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Level malnutrition population thesis

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Best Online Master#8217;s in English #038; Creative Writing 2017. The Students Before Profits Awards were created to level, recognize nonprofit colleges and universities offering degrees that put students before profits and education before the bottom-line. Ucf Transfer. For our ranking of the 2017 Online Master#8217;s in English Creative Writing winners, we chose online English Creative Writing degree programs from nonprofit colleges and universities, accredited by independent and trusted accreditation boards, with lower than average tuition costs, and have ranked them by affordability. Deciding what type of college experience is best may seem like a daunting task. As costs for colleges continue to rise, students have begun to gravitate towards alternative types of college programs in level thesis order to best suit their needs. More and more students are turning towards online degree programs in essay offenders order to pursue their needs in higher education. Online degree programs tend to have many advantages over their on-campus counterparts.

By pursuing a degree online, students are often able to save large amounts of money on level population, their college experience. Tuition is ucf transfer essay often cheaper and they do not need to spend money on level population thesis, boarding, meal plans, and all the additional costs incurred with a college program. Online degrees also tend to give students a greater deal of control over essay offenders their educational experience. Students can create schedules that fit their needs. Whether they are working full-time to pay for their school or are in an internship to earn college credits, students can schedule their classes online in order to provide flexibility around their current obligations. Online degree programs also have the population bonus of freeing up students geographically, allowing them to look at whatever program is best for them without worrying about their proximity to robert lucyk resume, the school. Students who are interested in perfecting their craft when it comes to writing should consider pursuing a Master#8217;s in English Creative Writing. Building off of the knowledge gained through a Bachelor#8217;s in English Creative Writing, students will continue to grow as writers by partaking in workshops, gaining access to working authors, and studying literature more closely than they did in their undergraduate studies. Many Master#8217;s in level population English Creative Writing degree programs allow students to specialize their studies and really drill down on the specifics of what type of writing that they#8217;d like to become better at. Students can focus on Fiction, Nonfiction, Poetry, Screenwriting, Television Writing, and in some cases, even Writing for Graphic Novels and Comic Books.

By pursuing a Master#8217;s in English Creative Writing, students can ensure that they will have gained the knowledge and the insight to truly blossom as a writer. Note that tuition rates listed below are based on cost per credit and individual programs may have additional fees. In 1885, Arizona State University began accepting students under the essay offenders name of the Territorial Normal School in the city of Tempe, Arizona. After over a hundred years of growth, the heart of Arizona State University still remains at its original location of Tempe. However, to accommodate for growth, the malnutrition population thesis school has expanded by ucf transfer application, adding additional satellite campuses. Across the Phoenix metropolitan area, Arizona State University operates five additional campuses. Arizona State University has also recently adopted a new education model known as the #8220;New American University#8221; model in 2014. The goal of this model is to not be exclusionary when it comes to enrollment, but rather try to malnutrition population thesis, accept as many students as possible to foster their unique skills.

This change in philosophy has resulted in Arizona State University becoming one of the largest schools in the nation with a student body of 82,000 students. Arizona State University is a public institution. Students at Arizona State University are able to enroll in a Master of essay offenders Arts in English degree. Through this course of study, students will focus more closely on areas of study including literature, writing, linguistics, rhetorics, literacies, film and level malnutrition population media and cultural studies. This program of study is application available entirely online and level malnutrition population thesis does not require students to visit the thesis for alcatraz Arizona State University campus for completion of this degree. A minimum of 32 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Arizona State University#8217;s Master of Arts in English degree is accredited by level population thesis, the Higher Learning Commission (HLC). #2.

Mississippi University for Women. The Legislature of Mississippi passes legislation in 1884 to establish Mississippi University for Women. At the time, Mississippi had established the first public college for women in the entirety of the United States. Originally, classes were held on the campus of Columbus Female Institute, a private college that was no longer operating. The goal of the Mississippi University for Women was to lesson essay, prepare teacher#8217;s to teach liberal arts. Operating as a women#8217;s-only school for a century, the school began to accept men in 1982. Now, the Mississippi University for Women enrolls a student body of over 2,500 students and is located in Columbus, Mississippi.

The Mississippi University for malnutrition population thesis, Women is resume a public institution. Students at Mississippi University for Women are able to enroll in a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree. In this program, students are able to take workshops in Fiction, Nonfiction, Playwriting, Translation, and Writing for New Media. This program is available mostly online. Students are required to attend two brief residencies at the Mississippi University for Women campus. A minimum of 48 credits are required to level, complete this degree. Accreditation: Mississippi University for Women degree is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on lesson essay, Colleges (SACSCOC). Malnutrition Population. In 1972, former Lieutenant Commander of the United States Navy, David Chigos, Established National University. In the beginning, National University was established with the unique goal of providing students with alternative, more flexible means of education. At first that meant offering students the ability to enroll in night and weekend courses, but that has expanded to also offering a robust online education experience. Originally established in San Diego, California, National University became too large for its original campus and was forced to relocate to its current location in resume the city of La Jolla, California.

The school also operates additional campuses in Georgia, Florida, Nevada, and Virginia. National University is a private institution. The Master of Arts in English degree is offered to level malnutrition population thesis, students at National University. Through this program of study, students will be able to study topics including film studies, creative writing and rhetoric. Students are able to select from a rich array of electives that will help them craft a unique experience that is most suitable to their needs. This program is available entirely online and does not require any visits to the National University campus.

A minimum of 45 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: National University#8217;s Master of lesson essay Arts in English degree is accredited by the Western Association of level malnutrition population Schools and Colleges (WASC). #4. Southern New Hampshire University. Founded in downtown Manchester, New Hampshire, Southern New Hampshire University was originally established by husband and wife Harry A. B. Shapiro and lesson essay Gertrude Crockett Shapiro. Established in 1932, Southern New Hampshire University was originally opened as the New Hampshire School of Accounting and Secretarial Science. Level. For three decades, the school operated under that name until it was renamed to the New Hampshire College of Accounting and Commerce. Essay Offenders. The school was then renamed again to malnutrition population thesis, Southern New Hampshire University. To accommodate for growth, Southern New Hampshire University#8217;s campus was also moved to the border of Manchester and Hooksett at which it is currently located. Over 3,000 students are enrolled at the school with an additional 60,000 enrolled online. Southern New Hampshire University is a private institution. Students at resume for high students Southern New Hampshire University are able to enroll in a Master of Arts in level malnutrition population English Creative Writing degree.

This program is offered to lucyk, students in level four different concentrations: Fiction, Nonfiction, Poetry, and Screenwriting. Essay Offenders. Students are able to pick the program that is thesis best suited for their ambitions in the field of creative writing. Southern New Hampshire University offers this program entirely online and does not require students to lesson essay, visit their campus for its completion. A minimum of 30 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Southern New Hampshire University#8217;s Master of Arts in English Creative Writing degree is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC). Established in 1887, Morehead State University originally began as a state school known as Morehead Normal School. Level Population Thesis. Originally a private school, Morehead Normal School received a charter by the Kentucky General Assembly and began enrolling students in the fall of 1923 as a public school. Spondylothesis. By 1926 the school added a teachers college to malnutrition population thesis, the curriculum as well as changing the school#8217;s name to Morehead Normal School and Teachers College. In 1930, the name was shorted to Morehead State Teachers College and then shortened once more to 1948. In 1966, the application school#8217;s name was changed to Morehead State University after gaining university status.

Located in Morehead, Kentucky, Morehead State University enrolls almost 11,000 students. Morehead State University is a public institution. The Master of Arts in level malnutrition English degree is essay offenders offered to students at level thesis Morehead State University. Students in resume writing school recommendation letter this program of study will take courses in advanced literary study while also staking courses in creative writing, technical writing, and linguistics. This program of study is available entirely online and does not require any visits to the Morehead State University campus for its completion.

A minimum of 33 credits are required to complete this degree. Thesis. Accreditation: Morehead State University#8217;s Master of thesis Arts in English degree is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and population thesis Schools Commission on statements, Colleges (SACSCOC). In 1933, Wilkes University was established as Bucknell University Junior College by level population thesis, the neighboring Bucknell University. Located in downtown Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, the school offered classes in the Wilkes-Barre Business College Building. The program proved to spondylothesis, be wildly popular resulting in it quickly outgrowing its location in the Wilkes-Barre Business College Building prompting the purchase of nearby buildings and mansions in malnutrition order to accommodate for the programs growth. By 1947 it had become clear the the program needed to be spun off into lesson essay, its own school. Level Malnutrition Thesis. That year Wilkes College was founded.

In 1989, the school received university status and was renamed Wilkes University. Still located in letter Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, Wilkes University enrolls almost 2,300 students. Wilkes University is a private institution. Students at Wilkes University are able to enroll in a Master of Arts / Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree. Malnutrition Thesis. Through this program students are able to recommendation letter, focus on topics including fiction, poetry, screenwriting, playwriting, creative nonfiction, publishing, and documentary filmmaking. This program is not available entirely online. This is a low-residency program and students are required to visit the campus either four weekends a semester of one eight-day residency every semester.

A minimum of 30 credits are required to complete this degree. Level Malnutrition. Accreditation: Wilkes University#8217;s Master of Arts / Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is thesis statements for alcatraz accredited by the Middle States Commission on malnutrition, Higher Education (MSCHE). Resume For High School. Founded as the Charlotte Female Institute, Queens University of Charlotte was founded in 1847. One of the city#8217;s first women#8217;s schools, the Charlotte Female Institute operated until 1891 at which point the school was renamed to the Seminary for Girls. In 1896, the local Presbyterian church chartered the Presbyterian Female College which then merged with the school. By 1912, the malnutrition school was renamed to Queens College. It was as this point that the school moved from its original location in Uptown Charlotte to its location in Myers Park. Located in Charlotte, North Carolina, Queens University of Charlotte became coeducational in 1987. Essay Offenders. Now, the school enrolls a student body of approximately 2,400 students.

Queens University of Charlotte is a private institution. The Master of Fine Arts in level malnutrition Creative Writing degree is offered to students at resume Queens University of population thesis Charlotte. Students in this program will take courses in fiction, poetry, creative nonfiction, and writing for the stage and application screen. This program is not available entirely online. It is a low-residency program that requires students to visit the Queens University of Charlotte campus twice a year for seven days at malnutrition population thesis a time.

A minimum of 34 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Queens University of Charlotte#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is lesson essay accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC). Founded in level malnutrition population thesis 1890, West Virginia Wesleyan College as founded by the West Virginia Annual Conference of the spondylothesis Methodist Episcopal Church. Later that year, the school began enrolling its first class of students out of what is now the location of the Lynch-Raine Administration Building. Originally, the school#8217;s curriculum focused on college prep, but by 1900 it began offering college level courses and in 1905 the school started offering it#8217;s first Bachelor#8217;s degree program. The school#8217;s name was briefly changes to Wesleyan University of West Virginia but was changed back to malnutrition population, West Virginia Wesleyan College shortly after. The school is named for John Wesley, the founder of Methodism. Currently located in Buckhannon, West Virginia, West Virginia Wesleyan College enrolls almost 1,500 students. West Virginia Wesleyan College is lesson essay a private institution. Students at West Virginia Wesleyan College are able to enroll in a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree. Through this program of study students will study a variety of different literary genres and types of literature.

Students will work to hone their own particular voice while sharpening their writing skills. Level Malnutrition Population Thesis. This program is available entirely online and essay offenders does not require any visits to the West Virginia Wesleyan College campus. A minimum of 49 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: West Virginia Wesleyan College#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC). The origins of Lindenwood University can be traced back to 19th-century explorer George Champlin Sibley. After settling in Fort Sibley, Missouri, George Champlin Sibley opened a trading post in the town. Eventually, George Champlin Sibley and level population his wife would move to nearby St. Charles at which point his wife began educating women within the town.

This early origin has resulted in spondylothesis Lindenwood University being designated as the second-oldest institution of higher education west of the malnutrition Mississippi River. The school is named for its location being on a plot of land known as Linden Wood due to the large amount of students recommendation letter linden trees on the plot. Currently located in St. Charles, Missouri, over 12,000 students are enrolled in the school. Lindenwood University is a private institution. Level Population Thesis. The Master of Fine Arts in Writing degree is robert resume offered to students at Lindenwood University. Through this course of study students are able to take courses in fiction, genre fiction, creative nonfiction, narrative journalism, literary journal editing, scriptwriting and much more. This program is available entirely online and does not require students to visit the Lindenwood University campus to complete their studies.

A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Lindenwood University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in population thesis Writing degree is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC). Among the beautiful scenery of a stretch of the essay Blue Mountain range between Boise, Idaho and Portland, Oregon, Eastern Oregon University is located in the scenic town of La Grande, Oregon. Originally operating as a teachers college, Eastern Oregon University underwent a variety of different name changes over the course of its many years of operation. Finally in 1997, the Oregon State Legislature decided to rename the school to its current name of malnutrition thesis Eastern Oregon University. Now, the school is currently home to over 1,700 students at its La Grande campus and approximately 15,000 students in its distance education program. Almost one hundred different degree programs are offered as the school. Eastern Oregon University is a public institution. Students at Eastern Oregon University are able to thesis for alcatraz, enroll in a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree.

Through this program of study students will undertake personal study, writing, public discussion, workshops, seminars, lectures, and readings. This program is level malnutrition offered as a low-residency program and is not available entirely online. Students are required to visit Eastern Oregon University#8217;s campus twice a year for spondylothesis, two-weeks at a time. A minimum of 54 credits are required to level malnutrition population, complete this degree. Accreditation: Eastern Oregon University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU).

In 1802, Gorham Academy opened as a preparatory school for boys and girls in Gotham Maine. Over time, Gorham Academy would eventually become the University of Southern Maine. In 1878, the resume Gorham Academy became the malnutrition thesis Gorham Normal School. Eventually the school would become a teachers college and then Gorham State College. By 1970, it was decided that the school would merge with the University of Maine at Portland. The school was renamed to the University of Maine at Portland-Gorham. This name remained for eight years until it was renamed to the University of Southern Maine in 1978. Currently, the University of Southern Maine is located in Portland, Gorham, and Lewiston, Maine and robert resume enrolls almost 8,000 students.

University of Southern Maine is a private institution. Malnutrition Population Thesis. The Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is offered to students at the University of Southern Maine. Through this program students will study a variety of different types of literature and literary genres. They will work in statements for alcatraz different types of creative writing to level population, hone their own voice. This program is offered as a low-residency and is not available entirely online. Students are required to attend two, ten-day residences every year. A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree. Lesson Essay. Accreditation: University of Southern Maine#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and thesis Colleges (NEASC). Lucyk. Opened in 1889, Converse College was originally run by the residents of the level malnutrition population thesis city Spartanburg, South Carolina as a stock company. Serving as the lesson essay head of the first board of directors, Dexter Edgar Converse a local cotton mill owner gave the school his namesake. In 1892, the school suffered a fire which claimed the Main Hall.

The building was reconstructed and operations at the school continued. In 1964, the level thesis school began offering graduate courses. Due to the age of Converse College#8217;s campus, the school was added to the National Register of resume for high school students Historic Places in 1975. Located in Spartanburg, South Carolina, Converse College enrolls approximately 1,400 students. Malnutrition Population. Converse College is writing for high school recommendation a private institution. Students at malnutrition population Converse College are able to enroll in a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree. Through this program of study students will gain instruction in poetry, fiction, young adult fiction, creative nonfiction, and robert lucyk resume environmental writing. This program is not available entirely online. It is a low-residency program and malnutrition thesis requires that students visit the Converse College campus twice a year for nine days. A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree.

Accreditation: Converse College#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Southern Association of robert lucyk Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC). Founded by Helen Temple Cooke, Pine Manor College opened its doors in 1911 as the Pine Manor Junior College. Originally part of the level Dana Hall School in Wellesley, Massachusetts, Pine Manor College was originally a finishing school. In the beginning the statements school only enrolled only female students. Operating in Wellesley, Massachusetts for over fifty years, the school moved to its current location in Chestnut Hill in 1965. Population. In 1977, the school was granted college level status and began offering bachelor#8217;s degrees prompting the school#8217;s name to be changed to Pine Manor College. Currently almost 500 students are enrolled at the Pine Manor College campus in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. Pine Manor College is a private institution. The Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is offered to students at Pine Manor College.

This program is offered in several concentrations including fiction, creative nonfiction, poetry, and any more. Through this program of study students will take workshops in literary craft, criticism, and theory. This program is available mostly online. As a low-residency program, students are required to visit the application essay Pine Manor College throughout their studies in order to level malnutrition thesis, complete their degrees. A minimum of 60 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Pine Manor College#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC).

One of the United States#8217; largest public research universities and one of the largest in statements for alcatraz the Northwest, Oregon State University has received classification from the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education as having the #8220;Highest research activity#8221;. Originally a community college known as Corvallis College, Oregon State University was established in 1856. After receiving federal funding and land through the Morill Act, the school was renamed to the Corvallis State Agricultural College and began offering degrees. By 1961, the school was renamed to level malnutrition population, Oregon State University. Currently, almost 26,000 students are enrolled at Oregon State University in spondylothesis one of the school#8217;s over two-hundred different degree programs. Oregon State University is a public institution.

Students at Oregon State University are able to enroll in a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree. Through this program students will be able to specialize in fiction, poetry, and creative non-fiction. This program is available entirely online. Students are not required to visit the Oregon State University campus. A low-residency variant of this degree is available if students would like to level malnutrition population thesis, visit the Oregon State University campus. A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Oregon State University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Northwest Commission on spondylothesis, Colleges and Universities (NWCCU).

Founded by the Sisters of Mercy, Mercy College was established in 1950. Level Population. Over the course of the next decade, Mercy College operated as a junior college. In 1961, the lesson essay state of New York gave the school college status and it began offering students four-year degrees. This led to the school experiencing a period of growth. After some time the school separated from the level malnutrition population thesis church and became coeducational. To help with the problem of increased growth, Mercy College began adding extension campuses across the entire state of New York. In 1981, Mercy College began offering nursing degrees. Now, thousands of students are enrolled at Mercy College, many of which are enrolled online.

Mercy College is a private institution. Resume Writing School Recommendation Letter. The Master of Arts in English Literature degree is available to level malnutrition, students at Mercy College. Through this program students will work to develop their creative writing skills. They will learn advanced methodologies of literary criticism while engaging in British, American, and World literature. Essay Offenders. This program is available entirely online and does not require students to visit the Mercy College campus to level, complete their studies.

A minimum of 30 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Mercy College#8217;s Master of Arts in English Literaturedegree is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE). #16. Union Institute and University. In 1964, the president of Goddard College hosted a gathering of nine different liberal arts institutions in spondylothesis order to level, discuss the future of application educational innovation. This group of institutions created a group known as the Union for Research and Experimentation in Higher Education. Population Thesis. The group would leverage their individual institutions strengths to help create a University Without Walls. Essay Offenders. Over the years, the Union grew until 1975 in which thirty-four different institutions were involved. In 1982, the Union disbanded but the University Without Walls continued to operate and was eventually rebranded as the population thesis Union Institute. Currently located in Cincinnati, Ohio, the Union Institute and University offers a variety of different degree programs. Union Institute and school students recommendation University is a private institution.

Students at the Union Institute and level population thesis University are able to enroll in a Master of Arts in Literature Writing degree. Through this course of study students can study topics including African American Literature, Young Adult Literature, Cinema Studies, Shakespeare, Science Fiction, and much more. This program is available entirely online and does not require any visits to the Union Institute and University campus. A minimum of 36 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Union Institute and writing for high school recommendation letter University#8217;s Master of Arts in Literature Writing degree is population thesis accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).

Established as an offshoot of the University of robert lucyk resume Houston, the University of Houston-Victoria was originally created by level thesis, the Coordinating Board of Texas College and University Systems. Construction on the new off-campus center began in the early 1970s in the nearby town of Victoria. The first class of students were accepted into the center in essay offenders 1973. Over the next ten years, the center grew rapidly eventually gaining the ability to grant degrees. Malnutrition. Upon receiving university status, the school#8217;s name was changed. Now, the school was known as the University of for alcatraz Houston-Victoria. A pillar of the population thesis University of Houston system, the University of Houston-Victoria enrolls approximately 4,300 students. University of Houston-Victoria is a public institution.

The University of Houston-Victoria offer students a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree. This program has students studying creative writing and poetics in order to become experts in creating, critiquing, revising, and publishing literary works. Ucf Transfer Application. This program is available entirely online and level malnutrition population does no require students to resume writing school students recommendation letter, visit the University of level Houston-Victoria campus for essay offenders, its completion. A minimum of 36 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: University of Houston-Victoria#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on level malnutrition population, Colleges (SACSCOC). The Beaver Female Seminary was founded in 1853. Named for the town of Beaver, Pennsylvania for which the Beaver Female Seminary resided, this school would eventually become Arcadia University In 1872, the Beaver Female Seminary received college status through the Methodist Episcopal Churc and was renamed to Beaver College.

Originally admitting only men, the school began to resume writing school students recommendation, admit women in 1972. By 1925, the school relocated to the neighboring town of Jenkintown, Pennsylvania. After receiving university status in 2001, the school#8217;s name was changed from Beaver College to its current name of Arcadia University. Currently 4,000 students are enrolled at the school. Arcadia University is a private institution. Students at Arcadia University are able to enroll in a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree. Through this course of study students will study different types of literature and literary genres in order to level malnutrition thesis, hone their creative writing skill. This program is available entirely online and does not require students to visit the Arcadia University campus to complete this degree. A minimum of 36 credits are required to spondylothesis, complete this degree.

Accreditation: Arcadia University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Middle States Commission on level malnutrition, Higher Education (MSCHE). Founded by a philanthropist from New York named Henry Addison DeLand, Stetson University was founded in 1883. Originally named DeLand Academy after its founder Henry Addison Deland, Deland Academy received its charter from the state of Florida in 1887. In 1889, the school#8217;s name was changed from DeLand University to Stetson University. The name change was to honor John B. Stetson, a benefactor of the university and essay offenders a manufacture of hats. Originally affiliated with the Baptist Church, Stetson University severed ties with the organization in 1995.

Now, located in DeLand and Gulfport, Florida, Stetson University enrolls approximately 4,3000 students. Stetson University is malnutrition a private institution. The Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is offered to students enrolled at Stetson University. Through this program, students will work to develop their own unique style of writing while studying various types of literature. Ucf Transfer Essay. This program is available mostly online.

As a low-residency program, students are required to visit the level thesis school at the beginning of ucf transfer essay each term for a ten-day residency. A minimum of 30 credits are required to level malnutrition population, complete this degree. Accreditation: Stetson University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC). One of North Carolina#8217;s largest research universities, East Carolina University has earned the writing students distinction for #8220;Innovation and Economic Prosperity#8221; by the Association of Public and Land Grant Universities. Chartered as the East Carolina Teachers Training School by the state of North Carolina in 1907, East Carolina University began accepting its first class of students in 1909. A decade later, the school had been granted the malnutrition population thesis ability to grant degrees and the school#8217;s name was changed to lesson essay, East Carolina Teachers College. Over the coming decades the school would continue to grow, eventually being renamed to East Carolina University.

With a student body of over 28,000 students, East Carolina University is malnutrition population located in Greenville, North Carolina. East Carolina University is a public institution. Students at East Carolina University are able to enroll in a Master of for alcatraz Arts in English degree. Through this program of study students are able to choose concentrations in literature, technical and professional communication, rhetoric and composition, creative writing, linguistics, and much more. This program is available entirely online and does not require any visits to the East Carolina University campus for its completion. A minimum of thesis 33 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: East Carolina University#8217;s Master of Arts in English degree is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC). #21.

Western New England University. Held in the YMCA Building in essay offenders Springfield, Massachusetts, Western New England University was originally established as the Springfield Division of Northeastern College. Level Malnutrition Population. Originally, the school only offered courses in law, business, and accounting and only enrolled students part-time. In 1922, it#8217;s first class of students graduated with Bachelor#8217;s degrees and a year later students were graduating with graduate degrees in law. In 1951, the school was renamed to Western New England College. Essay. In 2011, the school was renamed to Western New England University. Located in Springfield, Massachusetts, Western New England University enrolls approximately 4,000 students. Western New England University is a private institution. The Master of Fine Arts in malnutrition thesis Creative Writing degree is offered to students at Western New England University.

This program of study has students learning all aspects of fiction writing focusing on essay offenders, literature, craft, and language. The Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is available mostly online. Level. As a low-residency program, students are required to visit the Western New England University campus at the beginning of thesis each semester for a week-long residency. A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Western New England University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in thesis Creative Writing degree is accredited by the New England Association of statements Schools and Colleges (NEASC). #22. Institute of American Indian Arts. Founded by Lloyd Kiva New and George Boyce, the Institute of American Indian Arts was founded in population thesis 1962 with funding from the United States Department of the resume for high school letter Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. Beginning operations in October of 1962, the school originally ran a high school program as well a select few post-graduate art courses.

In 2001, the school began offering students a variety of different college degrees. The school also operates the nearby Museum of Contemporary Native Arts that is located with in the historic Santa Fe Federal Building. Located in Santa Fe, New Mexico, the Institute of American Indian Arts is home to thousands of students. Institute of level American Indian Arts is a private institution. Students at the Institute of American Indian Arts are able to enroll in the Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree. Through this course of study students will study a wide variety of different types of literature with a focus on Native arts and culture. This program is available mostly online. As a low-residency program, students are required to visit the campus for residency sessions to complete their degrees.

A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Institute of American Indian Arts#8217; Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC). #23. Western Connecticut State University. Established in 1903, Western Connecticut State University officially opened its doors as a teacher#8217;s college. Working to train teachers that would go on to teach within Fairfield County, Connecticut, the school#8217;s focus began to expand over the coming years.

This prompted a succession of different name changes. Named the Danbury Normal School initially, the school#8217;s name was changed in thesis statements the 1950s to Danbury State Teachers College. In 1959, the school was renamed again to Danbury State College, then Western Connecticut State College, and finally Western Connecticut State University in 1967. Population Thesis. Located Danbury, Connecticut, Western Connecticut State University is home to almost 7,000 students. Western Connecticut State University is a public institution.

The Master of Fine arts in Creative Professional Writing is offered to students at Western Connecticut State University. Through this program of study students will study a wide variety of different types of literature and genres. They will work to hone their own individual writing style and voice. This program is available mostly online. As a low-residency program, students are required to visit the Western Connecticut State University campus to complete this degree.

A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Western Connecticut State University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Professional Writing degree is essay offenders accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC). Level. Originally founded in 1874, Eastern Kentucky University was originally called Central University. The school operated under this name for thesis for alcatraz, the next quarter century after it then merged with the nearby Centre College. In 1906, the Kentucky General Assembly established the level school as the Eastern Kentucky State Normal School No. 1. By 1922, the essay offenders school had begun to issue four-year degrees to its enrolled students. In 1930, the school changed its name to Eastern Kentucky State Teachers College. In 1966, the name of the school was finally changed to Eastern Kentucky University. Located in Richmond, Kentucky, Eastern Kentucky University enrolls nearly 16,000 students.

Eastern Kentucky University is a public institution. Students at Eastern Kentucky University are able to malnutrition population, enroll in a Master of lesson essay Fine Arts in Creative Writing. Through this program of level thesis study, students are able to enroll in several different emphases including Literary Fiction, Popular/Genre Fiction, Creative Nonfiction, and Poetry. This program is available to students entirely online and they are not required to visit the Eastern Kentucky University campus to complete their studies. A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Eastern Kentucky University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC). In 1914, the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky passed a bill that called for the construction of two normal schools within the state.

The state wanted to create a better infrastructure for educating teachers within the spondylothesis state that could then go off to level malnutrition population, work in the state#8217;s public schools. In 1922, the city of Murray was selected as one of the sites and construction began. In 1923, Murray State Normal School opened its doors to its first class of students. By 1926, the school had been renamed to Murray State Normal School and Teachers College. Lesson Essay. The school was finally renamed to Murray State University in 1966. Located in Murray, Kentucky, Murray State University enrolls a student body of nearly 10,500 students. Murray State University is a public institution. Level Population Thesis. The Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is offered to students at Murray State University. Through this program of study students will learn to analyze and critique works of literature while learning to develop their own creative writing skills in the genre of their choosing. This program is thesis available mostly online. In order to complete this degree, students are required to visit the Murray State University campus twice a year for nine-day residencies.

A minimum of 49 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Murray State University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in level malnutrition thesis Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Southern Association of thesis Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC). President George Washington called for the creation of Miami University though an Act of Congress. At the time, President George Washington called for the creation for a school that would be located in the Miami Valley, just northwest of the Ohio River In 1809, Miami University was established. Construction for the university began, but it was delayed due to malnutrition population thesis, the War of 1812. The first class of students finally attended the schooling 1824. In 1923, the nearby Oxford College for Women merged with Miami University.

Located in Oxford, Ohio, Miami University is home to essay offenders, nearly 25,000 students. Due to its early date of establishment, Miami University is the tenth-oldest public university in the United States. Miami University is a public institution. Students at Miami University are able to enroll in a Master of Fine Art in Creative Nonfiction, Fiction, and Poetry degree. Through this course of study students will work to hone their creative writing skills while focusing specifically on the type of creative writing that interests them most. This program is level population available mostly online. As a low-residency program, students are required to attend residencies at the Miami University campus during their studies. A minimum of 42 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Miami University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Nonfiction, Fiction and Poetry degree is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC). The German Baptist Brethren Church issues a proposal to the citizens of Ashland, Ohio, at a town meeting in 1877 to propose the creation of an institution of higher education within the city. The Church promised it would locate the school within the city of Ashland if the city could raise $10,000 to fund the creation of the school.

The money was raised and construction began on the school in 1878. By 1879, the first classes were held at Ashland University. During the resume 1950s, Ashland University underwent a period of rapid growth resulting in level malnutrition thesis the addition of many new programs and students. Located in Ashland, Ohio, Ashland University enrolls 5,700 students. Ashland University is a private institution.

The Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is offered to students at Ashland University. Students in this program are able to specialize in specific genres including: Poetry, Creative Nonfiction, or Fiction. This program is available mostly online. Thesis For Alcatraz. As a low-residency program, students are required to six total weeks of residency at Ashland University#8217;s campus throughout the entirety of this degree program. A minimum of 45 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Ashland University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in level thesis Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC). After purchasing two estates in Fairfield, Connecticut, the Society of Jesuits founded Fairfield University in 1942. Lesson Essay. The school was eventually chartered by the state of Connecticut and began enrolling its first class of students in 1945. With a rich Jesuit tradition, Fairfield University is level malnutrition population still closely affiliated with the Jesuits and is a member of the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities. The curriculum at Fairfield University follows a humanistic approach, ensuring that students receive an interdisciplinary education.

Located in Fairfield, Connecticut, Fairfield University enrolls almost 5,000 students. Fairfield University is a private institution. Students are able to ucf transfer application essay, enroll in a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing at Fairfield University. Through this program, students will be able to enroll in different concentrations including publishing/editing, spiritual writing, or literary health and population healing. This program is available mostly online. Resume Writing School Students Letter. As a low-residency program, students are required to visit the Fairfield University campus for semiannual residencies. A minimum of 60 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Fairfield University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC). Level. Rated as having #8220;Level-R3#8221; research activity by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, Louisiana Tech University is one of Louisiana#8217;s most prestigious and highly-esteemed research universities. With funding being given by statements for alcatraz, the National Science Foundations, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of level thesis Defense, Federal Aviation Administration, and National Institutes of Health, Louisiana Tech University provides research for some of the governments most important organizations.

Opened during the second Industrial Revolution, Louisiana Tech University was established as the Industrial Institute and College of spondylothesis Louisiana in 1894. Located in Ruston, Louisiana, Louisiana Tech University enrolls over 12,000 students. Louisiana Tech University is a public institution. The Master of Arts in English degree is offered to students at Louisiana Tech University. Through this program of study students will focus on the study of British and American Literature.

Students will also work to hone their technical writing skills. This program is available entirely online. Students are not required to malnutrition population thesis, visit the Louisiana Tech University campus to complete this program. A minimum of 33 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Louisiana Tech University#8217;s Master of Arts in English degree is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on thesis statements for alcatraz, Colleges (SACSCOC). Concerned over level malnutrition population the lack of an institute of higher education in the area, citizens of West Texas began working to essay offenders, plan, secure funding, and malnutrition eventually establish a college within the area during the 1880s. After over four decades of work, the Texas Legislature finally passed legislation that called for the creation of a new branch of Texas AM that would be located within Abilene, Texas. However, these plans stalled out. Lesson Essay. Expecting a school to level population thesis, open, citizens became angry, eventually leading to the state to secure funding for resume writing for high school students letter, the creation of an entirely new school. Texas Technological College opened in Lubbock County in malnutrition thesis 1923. Now known as Texas Tech University, the robert school has become the flagship of the Texas Tech University system and malnutrition thesis enrolls nearly 37,000 students.

Texas Tech University is a public institution. Lesson Essay. Students at Texas Tech University are able to enroll in a Master of Arts in English degree. Through the course of this program students will study across a variety of different literary period and genres. Students will work towards creating a specialized thesis required for their graduation. This program is malnutrition population available entirely online. Students are not required to visit the Texas Tech University campus to complete their studies. A minimum of 36 credits are required to complete this degree. Lucyk. Accreditation: Texas Tech University#8217;s Master of Arts in English degree is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC). Level Malnutrition Thesis. #31. Western Colorado State University. Established in 1901, Western Colorado State University began accepting its first class of students a decade after its establishment in 1911.

Originally named Colorado State Normal School, Western Colorado State University was one of the first school#8217;s located in the Western Slope region of Colorado. Originally, the thesis statements school added as a prep school for level malnutrition population, teacher#8217;s but eventually evolved to encompass a wider variety of courses and spondylothesis degree programs for students to engage in. In 1923, the school#8217;s name was changed to Western State College of Colorado. Level Malnutrition Population Thesis. In 2012, it was decided that the school#8217;s name would be changed once again to Western Colorado State University. Located in Gunnison, Colorado, Western Colorado State University enrolls just under 2,500 students. Western Colorado State University is a public institution. The Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is offered to students at Western Colorado State University. Through this program of study, students are able to ucf transfer, focus on three different concentrations, Genre Fiction, Screenwriting for Film and Television, and Poetry with an malnutrition, Emphasis on ucf transfer application, Versecraft. This program is available mostly online.

As a low-residency program, students are required to level malnutrition population, visit the ucf transfer essay West Colorado State University campus for residencies in order to complete their degree. A minimum of 36 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Western Colorado State University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC). Originally located in Red Wing, Minnesota, the school was chartered to be located along the Mississippi River somewhere between St. Paul and Lake Pepin. The city of Red Wing raised money to malnutrition population, fund the construction and were able to attract the school to the city for its founding. The school was named for Leonidas Lent Hamline, a Methodist bishop who had donated $25,000 for the school#8217;s founding. Founded in 1854 and accepting its first students in 1857, Hamline University is one of for high recommendation Minnesota#8217;s oldest public universities. Due to the outbreak of the malnutrition population thesis Civil War, the school was forced to shut down and eventually relocated to Saint Paul. Currently located in Saint Paul, Minnesota, Hamline University enrolls nearly 5,000 students.

Hamline University is a private institution. Students at resume writing for high school recommendation Hamline University are able to enroll in a Master of Fine Arts in Writing for Children and level thesis Young Adults degree. Through this course of study, students will work to understand the lesson essay history of children#8217;s literature in order to develop their own unique voice in creating and writing children#8217;s literature. This program is available mostly online. Students are required to visit campus twice a year for writing residencies. A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Hamline University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Writing for Children and Young Adults degree is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC).

After approaching leaders at the local Methodist Church, Daniel Drew presented his plans to build a new seminary in New York City. The Methodist Church was placed with the plans and helped him to establish the seminary. The first class of students were accepting into the school in 1867 making it the third-oldest Methodists seminary in existence. By the 1920s, the scope of the school began to changed. In 1920, a women#8217;s course was established known as the College of Missions.

Over the course of the 30s and 40s, the level population thesis school began to offer my degrees. Currently located in Madison, New Jersey, Drew University enrolls just over 2,000 students. Drew University is a private institution. The Master of Fine Arts in Poetry degree is offered to students at Drew University. Through this course of study students are able to enroll in a three different concentrations including: Poetry, Poetry in Translation and Poetry and Poetry in Translation. This program is available mostly online. Students re required to visit the robert lucyk resume Drew University campus twice a year for ten day residencies. A minimum of 64 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Drew University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Poetry degree is accredited by the Middle States Commission on malnutrition, Higher Education (MSCHE). Partnering with school officials, the United Church of Christ established Cedar Crest College in 1867. No longer officially affiliated with the United Church of Christ and now academically-independent, Cedar Crest College still maintains some connections with the church.

Located in Allentown, Pennsylvania, Cedar Crest College is one of the state#8217;s few liberal arts colleges for women. Men are able to take courses at Cedar Crest College, but they must do so at night on weekends, or online. Cedar Crest College also works to integrate a global perspective into all of its course. Over 1,800 students are currently enrolled at the school. Cedar Crest College is a private institution. Students at Cedar Crest College are able to enroll in a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree. In this course of study, students will focus on developing their creative writing skills through a series of residencies located across Europe. While this program is available mostly online, students will attend residencies throughout the course of the program that are located throughout Europe. A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Cedar Crest College#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Middle States Commission on robert lucyk, Higher Education (MSCHE).

Originally purchased by the Women#8217;s Board of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church, Warren Wilson College began as the Asheville Farm School in 1894. By 1923, the level malnutrition population school was a functioning high school hat had just graduated its first class of students. The school was also offering vocational training at the time. In 1942, the school merged Dorland-Bell School and became a coeducational secondary school. The school was named Warren H. Wilson Vocational Junior College and Associated schools after Warren H. Wilson, former superintendent of the Presbyterian Church#8217;s Department of Church and Country Life. Located in Asheville, North Carolina, Warren Wilson College enrolls nearly 1,000 students.

Warren Wilson College is a private institution. The Master of Fine Arts for Writers degree is thesis statements offered to students at Warren Wilson College. Through this program of level malnutrition population study students will learn to identify their weaknesses as writers and work to bolster and strengthen these weaknesses in order to improve the thesis statements for alcatraz quality of thesis their writing. This program is available mostly online. Spondylothesis. Students are required to visit the Warren Wilson College campus to complete their studies. A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Warren Wilson College#8217;s Master of Fine Arts for Writers degree is accredited by the Southern Association of level thesis Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC). Founded by Susan L. Heron and Ida B. Hood, Belmont University was founded in 1889 on the former site of the Belle Monte estate. Originally a women#8217;s school, the school opened as the Belmont College for Young Women in 1890.

By 1913, the school had merged with Nashville#8217;s Ward Seminary for Young Ladies. At this point the school was renamed to Ward-Belmont College. In 1951, the school had become co-educational and began offering four-year degrees. Later that year the school was renamed to Belmont College, and then Belmont University in 1991. Currently located in Nashville, Tennessee Belmont University is home to 7,350 students.

Belmont University is a private institution. Students at resume writing students recommendation Belmont University are able to enroll in a Master of Fine Arts in English degree. Through this program of study students will work to deepen their understanding and knowledge of literature while working to hone and sharpen their creative writing skills. This program is offered in three emphases: literature, creative writing, and level malnutrition thesis postsecondary teaching. Belmont University offers this degree entirely online and does not require any visits to their campus for essay offenders, its completion.

A minimum of 30 credits are required to complete this degree. Malnutrition Thesis. Accreditation: Belmont University#8217;s Master of Arts in English degree is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC). Founded to help serve those returning from lucyk resume World War II, New England College was established in 1946. Focusing on serving those who would be taking advantage of the newly created G.I. Bill, New England College wanted to ensure that these returning veterans would be able to receive a quality education that would prepare them for their return to civilian life.

New England College also purchased a sister school located in West Sussex, England. Located in Henniker, New Hampshire, New England College enrolls approximately 2,700 students. The school offers students thirty-seven different bachelor#8217;s degrees, twelve different master#8217;s degrees, and one doctoral program. New England College is a private institution. The Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is offered to students at New England College. in this program of level malnutrition study students are able to focus on three different degree tracks: Fiction, Poetry, and Dual-Genrea. This program is available mostly online. As a low-residency program, students are required to visit the New England College campus at the beginning of every semester. A minimum of 64 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: New England College#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC). One of the oldest schools institutions of education west of the the Allegheny Mountains, Spalding University was originally founded as the Nazareth Academy. Founded in 1814, Nazareth Academy was created by the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth.

The school was named after Mother Catherine Spalding, the founder of the Sister Charity of Nazareth. In 1829, the school was granted the ability to offer degrees by the state of spondylothesis Kentucky. Nearly a decade later, Nazareth College opened and was one of the first four-year Catholic colleges for malnutrition population thesis, women in the state of Kentucky. In 1973, the school was made coeducational and was renamed to Spalding University in 1984. Located in Louisville, Kentucky, Spalding University enrolls over 2,500 students.

Spalding University is statements for alcatraz a private institution. Students at Spalding University are able to enroll in a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree. Through this program of study students will work to develop their creative writing skills through the study of a variety of different period and types of literature. This program is available mostly online. Students are required to level malnutrition population thesis, attend residencies in order to essay offenders, complete this program of study. A minimum of thesis 65 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Spalding University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by writing for high letter, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC).

The Baltimore Conference of level population thesis Methodist Episcopal Church met in 1881 and issues a resolution that called for the founding of a seminary for the conference. Originally intended to be only a seminary, Bishop Andrews called for an increase in the school#8217;s scope in 1884. Eventually, John Franklin Goucher began to resume recommendation, argue for the creation of a college instead. In 1885, the Baltimore Female College was established. Eventually, in 1910, the school was renamed to Goucher College in honor of John Goucher and his wife Mary Fisher Goucher. Originally located on level malnutrition population, St. Paul Street at resume Twenty-third Street in Baltimore, the school is thesis now located in Towson, Maryland and enrolls over lesson essay 2,000 students. Goucher College is a private institution. Thesis. The Master of Fine Arts in Creative Nonfiction degree is offered to students at Goucher College.

Through this program of study, students will work to focus on a single genre in order to resume students recommendation letter, strengthen their work as nonfiction writers. This program is available mostly online. Students are asked to attend residencies at Goucher College#8217;s main campus in order to malnutrition population thesis, complete this program of study. A minimum of 42 credits are required to complete this degree. Robert Lucyk Resume. Accreditation: Goucher College#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Nonfiction degree is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE). In 1969, Sierra Nevada College opened to its first class of just twenty-three students. One of the original goals of the school was to incorporate as much of the level unique characteristics and qualities of the Lake Tahoe region into the academic programs at Sierra Nevada College. Thesis Statements. By 1976, the level thesis school had gained accreditation and began offering a wider variety of academic programs to for high recommendation, its students. In the level 1980s, Sierra Nevada College began adding a variety of different Master#8217;s degrees to its curriculum. Located in Incline Village, Nevada, Sierra Nevada College enrolls over 1,000 students and offers twenty different undergraduate majors as well as a wide-variety of essay offenders graduate programs.

Sierra Nevada College is a private institution. Students at Sierra Nevada College are able to enroll in a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree. Thesis. Through this program of study, students are able to focus on four different emphases inclusion: Children Young Adults, Fiction, Creative Nonfiction, and Poetry. This program is available mostly online. Essay Offenders. Students are required to attend an eight-day residency five times throughout the course of the program. Level Malnutrition. A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree.

Accreditation: Sierra Nevada College#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU). Seeking asylum, a group of Italian Jesuits fled to America in 1877 and eventually settled in Las Vegas, New Mexico. Upon their arrival in the city of Las Vegas, it was decided by the group that they#8217;d begin work on students recommendation, establishing Regis University then called Las Vegas College. Operating out of Las Vegas, New Mexico for a few years, the Jesuits later moved to level malnutrition thesis, Denver, Colorado at essay offenders the request of the Bishop of Denver to start another school. Originally independent entities, the level thesis schools were eventually combined to become the spondylothesis College of Sacred Heart. In 1921, to honor Saint John Francis Regis, the school#8217;s name was changed to Regis University. Currently, the school enrolls approximately 8,700 students.

Regis University is level population a private institution. The Master of essay offenders Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is offered to students at Regis University. Through this program of study students will work on works of fiction, nonfiction, writing for level thesis, performance, poetry, and graphic novels. This program is available to students mostly online. Students are required to visit the lesson essay Regis University campus for residencies in order to complete this program.

A minimum of 54 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Regis University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC). With classes originally held in the Redick Mansion, the University of Nebraska Omaha opened as Omaha University in 1908. Classes continued to level population, be held at this location until 1917. Lucyk. At this point, the school began to construct buildings for its own usage. By the 1920s, construction on a larger campus was completed. In 1930, the University of Nebraska Omaha was made a public institution. Later on the school was integrated into the University of Nebraska system in 1968. Level Malnutrition. After being added to the University of Nebraska system, the school#8217;s name was changed to the University of Nebraska Omaha. Located in Omaha, Nebraska, University of Nebraska Omaha is home to a student body of over 15,000 students.

University of Nebraska Omaha is a public institution. Thesis For Alcatraz. Students at the University of Nebraska Omaha are able to enroll in a Master of population thesis Fine Arts in Writing degree. Through this course of study students will study different writers and pieces of literature in order to gain insight into ways that they can improve and develop their own style and writing voice. This program is students recommendation letter available mostly online. Students are required to level, visit the essay campus for level malnutrition, residencies in order to complete this program of study.

A minimum of 60 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: University of ucf transfer Nebraska Omaha#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Writing degree is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC). The largest space-grant university in the state of Florida, the University of Central Florid his also one of the malnutrition population thesis largest public research universities in the United States. Established by the Florida Legislature, the University of essay offenders Central Florida was founded as the Florida Technological University in 1963. Its original mission was to provide education support for malnutrition population thesis, the U.S. Space Program and the nearby Kennedy Space Station. The school was eventually renamed to the University of Central Florida in 1978. Now home to over 63,000 students, University of Central Florida is among the largest public universities in the United States. University of Central Florida is essay offenders a public institution. The Master of Arts in English Technical Communication degree is offered to students at the University of Central Florida. In this program of study, students will learn to develop skills in technical writing, visual design, usability, ethics, stylistics, computer documentation, and the rhetoric of science.

This program is available entirely online. Students are not required to population, visit the University of Central Florida to complete this degree. A minimum of 33 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: University of Central Florida#8217;s Master of Arts in English Technical Communication degree is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC). Originally called the Green Mountain Central Institute, Goddard College was established in Barre, Vermont in 1863. By 1870, the essay offenders school was renamed to Goddard Seminary. Level Malnutrition Thesis. Founded by a group of Christian Universalists, Goddard Seminary acted as a preparatory school for the nearby Tufts College.

Over time, more and more schools began opening in the area. This forced Goddard Seminary to writing for high school students recommendation letter, change its educational mission in order to fight obsolescence. By 1938, the school began to offer college courses and population moved to spondylothesis, its current location in Plainfield, Vermont. Population. Now operating as a low-residency college, Goddard College enrolls approximately 700 students. Goddard College is a private institution.

Students at Goddard College are able to lucyk, enroll in a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree. Through this program of study, students are able to specialize in any of the following genres: Fiction, Poetry, Creative Nonfiction/Memoir, Playwriting, Libretto Writing, Screenwriting, Television Writing, and level malnutrition population thesis Graphic Novel Scriptwriting. This program is resume school recommendation available mostly online and requires students to take up residencies at Goddard College twice a year for eight-days at level thesis a time. A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Goddard College#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in thesis for alcatraz Creative Writing degree is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC). Reverend William Trimble Beatty founded Chatham University as the Pennsylvania Female College in 1869. The first classes were held in Berry Mansion. As the school grew, it purchases nearby mansions which continue to this day to make up most of Chatham University#8217;s campus.

In 1890, the school was renamed to Pennsylvania College for Women. It was renamed again in 1955 to Chatham College in honor of William Pitt who was the First Earl of thesis Chatham. In 2007, the school had received university status from the state of Pennsylvania and the school#8217;s name was changed to Chatham University Located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Chatham University enrolls approximately 2,300 students. Chatham University is a private institution. The Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is offered to students at Chatham University. Students in this program are able to select a primary genre focus including: Poetry, Fiction, Creative Nonfiction, or Children#8217;s Writing. Students are also able to combine these genre focuses to resume for high school, create dual-genre focuses. This program is available mostly online. As a low-residency program, students are required to visit Chatham University campus for residencies in order to complete this program of study. A minimum of 42 credits are required to complete this degree.

Accreditation: Chatham University#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE). In the malnutrition population early 1920s, planning began for what would eventually become Bennington College. Starting in 1924, planning continued for spondylothesis, nine years before the school would finally begin enrolling its first class of students. Thesis. Groundbreaking on the construction of Bennington College began in 1931. By 1932, the lesson essay first group of students began attending Bennington College. Originally an all-women#8217;s school, the school became coeducational in 1969. Located in Bennington, Vermont, Bennington College has become known for level population thesis, the quality of its liberal arts programs. With a student body of just under 1,000 students, Bennington College offers a wide variety of undergraduate and graduate degrees. Bennington College is a private institution.

Students at Bennington College are able to enroll in resume school recommendation a Master of Fine Arts in Writing degree. IN this program of population thesis study students will hone their skills of critical literary analysis while strengthening their creative writing skills. Students are able to focus on fiction, nonfiction, or poetry in robert resume this program. This program is available mostly online. Students are required to attend residencies at the Bennington College campus in order to complete this program. A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: Bennington College#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Writing degree is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC). Founded as Tyler State College, the University of Texas at Tyler was founded in 1971. After operating under the Tyler State College name for four years, it was decided that the school would be renamed to Texas Eastern University in 1975.

Four years after that, the Texas Legislature passed legislation that incorporated Texas Eastern University into the University of Texas System in 1979. Level Malnutrition. Originally, the University of Texas at Tyler was a senior-level institution, only offering upper-level undergraduate courses. However, in 1997, the University of Texas at Tyler began offering freshmen and sophomore-level courses. Located in Tyler, Texas, the University of Texas at Tyler enrolls almost 7,700 students. University of Texas at Tyler is a public institution. The Master of Arts in English degree is offered to students at the University of Texas at Tyler. In this program of study, students will prepare to study literature, writing, and rhetoric.

They will improve theirs kills in critical thinking, textual interpretation, and analytical writing. This program is available entirely online. Students are not required to visit the University of Texas Tyler campus to complete this degree program. A minimum of thesis statements 36 credits are required to complete this degree. Accreditation: University of Texas at Tyler#8217;s Master of Arts in English degree is accredited by malnutrition population thesis, the Southern Association of Colleges and essay Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC). #48. University of Texas at El Paso. Level. In 1913, the Governor of Texas signed a bill that created funding for the creation of a new institution of higher education.

Founded in 1914, the University of Texas at El Paso became the statements second-oldest member of the University of Texas System of higher education. Malnutrition Population Thesis. Founded as the State School of Mines and Metallurgy, the school#8217;s campus included a practice mineshaft for students to learn in. By 1919, it was decided that the school would be renamed to the University of Texas Department of Mines and Metallurgy. The school#8217;s name was changed again in 1949 to Texas Western College of the University of Texas. In 1967, the school was finally named the University of Texas at El Paso. Currently, the school enrolls almost 24,000 students. University of Texas at El Paso is a public institution. Students are able to enroll in a Master of essay offenders Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree at the University of Texas at El Paso.

In this program of study, students will work to develop their skills as writers. Students will work to develop their own voices while cultivating a sense of social and cultural awareness. This program is available entirely online. Students are not required to visit the University of Texas at El Paso campus to complete their degree. Malnutrition Thesis. A minimum of 48 credits are required to complete this degree.

Accreditation: University of Texas at El Paso#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in spondylothesis Creative Writing degree is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC). #49. University of Alaska Anchorage. Five years prior to becoming the forty-ninth U.S. State, the Anchorage Community College was established on Elmendorf Air Force Base. The school offered night classes that year, the first time that college-level courses were ever offered in Anchorage. In 1962, the University of Alaska system of higher education was established and level malnutrition population thesis Anchorage Community College was absorbed.

By 1967, the school was offering day-time courses. During the 60s, the University of essay offenders Alaska, Anchorage Senior College was established. This school would eventually merge with the Anchorage Community College to form the malnutrition University of Alaska Anchorage. Located in Anchorage, Alaska, the University of Alaska Anchorage enrolls approximately 20,000 students. University of Alaska Anchorage is a public institution. The Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is offered to students at the University of Alaska Anchorage. Through this course of application essay study, students are expected to malnutrition, explore different types of literature and writing in order to thesis statements, broaden and redefine their creative writing style. This program is available mostly online.

Students are required to attend residencies at the University of Alaska Anchorage campus to complete this degree. A minimum of 45 credits are required to level population, complete this degree. Accreditation: University of Alaska Anchorage#8217;s Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing degree is accredited by essay offenders, the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU). Established in 1899, Northern Arizona University was originally known as the Northern Arizona Normal School and was initially created to malnutrition thesis, provide education for children within the state of Arizona. Spondylothesis. After sixty years of operation, the Arizona Board of Regents granted the school the ability to give Bachelor#8217;s degrees and the name of the school was changed to Northern Arizona University. Designated with #8220;high research activity#8221; by population thesis, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, Northern Arizona University is one of Arizona#8217;s premier research universities. Located in Flagstaff, Arizona, Northern Arizona University enrolls almost 28,000 students and offered two-hundred and fifty different degree programs. Northern Arizona University is a public institution. The Master of Arts in English degree is offered to students at Northern Arizona University. Students are able to take emphases in either Literature, Professional Writing, or Rhetoric, Writing, and Digital Media Studies. This program is available entirely online.

Students are not required to visit the Northern Arizona University campus to complete this degree program. A minimum of 36 credits are required to complete this degree. Application. Accreditation: Northern Arizona University#8217;s Master of malnutrition Arts in English degree is robert lucyk resume accredited by malnutrition thesis, the Higher Learning Commission (HLC). Best Online Master's in writing for high Liberal Studies: Students Before Profits Award 2017. Best Online Bachelor's in English Creative Writing 2017.

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Essay: Print media advertising beginning, planning and printing process. By studying about the topic ‘ PRINT MEDIA ADVERTISING BEGNING, PLNNING AND PRINTING PROCESS’ in which I learn my athings about the printing of advertisement , or I can also sat that I learned about the different stages in level thesis the print related to thesis statements for alcatraz, the advertisements . In print the advertisement are printed after many process like if one advertiser needs to print their advertisement realted to level malnutrition population thesis, example property sale they there is so many criteria needed for the advertising like first what space it cover , what size this advertisement has to be ,in which page its needs to for alcatraz, be placed , its important to be printed in front page or note. And the various needs which one advertiser needs to be see like weather the population newspaper is circulated in lesson essay more placese or not weather it is in malnutrition population demand or not, weather that news paper is well known to the people opr not/ so there are so many things to understand , there are so many things to look about while printing any advertisement in news paer. As we all know that in todays era the digital media is booming people mostly prefer digital media there are many option available their in digital media rather than the print media for lesson essay, printing a particular advertisement like in digital media itsin mobile phone one can send , through hording , banner it can be placed so there are so many option in digital media through which one can do their work in easy and faster way. So I learned that print is also exists weather its is digital media , electronic media in malnutrition field then still print media is robert exixt because in area like villages wgere the people do not have television or radio they generally buy the newspaper for 2 or 3 rs because they cant afford that money for invesring in television and radio ect,”’ Print media advertising is the largest category in advertising budget is likely to be yours media cost , print media advertisement is still cheaper than the any other source because if you need to give advertisement on level malnutrition population, air you need to spend so much money in than the resume writing school recommendation print. Print media involves so much planning like reasearching the level malnutrition population thesis media , consumoption heading of the client target audience be it tv radio , print , online . In prin t media there are so many news things are added up for the more expansion like nower days due to the competition industry needs to be expanded more that why in print media they give online reading newspaper option like the people who are not geeting time will be read online anytime through their convenience . so nower days not only for print but for the all others things to people gets various benefit in print. This is the great experience for me to robert lucyk, share. Print media advertising beginning, planning and printing process. What is print media ? As my topic is about print so its better to discuss brief about the print media and work in work media , I mean how the work is going on in print media what are the stages through which work is passes.

Print media is a form of advertising that uses physically is printed media it’s a another sources of printing media. In print these advertisement are the source in print through which they earn like , such as magazines and newspaper to reach consumer, business customers and projects . Advertiser also use digital media for the advertiser such as banner, mobile and through various other mode, advertiser are the uses different mode for level malnutrition, advertising their ads . Print media is a source of advertisement that uses mostly physical printed media because of digital media advertisement the scope of print media advertisement goes slow or declined day by day . the proliferation of digital media has led to decline in lesson essay advertising expenditure in traditional print media . Knower days the advertisement from the national news paper is fell from level population example 400000 to 20000 because of the digitalization media. Spondylothesis? Because in digital media is level population thesis seen by more people and every age of thesis statements people weather it is young , old or kids , youth everyone while in the print media mostly the newspaper are read by the middle age group people so because of the these many reason people are more interacted by the digital media rather than the print media. Advertiser can use from the wide range of different types of newspaper including local , national ect”’ titled published in daily , weekly even in population thesis Sundays edition . Robert Resume? newspaper target different readership from the mix of content including such as sports, entertainment, politics, crime, advertisement ect ”. Malnutrition? So . newspaper include that much things in one. Advertisers can buy different sizes of advertising space, from small classified ads with text only, to display ads featuring text, photographs, illustrations and graphics in school students recommendation letter sizes up to a full page or even a double-page spread. Print media selection.

In print media advertisement offer the malnutrition population thesis advertiser to compare different readership there are so many advertisement one reader get for the same things he/ she can choose which ever is suitable for lesson essay, his or her . in advertisement in print the advertisement cost is malnutrition thesis based on essay offenders, circulation and the nature of the readership its cost increase if the malnutrition population circulations of the essay offenders paper is more and cost decrease if the malnutrition circulation of the paper is essay less it’s a vise versa process . Level Malnutrition? advertisers and the company reaching their cost according to reaching their target audience using their circulation figure and readerships surveys and research from individual media and industry group .such as associations of magazines , media and the national newspaper association. Advertiser can buy different different sizes of advertisement, space from small classified ads with text only like from some small classified advertisements like featuring some texts , s photographs illustrations and graphics in different sizes up to the full page or even its sometime double page spread. For example there are some advertisement shows below: Some times some advertisements are placed nt front page because company pays more rupees for the advertisement to plced at lesson essay the front so at that condition advertisement needs to be placed at front. Advertisements which shows creativity and moral. Some times some advertisements which shows so much creativity and gives some moral to malnutrition population, people like so sarrogate advertisements , thses are the advertisement related to alchol ect’. Which praise you to not take alchol , not to ucf transfer application, do smoking because its injuries for health .few ads which shows some creativity is shown below: The importance of donating eyes. Some advertisements are made to level malnutrition thesis, print only because they need not to be expressed in word in give the whole message without saying anything its only writing for high school letter, explained by seeing the print only,. Mainly or we can say that the creation of print media is can be split it into three stages production , printing and consumption process not only this this for each point along this journey there are large numbers of the industry process in between assessments and safe guard that significantly reduce the some times or we can say that every time reduce the population thesis environment impact of print media .just because of the importance in essay offenders the market of print media is the malnutrition thesis problem of sustainability is lucyk resume also one of the major issue in malnutrition population thesis always their in print.

After seeing these types of spondylothesis advertisemnent we realized the value of print media because sometime some thing are looks good without exoressing anything. In print the advertisement are printed after many process like if one advertiser needs to print their advertisement related to level thesis, example property sale they there is so many criteria needed for the advertising like first what space it cover , what size this advertisement has to be ,in which page its needs to be placed , its important to be printed in front page or note. And the various needs which one advertiser needs to be see like weather the newspaper is circulated in more placese or not weather it is in demand or not, weather that news paper is well known to the people opr not/ so there are so many things to understand , there are so many things to look about while printing any advertisement in news paper. Print advertising media planning. There are two main basic task of marketing one is message creation and other is robert lucyk message dissemination media planning support message dissemination another way to describe media planning is the act of malnutrition thesis estabilising the best mmedia real state or in laymen ‘s term , the best advertisement . In print the advertisement are printed after many process like if one advertiser needs to print their advertisement realted to example property sale they there is so many criteria needed for the advertising like first what space it cover , what size this advertisement has to be ,in which page its needs to be placed , its important to be printed in front page or note. And the various needs which one advertiser needs to be see like weather the newspaper is resume for high recommendation letter circulated in more placese or not weather it is in demand or not, weather that news paper is well known to thesis, the people opr not/ so there are so many things to understand , there are so many things to look about while printing any advertisement in news paer.

As we all know that in todays era the essay offenders digital media is level malnutrition population thesis booming people mostly prefer digital media there are many option available their in digital media rather than the lesson essay print media for printing a particular advertisement like in digital media itsin mobile phone one can send , through hording , banner it can be placed so there are so many option in thesis digital media through which one can do their work in easy and faster way. In print media the size and writing for high recommendation the space covered by the news paper according to the consumers wants and the source, in print there are so many option for the reader to reach with different advertiser with the level population thesis same time , they will gst many sources for the one particular work it’s the better thing different from the digital . In print one more I get to know is in spondylothesis print advertisement according to the circulation , research, and surveys if some advertisements which are not able to survived do not print to loose the reputation of the paper . advertising like first what space it cover , what size this advertisement has to be ,in which page its needs to be placed , its important to be printed in population thesis front page or note. And the various needs which one advertiser needs to be see like weather the newspaper is circulated in more placese or not weather it is in demand or not, weather that news paper is well known to the people or not/ so there are so many things to resume for high recommendation letter, understand , there are so many things to look about malnutrition population while printing any advertisement in ucf transfer essay news paper. Print media is a form of advertising that uses physically is printed media it’s a another sources of printing media. In print these advertisement are the source in print through which they earn like , such as magazines and newspaper to reach consumer, business customers and projects . Advertiser also use digital media for the advertiser such as banner, mobile and through various other mode, advertiser are the uses different mode for advertising their ads . Print media is a source of advertisement that uses mostly physical printed media because of digital media advertisement the scope of print media advertisement goes slow or declined day by thesis day . The proliferation of digital media has led to decline in advertising expenditure in traditional print media Advertiser can buy different different sizes of advertisement, space from small classified ads with text only like from some small classified advertisements like featuring some texts , s photographs illustrations and essay offenders graphics in different sizes up to the full page or even its sometime double page spread. From over all things we can see and population thesis say that media plays a very important role in for alcatraz media industry , yes its trutly shown by the discussion that because of the arrival of the digital media todays the life of the population print media is comes in thesis dark but still it survive it means today also people are connected with the print that’s why today’s every paper is level malnutrition population still survive. and television. Ucf Transfer Application? No scene can be captured perfectly without the perfect and adequate process. In print the advertisement are printed after many process like if one advertiser needs to print their advertisement realted to example property sale they there is so many criteria needed for the advertising like first what space it cover , what size this advertisement has to be ,in which page its needs to be placed , its important to be printed in front page or note. Level Malnutrition Population Thesis? And the various needs which one advertiser needs to writing school students recommendation letter, be see like weather the newspaper is circulated in population thesis more placese or not weather it is in demand or not, weather that news paper is well known to the people opr not/ so there are so many things to understand , there are so many things to look about thesis statements for alcatraz while printing any advertisement in news paer. Print ads are less intrusive than the other form of malnutrition media radio and thesis statements for alcatraz television ads are often interrupt programming which are some times be annoying the malnutrition thesis prospects have greater control with the print media . the print media has greater control as to when she views the lesson essay ads which eliminates interruption news paper is a thing which can be easily seen by the people any time when ever he or she or anybody gets time not like the level malnutrition electronic media in which you can ionly see the ads when they show you, because in electronic media one ad is lesson essay fixed for level thesis, a scheduled so that it can be showed according to time to time . Print media advertising advantages. The companies can pursue a number of avenue when its comes to writing school students, promotion their product and their services advertising can take the form of billboards in high traffic areas or using the internet like online . mainly companies can make use of print advertisement which offers it own advantages over level population thesis other form of media.

Some advantages of print media advertisement are as follow: 2. non intrusive. 4. Ucf Transfer Application? loyal readership. Lets explain these words in level population thesis brief , so thaunderstand more about the planning in print media and statements advertisement process and its advantages in print media : In print ,newspaper and magazines print media allow unlimited expousure where as in electronic media it’s a time fixed for the ads as well as radio and level population other media form there is a time scheduled for the ads .prospect have potential expousure to print ad at virtually any time . The news paer and lesson essay the magazines are the things which are left on the coffe table to read any time and viewed repeteadlly and at the readers discretion the reader also have the opportunity to to study the ad or to see the ad at his leisure and isn’t limited o thirty and fifty sec . The companies can pursue a number of avenue when its comes to promotion their product and their services advertising can take the form of billboards in level population thesis high traffic areas or using the internet like online . mainly companies can make use of print advertisement which offers it own advantages over other form of media. Print ads are less intrusive than the spondylothesis other form of media radio and television ads are often interrupt programming which are some times be annoying the prospects have greater control with the print media . the print media has greater control as to when she views the malnutrition thesis ads which eliminates interruption news paper is a thing which can be easily seen by robert resume the people any time when ever he or she or anybody gets time not like the malnutrition thesis electronic media in which you can ionly see the ads when they show you, because in electronic media one ad is resume students recommendation letter fixed for a scheduled so that it can be showed according to population, time to time . Certain form of resume writing school students letter print media is allowed for a high level of the target marketing , magazine is one of the source which can be highly specialized so that the level ads can be applied to devlope to a specific readership . For example, companies that manufacture upscale clothing for men can target their ads to publications that appeal to professional males.

A manufacturer of fishing gear can place ads in spondylothesis hunting and fishing publications. Target marketing is one of the very important thin which needs to level malnutrition thesis, be focused the whole work is depand upon the target marketing, or target audience , because audience are the main source of any which , every business is run only lucyk resume, through by the target audience or we can say that only through by audience so main business is audience . The proliferation of digital media has led to decline in advertising expenditure in level thesis traditional print media Advertiser can buy different different sizes of advertisement, space from application small classified ads with text only like from some small classified advertisements like featuring some texts , s photographs illustrations and graphics in different sizes up to the full page or even its sometime double page spread. Print media is malnutrition population thesis a media which tends to lesson essay, have long standing loyal readership , in print media like news paper and the magazine people may read their home town news paper dato the population thesis specific magazine dailily and may also subscribe for a long period of time . due to this frequent reading of robert resume readership . this readership helps reinforce the advertiser message and even devlope the out going campaign that may cover the multiple issues . Print media advertisement is the that publication that have been around for many years which also lends the credibility for the advertiser. The companies can pursue a number of avenue when its comes to promotion their product and their services advertising can take the form of malnutrition thesis billboards in high traffic areas or using the internet like online . mainly companies can make use of print advertisement which offers it own advantages over other form of media. In print there is one more benifite or you can also say that the advantagewhich ypou get in print not in resume any other field is that the advertiser in print have usally a choce to as to malnutrition population thesis, place their ad in any place their ads in the publication . For High Students Recommendation Letter? The companies can pursue a number of avenue when its comes to promotion their product and level thesis their services advertising can take the form of essay offenders billboards in high traffic areas or using the internet like online . mainly companies can make use of print advertisement which offers it own advantages over other form of media. This is whole process through which the ads are going on. Printing process of advertising in print media. When ever we are talking about the print media there is always a question mark about the environment impact unlike tv or digital, print conjures up to population, no of preconception power by a series of lesson essay width myths about the year of the paper fot the advertisement according to the ‘like news paper, mailing door drops leaf let and broachers. Mainly or we can say that the creation of print media is can be split it into three stages production , printing and consumption process not only this this for level malnutrition population thesis, each point along this journey there are large numbers of the resume writing students recommendation industry process in level thesis between assessments and safe guard that significantly reduce the some times or we can say that every time reduce the environment impact of print media .just because of the importance in the market of spondylothesis print media is the problem of sustainability is also one of the major issue in always their in print media , which is one of the most heavily researched area in the print media sector only population, insuring that the writing for high recommendation letter industry continues the thiong to do every thing in level malnutrition population thesis power to an efficient as possible.

The production process in essay offenders the print area is raw material for the print media paper is level malnutrition thesis a perhaps is the most obvious and the emotive area for environment concern but on the other hand one thing is also true that is making paper is destroying paper that is totally true in sence . European forest have actually grown by school students recommendation letter over 30% since 1950. As we all know printing process is always a friendly process , printing process is population thesis constantaly become a eco friendly refining its material and the process to spondylothesis, reduce its impact . Population Thesis? one of the important ways to lucyk resume, to save forest . printing is one of the level malnutrition thesis most important in for resume school students recommendation, the saving things. Malnutrition Population Thesis? Mainly or we can say that the creation of print media is can be split it into three stages production , printing and spondylothesis consumption process not only this this for population thesis, each point along this journey there are large numbers of the industry process in between assessments and safe guard that significantly reduce the some times or we can say that every time reduce the environment impact of print media .just because of the importance in the market of print media is the problem of sustainability is also one of the major issue in lesson essay always their in print media , which is one of the most heavily researched area in the print media sector only insuring that the industry continues the thiong to malnutrition thesis, do every thing in essay offenders power to level malnutrition, an efficient as possible. I would say that prints play a very vital role in inspiring the advertiser and its good for the forest , its eco friendly ,and its better than the other field because iots more convienent in for the advertiser and spondylothesis the company both . Print media is a form of advertising that uses physically is malnutrition population thesis printed media it’s a another sources of printing media. In print these advertisement are the source in print through which they earn like , such as magazines and newspaper to reach consumer, business customers and projects . Advertiser also use digital media for the advertiser such as banner, mobile and lucyk through various other mode, advertiser are the level uses different mode for advertising their ads . Mainly or we can say that the thesis creation of print media is malnutrition population thesis can be split it into three stages production , printing and consumption process not only statements, this this for each point along this journey there are large numbers of the industry process in level malnutrition population thesis between assessments and safe guard that significantly reduce the some times or we can say that every time reduce the environment impact of print media. Print ads are less intrusive than the other form of application essay media radio and television ads are often interrupt programming which are some times be annoying the malnutrition population prospects have greater control with the print media . the print media has greater control as to when she views the ads which eliminates interruption news paper is a thing which can be easily seen by the people any time when ever he or she or anybody gets time not like the electronic media in which you can ionly see the ads when they show you, because in electronic media one ad is fixed for a scheduled so that it can be showed according to time to ucf transfer application essay, time . to look about while printing any advertisement in news paper. Print media is a form of level advertising that uses physically is printed media it’s a another sources of printing media. In print these advertisement are the statements for alcatraz source in population print through which they earn like , such as magazines and newspaper to robert lucyk, reach consumer, business customers and projects . Advertiser also use digital media for the advertiser such as banner, mobile and through various other mode, advertiser are the level population thesis uses different mode for advertising their ads . Print media is a source of advertisement that uses mostly physical printed media because of digital media advertisement the scope of print media advertisement goes slow or declined day by essay offenders day . The proliferation of digital media has led to decline in advertising expenditure in traditional print media Advertiser can buy different different sizes of advertisement, space from small classified ads with text only like from level malnutrition thesis some small classified advertisements like featuring some texts , s photographs illustrations and graphics in different sizes up to the full page or even its sometime double page spread. From over all things we can see and say that media plays a very important role in media industry , yes its trutly shown by resume writing school letter the discussion that because of the arrival of the digital media todays the life of the print media is population thesis comes in dark but still it survive it means today also people are connected with the print that’s why today’s every paper is still survive. and television.

No scene can be captured perfectly without the perfect and adequate process. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. From over all things we can see and say that media plays a very important role in media industry , yes its trutly shown by the discussion that because of the arrival of the digital media todays the life of the resume print media is malnutrition population comes in dark but still it survive it means today also people are connected with the print that’s why today’s every paper is still survive. and television. No scene can be captured perfectly without the essay offenders perfect and malnutrition thesis adequate process. In print media the size and the space covered by the news paper according to application, the consumers wants and the source, in print there are so many option for the reader to reach with different advertiser with the same time , they will gst many sources for the one particular work it’s the better thing different from the digital . In print one more I get to malnutrition thesis, know is in print advertisement orint according to the circulation , research, and surveys if some advertisements which are not able to survived do not print to loose the essay reputation of the paper . At last I conclude that in thesis print work or advertisement is work by seeing the lesson essay revenue earn , or through the circulation and the research. Therefore, the need of proper work with the genuine nature is very crucial for malnutrition, romantic genre and spondylothesis infact for every genre. Through the whole learning I whatever I had learn in publication I came to malnutrition population thesis, the fact that the robert ads posting process in print is very cheaper and covenant process than the level thesis any other field .in print you have so many choices to print your das you can placed your ad according to your wish you can make you ads according to you beautiful by black and white or colored printing , you can show your ad as many time you want, but you cannot follow the same thing with the essay offenders electronic media ,in electronic media they will only show your ads for in a fixed time on rotational way or may one ad weekly that whole thing is depends upon the ads popularity or the revenue the revenue they earn but in print its nothing be like that they repeatedly shown your ads according to your subscription period , and obiously the cost of showing ads is more than thae cost of printing in news paper. So according to me print is better than the electronic in posting ads matter . One more benefit is their in print which is news paper and malnutrition thesis the magazines are the things which you can put on the coffee table so when ever the person get time they easily read it or seen it while in resume writing for high electronic if some ad which shown now after that no body knows that when again that ad will be showing no body knows , so in print its more easy to print your ads . Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Marketing essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on malnutrition thesis, hand, waiting to help you. Robert Lucyk? Each of level population us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and essay offenders we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

Just complete our simple order form and level thesis you could have your customised Marketing work in spondylothesis your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Marketing essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Print media advertising beginning, planning and printing process. . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/marketing/essay-print-media-advertising-beginning-planning-and-printing-process/ [04-10-17].

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Text, Cases Materials on level population Equity and Trusts. In order for lesson essay a settlor to create a valid inter vivos trust of property he owns absolutely, it is necessary both to constitute the trust perfectly and to meet certain statutory requirements. Discuss. Brief summary of the concept of a trust. The need for title to the trust property to be effectively conveyed to malnutrition population, the trustee, if not already present ( Milroy v Lord (1862) ). The statutory requirements for the validity of trusts of certain kinds of property (s 53 of the Law of Property Act 1925). The consequences of imperfect creation (brie?y). The trust is a unique creation of the common law, and one of its most versatile concepts. Moreover, when the ucf transfer essay trustee holds property on trust for the bene?ciary, the trustee is submitting to one of the level malnutrition population thesis most powerful forms of legal obligation known to English law. Resume Writing For High Recommendation Letter. A trustee may well ?nd himself bound by onerous duties, either imposed by the trust instrument, by statute, or by general principles of level population thesis equity, and there are serious consequences awaiting any trustee who neglects his duties or breaches the terms of the trust. Likewise, the trustee is only the mere 'paper' owner of the robert lucyk property and, unless he is population thesis, also a bene?ciary, will derive no bene?t from the trust property.

The trustee holds the ucf transfer application essay trust property 'on trust' for level the bene?ciary for the bene?ciary's use and bene?t, and the trustee may even be prohibited from being paid for his labours (although this will be rare for application professional trustees: see ss 28-30 of the Trustee Act 2000). Necessarily, therefore, there must be clarity and certainty when establishing a trust. It is vital to be clear that the person to whom title to level malnutrition thesis, the property is transferred (or who already possesses it) is indeed bound by a trust and so may not use the property for himself. Similarly, the rights of the spondylothesis bene?ciaries must be established with certainty so that they may be allowed to enforce the trust should the trustee fail to carry out its terms. In other words, the need to population thesis, determine where the real ownership of property lies and the need to be certain about the nature of the ownership of the trustee and bene?ciary requires trusts to be created and evidenced with some measure of formality.

Of course, that is not to say that all trusts must ful?l the same requirements of form before they can be recognised and enforced. After all, it is common in English law for there to be different levels of formality when dealing with different types of property. For example, transactions concerning land - an spondylothesis immovable asset - have traditionally required a higher degree of formality than dealings with other kinds of property. Thesis. Thus, it should come as no surprise to learn that the application essay nature of the property which is to be the subject matter of the trust is malnutrition population, relevant when considering how trusts may be validly created. In considering the creation of trusts, it is important to realise that there are two distinct and separate issues which must be addressed. First, it is inherent in the concept of a trust that the trustee be invested with title to the trust property, either because he is lesson essay, already the owner of that property or because such title has been effectively conveyed to him by the settlor. Level Malnutrition Population. Unless that is the case, the lesson essay trust is said to be incompletely constituted and the bene?ciaries will have no claim on the trust property under the failed trust ( Milroy v Lord (1862) ). Malnutrition Population. A recent innovation created by robert resume the Privy Council involves the level malnutrition population thesis occasion where the settlor appoints multiple owners as trustees, including himself. If he manifests an irrevocable intention to create a trust, his retention of the property will be construed as one of the statements trustees thereby constituting the trust, whether with or without a transfer to the other trustees. The maxim, 'equity regards as done that which ought to be done' will be applicable, see Choithram v Pagarani (2001) . Level. In cases where the trust property needs to be conveyed to a trustee, it is necessary to examine the particular type of trust property in order to determine what must be done in lesson essay order effectively to transfer the population thesis title.

The require­ments will be different for each type of property. Lucyk Resume. Secondly, there are 'external' formality rules, imposed by statute, which regulate the way in which trusts per se can be created. These are to level population thesis, be found in the Law of resume Property Act (LPA) 1925 and they are designed to ensure that the level population thesis creation of writing for high students recommendation letter trusts of certain kinds of property is not open to doubt and to minimise the level malnutrition potential for fraud by the trustee. Failure to ful?l these requirements renders the trust unenforceable, even if title to the property is effectively vested in the trustee (s 53 of the LPA 1925). The ?rst issue is the creation of a trust by establishing that the trustee has title to the property. Once again, a distinction needs to be drawn at the outset between situations where the existing owner of the trust property declares himself to be a trustee (self-declarations) and situations where the existing owner of property wishes to lesson essay, transfer the property to someone else as trustee (transfer and declaration). In the former case, the person who is to be the trustee already has title and, therefore, there is no need to transfer the property.

Consequently, there is no need for malnutrition thesis any formality for resume this aspect of trust creation. Population. All that is needed for an effective declaration of trust - or rather, a declaration by the current owner of himself as trustee - is some clear evidence of lesson essay a present and malnutrition population thesis irrevocable declaration of trust, as in Paul v Constance (1977) , and this evidence may take any form. Indeed, there is no requirement that the declaration of trust ever be communicated to the intended bene?ciary ( Middleton v Pollock (1876) ). So, for example, if A, the owner of a book, declares that 'I now hold this book on trust for B', a trust will be created even if B is unaware of the fact, provided that there are no external formality requirements imposed by statute for the creation of trusts of books (which there are not). It is essay, important to note, however, that for a declaration of trust by the present owner of the property to be effective, the circumstances of the case must not reveal a failed attempt by that owner to create a trust by the transfer of the trust property to another as trustee. In other words, declaration of oneself as trustee requires no formality, because the declarer already owns the property; but such a declaration will not be validly made if the owner had tried and malnutrition population failed to create a trust by the other method - transfer of property to a trustee - especially if that failure is due to a defect in the formality requirements for resume for high recommendation the transfer of that property ( Milroy v Lord (1862) ). The intention to declare oneself a trustee is population thesis, very different from the intention to transfer property to application, another as trustee and level malnutrition population thesis they are mutually exclusive. The second way in which trusts may be created is the effective transfer of essay offenders property to the trustee.

As noted at malnutrition thesis the outset, unless the trustee has title to the property, the spondylothesis trust is incompletely constituted and malnutrition population the bene?ciaries have no enforceable claim to the property under the failed 'trust' ( Jones v Lock (1865) ). Thus, if the owner of property decides to create a trust by transferring that property to someone else as trustee, it is essential that the intended trustee obtains title to the property in lucyk the manner appropriate to level thesis, the type of intended trust property. So, if S (the owner and 'settlor') decides to create a trust of his book by transferring the book to A on trust for B, legal title to the book must be effectively transferred to A if the thesis statements trust is to be constituted and B is to have enforceable rights to it. In reality, then, it is essential to know how title to different types of property may be transferred. Indeed, there is nothing special about the rules we are about to consider, as they are the normal rules applicable to the transfer of title to property whenever and whyever it is conveyed. It is just that, with trusts, the level malnutrition population trustee is receiving the property on behalf of someone else and spondylothesis not for his own use. Typical examples of the formality requirements for the transfer of title in property to a trustee are: a deed or registered disposition for land (unregistered and registered respectively); execution of level malnutrition population a share transfer form and registration as owner for stocks and shares; written assignment for choses in action; and delivery of possession or a deed of gift for personal property. It is ucf transfer application, clear, then, that the particular requirements for the effective transfer of title to a trustee depend upon the nature of the property being transferred and, in this sense, the formality requirements for the creation of a trust are really the malnutrition formality requirements for thesis statements for alcatraz the effective transfer of malnutrition population thesis ownership of property generally. Finally, before considering the 'external' formality requirements for the creation of a trust, it is necessary to consider brie?y one or two exceptions to the general principle just considered. Lesson Essay. First, a trust may be held to have been validly constituted, despite the level population fact that the trustee has not formally received title, if failure to be invested with that title is lesson essay, because of non-compliance with some condition outside the malnutrition thesis control of the settlor or trustee. Thus, in Re Rose (1952) , a trust of shares in a private company was held to be perfectly constituted despite the fact that the legal title of the trustee had not been formally con?rmed at the relevant time by entry in writing letter the share register of the company. This was because transfer of level thesis legal title was by registration in the company's register but its directors had a discretion to refuse such registration and registration had not yet taken place.

Given, then, that complete transfer of legal title was outside the settlor's (and trustee's) control, lack of compli­ance was not destructive of the trust. Resume. Similarly, in Mascall v Mascall (1985) title to registered land was taken to have been effectively transferred by completion of the relevant land transfer form even though registration of that title by the registrar had not yet occurred. Likewise, in Pennington v Waine (2002) , the Court of Appeal decided that the execution and delivery of share transfer forms to an intermediary for the purpose of registering the new owner was suf?cient to transfer the equitable interest. However, it is unclear whether legal title will be taken to have been effectively transferred if subsequent registration (of the private company's shares or registered land) does not take place and so the exception really allows the trust to be constituted in advance of the level malnutrition population thesis time that it technically occurs. Secondly, according to Re Ralli (1964) , it may be immaterial that the trustee acquires title to the trust property in a manner different from that which the settlor originally intended. Application Essay. So, even though the settlor has failed to transfer title to the trustee during his lifetime, if the intended trustee is also the settlor's executor under his will, when the population settlor dies, the robert lucyk executor (and trustee) will obtain legal title by virtue of his position as executor and population thesis the trust will thereby be constituted, albeit in robert lucyk a different manner from that which was intended. Thirdly, there are several other methods by which title to property may be effectively transferred from one person to another without the normal formality rules for that type of level population property being satis?ed. However, these are usually relevant when the transferee obtains the property absolutely and not as trustee - that is, they are used to make gifts, not to perfect trusts. Examples include the principles of donatio mortis causa and the law of proprietary estoppel.

We shall look now at the other major requirement for the valid creation of a trust: the external formality rules imposed by writing for high school students recommendation letter statute. In essence, these rules are necessary to ensure certainty in dealings with certain kinds of property, especially land. In fact, the position in level respect of spondylothesis trusts of property created inter vivos is relatively straight­forward. First, assuming that title to the property is with, or has been transferred to, the trustee, there are no further formal requirements for malnutrition thesis the creation of trusts of personalty (that is, not land or interests in land). So, trusts of property other than land may be created orally or in writing and lesson essay all that is needed is a declaration of self as trustee or an effective transfer of title to another as trustee. Level Malnutrition Thesis. In the case of land, however, the creation of a trust must be 'manifested and thesis proved' in writing. Although the trust does not have to be in writing, there must be written evidence of it, even if that evidence is not contemporaneous with the date of the creation of the trust (s 53(1)(b) of the LPA 1925 and Rouchefoucauld v Boustead (1897) ). Failure to comply with this evidential requirement renders the trust of land unenforceable, although there are exceptions for resulting or constructive trusts of land (s 53(2) of the level population thesis LPA 1925 and Pettitt v Pettitt (1970) ). Likewise, the court may, in exceptional circumstances, allow oral evidence to prove the school recommendation existence of a trust of land if this is necessary to prevent fraud by the trustee, as where the trustee dishonestly claims that there is no trust and that he may keep the property because of an absence of the necessary writing ( Rouchefoucauld v Boustead (1897) ). These, then, are the necessary formalities which must be met before a settlor can create an inter vivos trust of level property which he owns absolutely. Of course, if the trust is by will, then different considerations apply (see s 9 of the Wills Act 1837, as amended) and spondylothesis if the subject matter of the trust is itself an equitable interest (so that the level malnutrition population thesis trustee holds an lesson essay equitable title on trust for thesis another), there may be further formality requirements springing from the requirements of writing found in s 53(1)(c) of the LPA 1925. Finally, it is relevant to note that, in some circumstances, it may be dif?cult to writing for high school recommendation, distinguish between, on the one hand, the creation of a trust of level pure personalty (no writing) or of land (evidenced in writing) and, on the other, the transfer of an equitable interest in personalty or land under a trust which already exists.

The difference is, however, crucial, for the transfer of any equitable interest under an existing trust - be it of personalty or realty - must actually be in writing under s 53(1)(c) of the LPA 1925. As the cases of Grey v IRC (1960) and Vandervell v IRC (1967) demonstrate, such a distinction is not always easy to lesson essay, draw. Note : This question is quite speci?c as it does not require consideration of trusts by will (testamentary trusts) or where the settlor has only level population, a purely equitable interest. Lesson Essay. Under­standing the distinction between creation of trusts by declaration and by transfer of property is malnutrition, important, especially as the methods are mutually exclusive. Analyse the conditions necessary for the creation of valid secret trusts. Are there any signi?cant differences between fully secret trusts and half-secret trusts? Testamentary trusts. Secret trusts as an exception to these formality requirements. Fully secret trusts: apparently absolute gifts and acceptance of the trust obligation. Half-secret trusts: the trust but no bene?ciary; communication and accept­ance rules.

Differences between fully secret and half-secret trusts. According to Pennycuick J in Re Tyler (1967) , the 'particular principles of law applicable to secret trusts are really concerned only with trusts created by will'. By virtue of s 9 of the Wills Act 1837 (as amended), no will shall be valid unless, inter alia , it is in writing and signed by the testator and essay offenders properly witnessed. Further, all wills are public documents and any bequests and devises contained therein may be on view for malnutrition population all the world to see. Naturally, however, there are some testators and testatrices who would rather keep certain legacies secret: perhaps a bequest to a mis­tress, or provision for children of an illicit liaison. The equitable doctrine of secret trusts allows shy testators to make 'private' bequests and so avoid embarrassment to many parties.

In essence, secret trusts are those trusts which, although contained in a will, are valid without the need to resume writing students, satisfy the conditions laid down in s 9 of the Wills Act. Level Population. They allow the testator or testatrix to make such dispositions as he or she pleases without the details being made public, save only to the person who is bound to put into effect those wishes. Secret trusts fall into two categories: fully secret trusts and half-secret trusts. In a fully secret trust, property is lucyk resume, given by will to thesis, a legatee absolutely without mention of any trust: the gift appears to be absolute and there is no trust on the face of the will ( Thynn v Thynn (1684) ). However, at any time during the testator's lifetime, the lesson essay details of a trust and the intended bene?ciaries thereof may have been communicated to the legatee - orally or in writing - and, if the legatee agrees, he will hold the property on trust for level population the 'hidden' bene?ciaries when the testator dies. Both the very existence of the trust and the identity of the bene?ciaries are 'secret'. Of course, the onerous trust obligation cannot be imposed on a legatee of an absolute gift without that person's consent, and so it is essential that the fact of the trust and the details thereof are communicated to the legatee/trustee and accepted by essay him during the tes­tator's lifetime ( McCormick v Grogan (1869) ), although either before or after the date of the will is acceptable ( Wallgrave v Tebbs (1855) ). Moreover, acceptance of the trust obligation by the legatee/trustee can take any form and may even be implied from silence ( Moss v Cooper (1861) ). Once the trustee has accepted the malnutrition population trust obligation, he is thesis for alcatraz, usually barred from receiving any personal bene?t from the legacy, even though it appears to have been given to him absolutely. Thus, if the testator has communicated the fact of the trust to the legatee/trustee, but not the level identity of the bene?ciaries, the trustee will hold the property on trust for those entitled to the residuary estate or the robert resume next of level malnutrition population thesis kin, as the case may be ( Re Boyes (1884) ). The only essay offenders, exception to this is where the fully secret trustee can prove that he or she also was intended to be a bene?ciary under the secret trust, a dif?cult, though not impossible, task ( Irvine v Sullivan (1869) ). Turning now to half-secret trusts, it will be apparent that they are quite distinct from fully secret trusts, both as to the conditions for level malnutrition thesis their validity and in the way they operate. Resume School Students Recommendation. In a half-secret trust, the malnutrition thesis bequest or legacy is essay offenders, given in the will 'on trust' to a trustee, but the identity of the bene?ciaries is not disclosed ( Blackwell v Blackwell (1929) ). In other words, it is clear that the recipient is not entitled to take the gift absolutely, although for whom the trustee holds the property is secret. Crucially, in order for a half-secret trust to be valid - that is, enforceable by the bene?ciaries - the details of the trust must be communicated to the trustee and accepted by him before or contemporaneously with the execution of the will ( Re Bateman (1970) ). Thesis. It is not enough that the identity of the bene?ciaries be communicated at any point prior to the testator's death, although it is suf?cient if the trustee is given exclusive access to this information before the will is made, as where he is handed a sealed envelope or key to a safe at robert resume the relevant time, even if this is not to be opened until after the testator's death ( Re Boyes (1884) ). Similarly, because the level actuality of the trust is declared on the face of the spondylothesis will, a half-secret trust will be invalid if the information communicated to the trustee contradicts the will ( Re Keen (1937) ).

At ?rst sight, then, both fully secret and malnutrition population half-secret trusts appear to application, offer the testator two different routes to achieve the same end: the thesis distribution of testament­ary property to essay offenders, unnamed persons. Of course, the fully secret trust offers more secrecy, because there is no written evidence of a trust at all, but this is not the only difference between the two concepts. We have seen already that there is a major difference in the communication rules for each type of trust, with the half-secret trust suffering from a more stringent requirement. For the fully secret trust, however, the fact that communication may occur at any time before or after the malnutrition population date of the will has important consequences. For example, it is often the case that a testator executes his will many years before his death but the law of fully secret trusts allows him to redirect his property by gaining a legatee's consent to the imposition of a trust for another person at any time after that. Spondylothesis. It is obvious that this is not at all consistent with the policy of the Wills Act 1837 - after all, the testator could have executed an amended will or codicil - and there is a strong case for level malnutrition population preventing the robert misuse of the principles of fully secret trusts in this way. Similarly, there is no Re Keen rule in fully secret trusts that requires the terms of the will and the details of the trust to be consistent although, given that the will says nothing about a trust in the ?rst place, there will always be an inconsistency if the legatee is holding the property for someone else. In addition to these differences concerning the circumstances in which fully secret and malnutrition population thesis half-secret trusts may come into existence, there are differences in the way they operate, not all of them logical or justi?able.

Thus, if a fully secret trustee does not accept the trust obligation, the property remains his under the will because the thesis absolute legacy takes effect. On the other hand, a half-secret trustee, being declared a trustee in the will, is level malnutrition population thesis, forever barred from taking the spondylothesis property and must hold it for the residuary estate ( Re Keen (1937) ). Nor may a half-secret trustee qualify as a bene?ciary under the trust ( Re Rees (1950) ), whereas this appears possible under a fully secret trust ( Irvine v Sullivan (1869) ). Again, if a fully secret trustee dies before the testator, it seems that the trust will fail, being personal to the individual legatee/ trustee ( Re Maddocks (1902) ). This is level malnutrition thesis, not so with a half-secret trust, where equity will intervene on the ground that 'a trust will not fail for want of a trustee' ( Sonley v Clock Makers Company (1780) ), although it is not clear why equity cannot intervene to save a fully secret trust in like manner. Lucyk Resume. The same difference in result appears to exist if the trustee dies or revokes his acceptance of the trust before the testator's death, with the fully secret trust failing (although possibly the fully secret trustee cannot keep the property for himself) and the half-secret trust being supported by the appointment of a new trustee. Similarly, whereas a fully secret trust can be revoked and replaced by a new fully secret trust by the testator at any time up to his death, a half-secret trust can only be revoked prior to death (thus leaving the property held on resulting trust) because it is impossible to communicate details of new bene?ciaries after the will has been executed. Other differences also exist according to the number of trustees and the type of trust property. Thus, legacies to two or more persons in the will as trustees (that is, a half-secret trust) will usually be to them as joint tenants and, therefore, a valid acceptance of the trust obligation by any one of malnutrition population them will bind them all ( Re Stead (1900) ). Lesson Essay. However, in fully secret trusts, if there are two legatees/trustees, the gift in the will may be to them as tenants in common or as joint tenants because they are not declared trustees. If it is to them as tenants in common, only those who actually accept the trust are bound and the others may keep their own share ( Tee v Ferris (1856) ). If, on the other hand, the gift is made to the legatees/trustees as joint ten­ants, an acceptance by any one before the will is made will bind all, irrespective of the wishes of the others, although acceptance after the will binds only those so accepting ( Re Stead (1900) ). Finally, there may well be differences in respect of the additional. formality requirements necessary to establish secret trusts of land, although the issue is shrouded in doubt.

So, while it has been suggested that fully secret trusts of land do not need to comply with s 53(1)(b) of the Law of Property Act (LPA) 1925, and, thus, do not need to be evidenced in writing ( Ottaway v Norman (1972) ), there is clear authority that half-secret trusts of land must meet this requirement ( Re Baillie (1886) ). It is malnutrition population, uncertain whether this is ucf transfer application essay, a justi?able distinction between fully and half-secret trusts of level malnutrition land and there is much to be said for the Ottaway approach, as it seems illogical that a half-secret trust will be valid despite non-compliance with the formalities of the Wills Act 1837, but then fail because of writing for high school lack of compliance with s 53(1)(b) of the LPA 1925. Indeed, it may well be that a half-secret trust of land can avoid being caught by s 53(1)(b) of the LPA 1925 on the ground that 'equity will not permit a statute (s 53) to be an instrument of fraud'. Be that as it may, the point was not fully argued in Ottaway v Norman and an apparent distinction remains. In conclusion, then, although fully secret and half-secret trusts share the same general characteristic of being exempt from the formalities of the Wills Act, they are not so similar when it comes to the conditions necessary for malnutrition population their existence, nor the way in which they operate. Whether this be right or wrong, it is reason enough to spondylothesis, require a distinction to be made between the two concepts. To what extent is it necessary to be able to distinguish between a trust and a power, particularly when considering the need for level population thesis certainty of objects under a discretionary trust or power of appointment?

Trusts and powers in outline: certainty of bene?ciaries. Discretionary trusts. Powers: types of thesis statements for alcatraz powers. Similarities and opportunities for confusion. Differences in subsidiary certainty rules: administrative unworkability and malnutrition population thesis capriciousness.

The essential nature of a private trust is that a trustee will hold property on trust for identi?able bene?ciaries. Save in the case of charities and a small number of exceptional situations, it is not possible to have a trust for a pure purpose. The essential duty imposed upon ucf transfer application essay a trustee is to distribute the trust property according to the wishes of the settlor or testator and in conformity with the terms of the trust, and malnutrition this is a duty which cannot be delegated to an agent or professional adviser: s 11(2) of the Trustee Act 2000. Application Essay. In this, they will be supervised by the court and be subject to level population, suit by any disaffected bene?ciaries: the trust is mandatory and must be carried out. For these reasons, it is for alcatraz, of paramount importance that the objects of the trust - the bene?ciaries - should be readily identi?able. In the language of Lord Langdale in Knight v Knight (1840) , 'every trust must have certain objects'. Malnutrition Population Thesis. In many cases, of course, the bene?ciaries of a trust will be named by the settlor and spondylothesis then there is no doubt that the malnutrition certainty requirement is essay offenders, ful?lled, as where property is left 'on trust for Mr Smith and Mrs Jones'. However, in other cases, the settlor or testator may have decided to identify the bene?ciaries by a class description without naming them individually, as where property is malnutrition thesis, given on trust 'for my relatives' or 'for my friends'.

Clearly, gifts on thesis trust for classes of persons who are not named must also have certain objects, for how else will the trustees know how to carry out the trust and the court be sure that they have done so properly? In similar fashion, the creation of a 'power of appointment' will only be valid if the objects of the power can be ascertained with certainty ( Re Gulbenkian (1970) ). Malnutrition. A power of appointment is literally a power given to thesis statements, a person (who may or may not be a trustee) to decide the level thesis destination of property, often the property of a testator or settlor. Spondylothesis. It is similar to a trust save only that the donee of the power (the person who exercises the power) is not under a duty to distribute the property but has complete freedom whether to do so or not. The power is said to be voluntary, and if it is not exercised the malnutrition population thesis donee of the power may keep the property himself, or the settlor/ testator may have provided for a 'gift over in default of appointment' (that is, a direction as to where the ucf transfer application property should go if the power is not exercised). In general terms, powers of appointment fall into three classes: ?rst, general powers of level appointment, where the donee has power to appoint the property among the whole world, including himself, and so such powers are akin to absolute ownership of the essay offenders property (for example, Re Beatty (decd) (1990) ); secondly, hybrid powers of appoint­ment, where the donee of the power has power to appoint the property among the level malnutrition whole world except a de?ned class of individuals (for example, Re Hay (1981) ); and thirdly, special powers of appointment, where the essay offenders donee has power to appoint the property among a de?ned class of individuals (for example, Re Gulbenkian (1970) ). Obviously, for powers of the second and third type, the excluded or included class of objects of the power must be de?ned with certainty in order that it is possible to decide whether the power has been validly exercised or not. Population Thesis. An example is where the donee has power to appoint 'among his friends' or 'to anyone except his brothers'. There is, then, a fundamental difference in principle between a trust and a power: the spondylothesis former is mandatory and must be carried out, while the latter is voluntary and may go unexecuted. Population Thesis. Unfortunately, in practice, it is resume, very easy to confuse trusts and powers, especially since most powers are given to people who are otherwise trustees and who hold the property itself on trust but have a power (not a trust obligation) over it (being so called '?duciary powers').

In practice, very real problems arise because special powers given to trustees can be virtually indistinguishable from discretionary trusts. A discretionary trust exists where trustees are under a duty to distribute trust property among a class of level population thesis bene?ciaries (which a court will enforce), but have a choice as to lesson essay, which of those bene?ciaries shall actually bene?t and in what proportions. Malnutrition Thesis. However, as we have seen, the donee of the power does not have to make any appointment at all and the court will not compel him to do so. Essay Offenders. In any given case, deciding whether there is a trust or a power - and consequently a duty to distribute or not - depends on the court's construction of the instrument which establishes the arrangement. On this, views can legitimately differ, as in McPhail v Doulton (1971) , where the question of construction as a trust or power went all the way to the House of level malnutrition population Lords. It is now clear that there are crucial differences between a discretionary trust and spondylothesis a power and, although some case law has tended to population, blur the essay offenders distinction somewhat by suggesting that a court might exercise a ?duciary power (one given to a trustee) where the donee is unable or unwilling to level malnutrition population, do so ( Mettoy Pension Trustees Ltd v Evans (1990) ; Re William Makin Sons Ltd (1993) ), it is still important to for alcatraz, be able to distinguish between the two concepts. For example, the scope of the duties of level malnutrition population thesis a trustee under a discretionary trust are wider than those of a donee of a power, even a ?duciary one. Obviously, discretionary trustees must carry out the trust and thesis statements for alcatraz distri­bute the level malnutrition population thesis property, but their duty to consider when and to whom to distribute the resume school property is much wider than that of a donee of a power.

A donee of a ?duciary power has merely to consider from time to time whether to exercise the power, and his survey of the range of objects of the class need not be as extensive as that undertaken by a discretionary trustee ( McPhail v Doulton (1971) ). Indeed, the donee of a pure power (that is, a donee not in a ?duciary position) seems to be under minimal duties, perhaps only to protect those entitled in default of appointment by not exercising the power in malnutrition population favour of anyone outside the class ( Mettoy Pension Trustees Ltd ). In one respect it has been recognised that discretionary trusts and powers of appointment should be subject to the same principles. The House of Lords, in McPhail v Doulton (1971) , decided that the test for deciding whether the objects of resume writing recommendation letter a discretionary trust were suf?ciently certain and the test for deciding whether the malnutrition population objects of robert a power were suf?ciently certain, should be the same, not least because the classi?cation of a disposition as a discretionary trust or a ?duciary power usually turns on ?ne points of construction. It would be inequitable to make their validity (if the tests were different) depend on such subjective issues. Consequently, according to McPhail , the test for certainty of objects of a discretionary trust and population thesis a power is the essay offenders Re Gulbenkian test, formally applicable only to powers: namely, that it must be possible to say with certainty whether any given individual is, or is not, a member of the class of malnutrition population thesis bene?ciaries or objects (the 'given postulant' test). No higher test was. needed for discretionary trusts (as was previously the case: IRC v Broadway Cottages Trust (1955) ) because, even if the ucf transfer application court was called on to execute the discretionary trust, it did not have to divide the trust property equally and did not need to malnutrition population thesis, know all the resume members of the class: that, after all, was not what the settlor intended. The assimilation of the tests for certainty for these two concepts has brought considerable relief to those charged with making the level dif?cult distinction in practice between a discretionary trust and lesson essay a power. Of course, as we have seen, fundamental differences between the concepts remain and there will always be cases where it is important to make the distinction per se . For example, it seems that 'administrative unworkability' cannot invalidate a power in the same way that it can invalidate a discretionary trust, almost certainly because of the less pressing duties of a donee of a power ( R v District Auditor ex p West Yorkshire MC (1986) ). Likewise, if 'capricious­ness' has any application to level population, powers (for example, Re Manisty (1974) ), it is unlikely that it adds anything to the rules concerning discretionary trusts. However, be that as it may, the decision in McPhail should be welcomed because, although there are differences between discretionary trusts and powers, those differences are now related primarily to their operation, not to their validity.

Assess the validity of the following dispositions in the will of Thomas, who died in December 2006: (a) £10,000 to my Aunt Agatha, knowing that she will use the money in order to secure the future of lesson essay my daughters; (b) my houses in Penzance and St Ives on trust for my daughters, Amanda and Barbara, for their lifetimes and thence in equal shares between such of my other kinsfolk now living as may be resident in the county of Cornwall, save only that no person of the Protestant religion shall be entitled to any portion; and. (c) the residue of my estate to my Executors for such of malnutrition my colleagues at work as they shall in essay offenders their discretion think ?t. Thomas worked for population thesis the National Health Service at various hospitals throughout his life, but spent the last 10 years of resume writing his working life in Penzance General Hospital, which was destroyed by ?re just after his retirement in 2004. Certainty of intention: construction of the gift. Certainty of objects: ?xed trusts; conditions precedent. Level Population Thesis. Certainty of objects: trust or power; test for certainty; construing the gift; evidential dif?culties; administrative unworkability. It is a cardinal principle of the law of writing school students equity that a trust may only be valid - that is, enforceable by the bene?ciaries against the trustee - if it has been created with certainty of intention, certainty of subject matter and certainty of objects ( Knight v Knight (1840) ). Along with the bene?ciary principle, these three certainties repre­sent the inherent attributes of a trust. The requirement for certainty of intention (or certainty of words) ensures that the potential trustee of property is clearly placed under a duty to use the property in the way intended by population the settlor or testator.

Such certainty exists where the words used by the settlor or testator reveal the robert lucyk imposition of a trust obligation on the intended trustee as distinct from an intention to transfer the property to that person absolutely. It is what distinguishes a transfer by way of trust from a transfer by way of absolute gift ( Re Conolly (1909) ). The second of the malnutrition thesis three certainties, certainty of subject matter, requires that both the property which is to be the subject matter of the trust ( Palmer v Simmonds (1854) ) and the extent of the intended equitable owners' bene?cial interests ( Boyce v Boyce (1849) ; Re Challoner Club Ltd (1997) ; Margulies v Margulies (2000) ) are certain, or at least capable of being rendered certain. This will ensure that the trustee is aware of the precise scope of his or her duties under the trust. Thirdly, there must be certainty of objects in order that the trustee should know in whose favour he or she must perform the trust, so identifying who may apply to the court should the trustee fail in this duty. The precise requirements of certainty of objects vary for different kinds of trusts and powers but, in all cases, a settlor's or testator's failure to lesson essay, de?ne their objects with suf?cient certainty will mean that the level property is held on resulting trust for the settlor or residuary legatees ( McPhail v Doulton (1971) ). This particular problem concerns various aspects of the 'three certainties', and each limb of Thomas's testamentary disposition will be considered in turn. (a) £10,000 to Aunt Agatha. The issue raised by this disposition is whether the gift of £10,000 to spondylothesis, Aunt Agatha is by way of trust or as an absolute gift - in other words, whether there is suf?cient certainty of intention to create a trust. If a trust is created, then it becomes necessary to consider whether there are any valid objects of the trust and whether they are de?ned with suf?cient certainty. The imposition of a trust over the money requires Thomas to have imposed a mandatory obligation upon Aunt Agatha to carry out his wishes. Level Population. This is purely a matter of construction of the words used ( Lambe v Eames (1871) ), although it is clear that precatory words (words of expression, hope or desire) will not of themselves impose a trust on the recipient of property in the absence of corroborative evidence ( Re Conolly (1909) ). In our case, the words used by Thomas are stronger than preca­tory words: Thomas does not 'hope' or 'wish' that Agatha will carry out his wishes, he.

'knows' that she will. However, it is still not certain that this is enough to constitute a trust obligation. For example, in ucf transfer essay Re Adams and the Kensington Vestry (1884) , a gift 'in full con?dence that . . .' was held to be absolute and not mandatory in the way of a trust, and in Margulies v Margulies (2000) some communications from the testator were mandatory and population some were precatory and resume writing for high school students recommendation letter the court decided that this demon­strated an overall lack of intention to create a trust. On balance, it is likely that the bequest to level malnutrition, Aunt Agatha will be construed as an resume recommendation letter absolute gift, essentially because of the absence of any other indication that this is intended to be a trust. Moreover, even if this disposition were construed to be a trust, there might well be certainty of objects problems. While it is obvious that a trust in favour of 'my daughters' is perfectly certain as to objects, the disposition in this case is level population, 'in order to secure the future of my daughters'. A literal reading of essay offenders this suggests that this is a trust for population purposes connected with Thomas's daughters, and trusts for purposes are void ( Re Endacott (1960) ). Of course, it might be possible to construe the disposition (if it were a trust in the ?rst place) in favour of the daughters per se (compare Re Osoba (1979) ) or as a trust saved by the Re Denley principle. However, these dif?culties in de?ning the objects of the trust precisely only add to the doubts surrounding the lack of certainty of intention (e.g., Re Kayford (1975) ). Consequently, in all probability, this is an absolute gift to Aunt Agatha, who may use the lesson essay property for the bene?t of malnutrition population thesis Thomas's daughters if she chooses, but cannot be compelled to do so ( Lassence v Tierney (1849) ). (b) The houses in lesson essay Penzance and St Ives. It is clear from the wording of the second disposition in Thomas's will that a trust is intended. Although use of the word 'trust' does not always impose a trust in law ( Tito v Waddell (No 2) (1977) ), there is nothing here to suggest otherwise.

Likewise, the subject matter of the trust is certain, always assuming Thomas did own a house in level malnutrition Penzance and St Ives. The problem is, then, one of certainty of objects. Clearly, there is no dif?culty with the spondylothesis life interests given to Thomas's daughters, who are both named. The disposition will operate under the Trusts of Land and Appointment of population thesis Trustees Act 1996, with Amanda and Barbara being given the rights to posses­sion, etc, established by that statute. The problem arises with the class of persons entitled to the reversionary interests, being 'my kinsfolk now living as may be resident in the county of writing school students letter Cornwall' and then subject to an exclusion against any person of the Protestant religion. First, it is necessary to level malnutrition population thesis, determine the nature of the trust affecting the two houses for statements for alcatraz this will help determine whether there is certainty of objects of the reversionary class. The houses are given in equal shares to the 'kinsfolk', etc, and thus Thomas has ?xed in advanced the share of each person within the class. The trustees have no discretion to apportion the trust property among the class but must divide it up equally. This is a ?xed trust and because the court must be able to execute the trust in default of the trustees and divide the property equally, the test of level malnutrition thesis certainty of the lesson essay objects is the 'complete list' test laid down in IRC v Broadway Cottages Trust (1955) . It must be possible to draw up a complete list of all Thomas's 'kinsfolk' who currently reside in the county of Cornwall. This may prove dif?cult, not because of the residence restriction, for that should be easy enough to determine, but because 'kinsfolk' is an population imprecise concept. Resume. It will only be possible to draw up a list of level malnutrition population thesis kinsfolk if we know what 'kinsfolk' actually means.

Such inherent uncertainty in essay offenders the concept used by Thomas to de?ne his class may prove fatal unless the malnutrition population court is prepared to spondylothesis, rede?ne the concept for the trustees in the same way that the Court of Appeal rede?ned 'relatives' in Re Baden (No 2) (1973) . This should not be ruled out since a court of level malnutrition population equity will generally prefer validity to invalidity, especially if the trustees' duties are not otherwise dif?cult to perform evidentially. Finally, even if the court adopts a benevolent attitude to resume, the ?xed trust, there is still the requirement that no person may have a share if he or she is 'of the Protestant religion'. Level Malnutrition Population. Clearly, the point is that 'not being a Protestant' is to be a condition precedent for entry to the class of statements bene?ciaries. Consequently, the scope of the condition precedent must also be certain because, otherwise, it will be impossible to level malnutrition thesis, determine who has been excluded. The test of lesson essay certainty for conditions precedent is that it must be possible to population, say with certainty whether one person would or would not ful?l the condition ( Re Allen (1959) and Re Barlow (1979) ). As is clear from Re Tuck (1978) , a condition precedent related to religion can be regarded as certain under this test although, in that case, a third person was given the task of deciding who fell within the religious condition. Subject then to it being possible to de?ne what quali?es a person as 'a Protestant', the condition precedent will be valid. If the thesis statements ?xed trust for the class fails for other reasons, the level malnutrition thesis validity or not of the condition precedent is irrelevant. (c) The residue of Thomas's estate. The gift of thesis statements for alcatraz residue for 'such of my colleagues at work' raises, once again, the problem of certainty of objects, those objects being de?ned by reference to a class description.

As regards this disposition, it is clear that the executors are given a discretion as to level population, whom from among the class they shall select to essay offenders, receive a portion of the residue, and in what proportions. So, this part of Thomas's will discloses either a discretionary trust for level thesis the class or a special power of appointment given to the trustees to robert, appoint among the class. Of course, the difference is crucial so far as the executors are concerned because, if this is a discretionary trust, they are under a mandatory obligation to make a selection from among the level population thesis class and distribute the property whereas, if this is a power, they may decide not to spondylothesis, distribute and cannot be compelled to do so. Whether this disposition discloses a trust or a power is a matter of construction and, as McPhail v Doulton (1972) shows, the malnutrition thesis distinction is not always easy to draw. In our case, it is important that there is no gift over in default of resume school recommendation appointment, perhaps suggesting that the level malnutrition thesis executors must choose from among the class, although the absence of essay offenders a gift over does not always foretell a trust, since the testator may be content to allow the property to revert to next of kin if the power is not exercised ( Re Weekes (1897) ). On balance, however, given that the gift to this class is already of the residuary estate and consequently the bene?ciaries in default would be dif?cult to identify, we can legitimately surmise that Thomas intended this to be a discretionary trust. Since McPhail v Doulton , the test for certainty of objects of a discretionary trust and a power have been assimilated and, even if this is a power, the test we must apply is whether it is possible to say with certainty whether any given person is, or is thesis, not, a member of the class ( McPhail ). Unfortunately, although this test is easy to state, it is dif?cult to apply because the leading case on its application ( Re Baden (No 2) (1973) ) gives us three alternative approaches. According to Stamp LJ, the test is for alcatraz, satis?ed only if it is possible to say in fact whether any given person is, or is not, a member of the class and this requires both the class to be de?ned with precision and there to be enough evidence available to make positive or negative choices in respect of all potential applicants. Level Malnutrition Population. This is a strict test and if this is the correct approach, it is unlikely that Thomas's disposition will be valid: for example, in view of the ?re at his last place of work, will there be suf?cient employment records to indicate with whom he worked, even if it were possible to say who then quali?ed as a 'colleague'? Secondly, even if we take Sachs LJ's approach, it may not be possible to hold this discretionary trust valid. In his view, the test is for high school, satis?ed if it is possible to say, in theory, whether any given person is, or is not, a member of the class, irrespective of whether there is enough evidence to make such a decision.

The class must be con­ceptually certain in level population thesis the sense that the concept used by the settlor must be precise. The corollary is thesis, that evidential dif?culties will not invalidate a trust because any person who cannot prove that he or she is a member of the class will be deemed to level malnutrition thesis, be outside it. Spondylothesis. However, it is likely that Thomas's disposition cannot satisfy even this less strict version of the 'is or is not' test: that is, the concept of a 'colleague' may be too imprecise to thesis, allow us to say who is lesson essay, or is not within its ambit, even in theory. The only level malnutrition population, hope would be if the court were prepared to lesson essay, reinterpret 'colleague' in some way that made it more certain, perhaps as 'fellow employee' ( Re Baden (No 2) (1973) ). Finally, we come to Megaw LJ who proposed the malnutrition thesis least strict version of the 'is or is not' test, believing it to be satis?ed if it could be said of a substantial number of persons that they were inside the class, even if it could not be said of essay offenders every potential person whether he or she was or not. It may be that Thomas's dispositions would satisfy this version of the test for level population it seems possible to say of many people that they were his 'colleagues', even if we could not say de?nitely of every person who pre­sented themselves whether they were or were not. Unfortunately, however, Megaw LJ's approach does seem at lesson essay variance with that of the House of Lords in McPhail , and it is the view of the 'given postulant' test that is commonly criticised (being vague and imprecise). Level. Most commentators prefer the approach of Sachs LJ. The conclusion is then that Thomas's third disposition fails for uncertainty of objects. It may be that a court would be prepared to rede?ne the concept of 'colleague' so as to make it more certain and statements for alcatraz then apply the 'is or is not' test to the class description so rede?ned (as in Re Baden ), but that cannot be guaranteed. Indeed, even then, the executors face one more hurdle, for it may be that the class of the discretion­ary trust is 'administratively unworkable' and so void for 'secondary uncertainty'. Level Malnutrition Population. This concept was expounded by Lord Wilberforce in McPhail and it is clear from R v District Auditor ex p West Yorkshire MC (1986) that if the settlor or testator stipulates a class so large that the trustees cannot effectively ful?l their duties, nor exercise their discretion properly under a discretionary trust, that trust will fail.

In our case, Thomas's large number of former places of resume writing students recommendation work may bring the class description within this principle. This will be a matter of level thesis judgment, and many people would argue that a trust should not be void for lesson essay administrative unworkability simply because the class is large, but only when this makes it impossible for the trustees to carry out their duties properly. Note: This is a typical problem on the three certainties, with concentration on certainty of objects. When considering certainty of objects, it is important to appreciate that the three versions of the Baden test may cause different results for the validity of the trust or power. All must be considered and Baden should not be regarded as having a clear ratio decidendi . X, who has recently died, made a will in level population 2005 in spondylothesis which he made the level malnutrition population following gifts: (i) £5,000 to C and spondylothesis D upon trust for such charitable or benevolent objects as Z, my trustee shall select. (ii) £250,000 to population thesis, the University of London upon trust to establish and main­tain in perpetuity a School of Law Reform. (iii) £3,000 to lesson essay, the trustees of the South Blankshire Methodist Conference for the promotion of level population physical recreation for Methodists in South Blankshire. Consider whether these gifts are charitable. Gifts devoted exclusively for charitable purposes.

Trusts for the advancement of education. Exemption of essay offenders charities from the malnutrition perpetuity rule - excessive duration principle. Trusts for spondylothesis the promotion of sport. Recreational Charities Act 1958. Public bene?t test. (i) £5,000 to C and D upon trust. Section 1 of the Charities Act 2006 de?nes a charity as any institution which is malnutrition population, established for charitable purposes only and spondylothesis is subject to the jurisdiction of the level population thesis High Court. Section 2 identi?es 13 purposes that are treated as charitable and declares that the institution in question is required to satisfy the public bene?t test. The ?rst question in issue is whether this gift of £5,000 is ucf transfer, charitable.

In the problem, the will transfers '£5,000 to C and D upon trust for such charitable or benevolent objects.' This raises the question as to whether the test for charitable objects is satis?ed. Charitable trusts, like private trusts, are subject to a test of certainty of objects. A charitable trust is subject to level, a unique test for certainty of objects, namely, whether the objects are exclusively charitable. This is af?rmed in s 1(1)(a) of the Charities Act 2006. In other words, if the trust funds may be used solely for charitable purposes the essay offenders test will be satis?ed. Indeed, it is unnecessary for the settlor or testator to specify the charitable objects which are intended to acquire the trust property, provided that the trust instrument manifests a clear intention to devote the funds for 'charitable purposes' the test will be satis?ed.

Referring back to the problem the question in turn concerns the construction of the expression, 'or'. Malnutrition Thesis. If this conjunction is lesson essay, used disjunctively, as is the norm, it would follow that the test for certainty of charitable objects will not be satis?ed for benevo­lent objects that are not charitable are entitled to thesis, bene?t. In Chichester Diocesan Fund v Simpson (1944) , a testator directed his executor to apply the residue of his estate 'for such charitable or benevolent objects' as they may select. The executors assumed that the clause created a valid charitable gift and statements distributed most of the funds to charitable bodies. The court decided that the level population thesis clause did not create charitable gifts and robert resume therefore the thesis gifts were void. A similar result was reached in Attorney General of the Bahamas v Royal Trust (1986) . The effect will be that a resulting trust for the testator's residuary estate will arise. Essay Offenders. There is a possibility that the population thesis court may, on statements for alcatraz construction, decide that the non-charitable purposes are merely incidental to the main charitable purposes, see Verge v Somerville (1924) . However, there is thesis, very little evidence on the facts of the problem that may support this contention. Lesson Essay. Alternatively, the legacy will be valid if the word, 'or' is construed conjunctively in the sense that only population, benevolent objects that are charitable are entitled to bene?t. Again, one would be hard pressed to school recommendation letter, convince a court of such construction.

The court will look at level malnutrition all the circumstances of the application essay case, including the entire will and evidence that exists outside the will, to ascertain the intention of the testator. (ii) £250,000 to the University of level population London upon trust. In this problem, the issue is whether the donation of £250,000 to the University for the stated purpose is charitable. Does the essay offenders gift advance education? The donation is to malnutrition population thesis, the University of London. This clearly is a charitable body that exists to advance education.

If, as is possible, the University is the robert trustee to promote the stated purpose, the level question arises as to whether the stated purpose is charitable? A School of Law Reform within the University exists as a department to undertake the task of examining the extent to which the current law is essay, satisfactory and in appropriate cases to suggest proposals for reform. In the law of charities, education has been inter­preted generously and is not restricted to the classroom mode of disseminating knowledge, but requires some element of instruction or supervision. Thus, research is capable of being construed as the provision of education; see Re Hopkin's Will Trust (1964) . Malnutrition Population Thesis. In McGovern v Attorney General (1981) , a de?nition of advancement of educa­tion by way of research was laid down by Slade J. He posited that the requirements are that: (a) the resume writing for high school students subject matter of the proposed research is a useful object of level population study; and (b) it must be contemplated that the lesson essay knowledge acquired as a result of the research will be disseminated to others; and (c) the malnutrition trust is for the bene?t of the. public, or a suf?ciently important section of the public. It would appear that a school to study the extent to which the law is in a satisfactory state would clearly satisfy the test laid down by Slade J. An additional issue is whether this purpose is political for if that be the case the gift will fail as a charity. Political activities include attempts to change the law and gifts to further the objects of lesson essay political parties.

A trust for political purposes is incapable of subsisting as a charity for the court may not stultify itself by deciding that it is in the public good for the law to population thesis, be changed, see National Anti-Vivisection Society v IRC (1948) , concerning the activities of the stated society and writing school letter McGovern v Attorney General (1981) , where Amnesty International was declared to thesis, be a political organisation. The School exists only to study the extent to which the law is satisfac­tory; it is not designed to lobby Parliament for changes to be introduced. On this basis it is a charitable activity. A further point involves the reference to the school being maintained perpetually. Would this infringe the perpetuity rule? Although charitable trusts, like private trusts, are subject to the rule against remote vesting. Charitable trusts, as distinct from private trusts, are not subject to the rule against excessive duration. Application. Indeed, many charities (schools and universities) continue inde?nitely and rely heavily on perpetual donations. Level Population Thesis. Accordingly, if the purposes are charitable the gift will not fail for spondylothesis infringing the perpetuity rule. (iii) £3,000 to the trustees of the South Blankshire Methodist Conference. The purpose as stated in this problem raises a number of issues.

Is the purpose as declared in the will, namely physical recreation, a charitable activity? In any event, would the malnutrition population public bene?t test be satis?ed? The donation contemplated appears to promote recreation under the guise of advancing religion. In other words the religious element seems to be purely incidental and the real purpose is to promote physical recreation simpliciter . A similar purpose was considered by the court in IRC v Baddeley (1955) . Here the House of Lords decided that the gift was void, as recreational activities or sport are not within the preamble to the Statute of Elizabeth or the 'spirit and intendment of the preamble', see Re Nottage (1895) and IRC v City of Glasgow Police Athletic Association (1953) . Section 2(2)(g) of the Charities Act 2006 includes the advancement of amateur sport within the lucyk list of charitable purposes. However, there is population, little evidence in the will to indicate that the funds are to be used for the promotion of amateur sport. The Recreational Charities Act 1958 was passed in order to clarify the law regarding the provision of recreational activities. Section 1(1) of the lesson essay Act stipulates that the provision of recreational facilities shall be charitable if two criteria are ful?lled, namely: (1) the population thesis public bene?t test is spondylothesis, satis?ed; and (2) the facilities are pro­vided in the interests of social welfare. The 'social welfare' test will be complied with if two conditions are satis?ed as enacted in malnutrition s 1(2). For High Letter. The ?rst requirement is continuous as stipulated in s 1(2)(a). The second requirement may be satis?ed in alternative ways either by proving that the facilities are available to a limited class of objects who have a need for such facilities by population thesis virtue of one or more of the factors enumerated within s 1(2)(b)(i) (such as a youth club or an organised outing for orphaned children) or 'the facilities are available to the entire public' (such as a public swimming pool or a public park) or 'female or male members of the public at large' (women's institutes, etc). These requirements are referred to as the 'basic conditions' (see s 2A of the 1958 Act as amended by thesis the Charities Act 2006).

In Guild v IRC (1992) , the court decided that the test today is whether the level malnutrition population thesis facilities are provided with the purpose of improving the conditions of life of the bene?ciaries, irrespective of whether the school recommendation letter participating members of society are disadvantaged or not. In short, the material issue concerns the nature of the facilities rather than the status of the level malnutrition population participants. On this basis a strong case could be made out that the activities contemplated are within the Recreational Charities Act 1958. The de?nitive issue in this problem is whether the resume for high school students letter public bene?t test will be satis?ed. The public bene?t test is used to distinguish a public trust from level thesis, a private trust. A public trust is required to exist for the bene?t of the public (the community) or an appreciable section of society. A unique application of this test is reserved for essay trusts for malnutrition the relief of poverty. The test of public bene?t is adopted in ss 2 and 3 of the Charities Act 2006.

Section 3(3) of the Act endorses the common law approach to the public bene?t test that existed prior to the introduction of the 2006 Act. The satisfaction of the test is a question of law for the judge to decide on the evidence submitted to the court. In IRC v Baddeley (1955) the court decided that the test will not be satis?ed where the intended bene?ciaries comprise a class within a class. Essay Offenders. The facts of the problem refer to Methodists (a class) in South Blankshire (another class). In addition, the bene?ciaries must not be numerically negligible and comprise a suf?cient section of the community to be treated as charitable.

These are ?exible questions for the court to decide.

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Level Malnutrition Population Thesis …

1 Oracle Text SQL Statements and Operators. This chapter describes the SQL statements and Oracle Text operators for level, creating and managing Text indexes and performing Text queries. The following statements are described in this chapter: This section describes the ALTER INDEX statement as it pertains to managing a Text domain index. For a complete description of the ALTER INDEX statement, see Oracle Database SQL Reference . Resume Writing Students Letter! Use ALTER INDEX to make changes to, or perform maintenance tasks for a CONTEXT , CTXCAT , or CTXRULE index. All Index Types. Use ALTER INDEX to level population perform the following tasks on all Oracle Text index types: Rename the essay, index or index partition.

See ALTER INDEX RENAME Syntax. Rebuild the index using different preferences. Some restrictions apply for the CTXCAT index type. Level Malnutrition Population Thesis! See ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax. CONTEXT and CTXRULE Index Types. Robert! Use ALTER INDEX to perform the level population thesis, following tasks on ucf transfer application essay, CONTEXT and CTXRULE index types: Resume a failed index operation (creation/optimization). Add sections and stop sections to the index.

Replace index metadata. ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax to thesis learn more about thesis statements, performing these tasks. Overview of thesis, ALTER INDEX Syntax. The syntax for ALTER INDEX is fairly complex. The major divisions are covered in the following sections: ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS Syntaxuse this to modify the lesson essay, parameters of a non-partitioned index, or to modify all partitions of a local partitioned index, without rebuilding the index.

ALTER INDEX RENAME Syntaxuse this to rename an index or index partition. Level Malnutrition Thesis! ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntaxuse this to rebuild an index or index partition. Ucf Transfer Essay! With this command, you can also replace index metadata; add stopwords, sections, and stop sections to malnutrition thesis an index; and resume a failed operation. The parameters for ALTER INDEX REBUILD have their own syntax, which is a subset of the syntax for ALTER INDEX . Thesis For Alcatraz! For example, the ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS command can take either REPLACE or RESUME as an argument, and ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS ('REPLACE') can take several arguments. Valid examples of ALTER INDEX REBUILD include the following statements: ALTER INDEX MODIFY PARTITION Syntax. Use the following syntax to modify the metadata of an index partition: Specify the malnutrition population, name of the index whose partition metadata you want to modify. Specify the name of the index partition whose metadata you want to modify. The only writing letter valid argument here is ' REPLACE METADATA '. Malnutrition Population Thesis! This follows the same syntax as ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARTITION PARAMETERS ('REPLACE METADATA') ; refer to the REPLACE METADATA subsection of the ucf transfer application essay, ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax section for more information. (The two commands are equivalent.

ALTER INDEX MODIFY PARTITION is offered for ease of use, and level malnutrition population thesis is the lesson essay, recommended syntax.) ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS Syntax. Use the following syntax for modifying the parameters of a either non-partitioned or local partitioned indexes, without rebuilding the index. For partitioned indexes, this command works at malnutrition the index level, not at the partition level. This command changes information for statements for alcatraz, the entire index, including all partitions. Malnutrition Population Thesis! ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS accepts the essay offenders, following arguments for paramstring ; Replaces current metadata. Refer to the REPLACE METADATA subsection of the ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax section for more information.

Dynamically adds a stopword to an index. Refer to the ADD STOPWORD subsection of the ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax section for more information. ' ADD FIELD SECTION ' Dynamically adds a field section to an index. Refer to the ADD FIELD subsection of the ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax section for more information. ' ADD ZONE SECTION ' Dynamically adds a zone section to level population thesis an index. Refer to lesson essay the ADD ZONE subsection of the ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax section for more information. Population Thesis! ' ADD ATTR SECTION ' Dynamically adds an attribute section to an index Refer to thesis statements the ADD ATTR subsection of the ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax section for more information.

Each of the above commands has an equivalent ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS version. For example, ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS ('REPLACE METADATA') is equivalent to ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS ('REPLACE METADATA') . However, the ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS versions work on either partitioned or non-partitioned indexes, whereas the ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS versions work only on non-partitioned indexes. ALTER INDEX RENAME Syntax. Use the malnutrition population, following syntax to rename an index or index partition: Specify the name of the index to rename. Specify the new name for essay offenders, schema.index. The new_index_name parameter can be no more than 25 bytes, and level malnutrition thesis 21 bytes for a partitioned index. If you specify a name longer than 25 bytes (or longer than 21 bytes for a partitioned index), then Oracle Text returns an spondylothesis, error and the renamed index is malnutrition thesis no longer valid. When new_index_name is more than 25 bytes (21 for local partitioned index) and less than 30 bytes, Oracle Text renames the index, even though the spondylothesis, system returns an error. To drop the index and associated tables, you must drop new_index_name with the DROP INDEX statement and then re-create and drop index_name . Specify the level malnutrition population thesis, name of the index partition to rename.

Specify the new name for partition. ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax. Use ALTER INDEX REBUILD to rebuild an index, rebuild an index partition, resume a failed operation, replace index metadata, add stopwords to an index, or add sections and stop sections to robert lucyk an index. ALTER INDEX REBUILD has its own sub-syntax. That is, its parameters have their own syntax.

For example, the ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS command can take either REPLACE or RESUME as an level population thesis, argument, and robert lucyk ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS ('REPLACE') has several arguments it can take. Valid examples of ALTER INDEX REBUILD include the following statements: This is the syntax for ALTER INDEX REBUILD : Rebuilds the malnutrition thesis, index partition partname . Only one index partition can be built at a time. When you rebuild a partition you can specify only RESUME or REPLACE in paramstring. These operations work only on the partname you specify. With the REPLACE operation, you can only specify MEMORY and STORAGE for each index partition. Adding Partitions To add a partition to the base table, use the ALTER TABLE SQL statement. When you add a partition to an indexed table, Oracle Text automatically creates the metadata for robert lucyk, the new index partition. The new index partition has the same name as the new table partition. Change the index partition name with ALTER INDEX RENAME . Level! Splitting or Merging Partitions Splitting or merging a table partition with ALTER TABLE renders the index partition(s) invalid. You must rebuild them with ALTER INDEX REBUILD . ONLINE enables you to spondylothesis continue to level malnutrition perform updates, inserts, and deletes on a base table.

It does not enable you to query the base table. You can specify REPLACE or RESUME when rebuilding an index or an index partition ONLINE . Optionally specify paramstring . If you do not specify paramstring , then Oracle Text rebuilds the application, index with existing preference settings. The syntax for paramstring is as follows: Rebuilds an index. You can optionally specify preferences: your own or system-defined. You can only replace preferences that are supported for that index type. For instance, you cannot replace index set for a CONTEXT or CTXRULE index. Similarly, for level thesis, the CTXCAT index type, you can replace lexer, wordlist, storage index set, and thesis statements memory preferences.

POPULATE is the default and does not need to level be specified. Lesson Essay! If you want to empty the index of its contents, then specify NOPOPULATE . Clear an index of population thesis, its contents when you need to rebuild your index incrementally. The NOPOPULATE choice is available for ucf transfer application essay, a specific partition of the index, and not just for level malnutrition population, the entire index. If you are rebuilding a partitioned index with REPLACE , then you can only specify STORAGE , MEMORY , and NOPOPULATE . Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements for more information about lesson essay, creating and setting preferences, including information about system-defined preferences. Replaces the existing preference class settings, including SYNC parameters, of the index with the settings from new_preference . Only index preferences and level population attributes are replaced. The index is not rebuilt. This command is useful for when you want to replace a preference and students recommendation letter its attribute settings after the index is built, without reindexing all data. Reindexing data can require significant time and computing resources. This command is level also useful for changing the type of SYNC , which can be automatic, manual, or on-commit. ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETER ('REPLACE METADATA') does not work for a local partitioned index at the global level for the index. You cannot, for example, use this syntax to change a global preference, such as filter or lexer type, without rebuilding the index.

Use ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS instead to change the spondylothesis, metadata of an index at the global level, including all partitions. Refer to ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS Syntax. When should I use the METADATA keyword? REPLACE METADATA should be used only when the malnutrition population thesis, change in ucf transfer index metadata will not lead to an inconsistent index, which can lead to incorrect query results. For example, use this command in the following instances: To go from a single-language lexer to a multi-lexer in anticipation of multilingual data. For an example, see Replacing Index Metadata: Changing Single-lexer to level Multi-lexer.

To change the WILDCARD_MAXTERMS setting in BASIC_WORDLIST. To change the type of spondylothesis, SYNC , which can be automatic, manual, or on-commit. These changes are safe and will not lead to an inconsistent index that might adversely affect your query results. The REPLACE METADATA command can result in inconsistent index data, which can lead to incorrect query results. As such, Oracle does not recommend using this command, unless you carefully consider the effect it will have on the consistency of your index data and subsequent queries. There can be many instances when changing metadata can result in malnutrition population inconsistent index data. For example, Oracle recommends against using the METADATA keyword after doing the spondylothesis, following procedures: Changing the USER_DATASTORE procedure to malnutrition thesis a new PL/SQL stored procedure that has different output. Lesson Essay! Changing the BASIC_WORDLIST attribute PREFIX_INDEX from NO to YES because no prefixes have been generated for already-existing documents. Changing it from YES to NO is level population thesis safe. Adding or changing BASIC_LEXER printjoin and skipjoin characters, because new queries with these characters would be lexed differently from how these characters were lexed at spondylothesis index time.

In these unsafe cases, Oracle recommends rebuilding the index. REPLACE [METADATA] SYNC (MANUAL | EVERY interval-string | ON COMMIT) Specify SYNC for automatic synchronization of the CONTEXT index when a DML change has occurred to the base table. You can specify one of the thesis, SYNC methods shown in Table 1-1, ALTER INDEX Sync Methods. Lesson Essay! Table 1-1 ALTER INDEX Sync Methods. No automatic synchronization. This is the default. Malnutrition! You must manually synchronize the index with CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX . Use MANUAL to disable ON COMMIT and EVERY synchronization. Automatically synchronize the index at a regular interval specified by statements for alcatraz, the value of population, interval-string . interval-string takes the same syntax as that for scheduler jobs.

Automatic synchronization using EVERY requires that the index creator have CREATE JOB privileges. Make sure that interval-string is set to students a long enough period so that any previous sync jobs will have completed. Otherwise, the sync job may hang. interval-string must be enclosed in double quotes ('' ''). Synchronize the index immediately after a commit. The commit does not return until the sync is level complete. Essay Offenders! (Because the synchronization is population thesis performed as a separate transaction, there may be a time period, usually small, when the data is committed but index changes are not.) The operation uses the application, memory specified with the memory parameter.

Note that the sync operation has its own transaction context. If this operation fails, the data transaction still commits. Index synchronization errors are logged in the CTX_USER_INDEX_ERRORS view. See Viewing Index Errors under CREATE INDEX . Each partition of a locally partitioned index can have its own type of malnutrition population thesis, sync: ( ON COMMIT , EVERY , or MANUAL ). The type of sync specified in master parameter strings applies to all index partitions unless a partition specifies its own type. With automatic ( EVERY ) synchronization, you can specify memory size and parallel synchronization. The syntax is: ON COMMIT synchronizations can only be executed serially and at the same memory size as what was specified at index creation. This command rebuilds the index. When you want to change the SYNC setting without rebuilding the essay offenders, index, use the REBUILD REPLACE METADATA SYNC (MANUAL | ON COMMIT) operation. This parameter enables you to turn the TRANSACTIONAL property on or off.

For more information, see TRANSACTIONAL. Using this parameter only succeeds if there are no rows in level thesis the DML pending queue. Therefore, you may need to sync the index before issuing this command. To turn on the TRANSACTIONAL index property: To turn off the essay, TRANSACTIONAL index property: RESUME [MEMORY memsize ] Resumes a failed index operation. You can optionally specify the amount of malnutrition thesis, memory to essay offenders use with memsize . This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to CONTEXT and CTXRULE indexes. Level Malnutrition! It does not apply to CTXCAT indexes. This ALTER INDEX operation will not be supported in future releases.

To optimize your index, use CTX_DDL.OPTIMIZE_INDEX. Optimizes the thesis for alcatraz, index. Specify token , fast, or full optimization. You typically optimize after you synchronize the index. When you optimize in token mode, Oracle Text optimizes only index_token . Use this method of optimization to quickly optimize index information for specific words. When you optimize in fast mode, Oracle Text works on the entire index, compacting fragmented rows. However, in fast mode, old data is not removed. When you optimize in full mode, you can optimize the whole index or a portion. This method compacts rows and removes old data (deleted rows).

Optimizing in full mode runs even when there are no deleted document rows. This is useful when you need to optimize time-limited batches with the maxtime parameter. Use the maxtime parameter to specify in malnutrition population minutes the lucyk, time Oracle Text is to spend on the optimization operation. Oracle Text starts the optimization where it left off and optimizes until complete or until the time limit has been reached, whichever comes first. Specifying a time limit is malnutrition population thesis useful for automating index optimization, where you set Oracle Text to optimize the index for a specified time on lesson essay, a regular basis. When you specify maxtime unlimited , the entire index is optimized. This is the default.

When you specify 0 for maxtime , Oracle Text performs minimal optimization. Level Malnutrition! Log the progress of optimization by resume writing for high school students, writing periodic progress updates to the CTX_OUTPUT log. An event for CTX_OUTPUT.ADD_EVENT , called CTX_OUTPUT.EVENT_OPT_PRINT_TOKEN , prints each token as it is being optimized. This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to CONTEXT and malnutrition population thesis CTXRULE indexes. It does not apply to CTXCAT indexes. This ALTER INDEX operation will not be supported in future releases. To synchronize your index, use CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX. Synchronizes the index. You can optionally specify the amount of runtime memory to use with memsize . Writing For High Students! Synchronize the index when you have DML operations on your base table.

This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to CONTEXT and level malnutrition CTXRULE indexes. Spondylothesis! It does not apply to CTXCAT indexes. Memory Considerations The memory parameter memsize specifies the malnutrition population thesis, amount of memory Oracle Text uses for the ALTER INDEX operation before flushing the index to disk. Specifying a large amount of memory improves indexing performance because there is less I/O and statements improves query performance and maintenance because there is less fragmentation. Specifying smaller amounts of memory increases disk I/O and index fragmentation, but might be useful if you want to track indexing progress or when run-time memory is scarce. ADD STOPWORD word [language language ] Dynamically adds a stopword word to the index. Index entries for level malnutrition population, word that existed before this operation are not deleted. However, subsequent queries on word are treated as though it has always been a stopword. Essay Offenders! When your stoplist is malnutrition thesis a multi-language stoplist, you must specify language . Spondylothesis! The index is not rebuilt by this statement. ADD ZONE SECTION section_name tag tag.

Dynamically adds the zone section section_name identified by tag to the existing index. The added section section_name applies only to documents indexed after this operation. For the change to take effect, you must manually re-index any existing documents that contain the tag. The index is not rebuilt by this statement. This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to CONTEXT and CTXRULE indexes. Level Malnutrition Population Thesis! It does not apply to ctxcat indexes. Dynamically adds the field section section_name identified by tag to the existing index. Essay Offenders! Optionally specify VISIBLE to make the field sections visible. Level Thesis! The default is INVISIBLE . School Recommendation! CTX_DDL.ADD_FIELD_SECTION for more information on visible and level invisible field sections. The added section section_name applies only to documents indexed after this operation.

For the resume writing for high school recommendation letter, change to affect previously indexed documents, you must explicitly re-index the documents that contain the tag. This statement does not rebuild the index. This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to CONTEXT CTXRULE indexes. It does not apply to CTXCAT indexes. Dynamically adds an attribute section section_name to the existing index.

You must specify the XML tag and attribute in the form [email protected] . You can add attribute sections only to XML section groups. The added section section_name applies only to malnutrition population documents indexed after this operation. Thus for the change to take effect, you must manually re-index any existing documents that contain the tag. Essay Offenders! The index is not rebuilt by this statement. Level Malnutrition! This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to CONTEXT CTXRULE indexes. It does not apply to CTXCAT indexes. Dynamically adds the stop section identified by tag to the existing index.

As stop sections apply only to automatic sectioning of XML documents, the index must use the AUTO_SECTION_GROUP section group. The tag you specify must be case sensitive and unique within the automatic section group or else ALTER INDEX raises an error. The added stop section tag applies only to documents indexed after this operation. For the change to affect previously indexed documents, you must explicitly re-index the documents that contain the writing recommendation letter, tag. The text within a stop section is malnutrition thesis always searchable. The number of stop sections you can add is unlimited. The index is not rebuilt by this statement. Spondylothesis! This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to CONTEXT indexes. Population! It does not apply to CTXCAT indexes. Ucf Transfer Application Essay! Optionally specify with n the parallel degree for parallel indexing. Level Malnutrition Population Thesis! This parameter is supported only when you use SYNC , REPLACE , and RESUME in paramstring . The actual degree of spondylothesis, parallelism might be smaller depending on your resources.

Parallel indexing can speed up indexing when you have large amounts of data to index and when your operating system supports multiple CPUs. ALTER INDEX Examples. Resuming Failed Index. The following statement resumes the indexing operation on newsindex with 2 megabytes of memory: Rebuilding an Index. The following statement rebuilds the index, replacing the stoplist preference with new_stop . Level Malnutrition Population Thesis! Rebuilding a Partitioned Index.

The following example creates a partitioned text table, populates it, and creates a partitioned index. It then adds a new partition to the table and then rebuilds the index with ALTER INDEX as follows: The following statement rebuilds the resume, index in the newly populated partition. In general, the index partition name for a newly added partition is the same as the table partition name, unless the name has already been used. In this case, Oracle Text generates a new name. The following statement queries the table for the two hits in level the newly added partition: Replacing Index Metadata: Changing Single-lexer to Multi-lexer. The following example demonstrates how an application can migrate from single-language documents (English) to robert resume multi-language documents (English and Spanish) by replacing the index metadata for the lexer. Optimizing the Index. To optimize your index, use CTX_DDL.OPTIMIZE_INDEX. Synchronizing the Index. Level Malnutrition Population! To synchronize your index, use CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX.

Adding a Zone Section. To add to the index the lucyk resume, zone section author identified by the tag author , enter the following statement: Adding a Stop Section. To add a stop section identified by tag fluff to the index that uses the AUTO_SECTION_GROUP , enter the following statement: Adding an Attribute Section. Assume that the following text appears in an XML document: and that you want to create a separate section for the title attribute and level population thesis you want to name the new attribute section booktitle . Spondylothesis! To do so, enter the following statement: Using Flashback Queries. Malnutrition! If a Text query is school students recommendation letter flashed back to a point before an ALTER INDEX statement was issued on the Text index for malnutrition population thesis, which the query is being run, then: The query optimizer will not choose the index access path for statements, that given index because the index is treated according to population its creation time with ALTER INDEX . Application! Therefore, to the query optimizer, the index is perceived not to exist. The functional processing of the population thesis, Text operator will fail with ORA-01466 or ORA-08176 errors if the ALTER INDEX statement involves re-creation of DR$ index tables.

To work around this issue, use the DBMS_FLASHBACK package. Spondylothesis! For example: In previous releases, flashback Text queries using AS OF predicates with Text operators such as CONTAINS and CATSEARCH are not supported. Using DBMS_FLASHBACK Package in Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals. Add Section Constraints. Before altering the index section information, Oracle Text checks the new section against malnutrition thesis, the existing sections to lesson essay ensure that all validity constraints are met. These constraints are the same for adding a section to a section group with the CTX_DDL PL/SQL package and are as follows:

You cannot add zone, field, or stop sections to level thesis a NULL_SECTION_GROUP . You cannot add zone, field, or attribute sections to an automatic section group. You cannot add attribute sections to anything other than XML section groups. You cannot have the same tag for two different sections. Section names for zone, field, and resume attribute sections cannot intersect. You cannot exceed 64 fields per section. You cannot add stop sections to basic, HTML, XML, or news section groups. SENTENCE and PARAGRAPH are reserved section names. ALTER TABLE: Supported Partitioning Statements. This section describes the ALTER TABLE statement as it pertains to adding and modifying a partitioned text table with a context domain index. For a complete description of the ALTER TABLE statement, see Oracle Database SQL Reference . Use ALTER TABLE to add, modify, split, merge, exchange, or drop a partitioned text table with a context domain index. The following sections describe some of the ALTER TABLE operations.

Modify Partition Syntax. Unusable Local Indexes. Malnutrition Population! Marks the resume for high letter, index partition corresponding to the given table partition UNUSABLE . You might mark an malnutrition population thesis, index partition unusable before you rebuild the index partition as described in Rebuild Unusable Local Indexes. If the index partition is not marked unusable, then the rebuild command returns without actually rebuilding the for alcatraz, local index partition. Level Population! Rebuild Unusable Local Indexes. Rebuilds the index partition corresponding to the specified table partition that has an UNUSABLE status. If the index partition status is already VALID before you enter this command, then this command does not rebuild the robert lucyk resume, index partition. Level Malnutrition Population Thesis! Do not depend on this command to rebuild the application, index partition unless the index partition status is UNUSABLE . Add Partition Syntax. Adds a new partition to level population the high end of resume students recommendation letter, a range partitioned table. To add a partition to the beginning or to the middle of the table, use ALTER TABLE SPLIT PARTITION . The newly added table partition is always empty, and the context domain index (if any) status for this partition is level malnutrition always VALID . After doing DML, if you want to synchronize or optimize this newly added index partition, then you must look up the index partition name and enter the ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARTITION statement. For this newly added partition, index partition name is spondylothesis usually the level thesis, same as the table partition name, but if the table partition name is already used by another index partition, the for alcatraz, system assigns a name in level malnutrition thesis the form of SYS_Pn . Thesis! By querying the malnutrition thesis, USER_IND_PARTITIONS view and comparing the HIGH_VALUE field, you can determine the index partition name for the newly added partition.

Merge Partition Syntax. Applies only to a range partition. Ucf Transfer Application Essay! This command merges the contents of two adjacent partitions into a new partition and level malnutrition population then drops the spondylothesis, original two partitions. If the resulting partition is non-empty, then the corresponding local domain index partition is marked UNUSABLE . You can use ALTER TABLE MODIFY PARTITION to rebuild the partition index. For a global, non-partitioned index, if you perform the merge operation without an UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause, then the resulting index (if not NULL ) will be invalid and must be rebuilt. If you specify the level, UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause after the operation and lesson essay the sync type is manual, then the index will be valid, but you will still need to synchronize the index with CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX for the update to take place. The naming convention for the resulting index partition is the same as in level thesis ALTER TABLE ADD PARTITION . Split Partition Syntax. Applies only to range partition. This command divides a table partition into two partitions, thus adding a new partition to the table.

The local corresponding index partitions will be marked UNUSABLE if the corresponding table partitions are non-empty. Use ALTER TABLE MODIFY PARTITION to lucyk resume rebuild the partition indexes. For a global, non-partitioned index, if you perform the split operation without an UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause, then the resulting index (if not NULL ) will be invalid and must be rebuilt. If you specify the UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause after the operation and the sync type is manual, then the malnutrition population thesis, index will be valid, but you will still need to synchronize the index with CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX for the update to take place. Resume School Students Letter! The naming convention for the two resulting index partition is the same as in ALTER TABLE ADD PARTITION . Exchange Partition Syntax. Converts a partition to a non-partitioned table, and level population converts a table to a partition of a partitioned table by exchanging their data segments.

Rowids are preserved. If EXCLUDING INDEXES is specified, all the context indexes corresponding to the partition and all the indexes on the exchanged table are marked as UNUSABLE . To rebuild the new index partition in this case, enter ALTER TABLE MODIFY PARTITION . If INCLUDING INDEXES is specified, then for every local domain index on the partitioned table, there must be a non-partitioned domain index on the non-partitioned table. Spondylothesis! The local index partitions are exchanged with the corresponding regular indexes. For a global, non-partitioned index, if you perform the level, exchange operation without an resume, UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause, then the resulting index (if not NULL ) will be invalid and must be rebuilt. If you specify the UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause after the operation and the sync type is manual, then the level malnutrition thesis, index will be valid, but you will still need to synchronize the robert, index with CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX for thesis, the update to for high students letter take place. Field section queries might not work the same if the non-partitioned index and local index use different section IDs for level, the same field section. Storage is not changed. So if the index on the non-partitioned table $I table was in tablespace XYZ, then after the exchange partition, it will still be in tablespace XYZ, but now it is the $I table for an index partition. Resume Students Letter! Storage preferences are not switched, so if you switch and then rebuild the index, then the table may be created in a different location. Both indexes must be equivalent.

They must use the same objects and the same settings for each object. Note that Oracle Text only checks that the indexes are using the level population, same object. Spondylothesis! But they should use the same exact everything. No index object can be partitioned, that is, when the user has used the storage object to partition the $I, $N tables. If either index or index partition does not meet all these restrictions an error is raised and both the index and index partition will be INVALID . The user needs to manually rebuild both index and level malnutrition population index partition using ALTER INDEX REBUILD . Truncate Partition Syntax. Removes all rows from a partition in lesson essay a table. Corresponding CONTEXT index partitions are also removed. For a global, non-partitioned index, if you perform the malnutrition thesis, truncate operation without an UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause, then the resulting index (if not NULL ) will be invalid and must be rebuilt. If you specify the UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause after the operation, the index will be valid.

ALTER TABLE Examples. Global Index on Partitioned Table Examples. The following example creates a range-partitioned table with three partitions. Each partition is spondylothesis populated with two rows. A global, non-partitioned CONTEXT index is then created. To demonstrate the UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause, the population thesis, partitions are split and merged with an index synchronization. Use the robert, CATSEARCH operator to population search CTXCAT indexes. Use this operator in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement. The CATSEARCH operator also supports database links. You can identify a remote table or materialized view by appending @dblink to the end of resume school, its name. The dblink must be a complete or partial name for a database link to the database containing the remote table or materialized view. (Indexing of remote views is not supported.) The grammar of this operator is called CTXCAT . You can also use the CONTEXT grammar if your search criteria requires special functionality, such as thesaurus, fuzzy matching, proximity searching or stemming.

To utilize the CONTEXT grammar, use the Query Template Specification in level malnutrition the text_query parameter as described in this section. Use the CATSEARCH operator with a CTXCAT index mainly to improve mixed query performance. Specify your text query condition with text_query and your structured condition with structured_query . Internally, Oracle Text uses a combined b-tree index on text and structured columns to quickly produce results satisfying the query. If the optimizer chooses to use the functional query invocation, then your query will fail. The optimizer might choose functional invocation when your structured clause is highly selective. The structured_query argument of the CATSEARCH operator must reference columns used during CREATE INDEX sets; otherwise, error DRG-10845 will be raised.

For example, the writing school recommendation letter, error will be raised if you issue a CATSEARCH query on a view created on top of a table with CTXCAT index on thesis, it, and the name of the logical column on the view is lesson essay different from the actual column name on the physical table. The columns referenced by the structured_query argument of CATSEARCH operator must be the physical column name used during CREATE INDEX sets, not the logical column on the view. Malnutrition! Specify the text column to be searched on. This column must have a CTXCAT index associated with it. Writing For High Students! Specify one of the following to define your search in column . CATSEARCH query operations. The CATSEARCH operator supports only the following query operations: The following table provides the syntax for these operators. Table 1-2 CATSEARCH Query Operators. Level Thesis! Returns rows that contain a, b and c. Thesis For Alcatraz! Returns rows that contain a, b, or c.

Returns rows that contain a and not b. Hyphen with no space. Level Thesis! Hyphen treated as a regular character. For example, if the hyphen is defined as skipjoin, words such as web-site are treated as the single query term website . Likewise, if the spondylothesis, hyphen is defined as a printjoin, words such as web-site are treated as web-site in the CTXCAT query language. Level Malnutrition! Returns rows that contain the phrase a b c. For example, entering Sony CD Player means return all rows that contain this sequence of words. Parentheses group operations. This query is equivalent to the CONTAINS query (A B) | C. (right and double truncated) The wildcard character matches zero or more characters. Lesson Essay! For example, do* matches dog , and gl*s matches glass . Left truncation not supported. Note: Oracle recommends that you create a prefix index if your application uses wildcard searching. Set prefix indexing with the BASIC_WORDLIST preference. The following limitations apply to these operators: The left-hand side (the column name) must be a column named in at least one of the indexes of the index set.

The left-hand side must be a plain column name. Functions and expressions are not allowed. The right-hand side must be composed of literal values. Functions, expressions, other columns, and malnutrition subselects are not allowed. Multiple criteria can be combined with AND . Lesson Essay! Note that OR is not supported.

When querying a remote table through a database link, the database link must be specified for CATSEARCH as well as for the table being queried. For example, these expressions are supported: And these expressions are not supported: Query Template Specification. Malnutrition Population Thesis! Specify a marked-up string that specifies a query template. Specify one of the spondylothesis, following templates: Query rewrite, used to malnutrition expand a query string into different versions. Lesson Essay! Progressive relaxation, used to progressively enter less restrictive versions of a query to increase recall. Alternate grammar, used to specify CONTAINS operators (See CONTEXT Query Grammar Examples) Alternate language, used to malnutrition specify alternate query language. Alternate scoring, used to specify alternate scoring algorithms. The text_query parameter description for CONTAINS for more information about the syntax for these query templates. Specify the structured conditions and the ORDER BY clause.

There must exist an index for any column you specify. For example, if you specify 'category_id=1 order by bid_close' , you must have an robert lucyk resume, index for 'category_id, bid_close' as specified with CTX_DDL . ADD_INDEX . With structured_query , you can use standard SQL syntax with only the following operators: AND (to combine two or more clauses) You cannot use parentheses () in the structured_query parameter. Create the Table. Level Malnutrition Thesis! The following statement creates the spondylothesis, table to be indexed. The following table inserts the level thesis, values into the table: Create the CTXCAT Index. The following statements create the CTXCAT index:

Query the Table. A typical query with CATSEARCH might include a structured clause as follows to find all rows that contain the word camera ordered by statements, bid_close : The following query finds all rows that contain the level malnutrition population thesis, phrase Sony CD Player and application that have a bid close date of February 20, 2000: The following query finds all rows with the terms Sony and level population thesis CD and spondylothesis Player : The following query finds all rows with the term CD and not Player : The following query finds all rows with the terms CD or DVD or Speaker : The following query finds all rows that are about level malnutrition population, audio equipment : CONTEXT Query Grammar Examples. Lucyk! The following examples show how to specify the malnutrition population, CONTEXT grammar in writing for high school students recommendation CATSEARCH queries using the template feature. The following example shows a field section search against a CTXCAT index using CONTEXT grammar by means of a query template in thesis a CATSEARCH query. Use the CONTAINS operator in essay offenders the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement to specify the query expression for level malnutrition population, a Text query. The CONTAINS operator also supports database links. You can identify a remote table or materialized view by school, appending @dblink to population the end of its name. Thesis Statements For Alcatraz! The dblink must be a complete or partial name for a database link to the database containing the remote table or materialized view. (Querying of remote views is level not supported.) CONTAINS returns a relevance score for every row selected. Obtain this score with the SCORE operator. The grammar for this operator is resume school students recommendation letter called the CONTEXT grammar. You can also use CTXCAT grammar if your application works better with simpler syntax.

To do so, use the thesis, Query Template Specification in the text_query parameter as described in this section. The CONTEXT Grammar topic in Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide. Specify the text column to spondylothesis be searched on. This column must have a Text index associated with it. Specify one of the level malnutrition thesis, following: The query expression that defines your search in column . Ucf Transfer Essay! A marked-up document that specifies a query template. Use one of the following templates: Query Rewrite Template. Use this template to automatically write different versions of a query before you submit the query to Oracle Text.

This is useful when you need to maximize the recall of a user query. Level Malnutrition Population! For example, you can program your application to expand a single phrase query of 'cat dog' into the following queries: These queries are submitted as one query and results are returned with no duplication. In this example, the thesis statements for alcatraz, query returns documents that contain the phrase cat dog as well as documents in which cat is near dog , and documents that have cat and population thesis dog . This is done with the for high students letter, following template: The operator TRANSFORM is used to specify the rewrite rules and malnutrition population thesis has the following syntax (note that it uses double parentheses): Table 1-3 TRANSFORM Parameters. Specify the lesson essay, type of terms to level malnutrition be produced from the original query. Specify either TOKENS or THEMES . Specifying THEMES requires an essay offenders, installed knowledge base.

A knowledge base may or may not have been installed with Oracle Text. Malnutrition Population Thesis! For more information, see the Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide . Specify the robert lucyk, literal string to be prepended to all terms. Specify the literal string to be appended to all terms. Specify the literal string to connect all terms after applying prefix and level suffix. Query Relaxation Template. Use this template to progressively relax your query. Robert Resume! Progressive relaxation is when you increase recall by progressively issuing less restrictive versions of a query, so that your application can return an appropriate number of hits to the user. For example, the query of black pen can be progressively relaxed to:

This is done with the following template. Alternate Grammar Template. Use this template to specify an alternate grammar, such as CONTEXT or CATSEARCH . Specifying an level malnutrition, alternate grammar enables you to enter queries using different syntax and operators. For example, with CATSEARCH , enter ABOUT queries using the CONTEXT grammar. Likewise with CONTAINS , enter logical queries using the simplified CATSEARCH syntax. The phrase 'dog cat mouse' is thesis statements for alcatraz interpreted as a phrase in CONTAINS . Level Malnutrition Population! However, with CATSEARCH this is equivalent to a AND query of 'dog AND cat AND mouse' . To specify that CONTAINS use the alternate grammar, enter the following template: Alternate Language Template. Use this template to lesson essay specify an alternate language.

Alternative Scoring Template. Use this template to level population thesis specify an resume writing for high school letter, alternative scoring algorithm. The following example specifies that the query use the CONTEXT grammar and return integer scores using the COUNT algorithm. This algorithm returns score as the number of query occurrences in the document. The following example uses the normalization_expr attribute to add SDATA ( price ) into the score returned by the query, and uses it as the final score. The normalization_expr attribute is used only with the alternate scoring template, and is an arithmetic expression that consists of: Arithmetic operators: + - * /. The operator precedence is the same as that for SQL operator precedence. Grouping operators: (). Parentheses can be used to alter the precedence of the arithmetic operators. Absolute function: ABS(n) returns the absolute value of n; where n is any expression that returns a number. Logarithmic function: LOG(n): returns the base-10 logarithmic value of level thesis, n ; where n is any expression that returns a number. Predefined components: The doc_score predefined component can be used to return the initial query score of lesson essay, a particular document.

SDATA component: SDATA (name) returns the value of the SDATA with the specified name as the score. Malnutrition Thesis! Only SDATA with NUMBER or DATE datatype is allowed. An error is raised otherwise. The sdata string and the SDATA name are case-insensitive. Numeric literals: Any number literal that conforms to SQL's pattern of NUMBER literal and is within the range of the double precision floating point ( -3.4e38 to 3.4e38 ). Statements! Date Literals: Date literals must be enclosed with DATE (). Only the following format is allowed: YYYY-MM-DD or YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS . For example: DATE(2005-11-08) .Consistent with SQL, if no time is specified, then 00:00:00 is assumed. DATE Literal Restrictions. Only the minus ( - ) operator is allowed between date-type data ( DATE literals and date-type SDATA ). Using other operators will result in an error. Subtracting two date-type data will produce a number (float) that represents the difference in number of level malnutrition, days between the two dates.

For example, the following expression is allowed: and the following expression is not allowed: The plus ( + ) and minus ( - ) operators are allowed between numeric data and date type of data. Essay Offenders! The number operand is level interpreted as the number or fraction of day(s). For example, the following expression is allowed: and the for high school, following expression is level malnutrition thesis not allowed: Template Attribute Values. Table 1-4 gives the possible values for template attributes: Table 1-4 Template Attribute Values.

Specify the grammar of the query. Specify the type of number returned as score. Returns score as integer between 0 and writing recommendation 100. Returns score as its high precision floating point number between 0 and 100. Specify the scoring algorithm to use. Returns scores as the level malnutrition population, number of lesson essay, occurrences in document. Specify the language name. Template Grammar Definition. The query template interface is an XML document. Its grammar is defined with the following XML DTD: All tags and attributes values are case-sensitive. Chapter 3, Oracle Text CONTAINS Query Operators for more information about the operators in query expressions.

Optionally, specify the label that identifies the score generated by the CONTAINS operator. For each row selected, CONTAINS returns a number between 0 and level 100 that indicates how relevant the document row is to the query. The number 0 means that Oracle Text found no matches in spondylothesis the row. You must use the level malnutrition thesis, SCORE operator with a label to lesson essay obtain this number. Malnutrition! The following example searches for all documents in the in the text column that contain the word oracle . The score for lesson essay, each row is malnutrition thesis selected with the spondylothesis, SCORE operator using a label of 1: The CONTAINS operator must be followed by an expression such as 0, which specifies that the score value calculated must be greater than zero for the row to be selected. Thesis! When the for high school letter, SCORE operator is malnutrition thesis called (for example, in a SELECT clause), the CONTAINS clause must reference the score label value as in the following example: The following example specifies that the robert, query be parsed using the CATSEARCH grammar: Grammar Template Example. The following example shows how to use the CTXCAT grammar in a CONTAINS query. The example creates a CTXCAT and a CONTEXT index on the same table, and compares the level thesis, query results: Alternate Scoring Query Template Example. The following query template adds price SDATA section (or SDATA filter-by column) value into the score returned by the query and uses it as the final score. Query Relaxation Template Example.

The following query template defines a query relaxation sequence. The query of black pen is entered in sequence as black pen then black NEAR pen then black AND pen then black ACCUM pen . Query hits are returned in spondylothesis this sequence with no duplication as long as the application needs results. Query relaxation is most effective when your application needs the top n hits to a query, which you can obtain with the FIRST_ROWS hint or in a PL/SQL cursor. Query Rewrite Example. Population Thesis! The following template defines a query rewrite sequence. The query of kukui nut is rewritten as follows: Querying Multi-Language Tables. With the thesis, multi-lexer preference, you can create indexes from level malnutrition population multi-language tables. At query time, the multi-lexer examines the session's language setting and uses the sub-lexer preference for that language to thesis statements for alcatraz parse the query.

If the level population thesis, language setting is not mapped, then the default lexer is used. When the language setting is lesson essay mapped, the query is parsed and run as usual. Level Malnutrition Population Thesis! The index contains tokens from multiple languages, so such a query can return documents in several languages. To limit your query to returning document of a given language, use a structured clause on the language column. Query Performance Limitation with a Partitioned Index. Oracle Text supports the CONTEXT indexing and querying of a partitioned text table. However, for optimal performance when querying a partitioned table with an ORDER BY SCORE clause, query the partition.

If you query the spondylothesis, entire table and level malnutrition use an ORDER BY SCORE clause, the query might not perform optimally unless you include a range predicate that can limit the query to a single partition. Ucf Transfer Application Essay! For example, the following statement queries the partition p_tab4 partition directly: SCORE in level thesis this chapter. This section describes the CREATE INDEX statement as it pertains to creating an Oracle Text domain index and composite domain index. Oracle Database SQL Reference for essay, a complete description of the CREATE INDEX statement. Thesis! Use CREATE INDEX to create an Oracle Text index. Resume! An Oracle Text index is an Oracle Database domain index or composite domain index of type CONTEXT , CTXCAT, CTXRULE, or CTXXPATH . A domain index is an application-specific index. A composite domain index (CDI) is an Oracle Text index that not only indexes and level population thesis processes a specified text column, but also indexes and processes FILTER BY and ORDER BY structured columns, which are specified during index creation.

You must create an resume writing students recommendation letter, appropriate Oracle Text index to enter CONTAINS , CATSEARCH , or MATCHES queries. Population! You cannot create an lesson essay, Oracle Text index on an index-organized table . You can create the following types of Oracle Text indexes: A CONTEXT index is the basic type of Oracle Text index. This is an index on population, a text column. A CONTEXT index is for alcatraz useful when your source text consists of many large, coherent documents. Query this index with the CONTAINS operator in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement. Level Malnutrition Thesis! This index requires manual synchronization after DML.

See Syntax for CONTEXT Index Type. The CTXCAT type of index is essay offenders a combined index on a text column and one or more other columns. CTXCAT is typically used to population thesis index small documents or text fragments, such as item names, prices and descriptions found in essay offenders catalogs. Level Malnutrition! Query this index with the CATSEARCH operator in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement. This type of index is optimized for mixed queries. This index is transactional, automatically updating itself with DML to spondylothesis the base table. See Syntax for CTXCAT Index Type. A CTXRULE index is used to build a document classification application. The CTXRULE index is an index created on a table of queries or a column containing a set of queries, where the level, queries serve as rules to define the classification criteria. Query this index with the MATCHES operator in resume for high students the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement.

See Syntax for level malnutrition population, CTXRULE Index Type. Create this index when you need to speed up existsNode() queries on an XMLType column. See Syntax for CTXXPATH Index Type. Lesson Essay! You do not need the CTXAPP role to create an Oracle Text index. If you have Oracle Database grants to create a b-tree index on the text column, you have sufficient permission to malnutrition population thesis create a text index. The issuing owner, table owner, and index owner can all be different users, which is consistent with Oracle standards for creating regular B-tree indexes. Syntax for CONTEXT Index Type.

Use a CONTEXT index to resume writing students recommendation create an index on level malnutrition population thesis, a text column. Query this index with the CONTAINS operator in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement. This index requires manual synchronization after DML. Specify the name of the Text index to create. [ schema .] table ( txt_column ) Specify the name of the table and spondylothesis column to level malnutrition thesis index. txt_column is the name of the robert resume, domain index column on which the level malnutrition thesis, CONTAINS() operator will be invoked. Your table can optionally contain a primary key if you prefer to identify your rows as such when you use procedures in CTX_DOC . When your table has no primary key, document services identifies your documents by spondylothesis, ROWID . The column that you specify must be one of the level thesis, following types: CHAR , VARCHAR , VARCHAR2 , BLOB , CLOB , BFILE , XMLType , or URIType . The table that you specify can be a partitioned table. Ucf Transfer Application! If you do not specify the LOCAL clause, then a global, non-partitioned index is created. DATE , NUMBER , and nested table columns cannot be indexed. Object columns also cannot be indexed, but their attributes can be indexed, provided that they are atomic data types.

Attempting to create an index on a Virtual Private Database (VPD) protected table will fail unless one of the following criteria is malnutrition thesis true: The VPD policy is created such that it does not apply to INDEX statement type. The policy function returns a NULL predicate for writing letter, the current user. Level Malnutrition Population Thesis! The user (or index owner) is SYS . The user has the essay offenders, EXEMPT ACCESS POLICY privilege. Indexes on level population thesis, multiple columns are not supported with the CONTEXT index type. You must specify only one column in the column list. With the CTXCAT index type, you can create indexes on resume, text and malnutrition thesis structured columns.

See Syntax for CTXCAT Index Type in spondylothesis this chapter. Creates the index while enabling DML inserts/updates/deletes on the base table. Level Population! During indexing, Oracle Text enqueues DML requests in a pending queue. At the end of the index creation, Oracle Text locks the base table. During this time DML is blocked. You must synchronize the index in order for DML changes to be available. The following limitations apply to using ONLINE : At the very beginning or very end of the ONLINE process, DML might fail. ONLINE is supported for CONTEXT indexes only. Ucf Transfer Essay! FILTER BY filter_column. Level Population! This is the structured indexed column on which a range or equality predicate in resume writing school students the WHERE clause of a mixed query will operate.

You can specify one or more structured columns for filter_column , on which the relational predicates are expected to be specified along with the CONTAINS() predicate in a query. The cost-based optimizer (CBO) will consider pushing down the structured predicates on these FILTER BY columns with the following relational operators: , = , = , = , , between , and LIKE (for VARCHAR2 ). These columns can only be of CHAR , NUMBER , DATE , VARCHAR2 , or RAW type. Additionally, VARCHAR2 and malnutrition thesis RAW types are only supported if the maximum length is specified and is limited to no more than 249 . ADT attributes of supported types ( CHAR , NUMBER , DATE , VARCHAR2 , or RAW ) are also allowed. An error is raised for all other datatypes. Expressions, for example, func(cola) , are not allowed. txt_column is allowed in the FILTER BY column list. DML operations on FILTER BY columns are always transactional. ORDER BY oby_column. This is the structured indexed column on which a structured ORDER BY mixed query will be based. A list of structured oby_columns can be specified in the ORDER BY clause of a CONTAINS() query.

These columns can only be of essay offenders, CHAR , NUMBER , DATE , VARCHAR2 , or RAW type. Level Malnutrition Population! Additionally, VARCHAR2 and RAW types are only supported if the maximum length is specified and is limited to no more than 249 . The order of the specified columns matters. The cost based optimizer will consider pushing the sort into the composite domain index only if the ucf transfer application essay, ORDER BY clause in the text query contains: entire ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX , The cost based optimizer (CBO) will consider pushing the sort into the composite domain index (CDI) only if the ORDER BY clause in the text query contains: entire ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX , score followed by the prefix of the thesis, ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX , or. score following the spondylothesis, prefix of the level population, ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX . CBO will consider pushing the sort into for high school, the CDI only malnutrition thesis if the ORDER BY clause in the text query contains: entire ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX, only the prefix of the ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX, score followed by the prefix of the ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX, or score following the prefix of the ordered ORDER BY columns declared by robert resume, the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX. Level Population Thesis! The following example illustrates CBO behavior with regard to ORDER BY columns: Consider the following query: If you set NLS_SORT or NLS_COMP parameters (that is, alter session set NLS_SORT = some lang; ), then CBO will not push the Sort or related structured predicate into the CDI. This behavior is consistent with regular btree indexes. Application Essay! CBO will consider pushing the sort into level malnutrition population thesis, CDI if col_list has the following values: CBO will NOT consider to push the sort into CDI if col_list has the following values: score followed by the prefix of the robert lucyk, ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX , or score following the prefix of the level malnutrition thesis, ordered ORDER BY columns declared by spondylothesis, the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX . Level! Expressions, for example, func(cola) , are not allowed. txt_column appearing in the ORDER BY column list is allowed.

DML operations on ORDER BY columns are always transactional. The following limitations apply to FILTER BY and lesson essay ORDER BY : A structured column is allowed in malnutrition population thesis FILTER BY and ORDER BY clauses. Thesis Statements For Alcatraz! However, a column that is mapped to MDATA in level population thesis a FILTER BY clause cannot also appear in the ORDER BY clause. An error will be raised in this case. Resume Writing For High Students Letter! The maximum length for level, CHAR , VARCHAR2 and RAW columns cannot be greater than 249. Additionally, if the VARCHAR2 or RAW column is lesson essay mapped to an MDATA column, then the specified maximum length cannot exceed 64 and 32 bytes, respectively. (Note that MDATA does not support CHAR datatypes.

If a FILTER BY column of CHAR datatype is mapped to an MDATA section, then an level malnutrition population thesis, error will be raised during CREATE INDEX .) The sum of number of FILTER BY and ORDER BY columns cannot be greater than 32. As with concatenated btree indexes or bitmap indexes, performance degradation may occur in DML as the spondylothesis, number of FILTER BY and ORDER BY columns increases. Level Thesis! Mapping a FILTER BY column to MDATA is resume writing for high school students recommendation letter not recommended if the malnutrition population thesis, FILTER BY column contains sequential values or has very high cardinality. Doing so can result in very long and narrow $I table and resume students recommendation reduced $X performance. An example is a column of type DATE . For columns of this type, mapping to SDATA is recommended. Level Population Thesis! An index table with the essay offenders, name DR$ indextable $S is created to store FILTER BY and thesis ORDER BY columns that are mapped to SDATA sections.

If nothing is mapped to an SDATA section, then the $S table will not be created. $S table contains the following columns: SDATA_ID number is the internal SDATA section id. SDATA_LAST number , the last docid, which is analogous to token_last . SDATA_DATA RAW (2000) , the compressed SDATA values. Note that if $S is created on a tablespace with 4K db block size, then it will be defined as RAW (1500) . Restriction: For performance reasons, $S table must be created on a tablespace with db block size = 4K without overflow segment and lesson essay without PCTTHRESHOLD clause. If $S is created on a tablespace with db block size 4K, or is created with an overflow segment or with PCTTHRESHOLD clause, then appropriate errors will be raised during CREATE INDEX . Restriction on thesis, Exporting and Importing text tables with Composite Domain Index created with FILTER BY and/or ORDER BY clauses: Regular exp and imp will not support exporting and essay offenders importing of Composite Domain Index. Thesis! Doing so will lead to the following error: EXP-00113: Feature Composite Domain Index is unsupported . To export a text table with Composite Domain Index, you must use Data Pump Export and Import utilities (invoked with the expdp and application essay impdp commands, respectively), or DBMS_DATAPUMP PL/SQL package. Limitations of using ALTER INDEX and ALTER TABLE with FILTER BY and malnutrition population ORDER BY columns of the lucyk resume, Composite Domain Index, which are imposed by Extensible Indexing Framework in level Oracle Database: (These limitations are imposed by resume for high school recommendation letter, Extensible Indexing Framework in Oracle Database.) Using ALTER INDEX to add or drop FILTER BY and ORDER BY columns is currently not supported. Level Population Thesis! You must re-create the index to add or drop FILTER BY or ORDER BY columns. To use ALTER TABLE MODIFY COLUMN to modify the spondylothesis, datatype of malnutrition population, a column that has the composite domain index built on it, you must first drop the composite domain index before modifying the column. To use ALTER TABLE DROP COLUMN to ucf transfer essay drop a column that is population part of the composite domain index, you must first drop the essay offenders, composite domain index before dropping the index column. The following limitations apply to population FILTER BY and ORDER BY when used with PL/SQL packages: Mapping FILTER BY columns to sections is optional. If section mapping does not exist for a FILTER BY column, then it is mapped to an SDATA section by default.

The section name assumes the name of the FILTER BY column. If a section group is not specified during CREATE INDEX of a composite domain index, then system default section group settings are used. An SDATA section is resume school recommendation created for each of the level malnutrition population, FILTER BY and ORDER BY columns. Since section name does not allow certain special characters and is case insensitive, if the column name is case sensitive or contains special characters, then an error will be raised. To work around this problem, you need to map the column to an MDATA or SDATA section before creating the index. Essay Offenders! See CTX_DDL.ADD_MDATA_COLUMN or CTX_DDL.ADD_SDATA_COLUMN. An error is raised if a column that is mapped to MDATA also appears in level population the ORDER BY column clause. Column section names are unique to their section group. That is, you cannot have an MDATA column section named FOO if you already have an MDATA column section named FOO . Nor can you have a field section named FOO if you already have an thesis, SDATA column section named FOO . This is true whether it is level malnutrition population thesis implicitly created (by CREATE INDEX for FILTER BY or ORDER BY clauses) or explicitly created (by CTX_DDL.ADD_SDATA_COLUMN ). One section name can only be mapped to one FILTER BY column, and vice versa. Mapping a section to more than one column, or mapping a column to more than one section is not allowed. Spondylothesis! Column sections can be added to any type of section group, including the NULL section group.

If a section group with sections added by CTX_DDL.ADD_MDATA_COLUMN or CTX_DDL.ADD_SDATA_COLUMN is specified for a CREATE INDEX statement without a FILTER BY clause, then the mapped column sections will be ignored. Malnutrition Thesis! However, the index will still get created without those column sections. The same is true for a FILTER BY clause that does not contain mapped column(s) in the specified section group. Specify LOCAL to thesis create a local partitioned context index on a partitioned table. The partitioned table must be partitioned by range. Hash, composite and list partitions are not supported. You can specify the list of index partition names with partition_name . Level Malnutrition! If you do not specify a partition name, then the system assigns one. The order of the index partition list must correspond to the table partition by order. The PARAMETERS clause associated with each partition specifies the parameters string specific to that partition. School Recommendation! You can only level population thesis specify sync (manual|every |on commit) , memory and storage for each index partition.

The PARAMETERS clause also supports POPULATE and NOPOPULATE . Lesson Essay! See POPULATE | NOPOPULATE. Query the viewsCTX_INDEX_PARTITIONSorCTX_USER_INDEX_PARTITIONSto find out index partition information, such as index partition name, and index partition status. Query Performance Limitation with Partitioned Index. Malnutrition Population! For optimal performance when querying a partitioned index with an ORDER BY SCORE clause, query the robert lucyk, partition. If you query the entire table and use an ORDER BY SCORE clause, the query might not perform optimally unless you include a range predicate that can limit the query to the fewest number of partitions, which is optimally a single partition. Optionally specify with n the parallel degree for parallel indexing. The actual degree of parallelism might be smaller depending on your resources. You can use this parameter on non-partitioned tables. However, creating a non-partitioned index in parallel does not turn on parallel query processing. Parallel indexing is supported for level, creating a local partitioned index.

Parallel indexing can speed up indexing when you have large amounts of data to index and when your operating system supports multiple CPUs. Using PARALLEL to create a local partitioned index enables parallel queries. (Creating a non-partitioned index in parallel does not turn on parallel query processing.) Parallel querying degrades query throughput especially on heavily loaded systems. Because of this, Oracle recommends that you disable parallel querying after creating a local index. To do so, use ALTER INDEX NOPARALLEL . For more information on essay offenders, parallel querying, see the Performance Tuning chapter in Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide. The following limitations apply to using PARALLEL : Parallel indexing is supported only for level malnutrition population, CONTEXT index type. Create an unusable index. This creates index metadata only and exits immediately.

You might create an unusable index when you need to create a local partitioned index in parallel. Optionally specify indexing parameters in paramstring . You can specify preferences owned by another user using the robert, user.preference notation. The syntax for level, paramstring is as follows: Create datastore, filter, lexer, wordlist, and storage preferences with CTX_DDL.CREATE_PREFERENCE and then specify them in the paramstring. When you specify no paramstring, Oracle Text uses the system defaults. For more information about these defaults, see Default Index Parameters in Chapter 2. Specify the name of your datastore preference. Use the datastore preference to specify where your text is stored.See Datastore Types in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. Specify the name of statements for alcatraz, your filter preference. Use the filter preference to specify how to filter formatted documents to plain text or HTML. See Filter Types in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. CHARSET COLUMN charset_column_name. Specify the name of the level thesis, character set column.

This column must be in the same table as the application, text column, and it must be of type CHAR , VARCHAR , or VARCHAR2 . Use this column to specify the document character set for conversion to level malnutrition the database character set. The value is case insensitive. You must specify a globalization support character set string, such as JA16EUC. When the document is plain text or HTML, the AUTO_FILTER and essay offenders CHARSET filter use this column to convert the document character set to the database character set for indexing. Use this column when you have plain text or HTML documents with different character sets or in a character set different from the database character set. Level Population! NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS = CHAR is not supported at the database level. This parameter is supported for the following columns: The CHARSET COLUMN , for example: Creating an index on a VARCHAR2 and CHAR column. Writing School Recommendation! Using a VARCHAR2 and CHAR column for FILTER BY and malnutrition ORDER BY clause of CREATE INDEX. Documents are not marked for re-indexing when only the charset column changes. The indexed column must be updated to flag the re-index. The NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS = CHAR parameter is supported at column level only, and is not supported at the database level, as described in this section.

Specify the name of the format column. The format column must be in the same table as the text column and it must be CHAR , VARCHAR , or VARCHAR2 type. FORMAT COLUMN determines how a document is filtered, or, in the case of the essay offenders, IGNORE value, if it is to level population be indexed. The AUTO_FILTER uses the format column when filtering documents. Use this column with heterogeneous document sets to optionally bypass filtering for ucf transfer application essay, plain text or HTML documents. In the malnutrition, format column, you can specify one of the following options: TEXT indicates that the document is either plain text or HTML.

When TEXT is specified, the document is not filtered, but may have the character set converted. Spondylothesis! BINARY indicates that the document is level malnutrition thesis a format supported by the AUTO_FILTER object other than plain text or HTML, for example PDF. BINARY is the default, if the format column entry cannot be mapped. IGNORE indicates that the row is to be ignored during indexing. Use this value when you need to bypass rows that contain data incompatible with text indexing such as image data, or rows in languages that you do not want to process. Resume School Students Recommendation! The difference between documents with TEXT and IGNORE format column types is that the former are indexed but ignored by the filter, while the latter are not indexed at all. Thus, IGNORE can be used with any filter type. Documents are not marked for re-indexing when only the population, format column changes. The indexed column must be updated to flag the re-index. Specify the name of your lexer or multi-lexer preference.

Use the lexer preference to identify the language of your text and how text is tokenized for indexing. See Lexer Types in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. LANGUAGE COLUMN language_column_name. Specify the resume for high school students, name of the language column when using a multi-lexer preference. See MULTI_LEXER in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. This column must exist in the base table. It cannot be the same column as the level malnutrition population thesis, indexed column. Only the first 30 bytes of the language column is examined for language identification. Ucf Transfer Application! Documents are not marked for re-indexing when only the language column changes. The indexed column must be updated to flag the re-index. Specify the name of your wordlist preference.

Use the wordlist preference to enable features such as fuzzy, stemming, and prefix indexing for better wildcard searching. See Wordlist Type in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. Specify the malnutrition population thesis, name of your storage preference for the Text index. Use the storage preference to specify how the index tables are stored. See Storage Types in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. Specify the name of thesis for alcatraz, your stoplist. Use stoplist to identify words that are not to be indexed. Malnutrition Population Thesis! See CTX_DDL.CREATE_STOPLIST in robert lucyk Chapter 7, CTX_DDL Package.

SECTION GROUP section_group. Specify the level malnutrition population thesis, name of your section group. Use section groups to ucf transfer application create searchable sections in structured documents. See CTX_DDL.CREATE_SECTION_GROUP in level population Chapter 7, CTX_DDL Package. Lucyk! Specify the amount of run-time memory to use for indexing. The syntax for memsize is as follows: where K stands for kilobytes., M stands for megabytes, and G stands for malnutrition thesis, gigabytes. The value you specify for essay offenders, memsize must be between 1M and the value of MAX_INDEX_MEMORY in the CTX_PARAMETERS view.

To specify a memory size larger than the MAX_INDEX_MEMORY , you must reset this parameter with CTX_ADM.SET_PARAMETER to be larger than or equal to thesis memsize . The default is the value specified for statements, DEFAULT_INDEX_MEMORY in CTX_PARAMETERS . Malnutrition Thesis! The memsize parameter specifies the amount of memory Oracle Text uses for indexing before flushing the index to lesson essay disk. Specifying a large amount memory improves indexing performance because there are fewer I/O operations and improves query performance and maintenance, because there is less fragmentation. Specifying smaller amounts of memory increases disk I/O and index fragmentation, but might be useful when run-time memory is level population scarce. Specify NOPOPULATE to create an empty index. Writing School Students Recommendation Letter! The default is POPULATE . Level Malnutrition Population! POPULATE | NOPOPULATE is the only option whose default value cannot be set with CTX_ADM.SET_PARAMETER. This option is not valid with CTXXPATH indexes. Empty indexes are populated by updates or inserts to the base table. You might create an spondylothesis, empty index when you need to create your index incrementally or to selectively index documents in malnutrition population the base table.

You might also create an empty index when you require only thesis for alcatraz theme and Gist output from a document set. SYNC (MANUAL | EVERY interval-string | ON COMMIT) Specify SYNC for automatic synchronization of the level population thesis, CONTEXT index when there are inserts, updates or deletes to the base table. You can specify one of the application, following SYNC methods: Table 1-5 SYNC Types. Population! No automatic synchronization. This is the default. You must manually synchronize the index with CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX . Automatically synchronize the index at a regular interval specified by lesson essay, the value of interval-string . Level Malnutrition Population Thesis! interval-string takes the same syntax as that for robert lucyk, scheduler jobs.

Automatic synchronization using EVERY requires that the index creator have CREATE JOB privileges. Make sure that interval-string is set to a long enough period that any previous sync jobs will have completed; otherwise, the population thesis, sync job may hang. interval-string must be enclosed in statements for alcatraz double quotes, and any single quote within interval-string must be escaped with another single quote. Synchronize the index immediately after a commit. The commit does not return until the sync is malnutrition thesis complete. (Because the synchronization is performed as a separate transaction, there may be a period, usually small, when the statements, data is level thesis committed but index changes are not.) The operation uses the memory specified with the memory parameter. Note that the lesson essay, sync operation has its own transaction context. If this operation fails, the data transaction still commits.

Index synchronization errors are logged in the CTX_USER_INDEX_ERRORS view. See Viewing Index Errors under CREATE INDEX . Each partition of a locally partitioned index can have its own type of sync ( ON COMMIT , EVERY , or MANUAL ). The type of sync specified in master parameter strings applies to all index partitions unless a partition specifies its own type. Level Malnutrition! With automatic ( EVERY ) synchronization, users can specify memory size and parallel synchronization. That syntax is: ON COMMIT synchronizations can only be run serially and must use the same memory size that was specified at index creation. Lesson Essay! Specify that documents can be searched immediately after they are inserted or updated. If a text index is created with TRANSACTIONAL enabled, then, in addition to processing the synchronized rowids already in level malnutrition population thesis the index, the CONTAINS operator will process unsynchronized rowids as well. Oracle Text does in-memory indexing of unsynchronized rowids and processes the query against the in-memory index.

TRANSACTIONAL is an index-level parameter and does not apply at the partition level. You must still synchronize your text indexes from time to time (with CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX ) to bring pending rowids into the index. Query performance degrades as the number of essay offenders, unsynchronized rowids increases. For that reason, Oracle recommends setting up your index to use automatic synchronization with the EVERY parameter. (See SYNC (MANUAL | EVERY interval-string | ON COMMIT).) Transactional querying for indexes that have been created with the TRANSACTIONAL parameter can be turned on and off (for the duration of a user session) with the PL/SQL variable CTX_QUERY.disable_transactional_query . This is useful, for example, if you find that querying is slow due to the presence of too many pending rowids. Here is an example of setting this session variable: If the thesis, index uses AUTO_FILTER , queries involving unsynchronized rowids will require filtering of lesson essay, unsynchronized documents. CREATE INDEX: CONTEXT Index Examples.

The following sections give examples of malnutrition, creating a CONTEXT index. Creating CONTEXT Index Using Default Preferences. The following example creates a CONTEXT index called myindex on the docs column in mytable . Default preferences are used. For more information about default settings, see Default Index Parameters in essay offenders Chapter 2. Creating CONTEXT Index with Custom Preferences. The following example creates a CONTEXT index called myindex on the docs column in mytable . The index is created with a custom lexer preference called my_lexer and a custom stoplist called my_stop . This example also assumes that the preference and level population thesis stoplist were previously created with CTX_DDL.CREATE_PREFERENCE for my_lexer , and CTX_DDL.CREATE_STOPLIST for my_stop . Default preferences are used for the unspecified preferences. Any user can use any preference.

To specify preferences that exist in another user's schema, add the user name to the preference name. The following example assumes that the preferences my_lexer and my_stop exist in the schema that belongs to user kenny : Enabling Automatic Index Synchronization. You can create your index and specify that the index be synchronized at spondylothesis regular intervals for inserts, updates and malnutrition population deletes to essay offenders the base table. To do so, create the index with the SYNC ( EVERY interval-string ) parameter. To use job scheduling, you must log in level population as a user who has DBA privileges and robert lucyk then grant CREATE JOB privileges. The following example creates an index and schedules three synchronization jobs for thesis, three index partitions. The first partition uses ON COMMIT synchronization. The other two partitions are synchronized by jobs that are scheduled to be executed every Monday at 3 P.M.

See the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information on job scheduling syntax. Creating CONTEXT Index with Multi-Lexer Preference. The multi-lexer decides which lexer to use for each row based on a language column. This is a character column in the table which stores the language of the document in the text column. For example, create the table globaldoc to hold documents of different languages: Assume that global_lexer is a multi-lexer preference you created.

To index the lesson essay, global_doc table, specify the multi-lexer preference and population the name of the language column as follows: For more information about creating multi-lexer preferences, see MULTI_LEXER in Chapter 2. Creating a Local Partitioned Index. Lesson Essay! The following example creates a text table that is level population partitioned into three, populates it, and then creates a partitioned index. The limit for lesson essay, the number of partitions in Oracle Text is the same as the maximum number of partitions per table in Oracle Database. Using FILTER BY and ORDER BY Clauses.

The following example creates an index on table docs and orders the documents by author's publishing date. First, create the level, table: Create the index with FILTER BY and ORDER BY clauses: Parallel indexing can improve index performance when you have multiple CPUs. To create an index in essay offenders parallel, use the PARALLEL clause with a parallel degree. This example uses a parallel degree of 3: Creating a Local Partitioned Index in Parallel. Creating a local partitioned index in parallel can improve performance when you have multiple CPUs. With partitioned tables, you can divide the malnutrition population, work. You can create a local partitioned index in parallel in two ways: Use the robert lucyk resume, PARALLEL clause with the LOCAL clause in CREATE INDEX. In this case, the maximum parallel degree is malnutrition population limited to the number of partitions you have. See Parallelism with CREATE INDEX. Create an unusable index first, then run the DBMS_PCLXUTIL.BUILD_PART_INDEX utility. This method can result in a higher degree of parallelism, especially if you have more CPUs than partitions.

See Parallelism with DBMS_PCLUTIL.BUILD_PART_INDEX. Robert! If you attempt to level malnutrition population thesis create a local partitioned index in parallel, and the attempt fails, you may see the following error message: To determine the specific reason why the index creation failed, query the CTX_USER_INDEX_ERRORS view. Parallelism with CREATE INDEX. You can achieve local index parallelism by spondylothesis, using the PARALLEL and LOCAL clauses in CREATE INDEX. In this case, the maximum parallel degree is limited to the number of population, partitions that you have. The following example creates a table with three partitions, populates them, and then creates the local indexes in parallel with a degree of 2: Parallelism with DBMS_PCLUTIL.BUILD_PART_INDEX. You can achieve local index parallelism by first creating an unusable CONTEXT index, and then running the DBMS_PCLUTIL.BUILD_PART_INDEX utility.

This method can result in a higher degree of parallelism, especially when you have more CPUs than partitions. In this example, the base table has three partitions. We create a local partitioned unusable index first, then run DBMS_PCLUTIL.BUILD_PART_INDEX , which builds the 3 partitions in parallel (referred to as inter-partition parallelism). Also, inside each partition, index creation proceeds in parallel (called intra-partition parallelism) with a parallel degree of 2. Therefore, the total parallel degree is 6 (3 times 2). Viewing Index Errors. Lucyk! After a CREATE INDEX or ALTER INDEX operation, you can view index errors with Oracle Text views.

To view errors on your indexes, query the CTX_USER_INDEX_ERRORS view. Malnutrition Population! To view errors on all indexes as CTXSYS , query the CTX_INDEX_ERRORS view. For example, to view the most recent errors on your indexes, enter the following statements: Deleting Index Errors. Essay Offenders! To clear the index error view, enter the thesis, following statement: Syntax for CTXCAT Index Type. The CTXCAT index is a combined index on a text column and lesson essay one or more other columns. Query this index with the CATSEARCH operator in level the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement.

This type of index is resume writing for high students recommendation optimized for mixed queries. This index is level malnutrition population transactional, automatically updating itself with DML to essay offenders the base table. [ schema .] table ( column ) Specify the name of the table and column to index. The column that you specify when you create a CTXCAT index must be of type CHAR or VARCHAR2 . No other types are supported for CTXCAT . Malnutrition Population Thesis! Attempting to create an index on a Virtual Private Database (VPD) protected table will fail unless one of the following options is true: The VPD policy is created such that it does not apply to INDEX statement type, which is the default. The policy function returns a null predicate for the current user. The user (index owner) is SYS . Lesson Essay! The user has the EXEMPT ACCESS POLICY privilege.

Supported CTXCAT Preferences. index set index_set. Specify the level thesis, index set preference to lesson essay create the CTXCAT index. Index set preferences name the level malnutrition population, columns that make up your sub-indexes. Any column that is named in lesson essay an index set column list cannot have a NULL value in any row of the base table, or else you get an error. Always ensure that your columns have non-NULL values before and after indexing. Index Performance and Size Considerations. Although a CTXCAT index offers query performance benefits, creating this type of malnutrition thesis, index has its costs. The time that it takes Oracle Text to create a CTXCAT index depends on the total size of the index. The total size of a CTXCAT index is directly related to: Total text to be indexed. Number of component indexes in the index set. Number of columns in the base table that make up the component indexes.

Having many component indexes in lucyk resume your index set also degrades DML performance because more indexes must be updated. Because of these added costs in creating a CTXCAT index, you should carefully consider the query performance benefit that each component index gives your application before adding it to population thesis your index set. Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for spondylothesis, more information about creating CTXCAT indexes and the benefits. When you create an index of type CTXCAT , you can use the supported index preferences listed in Table 1-6 in the parameters string. Table 1-6 Supported CTXCAT Index Preferences. This preference class is not supported for CTXCAT . This preference class is not supported for CTXCAT . BASIC_LEXER ( index_themes attribute not supported)

Supports single language stoplists only ( BASIC_STOPLIST type). Only Field Section is supported for CTXCAT . Unsupported Preferences and Parameters. When you create a CTXCAT index, you cannot specify datastore and filter preferences. For section group preferences, only the field section preference is supported. You also cannot specify language, format, or charset columns as with a CONTEXT index. Level Malnutrition! Creating a CTXCAT Index. This section gives a brief example for creating a CTXCAT index. For a more complete example, see the Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide . Consider a table called AUCTION with the following schema: Assume that queries on robert resume, the table involve a mandatory text query clause and optional structured conditions on price . Results must be sorted based on bid_close . This means that we need an index to support good response time for the structured and sorting criteria. You can create a catalog index to population support the resume letter, different types of structured queries a user might enter.

For structured queries, a CTXCAT index improves query performance over a context index. To create the indexes, first create the index set preference, then add the required indexes to it: Create the CTXCAT index with CREATE INDEX as follows: Querying a CTXCAT Index. To query the title column for the word pokemon , enter regular and mixed queries as follows: Syntax for malnutrition thesis, CTXRULE Index Type. CTXRULE is an lucyk resume, index on a column containing a set of queries. Query this index with the MATCHES operator in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement. [ schema .] table ( column ) Specify the malnutrition population, name of the table and rule column to index. The rules can be query compatible strings, query template strings, or binary support vector machine rules. The column you specify when you create a CTXRULE index must be VARCHAR2 , CLOB or BLOB . No other types are supported for CTXRULE . Attempting to application create an index on a Virtual Private Database (VPD) protected table will fail unless one of the following is true: The VPD policy does not have the INDEX statement type turned on malnutrition thesis, (which is the default) The policy function returns a null predicate for the current user. The user (index owner) is SYS . The user has the EXEMPT ACCESS POLICY privilege. Specify the lexer preference to be used for spondylothesis, processing queries and malnutrition population later for the documents to lesson essay be classified with the MATCHES function. Malnutrition Thesis! With both classifiers SVN_CLASSFIER and RULE_CLASSIFIER , you can use the BASIC_LEXER , CHINESE_LEXER , JAPANESE_LEXER , or KOREAN_MORPH_LEXER lexer. (See Classifier Types and Lexer Types.)

For processing queries, these lexers support the following operators: ABOUT , STEM , AND , NEAR , NOT , OR , and WITHIN . The thesaural operators ( BT* , NT* , PT , RT , SYN , TR , TRSYS , TT, and so on) are supported. However, these operators are expanded using a snapshot of the thesaurus at index time, not when the MATCHES function is entered. This means that if you change your thesaurus after you index, you must re-index your query set. Specify the storage preference for the index on the queries.Use the storage preference to specify how the index tables are stored. See Storage Types in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. Specify the section group. This parameter does not affect the queries.

It applies to lesson essay sections in the documents to be classified. Level Population Thesis! The following section groups are supported for the CTXRULE index type: CTXRULE does not support special sections. Specify the wordlist preferences. This is used to enable stemming operations on query terms. See Wordlist Type in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. Specify the spondylothesis, classifier preference.

See Classifier Types in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. You must use the same preference name you specify with CTX_CLS.TRAIN . Example for Creating a CTXRULE Index. See the Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for a complete example of using the CTXRULE index type in a document routing application. Syntax for CTXXPATH Index Type. This indextype if provided only for backward compatibility.

Create a CTXXPATH index when you need to speed up existsNode() queries on an XMLType column. Level! [ schema .] table ( column ) Specify the name of the table and column to index. Lucyk Resume! The column you specify when you create a CTXXPATH index must be XMLType . No other types are supported for level malnutrition, CTXXPATH . Specify the storage preference for the index on the queries.Use the storage preference to specify how the ucf transfer, index tables are stored. See Storage Types in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. Population Thesis! Specify the essay offenders, amount of run-time memory to use for indexing. The syntax for memsize is as follows: where M stands for megabytes, G stands for gigabytes, and K stands for level malnutrition population, kilobytes. Essay Offenders! The value you specify for memsize must be between 1M and the value of MAX_INDEX_MEMORY in the CTX_PARAMETERS view. To specify a memory size larger than the MAX_INDEX_MEMORY , you must reset this parameter with CTX_ADM.SET_PARAMETER to level population thesis be larger than or equal to memsize . The default is the value specified for DEFAULT_INDEX_MEMORY in CTX_PARAMETERS . Essay Offenders! Index creation on level malnutrition population thesis, an XMLType column: Querying the table with existsNode : Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for information on using the CTXXPATH index type. This section describes the DROP INDEX statement as it pertains to dropping a Text domain index. For a complete description of the DROP INDEX statement, see Oracle Database SQL Reference. Use DROP INDEX to drop a specified Text index.

Optionally force the index to be dropped. Use force option when Oracle Text cannot determine the ucf transfer application essay, state of the malnutrition population thesis, index, such as when an indexing operation crashes. Oracle recommends against using this option by default. Use it a a last resort when a regular call to DROP INDEX fails. The following example drops an index named doc_index in the current user's database schema. Use the MATCHES operator to find all rows in a query table that match a given document.

The document must be a plain text, HTML, or XML document. The MATCHES operator also supports database links. You can identify a remote table or materialized view by appending @dblink to the end of its name. Lesson Essay! The dblink must be a complete or partial name for level population thesis, a database link to the database containing the remote table or materialized view. Ucf Transfer! (Querying of remote views is not supported.) This operator requires a CTXRULE index on your set of queries. When the level malnutrition thesis, SVM_CLASSIFIER classifier type is used, MATCHES returns a score in the range 0 to 100; a higher number indicates a greater confidence in the match. Use the ucf transfer application, label parameter and MATCH_SCORE to obtain this number. Level Malnutrition! Then use the matching score to apply a category-specific threshold to a particular category. If SVM_CLASSIFIER is not used, then this operator returns either 100 (the document matches the criteria) or 0 (the document does not match). If the optimizer chooses to use the functional query invocation with a MATCHES query, your query will fail.

Specify the column containing the indexed query set. Specify the document to be classified. The document can be plain-text, HTML, or XML. Robert Resume! Binary formats are not supported. Optionally specify the label that identifies the score generated by the MATCHES operator.

Use this label with MATCH_SCORE. The following example creates a table querytable , and populates it with classification names and associated rules. It then creates a CTXRULE index. Population Thesis! The example enters the MATCHES query with a document string to spondylothesis be classified. Level Malnutrition Population Thesis! The SELECT statement returns all rows (queries) that are satisfied by the document: The Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide contains extended examples of simple and supervised classification, which make use of the MATCHES operator. Use the essay offenders, MATCH_SCORE operator in a statement to return scores produced by level malnutrition population, a MATCHES query. Statements For Alcatraz! The MATCH_SCORE operator also supports database links.

You can identify a remote table or materialized view by appending @dblink to the end of level population, its name. The dblink must be a complete or partial name for robert, a database link to the database containing the remote table or materialized view. (Querying of remote views is not supported.) When the level population, SVM_CLASSIFIER classifier type is used, this operator returns a score in the range 0 to 100. Then use the matching score to apply a category-specific threshold to a particular category. If SVM_CLASSIFIER is not used, then this operator returns either 100 (the document matches the criteria) or 0 (the document does not match). Specify a number to identify the for alcatraz, score produced by the query. Population Thesis! Use this number to identify the MATCHES clause which returns this score. To get the matching score, use. Use the essay, SCORE operator in a SELECT statement to return the population thesis, score values produced by a CONTAINS query. The SCORE operator can be used in a SELECT , ORDER BY , or GROUP BY clause.

The SCORE operator also supports database links. You can identify a remote table or materialized view by appending @dblink to the end of its name. The dblink must be a complete or partial name for a database link to the database containing the remote table or materialized view. (Querying of remote views is not supported.) Specify a number to identify the score produced by the query. Use this number to identify the CONTAINS clause which returns this score. When the SCORE operator is called (for example, in a SELECT clause), the CONTAINS clause must reference the score label value as in the following example: Assume that a news database stores and indexes the title and body of news articles separately.

The following query returns all the documents that include the words Oracle in their title and essay offenders java in level malnutrition population their body. The articles are sorted by the scores for the first CONTAINS ( Oracle ) and then by the scores for the second CONTAINS ( java ).

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Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was first reported in 1935 by Stein and malnutrition population thesis Leventhal who described seven women dealing with amenorrhea, hirsutism, and enlarged ovaries with multiple cysts (Stein and Leventhal, 1935). This syndrome was given the name Stein–Leventhal syndrome after these two physicians for sometime. In the spondylothesis 1960s, however, the term polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was first introduced and gradually started to replace its former name. It is now recognized as a common complex heterogeneous endocrine disorder in reproductive-age women associated with reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. This syndrome is primarily characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries (Azziz et al., 2004). Given the fact that one out of five women of reproductive age is population, affected by this syndrome, and studies which suggest that 5% to 10% of spondylothesis, females 18 to 44 years of level malnutrition population, age are affected by PCOS, it is deemed to be the most common endocrine abnormality among women of reproductive age in the US. In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of essay, PCOS is still unknown although it is believed to be similar to the other studies. In addition, it is a chronic disease with manifestations across the lifespan of women and represents a major health and economic burden.

Therefore, the aim of this research is to review this subject in depth taking in consideration the population thesis pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, complications and management. Material and Methods. This study was performed by a literature search of English-language studies which was conducted on PubMed (from 1994 to 2016) and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of robert lucyk resume, Controlled Trials) using the terms, ‘PCOS’, ‘polycystic ovary syndrome’, and thesis ‘polycystic ovary disease’. Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disease in women of child-bearing age. Spondylothesis! Additionally, World Health Organization (WHO) has declared PCOS to be the leading cause of type 2 anovulatory infertility.

Based on studies performed in Greece, Spain and the USA, the level population prevalence of PCOS using the lesson essay National Institutes of Health and National Institute of level thesis, Child Health and Human Development (NIH/NICHD) criteria indicate that PCOS affects 4%–8% of women of reproductive age. Statements! That percentage increases up to even 18% according to the guidelines of the Rotterdam consensus (Azziz et al., 2004) (Asuncion, 2000) (Diamanti-Kandarakis, 1999) (Knochenhauer, 1998). Recently, there has been variations of the prevalence of PCOS depending on the diagnostic criteria used. Normally, females of reproductive age experience cycles of hormonal activity that repeat at about one-month intervals. With every cycle, a woman’s body prepares for a potential pregnancy, whether or not that is the woman’s intention. The term menstruation refers to the periodic shedding of the malnutrition uterine lining. Averagely, the menstrual cycle takes about 28 days and occurs in phases: the follicular phase, the ovulatory phase (ovulation), and the luteal phase. There are four major hormones (chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of cells or organs) involved in the menstrual cycle: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone. During the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, which starts on the first day of a woman’s period, two hormones; follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), are released from the spondylothesis brain, specifically the pituitary gland, and travel in the bloodstream to the ovaries. These hormones stimulate the malnutrition primary maturation of around 15 to 20 eggs in the ovaries, each in its own “shell,” called a follicle. For High Recommendation Letter! As well as triggering an increase in the production of the female hormone estrogen.

As this follicular phase progresses, one follicle in one ovary becomes dominant and produces estrogen while continuing to mature suppressing all of the other follicles in the group. Thesis! The second phase, or ovulation, begins on the 14th day after the ucf transfer application follicular phase started. The rise in estrogen from the dominant follicle triggers a surge in the amount of population thesis, luteinizing hormone that is produced, which causes the dominant follicle to release its egg from the ovary into the fallopian tube. During the last phase, known as luteal phase, the empty follicle, once harboring the egg, develops into a structure called the spondylothesis corpus luteum, which secretes the hormone progesterone. Progesterone prepares the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized egg. If the level malnutrition population egg is not fertilized, it passes through the uterus, and the lining covering it breaks down and sheds, and the next menstrual period begins. The pathophysiology of PCOS results from a primary defect in essay offenders, the pituitary function, as well as, defects in insulin secretion and action, and ovarian function. Increased luteinizing hormone (LH) and gonadotropin–releasing hormone (GnRH) levels relative to level malnutrition, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was the first laboratory abnormality identified in classic PCOS. Raised LH levels will lead to an increase of androgen production and secretion by statements for alcatraz ovarian theca cells. The increase in level population thesis, LH seems to be the result of abnormal sex steroid feedback rather than the spondylothesis cause of level population thesis, androgen excess.

Patients with PCOS are less susceptible to suppression of LH by luteal phase hormones, where the modest rise in for high school letter, androgen levels in patients with PCOS absurdly stimulates LH pulsatility. Moreover, use of antiandrogen treatment lowers the elevated LH pulse frequency of malnutrition thesis, PCOS to a normal level, suggesting that androgen excess interferes with the ucf transfer application essay hypothalamic inhibitory feedback of female hormones, principally progesterone (Rosenfield and Bordini, 2010). In spite of this, about half of the patients with PCOS, especially obese patient, do not have elevated LH levels or abnormal gonadotropin response to population, GnRH agonist testing. Furthermore, around half of PCOS patients with a verified ovarian source of hyperandrogenism were revealed to have normal LH levels and LH responses to a GnRH agonist test, also suggesting that their ovarian dysfunction is spondylothesis, independent of LH excess. Another major influence in level malnutrition thesis, the pathophysiology of PCOS is the association with insulin and its function; In the thesis for alcatraz ovary, insulin helps to regulate ovarian function, and acts in conjunction with LH to enhance androgen production which can lead to anovulation (Gonzalez, 2012). Etiology and risk factors. A detailed pathogenesis of PCOS has not been clarified yet.

Which is one of the reasons for defining it as a syndrome rather than a disease whereas a syndrome is a cluster of symptoms which cannot be explained under a common etiologic factor. However, the malnutrition thesis individual susceptibility probably depends on prenatal androgen exposure, genetic factors, ethnic origin and environmental risk factors (Zhang et al., 2012). The interaction of a number of genetic and application essay environmental factors determine the heterogeneous, clinical, and biochemical phenotype, which is why PCOS is described as an malnutrition population thesis oligogenic disorder (Barber and spondylothesis Franks, 2010). Although the genetic etiology of PCOS is yet undetermined, a family history of PCOS is relatively common; however, familial links to PCOS are unclear. Nonetheless, based on the aggregation of cases in families, PCOS is considered a heritable disorder and resembles an malnutrition population thesis autosomal dominant pattern (Diamanti-Kandarakis, Kandarakis and robert Legro, 2006). Hence, a family history of PCOS is considered a risk factor. As for ethnic factors, hirsutism is more rarely observed in individuals of Asian origin (approximately 10%) compared with the Caucasian race (approximately 70%). Environmental risk factors, such as obesity, seem to amplify genetic predispositions (Zhang et al., 2012). Obesity is a prevalent characteristic of PCOS (Shannon and Wang, 2012), ranging from 12.5% to 100% (Mirzaei and Kazemi, 2008), with a collective estimated prevalence of malnutrition population, 49% (Graff et al., 2013). These environmental factors implicated in spondylothesis, PCOS (e.g., obesity) can be aggravated by level malnutrition poor dietary choices and lesson essay physical inactivity; infectious agents and toxins may also play a role (Diamanti-Kandarakis, Kandarakis and Legro, 2006). The reproductive and metabolic features of level population thesis, PCOS are sometimes reversible with lifestyle modifications such as weight loss and exercise (Shannon and spondylothesis Wang, 2012).

Clinical features of PCOS. The clinical presentation of PCOS varies widely. Malnutrition Population Thesis! These considerably distinctive features, displaying a varying degree of expression in each individual, emphasize the phenotypic variability of PCOS, and is in fact another reason why it is considered as a syndrome. Women with PCOS may present with an array of serious clinical implications including reproductive manifestations (hirsutism, infertility and statements pregnancy complications) (Boomsma et al., 2006), psychological problems (reduced quality of life, poor self-esteem, depression, anxiety) (Deeks, Gibson-Helm and Teede, 2010), and metabolic implications (insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and potentially cardiovascular disease (CVD)) (Sir-Petermann et al., 2013) (Meikle, 2006). Presentation of PCOS may vary across the life cycle of the patient due to the heterogeneous nature of PCOS and the wide spectrum of clinical features. Level Population Thesis! Generally, PCOS is spondylothesis, a chronic condition that usually begins in adolescence then transitions to include infertility and population increase metabolic complications over time. However, when combined with obesity, metabolic implications of PCOS such as IGT, DM2 and the metabolic syndrome can present in adolescence (Coviello, Legro and Dunaif, 2006). Reproductive features of PCOS. Clinical hyperandrogenism primarily includes hirsutism, acne and male pattern alopecia. PCOS is a common cause of hirsutism occurring in approximately 60% of cases. Hirsutism is defined in females as male type terminal hair growth and distribution (Norman et al., 2007).

Acne affects one third of thesis statements for alcatraz, cases and is not particularly specific for PCOS (Norman et al., 2007). Studies have shown that androgen levels are elevated in level, woman with acne, although the severity of acne has not been positively correlated with any particular hormone with the exception of the adrenal androgen, dehydroepianandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) (Karrer-Voegeli et al., 2009). Statements For Alcatraz! Conversely, in many PCOS women hirsutism is level thesis, not associated with acne, which might be due to variable local androgen bioactivity. An enzyme called 5-?-reductase controls the androgen activity in resume, the hair follicle by converting free testosterone to the more potent dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This enzyme has two isoforms: type 1 is located in the sebaceous glands and pubic skin and type 2 is present primarily in the hair follicle, genital skin, and adult scalp. Level Thesis! This explains the robert lucyk resume different clinical manifestations seen in population, hyperandrogenic women when the essay offenders degree of hirsutism is not well-matched with the severity of the acne (Archer and Chang, 2004). Male pattern hair loss (androgenic alopecia) is a genetically determined disorder characterized by malnutrition population the gradual conversion of terminal hairs into indeterminate, and finally into vellus hairs. The incidence of androgenic alopecia in PCOS is not clearly defined, but several reports vary from a prevalence of 40-70%. It is less frequently seen in PCOS cases, as it generally requires a familial predisposition. Ovarian abnormalities and spondylothesis Infertility. Most of the women suffering from PCOS will seek gynecological counseling due to menstrual irregularity, with 70% to 80% of women presenting with oligomenorrhoea or amenorrhoea.

Oligomenorrhoea occurs usually in adolescence, with onset later in level thesis, life often associated with weight gain (Brassard, AinMelk and Baillargeon, 2008). Lesson Essay! Furthermore, these ovarian abnormalities have been thought to increase the risk for infertility. Infertility was one of the main symptoms originally attributed to PCOS according to the understanding of Stein and Leventhal (Stein and Leventhal, 1935). The consequent epidemiologic studies implied that about 90% to 95% of women attending infertility clinics with anovulation, have been diagnosed with PCOS, which is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. (Hull, 1987) In a large population of 1,741 women affected by PCOS, primary infertility was reported in 50% of women, while secondary infertility was reported in 25% of women (Dungan, 2008). On the other hand, there is thesis, currently a debate on the legitimacy of the relationship between PCOS and infertility. Research has concluded that 60% of women with PCOS are fertile (defined as the ability to conceive within 12 months), although time to conceive is thesis for alcatraz, often increased. Psychological features of PCOS.

There are very few studies to date that have explored the psychological aspect of PCOS, since most research has focused primarily on the biological and physiological features of the syndrome. However, these psychological features do, in fact, compromise quality of life and adversely impact on mood and psychological well-being. Level Malnutrition Population Thesis! (31) Some of these concerns include the lucyk negative body image due to obesity, acne and excess hair. Moreover, women with PCOS deal with low self-esteem, anxiety and it may even lead to depression. The other challenge for level population patients is dealing with psychosocial impact of lesson essay, mood disturbance and reduced psychological well-being on level motivation and spondylothesis the ability to implement and malnutrition thesis sustain successful lifestyle changes that are critical in this condition. (32) Metabolic features of PCOS. Actually, obesity is considered a serious growing epidemic disorder in the world population, especially in the childhood and teenage years. Women with PCOS represent a cohort of people with a high prevalence of overweight (BMI .25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI .30 kg/m2) compared to healthy women, up to 61% of prevalence,93 with a typical central distribution of adipose tissue, although there is a wide variability in the estimates of obesity in PCOS women across different countries and ethnicities.13 In the Western countries, such as Australia, USA, and UK, the PCOS women have the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity,94,95 compared to writing letter, Chinese PCOS women (only 20% has a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater).96 The causal role in the association between obesity and PCOS has yet to be determined but cultural, lifestyle, and ethnic factors take part in these conditions.

Recent literature has found that greater adiposity was described in level population, more severe reproductive phenotypes (characterized by hyperandrogenism associated with chronic anovulation),49 and lean women had milder reproductive phenotype compared with those who were overweight;97 so obesity can exacerbate the PCOS reproductive phenotypes. It also appears that obesity could have a bidirectional relationship with PCOS, as women with PCOS are more inclined to weight gain and excessive weight gain increases PCOS prevalence, unmasking a latent PCOS condition, but this yet remains to be clarified. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control the amount of application essay, sugar in the blood. It helps to move glucose from blood into cells, where it’s broken down to produce energy. Insulin resistance (IR) is a physiological condition where the body’s cells are resistant to the effects of insulin. As a result, the body therefore has to produce extra insulin to compensate. High levels of insulin stimulate the ovaries to produce too much testosterone, which interferes with the level malnutrition population development of the follicles i.e. the sacs in the ovaries where eggs develop, which in turn prevents normal ovulation.

Insulin resistance have also been found in some cases to lead to weight gain, which may exacerbate many of PCOS symptoms, because having excess fat causes the body to produce even more insulin. Insulin Resistance, considered an essential etiological factor of PCOS, was traditionally attributed primarily to obesity. Although the demonstration of lesson essay, insulin resistance is not required to make the diagnosis of PCOS, it is clear that hyperinsulinemic insulin resistance plays a prominent role in PCOS. The prevalence of insulin resistance in PCOS ranges from 50%–70%57–60 and occurs independently of level thesis, obesity. Metabolic syndrome is not a disease, but rather a clustering or “constellation” of abnormal conditions. Although there are several definitions of essay offenders, what is required to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, most health care professionals use criteria from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the American Heart Association. Consistent with the population increased prevalence of essay offenders, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome is also more common in women with PCOS. A meta-analysis (32) has shown that women with PCOS have higher levels of level population thesis, triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol (TC), and lower HDL cholesterol.

levels compared with control women, regardless of body mass index (BMI). Lucyk Resume! Lean women with PCOS were also more likely to have metabolic syndrome than lean women without PCOS (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.24–6.78).62 The components of metabolic syndrome are associated with insulin resistance and are summarized in Table 3.63. A specific abnormal pattern of insulin receptor phosphorylation, namely increased serine phosphorylation and reduced tyrosine phosphorylation, appears to be responsible for malnutrition population insulin resistance observed in robert, PCOS. As reported by the main scientific societies,13,15,49 women with PCOS present an increased prevalence of classic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity and population thesis nonclassic risk factors such as C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, and tumor necrosis factor-?.50 PCOS at any age is characterized by greater odds for elevated CVD risk markers and these elevated makers can occur without obesity but are magnified with obesity.13. In 2004, a worldwide case-control study of patients from essay offenders, 52 countries was published, the INTERHEART study,51 that found nine potentially modifiable risk factors, accounted for over 94% of the population-attributable risk of a first myocardial infarction in women; the nine factors included smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, visceral obesity, psychosocial factors, decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, regular consumption of alcohol, and regular physical activity. The majority of these occur in malnutrition thesis, the PCOS woman. It is lesson essay, estimated that the prevalence of level thesis, each risk factor is approximately double for women with PCOS when compared with controls, while it is 1.5 times higher in BMI-matched studies beginning in adolescence and it is found in essay offenders, e. Since PCOS is considered as a lifelong multisystemic and multifaceted disorder, the reproductive and metabolic alterations characterizing the syndrome may be also associated with an increased risk of the development of cancers, such as the malnutrition population thesis endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer, which recognize potential hormonal and/or metabolic pathogenetic mechanisms. The potential mechanisms which could promote the onset of resume, neoplastic diseases in these women, particularly endometrial cancer, include the chronic anovulatory state, resulting in an unopposed estrogen action, associated with hyperandrogenism.117.

At present, based on level population the most recent meta-analysis,118 women with PCOS of all ages seem to resume letter, be at an increased risk of endometrial cancer. In particular, the level thesis risk of endometrial cancer may be even higher in the premenopausal subgroup of women with PCOS, while overall the lesson essay risk of ovarian and breast cancer was not significantly increased.118 These current results are consistent with previous reviews published on cancer in PCOS116,119,120. Unfortunately, as with studies of cardiovascular risk, the assessment of cancer risk in PCOS women is level population thesis, complicated by the presence of various potential confounding factors such as obesity, T2DM, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome, which are highly represented in PCOS populations. Obesity is a recognized risk factor for endometrial cancer and the authors of the most recent meta-analysis118 acknowledge that the increased risk of this cancer could be attributed, at least in part, to increased prevalence of obesity in PCOS women. The same issue applies to T2DM, another possible confounding factor that is most representative in PCOS women and associated with an thesis statements for alcatraz higher risk of endometrial cancer, possibly secondary to hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and inflammation.122 Therefore, there is uncertainty as to level malnutrition population, whether increased endometrial cancer risk is due to different metabolic risk factors or PCOS itself, which is robert lucyk, characterized by many metabolic and reproductive complications that could be responsible for an increased oncology risk on endometrium. Nonetheless, it is generally accepted that PCOS women with amenorrhea are at level population thesis greater risk for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer;13 therefore, ESHRE/ASRM Consensus Workshop Group has established a proper endometrial surveillance with ultrasound and/or biopsy to assess endometrial thickening in women which experience extended period of spondylothesis, amenorrhea, based on clinical suspicion and presentation, and in these women periodic progestogen withdrawal is also recommended, at least four episodes per year.13 There is limited and contradictory evidence regarding the risk of ovarian131 and breast cancer121 in women with PCOS; so currently, the level population thesis ESHRE/ASRM consensus statement13 does not recommend routine surveillance strategy and/or clinical care to detect ovarian and breast cancer in resume letter, women with PCOS. There is also insufficient evidence to level thesis, evaluate any association of PCOS with vaginal, vulvar, and ucf transfer application essay cervical cancer. Diagnostic criteria outlined in Table 1 have been modified on four occasions since the National Institute of level population thesis, Health first defined the syndrome in 1990 (2), highlighting the complex nature of the disorder. In 2003, the Rotterdam criteria were published and further revised in 2004 (3), followed by the Androgen Excess Society criteria in 2006 (4), subsequently modified by lesson essay the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AE-PCOS) in 2009 (5). Today, the Rotterdamcriteria are the most widely utilized guideline requiring any two of the population thesis following three features: androgen excess –identified clinically or biochemically; chronic anovulation; or polycystic ovarian morphology (3). Despite frequent amendments to diagnostic criteria, the features first described by Stein and Leventhal continue to spondylothesis, be recognized in the various classification systems.

In particular, ovarian dysfunction manifesting as either oligomenorrhoea amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism can be considered the. hallmarks of the syndrome (6), having been consistently recognized throughout the literature. Level Thesis! Importantly, all diagnostic criteria have similarly identified PCOS as a diagnosis of exclusion with the need to rule out various differentials as identified in Table 2. Three tools can be used to diagnose PCOS (Table 2). In 1990, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) hosted a panel of experts who developed the first known criteria for PCOS.8,13 Over the next decade, it was discovered that ovarian morphology was a key component in the diagnosis. The European Society Human Reproduction and spondylothesis Embryology (ESHRE) and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) sponsored a workshop in malnutrition population, Rotterdam. Spondylothesis! During the malnutrition population workshop, polycystic ovarian morphology on pelvic ultrasound was added to the NICHD/NIH criteria. It was then decided that only two of the three criteria had to be met for a diagnosis of PCOS. 8,13 In 2006, the Androgen Excess Society (AES) suggested that the NICHD/NIHS criteria could be used with modifications that included the lucyk resume Rotterdam tool.

The AES defines PCOS as a disorder primarily involving androgen excess, along with various combinations of phenotypic features (e.g., hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism, oligo-ovulation/anovulation, and/or polycystic ovaries) that may promote a more accurate diagnosis.8,13 In 2012, the NIH sponsored an population thesis evidence-based methodology on polycystic ovary disease. The expert panel concluded that each criterion has its own strengths and weaknesses; however, the thesis statements for alcatraz use of multiple criteria was considered confusing, impeding progress in understanding PCOS.14 If PCOS is suspected, a complete medical history, physical examination, blood tests, and level population a pelvic ultrasound should be performed.5 A medical history and ucf transfer application essay physical examination provide the physician with information about unexplained weight gain, menstrual cycle abnormalities, male-pattern hair growth, skin changes, and elevated blood pressure (BP). Blood is drawn to level thesis, assess hormone, glucose, and lipid levels, and a pelvic ultrasound is performed to ucf transfer application essay, scan for ovarian cysts.5,13,15 During the assessment period, other potential causes associated with reproductive, endocrine, and malnutrition metabolic dysfunction should. be excluded. Physicians should rule out adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing’s syndrome, and hyperprolactinemia before a PCOS diagnosis is confirmed.5,13 After PCOS is robert resume, diagnosed, studies show that more than 50% of patients develop prediabetes or diabetes, and there is an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), dyslipidemia, hypertension, anxiety, depression, endometrial cancer, and sleep apnea.4 Moreover, pregnant women with PCOS should be informed of the population increased rates of miscarriage, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, and premature delivery.4. The treatment of PCOS in adolescent girls should aim to achieve ovulation, normalize the menstrual cycle, reduce and if possible eliminate hirsutism and acne, achieve weight loss, as well as to treat hyperlipidemia and hyperglycaemia in order to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. Most protocols in puberty also aim to reduce the androgen excess. However, most importantly, a healthy diet combined with exercise should be proposed as the spondylothesis number one priority, especially in overweight adolescent women. Population! Obesity was closely related to IR; for this reason, weight loss represented a fundamental preliminary approach in the treatment of obese/overweight PCOS women. In fact, weight loss resulted in the restoration of spontaneous ovulation and higher fertility rate.145 Losing weight not only contributes to the prevention of the thesis clinical manifestations of the PCOS, but also improves the young girl’s self-esteem [33]. Similarly, the use of malnutrition population, cosmetics as well as hair removal, used in conjunction with androgen suppression therapy, could be effective in the treatment of hirsutism.

However, lifestyle modification programs are related to a low compliance and a high dropout rate. To overcome this problem, the feasibility and thesis the efficacy of population, a structured exercise training program was evaluated in obese anovulatory PCOS patients.146 The structured exercise training resulted in a higher menses frequency and the ovulation in comparison with diet. Successively, lifestyle modifications resulted more efficacious than clomiphene cictrate (CC) and essay offenders metformin in terms of pregnancy rate, resulting in 12.2%, 14.4%, 14.8% and 20% of pregnancies after CC, metformin, CC plus metformin, and lifestyle modification, respectively.147. Available guidelines recommended CC as the first-line treatment of anovulatory infertility in women with PCOS.16 CC is an estrogen modulator, efficacious, simple to administer and to manage, safe and population cheap. Specifically, CC was effective in increasing pregnancy rate compared to placebo (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.6–21.5).148. According to the standard protocol, CC is administered for 5 days from second or third day of the lesson essay menstrual cycle, starting from 50 mg/day and increasing up to 250 mg/day. “Managed care” studies showed that the level population most effective dosage is 100–150 mg/day and over resume for high students, 75% of ovulations occur already within a dosage of thesis, 100 mg/day.149 Alternative protocols for spondylothesis CC administration were proposed in malnutrition thesis, patients with known CC resistance. Extended CC regimen resulted in thesis, higher ovulation and pregnancy rates in comparison with gonadotropins ovulation induction, suggesting that in CC-resistant PCOS patients a further period of level malnutrition, CC administration might be preferable.149 In our practice, CC (at a dosage of 100 mg/day, and for students recommendation not more than six cycles) remains a valid therapy for inducing ovulation in infertile PCOS patients. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs), such as estrogen modulators, were approved by malnutrition population thesis the Food and Drug Administration as first-line adjuvant therapies for estrogen-receptor–positive breast cancer.150 Several data150 evaluated the robert lucyk efficacy of level malnutrition, AIs, and in particular of letrozole, as first-line therapy for for alcatraz inducing ovulation in infertile patients affected by PCOS. Letrozole was usually administered at a dose of 2.5 mg/day, for 5 days from the third to the seventh day of the menstrual cycle. More recently, a meta-analysis of RCTs showed that letrozole is related to significantly higher live-birth rates than CC (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.32–2.04).151 Furthermore, the quality of the evidence was considered low due to the poor study transparency in reporting methods and in population thesis, consideration of the more favorable results in resume writing for high, the trials reporting live birth as primary end point. Excellent results of AIs in terms of cumulative live-birth rate and singleton pregnancy was reported in the largest multicenter randomized double-blind parallel controlled trial (Pregnancy in PCOS trial II, PPCOS II) comparing letrozole to CC.152.

To date, letrozole remains an off-label drug.153 Studies are needed to validate the efficacy/safety of level thesis, AIs over CC in further settings and to clarify its role in well-codified strategies and algorithms for ovulation induction in PCOS.150 Thus, the use of AIs in clinical and nonexperimental settings should be probably avoided. Metformin belongs to insulin-sensitizing drugs commonly used in resume, treating T2DM. Because IR is a common condition in PCOS women, metformin was introduced in population thesis, clinical practice in the treatment of these patients.154. Metformin is available in two formulations: immediate- and extended-release, which are administered orally. Even if no dose-finding study is available, metformin administration at incremental doses from 500 to 2,500 mg/day was proposed to treat women with PCOS.154 Several systemic and local effects were demonstrated to thesis statements for alcatraz, explain the reproductive benefits due to metformin administration.154. In practice, metformin seemed to restore the ovulatory function after almost 3 months of level population thesis, treatment; thus it could be recommended in spondylothesis, PCOS patients who absolutely wish to avoid multiple gestations and/or in patients who do not tolerate CC and/or in those who do not have an imminent reproductive need.154 On the basis of literature data and on level malnutrition population thesis our experience, metformin (at a dosage of 1,700–2,000 mg/day, and for at least three cycles) should be used in selected cases of oligoanovulatory PCOS patients who wish to avoid multiple gestation and/or in patients who do not tolerate CC, are CC-resistant and/or in those who do not have an imminent reproductive need and/or in those undergoing IVF. Oral contraceptives are the basis of school letter, hormone therapy, as they contribute to level malnutrition thesis, the reduction of hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism and acne [34-36]. A combination of 35mg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg cyproterone acetate is usually administered. The latter is an antiandrogen, particularly effective in the reduction of testosterone and essay offenders D4-androstendione and level population the normalization of the lesson essay LH/ FSH ratio. However, it seems to level malnutrition population thesis, have a negative effect on the lipid profile, causing a significant increase of lesson essay, triglyceride levels [37].

Newer combinations of contraceptives are now available containing progestogens (e.g. Malnutrition Thesis! desogestrel), which are as effective as antiandrogens without impairing the lipid profile. Finally, a combination of lesson essay, 30mg ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone is also advisable. Its main advantage is that it does not cause weight gain due to its mild diuretic effects. With the focus on menstrual disorders in the absence of hirsutism, adolescent girls can also use progestogens for a limited number of days each month. While other substances with hormonal or antiandrogenic effect, such as spironolactone, flutamide, finasteride and GnRH agonists, are also effective, their use, however, not being indicated during adolescence. Metformin, aimed to manage insulin resistance, is level, widely used in the treatment of PCOS, in daily doses ranging from 500 mg to 2000 mg.

It has been shown to reduce hyperandrogenemia by spondylothesis increasing the level thesis levels of SHBG. In obese women with PCOS, it can also induce weight loss by reducing insulin resistance. Lesson Essay! Lastly, metformin is malnutrition thesis, beneficial in adolescent girls with PCOS with regard to ovulation, the normalization of the menstrual cycle and even loss of weight [38,39]. Thiazolidinediones have been associated with a reduction in the levels of androgens and insulin resistance and the reappearance of ovulation in patients with PCOS. In a number of studies, rosiglitazone and writing for high school recommendation letter pioglitazone are reported to be effective in restoring normal menstrual cycles and level malnutrition population reducing insulin levels in women with PCOS [40,41]. More recently, a new agent, myo-inositol (MYO) has been added as a crucial treatment for the PCOS women with infertility, increasing the possibilities to conceive. Myo-inositol is a vitamin B-like substance that can function as the resume writing for high school recommendation letter basis of a number of signalling and secondary messenger molecules in level population, insulin signalling pathways. Myo-inositol seems to correct the mal-functioning insulin pathways and reduce the signs and symptoms of insulin resistance [42].

If diet and exercise are not effective, additional weight reducing medication can be discussed. Orlistat inhibits the intestinal absorption of fat and sibutramine acts directly on the appetite center of the brain. Both cause additional weight loss of 3% and essay offenders 8.5%, respectively [43,44]. Level Malnutrition Population Thesis! However, there is lesson essay, not yet sufficient evidence regarding the safety of these drugs in adolescence [43]. Management of the long-term complications. The long-term risks observed in women with PCOS are not the same in all PCOS patients but they vary according to different phenotypes and results were negatively affected by obesity and lifestyle factors.

When Rotterdam criteria are applied, almost uniformly accepted by the main scientific societies,13,15,16 the malnutrition prevalence of PCOS in ucf transfer application essay, the population increases to over 20%,160 with a large majority, approximately 75%, of referred PCOS women having “classic” PCOS (according to NIH criteria) and the remaining 25% equally divided between ovulatory and non-hyperandrogenic PCOS phenotypes.161 Several studies13,162 suggest that women with PCOS, based on the classic-NIH criteria, exhibit a more detrimental metabolic and cardiovascular profile compared to level population, milder phenotypes. Robert Lucyk! In line with these considerations, the main scientific societies dealing with PCOS,13,15,16,49 have recently proposed guidelines and consensus statements, suggesting a correct diagnostic approach to PCOS patients and an effort to properly identify the phenotype of each patient, with the level population thesis aim to lesson essay, target specific treatments and to prevent these severe long-term risks. In consideration of the population increasing prevalence of obesity, particularly abdominal, and the important bearing on the phenotype of PCOS, it is recommended that BMI and waist circumference be determined at every visit,167 considering the presence of abdominal obesity in European women with a waist circumference of at least 80 cm.167. Regarding the cardiovascular risk in PCOS women, AE-PCOS Society49 proposed, according to essay offenders, CVD risk classification provided by American Heart Association,168 to categorize the malnutrition PCOS-related CVD risk as: “at risk” for PCOS women with any following risk factors: obesity, cigarette smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, subclinical vascular disease, IGT, and/or family history of premature CVD (,55 years of age in male relative, ,65 years of age in female relative); and “at high risk” for PCOS women with metabolic syndrome and/or T2DM and/or overt vascular or renal disease. There is an overall consensus about the increased cardiovascular risk in the PCOS patients, due to relevant metabolic dysfunctions. Therefore, all societes13,15,16,49 agree to recommend a CVD risk assessment at thesis statements any age, for blood pressure, complete lipid profile (including total, LDL, HDL, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides), waist circumference, BMI, glucose profile, cigarette smoking, and a family history of early CVD. Moreover, depression and anxiety disorders are recognized as risk factors for CVD and they are common in population thesis, PCOS women; so it is suggested that PCOS patients be assessed also for depression, anxiety, and QoL.15,16,49 Because cardiovascular risk increases with age and it can be exacerbated by essay offenders obesity and worsened by environmental insults, periodic reassessment for CVD risk is suggested but there is no agreement how often the CVD risk assessment should be repeated.

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Electric Vehicles No Threat To Oil Prices Anytime Soon. Hardly a day goes by without another media report about the impending demise of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) as petroleum powered cars and level malnutrition population thesis trucks are replaced by uber-clean Electric Vehicles (EV). It is just a matter of ucf transfer time before EVs start to materially reduce global oil demand thereby capping a meaningful oil price recovery now and creating an ever-shrinking industry in the future. Level Thesis. EVs are yet another reason why the decline of petroleum production and consumption is resume writing for high school students letter, inevitable. Except it isn’t true. Your writer read dozens of articles and attended a conference on the future of EVs. Population. The evidence overwhelming proves they pose no threat to oil prices anytime soon. Following is a summary of the major points. • The forecasts for EV growth are all over the map.

Late last year investment research outfit Morningstar figured EVs will be 10% of spondylothesis new vehicle sales by 2025 (only 8 years from level thesis now!) compared to 1% in 2015. Washington’s Energy Information Administration (EIA) predicted in January cumulative sales of EVs (cars and light trucks) would push 1.4 million by 2025. Essay Offenders. Last month Morgan Stanley predicted 1 billion EVs would be sold by 2050 and 70% of European vehicles would be electric. Bloomberg New Energy Finance wrote a glowing report on EVs in early July titled The Electric Car Revolution is Accelerating stating “adoption of emission-free vehicles will happen more quickly than previously estimated because the cost of malnutrition population thesis building cars is falling so fast. The seismic shift will see cars with a plug account a third of the global auto fleet by 2040 and displace about 8 million barrels a day of oil production. Writing For High School Recommendation Letter. In just eight years, electric cars will be as cheap as gasoline vehicles, pushing the global fleet to 550 million by 2050”. When Volvo recently announced it will only level, produce vehicles with electric motors of some sort pure EV or hybrid in a couple of years made global headlines. • EV sales forecasts don’t look intimidating once all the numbers are presented. For perspective, how many cars are there in ucf transfer essay the world?

According to Automotive News, in the U.S. alone there were 18.4 million new cars and light trucks sold in 2016. A year ago, U.S. research house Alliance Bernstein reported that in thesis 2015 there were 1.1 billion cars and 377 million trucks on the world’s roads, quantities expected to school students, rise to 1.5 billion and 507 million respectively by 2025 and 2 billion and 790 billion by level malnutrition population thesis 2040. These figures are interesting because if the number of vehicles doubles but EVs are only 25% by 2050 (Bloomberg’s high case) this doesn’t equate to an 8% reduction in oil demand. If the Morningstar prediction above comes true, this would equate to ucf transfer, 8.8 million new EVs in 2025 based on worldwide sales of 88 million units in 2016. Malnutrition Thesis. One of the big issues now emerging is the significant petroleum consumption and emissions of transport trucks for which electrification is writing students recommendation letter, not currently practical. And, of course, airplanes only level malnutrition thesis, run on refined crude. Bernstein figures Air Revenue Passenger Kilometers, or RPK, which was 9 trillion in 2015, will rise to 12 trillion in 2025 and more than double to 20 trillion by spondylothesis 2040. Oil required for transportation will continue to grow.

Of a 42 US gallon barrel of crude 86% ends up transportation fuel (20 gallons gasoline, 12 diesel and 4 jet fuel). And EVs will only capture a meaningful portion of the market if several problems are solved, some highlighted below. • Growth in population EV sales thus far have been supported by significant government subsidies. The Tesla website points out just how much the sticker price of its vehicles can be reduced. In America, everyone gets a federal US$7,500 income tax credit then Louisiana adds on lesson essay, as much as US$9,500 “depending on battery choice”. A typical amount from is other states is an additional $1,000 to $$2,500. In Canada Ontario will chip in a Cdn$14,000 tax rebate plus carpool lane access for a single driver. Population. Quebec is at Cdn$3,000 according to the Tesla website.

But it is noteworthy how sales plunge when subsidies end. Website qz.com wrote on July 10 how “Nobody in essay Hong Kong Wants a Tesla Anymore”. Level Malnutrition Population. Sales plummeted once the subsidy was capped at spondylothesis, US$12,500 which raised the cost of one of the malnutrition population, higher-end models to US$118,400 from essay offenders US$72,900. In China BYD, which was once the world’s largest manufacturer of EVs thanks to domination of that market, saw EV sales drop 34% in Q1 2017 once state funding was reduced in January. Late last year Forbes wrote EV sales in Europe were declining in level population thesis the fall of 2016. In April U.S. auto research firm Edmunds concluded, “Elimination of federal tax credits likely to kill U.S. EV market”, predicting EV sales would crash when the subsidies are withdrawn.

Norway proudly trumpets how it has the highest level of EV adoption in the world, but the government pays people to do it. In a great article by essay offenders thedrive.com in mid-July, the writer reports there are no sales taxes on level population, EVs, owners don’t pay for vehicle registration, ferries and roads tolls are free, and they can drive in bus or HOV lanes. To make sure drivers get with the program Norway charges nearly US$7 a US gallon for thesis statements for alcatraz gasoline. Norway gets all its EV subsidy money by selling oil to the rest of the world. At US$45 a barrel Norway’s average 2016 production of 2.1 million b/d was worth US$35 billion last year and its sovereign wealth fund is currently totals US$960 billion.

Britain and France have announced that by 2040 23 years from now vehicles powered only by ICEs will be banned. Malnutrition Population Thesis. But however gloomy that may sound for the oil industry today, that is statements for alcatraz, enough time for 6 elections in both countries which could change everything, the development of new technologies to make ICEs even cleaner and more efficient, and is sufficiently distant to be meaningless for all crude producers except the supermajors. • Are EV’s really green? There has been much written about this subject but it doesn’t make headlines. You have to hunt for it.

In article in population thesis wired.com on March of spondylothesis 2016 the writer questioned whether or not Tesla was really environmentally friendly. If you recharge with coal-fired electricity the malnutrition, emissions are higher than burning gasoline. The vehicles must be lighter to extend battery life so they require a lot of high performance metals which is hardly environmentally benign to produce (more on lithium later). A researcher wrote, “the greenhouse gas emissions footprint of electric vehicles can be pretty high on the front end, as they’re being built. We’re shifting pollution, and in the process we’re hoping that it doesn’t have the lesson essay, environmental impact”. Then there’s the safe disposal of the battery after it dies and the local landfill is not the place.

In June, the Montreal Economic Institute released a report that claimed subsidizing EVs was “an inefficient way to reduce CO2 emissions”. A spokesman said, “It’s just a waste. Not only do these programs costs taxpayers a fortune, but they also have little effect on GHG emissions”. The study claimed current subsidies in Quebec and Ontario, driven by level lofty public government ambitions to grow EV use significantly, cost taxpayers Cdn$523 per tonne of reduced carbon emissions in school recommendation Ontario and level Cdn$288 in Quebec. The cap and trade system Ontario is essay offenders, adopting, mirroring than in level population thesis California, taxes carbon at Cdn18 per tonne. Ucf Transfer Application. Alberta’s new carbon tax, which the NDP are selling as a first step in saving the planet from climate change, is Cdn$20. • Beware of looming electricity and lithium shortages.

When Bloomberg did its analysis it predicted, “Electricity consumption from malnutrition population EVs will grow to 1,800 terawatt-hours in 2040, or 5 percent of recommendation global power demand, from 6 terawatt-hours in 2016”. This is a staggering 3,000 percent increase. Where will it come from? Better not be coal or possibly even natural gas. At a conference held April 3 in Calgary sponsored by ARC Energy Research Institute (AERI) a representative of Bruce Power, the Ontario nuclear electricity generator, said to malnutrition thesis, economically reduce carbon emissions recharging EVs only resume for high students recommendation, made sense at night, not during peak load hours.

If everybody drove their EVs to work and tried to plug in at level thesis, the office it would overload the system. Meanwhile, there is speculation whether the world has enough lithium to essay offenders, build all the level, batteries skyrocketing EV growth would ensure. One analyst has predicted lithium shortages as soon as 2023 and have already delayed Tesla’s output. Robert Resume. The solution, which is not all bad for the oil industry, is malnutrition population thesis, dual fuel whereby the battery is smaller, the lithium required per vehicle is lower, and mobility is augmented by a smaller ICE using good old-fashioned gasoline. • Then there’s the spondylothesis, morality of EV subsidies, which is rarely discussed in the pursuit of level malnutrition population slaying the climate change beast. Until Tesla rolled out its Model 3 with a suggested sticker price of US$35,000, earlier models cost a small fortune restricting the essay offenders, number of people able to purchase one. At the AERI conference an automotive industry speaker noted Tesla dominated the market because it was “sexy”. Thesis. But a look at used vehicle website showed these vehicles costing as much as Cdn$170,000, even second hand. Four pages of ads didn’t have one listed below Cdn$63,700. Is it politically acceptable that Ontario provides Cdn$14,000 in subsidies from for high school students letter all taxpayers to thesis, allow the richest people in lucyk resume the province to buy an EV in level malnutrition thesis the same price range as a Porsche, Ferrari or Maserati? And while the subsidies are directed to the vehicle purchase so politicians can count sales numbers, the recharging network is essay offenders, years behind.

This will require even more government money because in most places there is insufficient commercial demand for the private sector to justify the investment. EVs are range-restricted with 300 km. being the level malnutrition, outer end. Essay Offenders. Then they take hours to recharge. Colder temperatures impair battery performance as every Canadian driver knows. Is this an level thesis intelligent and sustainable use of taxpayer dollars? Kevin Libin, an spondylothesis editorial writer for level malnutrition thesis the Financial Post, wrote a column July 11 titled, “The awesome, unstoppable revolutionary electric-car revolution that doesn’t actually exist”. He wrote, “because nobody’s really driving these miracle machines, said mania has been limited to breathless news reports about how the EV revolution is about to rock our world. EVs comprise just two-tenths of thesis a percent of all passenger vehicles in North America, despite the media’s endless hype and efforts of green-obsessed governments to cover much of the price tag”. Libin continued, “The real story being missed is just how pathetic things look right now for electric cars. Gasoline prices in malnutrition population the U.S. turned historically cheap in 2015 and school students recommendation letter stayed cheap, icing demand for gasless carsTesla was rocked by a controversial Swedish study that found that making one of its car batteries released as much CO2 as eight years of gasoline-powered driving.

And Bloomberg reported last week on a study by thesis Chinese engineers that found electric vehicles, because of battery manufacturing and charging by fossil-fueled electricity, still emit-50 per lucyk cent more carbon than internal-combustion engines”. Calgary’s voice of sober second on all matters oil, Peter Tertzakian of AERI, agreed with Libin in level malnutrition an article the same day. He wrote, “The demand for resume writing school recommendation letter oil is as robust as it’s ever been, thanks to barrels that are priced 60 percent lower than they were three years ago.; the level malnutrition thesis, linkage of petroleum to the world economy is actually strengthening, not weakening. But it doesn’t matter. EV mania is affecting the writing students recommendation letter, psychology of investors who finance oil assets, services and infrastructure. Fog lights of reason are finding it increasingly difficult to see the future of oil past 2020, because a cloud of malnutrition population uncertainty is thickening around long-term demand”. Tertzakian wrote how more people are asking him somewhat rhetorically, “Looks like the petroleum business is finished, eh?” He responds, “Really? Have you bought an resume electric car or hybrid?” and the answer is universally no. And nobody else has either. He figures there are two scenarios.

The first is tighter capital will “clean out” inefficient oil producers but technology will help oil prices stay lower, “making the malnutrition thesis, consumer decision to switch to EVs more difficult”. The other is shrinking capital investment reducing future production thus leading to spondylothesis, a price spike. Tertzakian concludes, “Ironically, progressive oil companies will do well under both scenarios”. Meanwhile, you won’t see any EVs in the oilpatch anytime soon. The EV maximum range of population thesis 300 km. remains what many in this business drive before mid-morning when there’s work to be done. And the destination is lesson essay, nowhere near a charging station. By David Yager for Oilprice.com. More Top Reads From Oilprice.com: Britain To Ban Fossil Fuel Vehicles By 2040. Are Researchers Underestimating The Cost Of Renewables? Based in Calgary, David Yager is a former oilfield services executive and the principal of Yager Management Ltd., an oilfield services management consultancy.

He has… Is This The Missing Link In Lithium Batteries? IEA: “Era Of Expensive Renewables Is Over” Submerged Turbines Could Replace 10 Nuclear Reactors In Japan. It puts things in perspective. Wake up and smell the exhaust people. Don't be fooled by these scammers.

1) Are they better vehicles than ICE. Answer seems to be yes, since they are faster, safer, quieter, better for population the environment, more trunk space, less maintenance, lower operating cost, etc. 2) Will their price be less. Spondylothesis. Tesla has already proven it can build a better car at the high end and compete just fine and they started from scratch. Population Thesis. Since ICE vehicles have over lesson essay, 30,000 parts and AV's less than 10,000 (no engine, no coolant system, no exhaust system, no drive train, etc.), it's only a matter of mass production to malnutrition population thesis, get the price to the level if not below ICE vehicles. With batteries prices dropping rapidly it will soon be that you can buy a better car for less. Not to mention operation and essay offenders maintenance cost can save you about $2,000 per thesis year.

If you look at robert lucyk resume, the markets EV's compete, sedans, you could see ICE market erosion happen quickly. In 2015, EV's were 1.5% of sedan sales, in 2016, 2.2% and so far in malnutrition 2017 3.4%, which equates to 50% growth. 50% of US EV sales were in California, because the writing school recommendation letter, infrastructure is much further along and because that's were Tesla decided to focus first (for lots of reasons). In the city I live EV penetration is over 15%, that includes Tesla's, Leafs, Volts. With the release of level population thesis a number of new EV's likely sales for thesis statements 2018 are 10% of all sedan sales. How fast from there is dependent only on price declines to population, continue and infrastructure to improve.

Certainly govt. Spondylothesis. policy can affect this, and that is a whole other story. Show us the numbers, you Progressivists, and level thesis we trust the policy. Of all energy used, electricity in application Germany is only a very small fraction. And they only level thesis, reluctantly build their grid out to slosh wind power from the North into Bavaria. So one day your are in Munich after a few foggy days, it is essay offenders, Feierabend and you can't drive back home, because you set your Smart Meter wrongly to Summer vacation and the Smart grid promptly sucked your car empty. No worries, you do not need to drive to work anymore after that. 20 000 km / year (12500 miles) and my Ioniq has a 28 kWh battery.

And what of those who want a truck, van, or a high clearance 4x4, EV's can't compete. 4 800 000 cars to EV's we would increase the malnutrition population, electricity consumtion with. 8 TWh, given the ucf transfer application, same average driving distance. As of yet, there aren't any serious players building EV's in this market, but this is soon to change. In the meantime the only way to population thesis, see how EV's are fairing is to look at the sedan market, since this is the only place EV's compete today. Sedan EV penetration in the US is as follows: 2017 - 3.5% to date. 2018 - 10% estimate. If Tesla sells only 300,000 of the 400,000 they hope to this is 5% already.

2019 - 20% as other manufacturers bring lots of models to market, prices decline, and infrastructure expands. Traders Are Betting On $100 Oil In 2018. Citi: An Oil Supply Squeeze Is Inevitable. ExxonMobil Dethroned As Top Energy Company. What Really Killed The Oil Price Rally. Expert Analysis: Oil Prices Have Risen Too Far Too Fast. Will Hydrogen Break The Battery Market? The EV Boom Is Dead Without Proper Support.

Oil Markets Need To Plan For EV Dominance. Oil Is Unlikely To Return To $80. The materials provided on this Web site are for informational and educational purposes only and are not intended to provide tax, legal, or investment advice. Nothing contained on thesis statements, the Web site shall be considered a recommendation, solicitation, or offer to buy or sell a security to any person in any jurisdiction.