byte rowPins[ROWS] = ; //connect to the row pinouts of the keypad.
byte colPins[COLS] = ; //connect to the column pinouts of the keypad. //initialize an instance of class NewKeypad. Keypad customKeypad = Keypad( makeKeymap(hexaKeys), rowPins, colPins, ROWS, COLS); // initialize the library with the numbers of the interface pins. LiquidCrystal lcd(14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19); TMRpcm tmrpcm; // create an teaching how to a research paper in middle school, object for msc health dissertation use in this sketch.
// set up the LCD’s number of columns and rows: // Print a message to the LCD. tmrpcm.speakerPin = 11; //5,6,11 or 46 on Mega, 9 on death critical, Uno, Nano, etc. return; // don’t do anything more if not. char customKey = customKeypad.getKey(); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” Dirt, Immobilize “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“Don’t remove bandage”); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” Begin CPR “); lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“Chew and swallow an “); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Stop bleeding#038; Apply”); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“move injured part…”); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Keep person still “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” Stop any bleeding “); lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“Watch for dissertation breathing “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(” If not give CPR…”); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Stop bleeding using “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” sanitary pad, “); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Check Breathing, “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” If not give CPR, “); lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(” Loosen Clothes, “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“Lay down on the back”); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” CPR if irregular “); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Lay on the back, “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(“place other hand on “); lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“first hand#038;Give 100 “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“thing under head. “); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Using soap, wash “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” throughly bitten “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(” within 24 hours…”); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Cooling pads on head”); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(“Hospital within 1 hr”); void led1(int i,int j,int k,int l) void led2(int i,int j,int k,int l) void led3(int i,int j,int k,int l,int m) CHAPTER 5: LITERATURE REVIEW. 5.1 AIM: First aid kit and method of replenishing.
Includes a carrying case which has means for essay providing quick access to the contents carried by the case. Each pack being designated a colour, each pack being designated by an icon, and each pack containing medical products for different types of msc health first aid situations. Guidebook which have a matching colour to the pack. The first aid kit further including an overview card which includes an overview of the packs, the overview card being color coordinated to assist the user in finding the me essay"", appropriate pack for msc health a situation, the how to write a research paper in middle, overview card further being icon coordinated to assist the user in dissertation, finding the dgge thesis, appropriate pack for msc health promotion dissertation a situation. Fig.
5(a) First aid kit and method of replenishing. 5.2 AIM: First-aid kit. Body attached first aid kit. Specially designed for battle field. Pockets designed according to the equipments. flap adapted to overlie the upper open edge over the false one preventing the me essay"", materials from msc health dissertation rain. Materials covered in this are standard size of bottle of Morphine, hypodermic needle, individual swabs, special bandage cutting scissors,splints,thermos bottle etc. Invention is to provide a body-attached first aid kit for use in death essay, emergency field work, which kit does not hinder the movement of the wearer and msc health, is adapted to be opened from the carried position with all pockets and equipment items in the proper position for use while the me essay"", wearer is administering first aid to the patient.
Fig. Promotion? 5(b) First aid kit during military services. 5.3 AIM: Emergency burn treatment pack. Comprises of dgge thesis soft resilient foam material adapted to support a patient lying on msc health promotion dissertation, said foam material, A sterile sheet on said foam material interspersed between said foam material and a patient lying on format, said foam material and adapted to completely cover and protect said patient from msc health promotion contamination, and.
a flexible outer covering having at least a pair of cooperating interlocking portions completely encompassing said foam material, patient and said sterile sheet for maintaining the sterile atmosphere about the patient. Required to check the pulse and breathing issue. Openings are provided in the waterproof covering to provide access to the patient’s arms and legs for intravenous blood transfusions should that be necessary. A pair of flexible straps located on each side of the waterproof outer covering provide the write a research, means for promotion dissertation transporting the patient while in on abortion, the sterile and msc health promotion, moist protective cocoon environment. Fig.
5(c) Emergency burn treatment pack. 5.4 AIM: Emergency medical care kit with medical emergency instructions. Can be used by a laymen. Plastic organizer to insert the compartments. Each compartment for a particular medical emergency. A compartment for instruction and emergency telephone numbers. On one side there are necessary items for the medical emergencies and on the other side there are drugs related to primary relief. Each compartment is directed to a particular medical emergency and is so identified on its cover or lid.
The reverse side of the compartment cover has instructions for treating the particular emergency, while the compartment contains the necessary care items for that particular emergency. A divider is held by snaps across the upper section of the case to help contain the contents and also provides instruction for use of the kit, some general first aid information, and a list of emergency telephone numbers. Fig. 5(d) Medical organised care kit with instructions. 5.5 AIM: Emergency eye kit. Comprises of sterilized pads(2’*2?), drugs, extractors, lights, ointments, tape ,spray kind of flush systems etc.An emergency medical kit having a container with a hinged lid and a latch for use in organizing and essay against, protecting ophthalmic instruments and supplies, such as sterilized pads, drugs, extractors, lights, ointments, tape and other items needed by a physician or emergency personnel working under the auspices of aphysician in rendering emergency medical assistance to dissertation a person suffering an eye injury.
The container would have one or more compartmentalized trays so that the instruments and supplies would be separated from each other and readily available for use. The container may have a locking device to prevent unauthorized access to instruments and supplies stored within. The container would be lightweight and compact, so that it is readily portable and easily stored. It is contemplated for the present invention to be used in dgge thesis, any location where a physician or emergency personnel is called upon to diagnose and treat someone who has suffered an eye injury, including, but not limited to, medical offices of non-ophthalmic physicians, accident sites, shopping malls, residences, sporting events, and camping facilities. Fig. 5(e) Emergency eye kit. 5.6 AIM: Emergency relief system. System comprises of packs of msc health promotion guidebooks of the first aid for the medical emergencies which gives the idea about the by landscape critical, instructions on how to use the promotion dissertation, products given in the pack during a particular medical emergency.
The guide book is color and icon coordinated to assist the person to quickly find the respective emergency pack. It also contains an instruction guide in the video /audio format. Also there is a functional intelligence which gives the columnar array accordance to the packs kept in the system which results in the accuracy of the jobs, treatment related to first aid. Contains burn pack,bleeding pack,cpr pack,head and spine pack,shock pack,bite and sting pack,bum pack,bone pack etc. The first aid kit further includes an overview card that is an overview of the components of the first aid kit, identifying each of the dissertation, packs for quick reference in flash, a first aid situation. Each of the packs contains medical products specifically selected for promotion different types of dgge thesis first aid situations as well as an instructional card that gives quick reference instructions for administration of first aid in these situations. Fig. 5(f) Emergency relief system. 5.7 AIM: Portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit.
CN 202909126 U, 2013. The utility model discloses a portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit and relates to a first aid medicine containing device for a patient who has coronary heart disease. The portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit comprises an promotion, elastic hanging rope, a box body, a box cover, a moving picture experts group audio layer-3 (MP3) integrated voice storage sounding device, and a time-delay starting switch. The MP3 integrated voice storage sounding device is arranged at the lower end of the box body. Format? The portable voice guidance coronary hear disease first aid kit is convenient to dissertation carry and quick in taking medicine, and enables the patient to take first aid medicines timely, quickly and accurately by thesis, self at coronary heart disease attacking time. When the msc health dissertation, patient is incapable of about me essay"" self rescue, the msc health promotion dissertation, portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit is capable of automatic voice alarm for help, provides the death by landscape critical essay, name, the address, illness conditions and promotion dissertation, first aid measures which can be taken, and therefore the purpose of first aid is achieved.
The portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit is suitable for essay on abortion self rescue or being rescued at the coronary heart disease attacking time. Fig. Msc Health Promotion Dissertation? 5(g) Portable coronary heart disease first aid kit. CHAPTER 6: FUTURE EXPANSION. Different kits based on the needs of the industries like hospitals, industries i.e. Jobs Essay Against? pharmaceuticals, drugs etc.
Application of Video conferencing. Increasing the emergencies and msc health promotion, similarly its compartments. Making them more portable. Implementation of kits in rural areas and outskirts, crossroads, public places etc. Making it more portable, user friendly and more compatible. 5. Meditrain first aid kits. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
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