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Moral essay form 4 2011

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Moral essay form 4 2011

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best homework What is the moral essay best approach teachers can take towards homework? I think the a mockingbird guest responses today, along with numerous reader comments, provide a great perspective on essay 4 2011 the topic. If you'd like to read more research and essay discover additional ideas, you might want to explore my collection at essay The Best Resources For Learning About Homework Issues. Todays guests are educator/authors Dr. Cathy Vatterott and Bryan Harris. Reader suggestions follow their contributions. Response From Dr. Cathy Vatterott.

1. Treat homework as feedback. Homework should be used as formative feedback about learning, not as a summative assessment of learning. When homework is used as assessment of learning, and students are penalized for incomplete or incorrect assignments, it's often easier or less embarrassing for them to not attempt the work. If homework is understood by students, teachers, and to protect parents to be formative feedback about learning, we remove the shame of not understanding as well as the temptation of parents to complete or correct homework. 2. 4 2011. Check for understanding before assigning practice. Practice homework should not be assigned until the teacher has assigned homework to check for understanding. Sometimes teachers think they are assigning practice, only to discover that for some students it's new learning! Homework should not be used for new learning. 3. Track homework completion but don't count it as part of the grade.

This approach is consistent with the use of homework as formative assessment. As more schools move to 4 2011 standards based grading, it is becoming increasingly common that homework is not graded, but given feedback and monitored for completion. If homework is not graded, homework completion is typically reported as a work habit. 4. Help students see homework as practice for assessments. While teachers fear students won't do homework if it's not graded, it shouldn't take long for students to see the relationship of homework to their performance on assessments. We are simply delaying gratification!

Teachers can encourage this insight by having students chart the relationship between the percentage of homework assignments completed and their grades on assessments. In Persuasion. For the teacher, this often reveals for which students homework is effective, as well as for which students homework is ineffective or even unnecessary. Essay. 5. Don't assume your homework tasks are infallible. We tend to assume that a specific homework task will lead to the learning we desire, and critical will work for all students. If we allow students to have input into the tasks that work best for them, we empower students to essay take more responsibility for their learning. Response From Bryan Harris. Bryan Harris serves as the Director of violence and children, Professional Development Public Relations for the Casa Grande (AZ) Elementary School District. Essay Form 4 2011. He is the author of two books published by Eye On Education and regularly speaks across the country on the topics of descriptive, student engagement and classroom management: Homework is a hot topic and your frustrations are felt by fellow educators all over the country. Some perfectly capable students don't seem to care enough to put forth even a little effort. For those of us on the front lines of educating kids, we can relate to the disappointment of working with students who don't seem to have the moral essay 4 2011 internal drive to continue their learning. ? Does the homework have a clear purpose and rationale? ? Can the student successfully complete the homework without assistance? ? How much time should it take for a student to complete the homework?

? Avoid calling it homework. It is likely that some students have negative feelings towards homework. they hear the essay on ways to protect nature word and tune out or have a negative reaction. Rather, refer to the tasks, assignments, and projects that are to be completed for the following day. ? Make homework occasional and special. Reserve homework for those tasks that have a special purpose and moral are connected to an authentic task. ? Communicate exactly how the homework will be used. A Mockingbird Racial Injustice Essay. Give students a clear reason (beyond the assignment of a grade) that the assignment needs to be completed. ? De-emphasize extrinsic motivators. Form 4 2011. Many of our students are not motivated by grades, prizes, or rewards. In Persuasion. Reminding them that their grades will suffer if they don't complete an assignment is essay form 4 2011 not likely to help. So, emphasize how the assignment is going to help them learn something that is interesting, relevant, or immediately useful. ? Start the assignment in class. Give students a head start and essay 4 2011 build momentum. Before chronic non-homework-doers leave class, highlight how much they have completed and how little they have left. ? Ask for a commitment. Most people, even challenging students, prefer to follow through on their stated intentions.

Therefore, in a non-confrontational way, ask the student to verbally commit to form when and where they will be able to complete the assignment. ? Call home. In full communication with parents, call home to offer assistance on the completion of the assignment. Violence Research Papers. ? Avoid lecturing and nagging the entire class. Form. Emphasize the positive behavior of the majority. In nearly every classroom, most of the students are cooperative, helpful, and holiday a joy to teach. Essay 4 2011. However, teachers often spend time nagging the entire class about the inappropriate behavior of just a few students. Click here for a blog explaining the concept of Negative Social Proof.

When assigned, homework should be relevant and meaningful, and should serve as independent practice of , a skill learned in the classroom. Or, in the case of a flipped classroom, homework can be initial learning of content when class time is used for guided or independent practice. I'm not a proponent of homework being used as a vehicle to teach responsibility thereby resulting in policies of downgrading or assigning zeroes for work turned in late. My basic rule is that homework should be relevant and essay form helpful.Homework should never be busywork. It should absolutely extend the student's experience with the summary learning with the essay 4 2011 goal of developing mastery. Acceptable homework in essay on roll English is reading, writing and working towards a project or other goal. Never should students just be answering comprehension questions, defining vocabulary words, filling out worksheets, which are viewed by students as irrelevant. If homework interferes with a student's ability to succeed in a class, it should be reduced or done away with. For instance, if a student works or takes care of siblings, he or she should not be penalized for not doing homework. That may be part of the essay form 4 2011 culture of a class or a school, depending on demographics.

In these instances, homework can be optional, extra credit, extension, etc. Essay. On the other hand, if a student masters the skills or content easily and doesn't do homework because he feels it's pointless, it should not significantly impact his grade (I have seen students move from a B to a F because of moral 4 2011, homework) because that would be harmful. I've used Storify to collect many of the tweets that were sent in response to this question: Thanks to Cathy, Bryan and to many readers for contributing their responses, . Please feel free to leave a comment sharing your reactions to this question and the ideas shared here. Consider contributing a question to be answered in on roll hear a future post. You can send one to me at moral essay [email protected] you send it in, let me know if I can use your real name if it's selected or if you'd prefer remaining anonymous and have a pseudonym in mind. You can also contact me on Twitter at essay on roll of thunder @Larryferlazzo.

Anyone whose question is selected for this weekly column can choose one free book from a selection of moral, seven published by published by Jossey-Bass. Just a reminder -- you can subscribe to this blog for free via RSS Reader or email. And,if you missed any of the critical thinking highlights from the first year of this blog, you can check them out moral essay 4 2011 here. You can also see a list of the ten most popular posts in to kill injustice essay 2012. Look for the next question-of-the-week in a few days.

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patent resume The present application is a continuation application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/435,991 filed in moral essay form the United States Patent Office on Mar. 30, 2012, the entire contents of which is incorporated herein by reference. FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE.

The present disclosure relates generally managing a power-up process for communication devices and more particularly to enhancing a hibernate and resume process using user space synchronization. Hibernate and resume processes for computing devices are being increasingly utilized to achieve fast boot times to minimize user wait. The hibernate process allows a state of a computing device to be saved and allows the computing device to be subsequently powered off. That is, software processes executing within an operating system of the computing device can be “frozen” or stored in a snapshot, where the snapshot is stored in a nonvolatile memory. Any number of occurrences can cause a resume process to essay initiate a computing device in media research papers a state where one or more system parameters or values are improper. For example, many devices include mechanical controls, knobs, dials, and the like. These mechanical controls can be in one position when a hibernation process runs and in a different position when a resume process runs. Each mechanical control setting can have a corresponding value maintained in moral essay form volatile memory by a data structure of an operating system. When one or more internal values are improper for to kill injustice, a current state of the device, any number of negative results can occur.

For example, the device can detect the improper value and moral essay form 4 2011 can adjust for to kill a mockingbird racial injustice, it, which lengthens a processing time of the resume process and/or adds user-experienced latency, which diminishes a user experience with the computing device. In another example, improper values established during a resume process can result in irregular device behavior (i.e., improper volume when the essay form, mechanical control is for essay, a volume, improper state when the mechanical control is for a communication state, etc.). In still another example, improper values from a resume process can cause software crashes and moral form other unexpected errors. What is needed is an improvement to a hibernate and resume process, which minimizes or prevents problems with parameter values being improper when resuming from a snapshot. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES. The accompanying figures, where like reference numerals refer to identical or functionally similar elements throughout the separate views, together with the detailed description below, are incorporated in and form part of the form, specification, and essay to protect serve to moral essay 4 2011 further illustrate embodiments of concepts that include the claimed invention, and explain various principles and advantages of those embodiments.

FIG. 1 is a block diagram for essays, enhancing a hibernate and moral form a resume process in accordance with embodiments of the disclosure. FIG. Critical Thinking. 2 is a flow chart for methods for enhancing a hibernate and resume process in accordance with an moral 4 2011 embodiment of the inventive arrangements disclosed herein. FIG. On Ways To Protect. 3 shows a message sequence chart of a freezing/hibernation process in accordance with an moral 4 2011 embodiment of the inventive arrangements disclosure herein.

FIG. 4 shows a message sequence chart of a thawing/resume process in to protect accordance with an embodiment of the moral essay form 4 2011, inventive arrangements disclosure herein. FIG. Media And Children. 5 is a schematic diagram illustrating a system for implementing a hibernate and resume process in accordance with embodiments of the disclosure. Skilled artisans will appreciate that elements in the figures are illustrated for to protect, simplicity and clarity and essay have not necessarily been drawn to scale. For example, the to kill a mockingbird essay, dimensions of some of the elements in the figures may be exaggerated relative to essay 4 2011 other elements to help to improve understanding of research embodiments of the present invention. The apparatus and method components have been represented where appropriate by conventional symbols in the drawings, showing only those specific details that are pertinent to essay form understanding the embodiments of the present invention so as not to to kill injustice essay obscure the moral, disclosure with details that will be readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art having the benefit of the description herein.

A method, apparatus, system, and/or computer program product for hibernate and thinking resume processes for form 4 2011, a computing device. In the disclosure, before hibernating a computing device, system software components can be notified of an upcoming hibernation process. In one embodiment, the critical thinking, notifications are conveyed through an application program interface (API). At least a portion of the system software components can perform one or more pre-hibernation activities to place that system software component in a ready-to-resume state. Essay. Each system software component can indicate when it is ready for hibernation.

Responsive to moral essay 4 2011 receiving an indication from each of the system software components indicating the moral essay form 4 2011, each of the system software components is ready for essay to protect nature, hibernation, the hibernation process can complete. Essay. The completed hibernation process creates a snapshot in nonvolatile memory. Essay Hear. The snapshot saves state information for each of the system software components. The state information is for the ready-to-resume state of the system software components. The disclosure leverages a fact that snapshots saved herein start system software components at a meaningful and essay form deliberate point in execution (i.e., in a ready-to-resume state).

In other words, prior art solutions for a snapshot used for essays summary, hibernate/resume processes attempt to moral form record a system state at an arbitrary point, which results in system software components not being afforded an opportunity to prepare for hibernation (i.e., no pre-hibernation activities for system software occur). In the media and children papers, disclosure, placing the form, system software components in a ready-to-resume state ensures that processes for each of the and children, system software components are started at a specific point in 4 2011 execution, such as just at or near an execution point where initialization code of the system software component runs. In many embodiments, the of thunder, ready-to-resume state of the software applications can be deliberately saved and re-used at will. For example, a set of one or more snapshot images can be created at a factory even before a machine is shipped and sold (or when an operating system of the machine is loaded). Moral Essay. Additionally, a new “baseline” or “reference” snapshot can be created when system software components, the racial, operating system, and/or hardware of moral essay a machine is upgraded.

Having a reliable snapshot can permit a machine to boot faster, as the system software components do not have to essay on ways to protect nature start from a “cold” state, but can be directly loaded (from a non-volatile memory to a volatile memory) in a warm state (e.g., the moral essay form 4 2011, ready-to-resume one), which reduces the overall power-up time of the machine. In one embodiment, power-up time can be further improved by , powering up a subset of the system software components that provide a core desired functionality to a computing device and then subsequently powering up the remaining system software components. That is, the resume process can be optimized in contemplated embodiments to occur in a staged fashion, where functionality is provided to form end-users at each stage. In one embodiment, a machine can leverage the snapshot having “ready-to-resume” system software components for racial essay, quick recovery from error conditions, by simply cycling power and resuming from a snapshot image. FIG. 1 is a block diagram for enhancing a hibernate 120 and essay a resume 130 process in media research accordance with embodiments of the disclosure. The disclosure further leverages snapshots of system software components that have been placed in a ready-to-resume state, for 4 2011, many situations. Snapshots as used herein are not restricted to ones created from a user-initiated hibernation process, but also include ones created at a factory, created responsive to a system upgrade, and/or created upon essay form, a system detecting that no “reference” or “baseline” snapshot exists. Unlike conventional hibernate processes of a mockingbird racial prior art, in hibernate process 120 , system software components 116 of an operating system 110 are notified that a hibernation action has been initiated before a snapshot 120 is created (or the snapshot 122 is created at a factory or at another time with system software components 116 being in moral 4 2011 a ready-to-resume state). System software components 116 can include applications, processes, and drivers that maintain state information within a volatile memory (e.g., random access memory or RAM).

This permits each system software component 116 to prepare itself for to kill a mockingbird injustice, hibernation by performing zero or more pre-hibernation activities that places that system software in a ready-to-resume state. Not all system software components 116 necessarily need to perform a pre-hibernation activity for moral form, every operating state. After optionally performing pre-hibernation activities, each notified system software 116 component can report that it is ready to hibernate. Once all notified components have reported that they are ready for hibernation, a create snapshot operation 119 can be triggered, which creates snapshot 122 . In one embodiment, the descriptive essay holiday, pre-hibernation actions can occur in the user space 113 , while a hibernate process 120 is initiated from a kernel space 111 and nature while the moral essay, snapshot 122 is created by a process executing in essay on roll of thunder hear my cry the kernel space 111 . A snapshot 122 is created responsive to moral essay 4 2011 many different events, in accordance with various contemplated embodiments of the disclosure. For example, the essays in persuasion summary, hibernate action is initiated from a user action to hibernate. In another example, the hibernate action is initiated from a time-out period associated with hibernation. In yet another example, the moral essay 4 2011, hibernate action is initiated from a system boot-up time detection of a lack of an existing reference (in this latter case, power-down actions often associated with a hibernation process need not occur). A Mockingbird Racial Injustice Essay. These examples are non-limiting and others are contemplated.

In one embodiment, notifications of the form, hibernate action are initiated from an application program interface (API) 114 established for hibernate/resume processes 120 , 130 . A notification function such as “get_( )” can be used for this purpose. When the notifications are sent from an questions on roll hear my cry API 114 messages from each of the moral form, system software 116 components can be conveyed back to the API 114 . For example, a function such as the shown “report_ready( )” function or an equivalent can be used for essay on roll of thunder my cry, this purpose. Use of an API 114 for communications to the system software components 116 can be a useful standardized approach, especially for hibernation/resume processes 120 , 130 implemented within a kernel space 111 of the operating system 110 and/or for moral 4 2011, those implemented at a BIOS level of the computing device 102 . The resume process 130 can be initiated by many different events and for on roll of thunder, different situations or purposes, in accordance with various contemplated embodiments of the disclosure. For example, the moral essay 4 2011, resume process 130 occurs on system start-up to media research enable a “fast boot”. In another example, the resume process 130 occurs from a hibernate, sleep, or other power-saving state of a computing device 102 . In still another example, the resume process 130 is triggered by a system error (which triggers a power-cycle then resume, or which triggers a system reset/restore then resume). Similarly, the resume process 130 can be triggered by any exception as part of a recovery process from an unknown state, from erroneous behavior, and the like (i.e., the resume process 130 from a known snapshot can occur as part of an exception handling process). In one embodiment, different snapshots 122 (e.g., a reference snapshot, a recovery snapshot, and the like) are able to moral form be stored by critical, the computing device 102 and moral form 4 2011 can be linked to different resume process situations. Regardless, once the resume process 130 is initiated, power on measures (if needed) are taken to restore power to system components. Media Research. The snapshot 122 , which was stored in essay form 4 2011 the non-volatile memory, is accessed and read, which loads volatile memory with the previously stored state 124 information. Essay Form. Unlike prior art implementations, the saved state 124 is one that the previously running software system components 116 were able to prepare for, by operationally executing a set of pre-hibernation actions, thereby placing the snapshot 122 stored version of critical each of the moral form 4 2011, system software components 116 in a ready-to-resume state.

Thus, the system software components 116 are less likely to experience synchronization problems upon resuming from hibernation compared with conventional hibernation processes. For example, a ready-to-resume state for the system software components 116 can be a state existing immediately before variables subject to moral essay 4 2011 change during a power-off period of thinking art lessons hibernation (for example, values linked to essay form 4 2011 a mechanical control of device 112 can be initiated from the ready-to-resume state) are acquired. Similarly, the and children, ready-to-resume state can be positioned at essay form 4 2011, an execution point, where the operating system 110 checks for changes to removable peripherals (e.g., Universal Serial Bus or other plug-and-play devices) before actions dependent on these devices are attempted. In one embodiment, timing sequences and dependencies among variables of the essay on roll, operating system 110 and/or the system software components 116 can be taken into consideration. Essay Form. Thus, variables, values, and descriptive holiday other communications can occur between the system software components 116 and the operating system 110 during the resume process 130 . For example, different ones of the system software components 116 can include a set of multiple processes and/or even sub-processes. For example, one of the form, software components 116 can include processes A, B, and C and sub-processes A1 and B1, as shown.

These processes and sub-processes can be sequenced against one another or other running processes or sub-processes of the operating system 110 . On Roll My Cry. State saved variables 124 can require these timing sequences be properly sequenced and/or synchronized to each other, which is possible in moral form 4 2011 the disclosure due to software components 116 being able to take pre-hibernation activities to place each in a ready-to-resume state or execution position before the essays in persuasion, snapshot 122 is taken. The proper sequencing is simply ensuring a proper state 124 is reached, as specified in the snapshot 122 . Moral Essay. Further, pre-hibernation activities can include optimizations designed to rapidly restore a computing device 102 to its previous state (or to thinking art lessons a default, reference or baseline state) upon execution of a resume process 130 . In hibernate process 120 , each of the system software components 116 are in an arbitrary state when a message to prepare for hibernation is received. Moral Essay Form 4 2011. Pre-hibernation activities transition each of the software components 116 from this arbitrary state to a ready-to-resume state. In one instance, a ready-to-resume state can be a state where software components 116 are prepared to execute initialization operations upon 4 2011, resume (e.g., resume process 130 ). For example, a software component 116 can be transitioned into a ready-to-resume state by essays in persuasion summary, moving the execution pointer to execute an initialization operation upon moral form 4 2011, resume. It should be appreciated that the hibernate process 120 can include one or more modes of art lessons operation including protected mode and supervisor mode, where the moral essay, different modes can have an effect on pre-hibernation activities performed by the software components 116 . In general, the hibernate process 120 is one where the computing device 102 is able to power down while retaining its state information (e.g., state 124 ). In one embodiment, the power-down process is optional while the saving of state information to a snapshot 122 is required. That is, upon hibernation, the computing device 102 saves contents of its volatile memory (e.g., random access memory or RAM) into a non-volatile memory, as a snapshot 122 . . The computing device 102 then can completely power down in form one embodiment, which conserves power. The resume process 130 causes the computing device 102 to art lessons be powered on and then retrieves the moral essay 4 2011, saved state 124 information from the critical thinking, snapshot 122 . As used herein, hibernate process 120 can be distinguished from a sleep process, in that a sleep process provides power to non-volatile memory so that stored state information is retained, thereby negating a need to 4 2011 save the state 124 information to a snapshot 122 (i.e., in a non-volatile memory). Techniques for notifying system software components can be applied to a sleep process, as well as to a hibernate process 120 , as detailed herein.

Additionally, the moral essay form 4 2011, hibernation process 120 of the disclosure can be a hybrid hibernate/sleep process, where content of volatile memory are copied to a non-volatile storage as a snapshot when the computing device 102 enters a sleep mode; thereby, permitting state to essays summary be restored even if power is lost to the device 102 . In one embodiment, the hibernate 120 and resume 130 processes are designed to be substantially compliant with the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) specification. In other contemplated embodiments, the ACPI specification itself can be expanded to include innovations detailed herein. Moral Essay Form. Alternatively, the critical art lessons, hibernation 120 and resume processes 130 can be implemented in a proprietary manner that is incompatible with the ACPI specification. It should be noted that situations are contemplated (such as fault recovery using a previously stored snapshot 122 ), where a resume process 130 does not require a hibernation process 120 to occur, but only requires that a suitable snapshot 120 exist. Operating system 110 can refer to essay on ways to protect a set of executable code which can manage computer hardware resources and can provide common services. Moral Essay. Operating system 110 can include low level hardware device drivers.

In one embodiment, operating system 110 can be illustrated as a virtual memory representation of essay holiday a physical memory (e.g., RAM) segregating the moral essay form 4 2011, operating system into a kernel space 111 and a user space 113 . Descriptive Essay. Kernel space 111 can include virtual memory reserved for running the form 4 2011, kernel 112 , kernel 112 extensions (e.g., modules), device drivers, and the like. For example, kernel space 111 can be utilized to execute kernel 112 operations. Kernel 112 can include, but is not limited to, a monolithic kernel, a microkernel, a hybrid kernel, a modular kernel, a nanokernel, an exokernel, and the like. User space 113 can include virtual memory utilized for executing system software component including, but not limited to, hibernate Application Programming Interface (API) 114 , system software components 116 , drivers, utility software, and the like. User space 113 can include multiple processes (e.g., process A, process B) and sub-processes (e.g., sub-processes A1 and B1) associated with system services (e.g., networking, indexing, etc.). API 114 represents a collection of functionality, which can permit improved hibernate and resume processes 120 , 130 described herein. API 114 permits user space system software components 116 to enter a ready-to-resume state before hibernation occurs.

API 114 can include, but is not limited to, a library, a framework, and the like. API 114 can conform to moral 4 2011 traditional and/or proprietary languages including, but not limited to, C, C++, JAVA, and the like. System software components 116 can each be components able to execute within user space 113 . Essays Summary. Each component 116 manipulates and/or consume hardware and/or software resources of the computing device 102 . System software components 116 may include, but are not limited to, a process, a thread, a daemon, and the like. Essay 4 2011. That is, system software components 116 may include a set of media violence papers one or more processes (e.g., process A, process B), sub-processes (e.g., sub-process A1 and B1), and 4 2011 the like. In one instance, system software components 116 share hardware and/or software constructs with other system software components 116 to perform execution during an execution state. Descriptive Holiday. For example, a process A and moral essay form 4 2011 process B associated with one or more software components 116 can utilize a semaphore to communicate with each other. In one embodiment, API 114 provides functionality for , detecting and handling process exception. In the embodiment, API 114 detects and responds appropriately to an unresponsive process (e.g., zombie process), a memory leak, a suspended process, and the like.

Snapshot 122 can be a process image reflecting the ready-to-resume state of the system software components 116 . Essay 4 2011. In one instance, state 124 information of the snapshot 122 includes an exact replica of a mockingbird racial a process control block associated with system software components 116 , approximately at a time the snapshot 122 was taken. Moral Form. State information 124 can include, but is not limited to process states, sub-process states, object information (e.g., object state), addressing information (e.g., execution pointers, data pointer), process identifier (e.g., PID) number, register contents, flag state, switch state, address space information, (e.g., upper and lower memory bounds), opened files, process priority, I/O device status, and critical art lessons the like. In one embodiment, snapshot 122 is utilized to restore system software component 116 state regardless of prior state. That is, snapshot 122 is employed to moral essay 4 2011 enable a reusable image which can be utilized to rapidly restore one or more of the software components 116 to a specified state. In one instance, a snapshot 122 is created in a manufacturing factory and racial injustice essay can be utilized at essay form, each resume to restore the device to a factory state. Thinking. When changes are made to the hardware configuration of the computing device 102 and/or to the software components 116 , a “factory” or reference state of a snapshot 112 is updated to reflect these changes. Using a reference snapshot 122 can greatly decrease the time necessary for the hibernate process 120 . Essay 4 2011. Further, a “reference” hibernate state is able to be enhanced with variable values for thinking, an operating system of the system software components 116 in essay form 4 2011 one embodiment. To Kill A Mockingbird Injustice. These values may be explicitly determined and form 4 2011 made available for in persuasion, the snapshot 122 as part of form preparing each of the system software components 116 for hibernation. FIG. 2 is a flow chart for methods 201 , 250 for enhancing a hibernate and resume process in accordance with an embodiment of the essay questions hear, inventive arrangements disclosed herein.

Method 201 is hibernate process for a sequence of steps associated with a suspension of an operating system and/or system software. As previously noted, snapshots may exist that were created by processes other than the moral form, hibernate process 201 , such as “born ready” snapshots created at essay, a factory and shipped with a machine. Method 250 is a resume process for a sequence of steps associated with the resuming of an moral essay 4 2011 operating system and/or system software from a snapshot stored in a non-volatile memory. Hibernate process 201 begins when a system message or notification is sent to running software components informing these components that a hibernation process have been initiated. Responsive to receiving this notification or message, each software component can perform a set of pre-hibernate actions to place itself in a ready-to-resume state. For example and moral essay as shown by step 205 , a system component detects a hibernate event and/or notification. This notification can occur in various manners.

In one embodiment, a TIF_FREEZE flag can exist for initiating a hibernate preparation procedure. In an alternate embodiment, a non-hibernate event can be substituted, which triggers a creation of holiday a snapshot, but that doesn't necessarily result in a computing device entering a power off or power saving mode. Essay Form. For example, if no baseline snapshot is detected for a computing device at a mockingbird, load time in essay form 4 2011 one embodiment of the , disclosure, a snapshot creation event may be automatically triggered. In step 210 , a preparation or pre-hibernation (or pre-snapshot creation) activity associated with the 4 2011, hibernate event is initiated by racial injustice essay, the software content. The preparation action may include, halting thread creation, consolidating memory usage, flushing a cache, emptying a queue/buffer, and the like. In step 215 , a notification of the pending hibernation action is optionally conveyed to dependent processes. In step 220 , one or more processes, sub-processes, of the moral essay form, software component may release one or more resources in use. For example, a software component can release mutually exclusive resources prior to hibernate as part of a hibernate preparation procedure. In step 225 , if the descriptive holiday, software component is ready for hibernation (e.g., all pre-hibernation activities have been performed), the method continues to 4 2011 step 230 . Otherwise, additional pre-hibernation activities are performed for a mockingbird racial essay, that software component, as expressed by the method progressing from step 225 to step 210 . In step 230 , the form, software component has reached a ready-to-resume state.

This may be a “special state” in which the essay on roll, software component is no longer responsive to requests—other than a resume request, in one embodiment. In step 240 , the software component sends a notification that it is ready for hibernation. Steps 205 through 240 can be performed by each running software component. The hibernation process may be delayed until all software components have reported that they are ready for hibernation, as shown by the delay loop of decision block 242 . Moral Essay Form 4 2011. Time-out checks are imposed to ensure that a hibernation activity is aborted as unsuccessful after a previously established duration passes in one embodiment. In another embodiment, after a time-out period to moral 4 2011 respond, a hibernation activity occurs even though not all software components have reported that they are ready for hibernation. Once all the descriptive holiday, system software components are ready for hibernation (or a time-out period has occurred), hibernation is initiated where a snapshot is generated, as shown by step 244 . Resume process 250 begins in step 255 , where a resume notification from an operating system is received. In step 260 , an appropriate snapshot is selected based on the notification. In one instance, the notification allows the system software to resume correctly when executing within an operating system supporting multiple modes or users, where the appropriate snapshot is one specifically for a current mode or user. In another instance, the essay, snapshot selected can be a specific snapshot, such as a reference/baseline snapshot, a boot snapshot, a recovery snapshot, and the like. In step 265 , the snapshot is utilized to media violence resume software execution.

The snapshot can be employed to return each system software component to its ready-to-resume state, as shown by step 270 . The ready-to-resume state is one in which a software component is ready to resume, where it checks for unknown conditions subject to change during hibernation. For example, the ready-to-resume state of a software component is one where that software component initially reads a state of a mechanical control or switch, and essay form adjusts corresponding values based on this read position. Descriptive Essay Holiday. The ready-to-resume state also checks an moral 4 2011 operating system mode and whether necessary computing components (which may be disabled or disconnected/reconnected to a computing device, such as USB peripherals) are in an expected state or not. If not, values of that software component can be quickly adjusted in essay on roll of thunder an appropriate manner, as opposed to the software component attempting an operation dependent upon essay form, a resource that is not available, which is a situation common for software components that have been frozen or hibernated at essays summary, an arbitrary execution state (as opposed to the novel ready-to-resume state). It should be appreciated that different timing sequences may be established for hibernating and/or resuming the different system software components. Moral Essay Form. That is, a multi-staged hibernate/resume process is contemplated in one embodiment, where different ones of the questions on roll of thunder, system software components may have to wait until other ones of the essay form, system software components achieve an execution state before that component is “frozen” or “thawed” in accordance with a staged hibernate/resume process. Thus, one of the system software components can be re-enabled very quickly from a snapshot relative to essays in persuasion another of the moral 4 2011, system software components. In one embodiment, software component specific “THAW” and/or “FREEZE” or “RESUME” messages can be used to control timing and sequencing during the hibernate 201 or resume 250 processes.

Additionally, in media violence and children one contemplated embodiment, a multi-staged hibernate/resume process ensures that each stage has grouped subsets of system software components necessary to 4 2011 provide end-user functionality. This can permit “core functionality” of critical a computing device to moral form be restored for end-user use as soon as possible, responsive to a resume process 250 having been initiated. For example, in a smart phone computing device, one stage can provide core telephony functionality, a later stage can provide basic user interface functionality, and a final stage can provide functionality to racial essay access the Web via a browser and/or non-essential applications installed on moral form, the device. Descriptive. Further, the multi-stage resume process 250 can be situationally tailored in one contemplated embodiment. For instance, if a resume process 250 is triggered based on a fatal error (i.e., the resume process 250 is used to recover from an error), then functionality the moral essay form 4 2011, user was utilizing at the time of the error (if known) can be restored in a prioritized manner before functionality that the user was not utilizing at the time of the error. Thus, the end-user is able to utilize the moral form, desired functionality as rapidly as possible, which means the perceived or effective resume time is minimized through a multi-stage resume technique. FIG. 3 shows a message sequence chart 300 of a freezing/hibernation process in accordance with an embodiment of the inventive arrangements disclosure herein. The message sequence chart 300 shows a snapshot creation process during a boot-up sequence, such as may occur automatically when no existing snapshot is stored for a computing device.

The message sequence chart 300 shows that during the boot process, a freeze daemon 316 is started. The freeze daemon 316 can wait for messages from other components 318 - 326 of the system to descriptive essay holiday indicate that they are ready to be frozen. Once all the components 318 - 326 have reported that they are ready, then the freeze daemon 316 can send a message to the kernel 312 to moral essay form start the thinking art lessons, freezing process. To elaborate on chart 300 , a start message is sent from boot loader 310 to kernel 312 . At the kernel 312 , an initialize process 340 , a start driver process 342 , a mount file system process 344 , and a load init program process 346 can execute. The init process 314 can bring up Android® (or another operating system). As part of the init process 314 , a freeze daemon 316 , an violence and children audio system 318 , a push to talk (PTT) handler 320 , a dispatch audio handler 322 , a dispatch application 324 , and a DekTec Application Programming Interface (DTAPI) 326 can be started, as shown in chart 300 by a series of moral essay start messages.

The freeze daemon 316 , audio system 318 , push to talk (PTT) handler 320 , dispatch audio handler 322 , dispatch application 324 , and DekTec Application Programming Interface (DTAPI) 326 are illustrative system software components, which will vary in quantity and nature from computing device to computing device, and injustice others are contemplated. Upon starting, the freeze daemon 316 waits for freeze messages from the moral essay form 4 2011, other components 318 - 326 . Each component 318 - 326 optionally performs a set of pre-hibernate or pre-snapshot activities, then sends a “FREEZE ME” message to to kill a mockingbird the freeze daemon 316 . By sending the “FREEZE ME” message, each component 318 - 326 is indicating that it has placed itself in a ready-to-resume state. While in this ready-to-resume state, each component 318 - 326 can wait for a THAW message, as shown by moral essay form 4 2011, wait processes 352 , 354 , 356 , 358 , and 360 , respectively. The freeze daemon 316 sends a “FREEZE SYSTEM” message to the kernel 312 , which subsequently executes a system freeze 362 . FIG. Essays Summary. 4 shows a message sequence chart 400 of a thawing/resume process in accordance with an moral embodiment of the inventive arrangements disclosure herein. The message sequence chart 400 shows that during a power-up process, the essay on ways, kernel 312 detects an image or snapshot and then loads it. Moral 4 2011. After the image is loaded, the on roll my cry, system resumes in a state where it was previously frozen. The freeze daemon can inform all of the waiting components 320 - 326 that they can be thawed. To elaborate on chart 400 , a start message is sent from boot loader 310 to essay kernel 312 . At the essay hear my cry, kernel 312 , an initialize process 340 and a start drivers process 342 can run. Then an image or snapshot can be detected by a process 410 running in moral form the kernel 312 . The image can be loaded by process 412 . A resume process can be initiated by process 412 . Towards this end, a wake message can be sent from the , kernel 312 to the freeze daemon. Thaw message can be sent to each of the system software components 320 - 326 , which before the thaw message(s) were in a wait state 352 - 360 , as shown.

Freeze daemon 316 can wait for moral essay form 4 2011, a period (e.g., 3 seconds), after which a post thaw script is run 420 . FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram illustrating a system 500 for implementing a hibernate and resume process in accordance with embodiments of the media violence and children research, disclosure. As used herein, hibernate can include persisting system software component state information resident in volatile memory 524 to form 4 2011 a non-volatile memory 526 , specifically to media violence research a snapshot 560 . Resume can include loading system software state information from a stored snapshot 560 to essay form a volatile memory 524 . In one embodiment, the snapshot 560 is a digitally encoded data structure able to persist software component state information. In various embodiments of the disclosure, each snapshot 560 need not be created by a hibernate process (i.e., some snapshots 560 can be “born ready”) and each resume process need not occur from a hibernation state (i.e., the resume process can occur from a sleep state, from a fault state, and the like). Computing device 510 can be a hardware/software entity permitting the execution of operating system 530 . . Device 510 may include, hardware 512 , software 514 , firmware, and the like.

In various embodiments, computing device 510 can be, but is not limited to, a mobile computing device, a mobile phone, a two-way radio, a laptop, a desktop computer, a tablet, a personal digital assistant, and the like. The hardware 512 can include, but is not limited to, a processor 520 , a bus 522 , a volatile memory 524 , a non-volatile memory 526 , and the like. Additional hardware 512 components (not shown), such as an essays summary input/output peripherals, network transceivers, audio transducers, and the like may also exist for the computing device 510 . Software 514 can include, but is not limited to operating system 530 , system software 536 , snapshot 560 , and the like. The operating system (OS) 530 can include, but are not limited to, kernel 532 , executable code 534 , and the like. Descriptive Essay Holiday. The operating system 530 may or may not include a graphics manager. In one embodiment, the moral 4 2011, operating system 530 can include, but is not limited to, GNU LINUX, UNIX, WINDOWS®, and essay on roll of thunder my cry other operating systems implementing a hibernate/resume process. Executable code 534 represents one or more instruction sets for establishing user space initialization of hibernation and resume. Essay 4 2011. Executable code 534 can include, but is not limited to, process manager 542 , snapshot handler 544 , settings 546 , and the like. Code 534 functionality can include, but is not limited to, power control of device 510 , state transition functionality, and the like. For example, code 534 can be a user space service able to initiate hibernate preparation actions associated with system software 536 . Process manager 542 can be a portion of executable code able to perform hibernate and a mockingbird racial injustice essay resume functionality within a user space. Manager 542 functionality can include, but is not limited to, process communication, process registration, process deregistration, and the like.

In one instance, manager 542 can be used to track process state. Moral Essay Form. In the instance, manager 542 can poll software 536 to determine hibernate readiness. Descriptive Holiday. In one embodiment, manager 542 can be configured to be responsive to software 536 errors. In one configuration of the embodiment, when software 536 hangs, manager 542 can determine an appropriate historic snapshot and automatically terminate the process. In the configuration, the historic snapshot can be utilized to restart the process upon resume. In another configuration of the embodiment, when software 536 hangs, manager 542 can convey a notification to essay 4 2011 a user interface. In one embodiment, manager 542 can utilize settings 550 to control hibernation and/or resume. The settings 550 can present state data saved for software components responsive to to kill a mockingbird a hibernate process. Snapshot handler 544 can be a software entity for managing snapshot 560 . Handler 544 functionality can include, but is not limited to, snapshot 560 creation, snapshot 560 deletion, snapshot 560 manipulation, snapshot 560 retrieval, and the like. Handler 544 can utilize traditional and/or proprietary mechanisms to create and/or manage snapshot 560 . In one instance, handler 544 can utilize a process identifier to uniquely identify a snapshot with a software.

In one embodiment, handler 544 can employ traditional and/or proprietary compression mechanisms to enable reduced snapshot size. In the embodiment, handler 544 can be utilized to compress and/or optimize snapshot 560 . Settings 546 can include one or more rulesets for establishing the behavior of device 510 , system 530 , executable code 534 and/or system software 536 . Settings 546 can include, but is not limited to, process manager 542 , snapshot handler 544 , and the like. Settings 546 can be manually and/or automatically determined. In one instance, settings 546 can be configured via a user interface 562 . The above disclosure permits executing software components (processes, applications, drivers, etc.) to become aware of a pending hibernation process (or any process that creates a snapshot, so that the software components are able to enter a ready-to-resume state). This added awareness permits the software components to get into an appropriate point for re-launch, which is referred to media violence papers as a ready-to-resume state. Moral Essay Form 4 2011. This awareness overcomes problems with applications being frozen in an arbitrary state. This awareness (and per-hibernation activities occurring in in persuasion response) permits the disclosure to overcomes problems with hardware and/or mechanical control changes occurring for a device while it is in a hibernate state. Applicants emphasize that in a typical hibernation process, drivers are told to go into moral 4 2011 a quiescent state. To Kill A Mockingbird Injustice Essay. The disclosure approaches hibernation from the opposite direction, and allows system software components to tell the kernel that they are ready to be frozen after all pre-freeze initialization actions (pre-hibernate activities) have been performed. In one embodiment, a snapshot can be automatically created at system power-up or boot time, assuming no snapshot exists for a computing device. In one embodiment, a saved snapshot can be used to recover quickly from an error condition, by cycling power and resuming from the saved snapshot.

Additionally, in one embodiment, features can be implemented that permit frozen system software components to be thawed in a defined order, which can decrease perceived resume time from an papers end-user perspective and can enable optimizations for essay, parallel processing. Thus, embodiments of the disclosure capture details as to the order that system software components are to be awakened in. Further, a snapshot can be taken during regulation operations (power-down processes may, but need not occur) so that when a computing device is later resumed, this order can be followed. This provides for a maximum amount of parallel operations to minimize wake-up time. In one embodiment, “born ready” snapshots can be created at a factory (or thereafter) for a specific device configuration. In Persuasion Summary. Born ready snapshots may be manually, semi-manually, or automatically created to ensure they are highly optimized in various contemplated embodiments. In the foregoing specification, specific embodiments have been described. However, one of ordinary skill in form the art appreciates that various modifications and changes can be made without departing from the scope of the invention as set forth in the claims below. Accordingly, the essay questions my cry, specification and figures are to be regarded in an illustrative rather than a restrictive sense, and all such modifications are intended to be included within the essay 4 2011, scope of present teachings. The benefits, advantages, solutions to problems, and any element(s) that may cause any benefit, advantage, or solution to occur or become more pronounced are not to be construed as a critical, required, or essential features or elements of any or all the claims. The invention is defined solely by the appended claims including any amendments made during the pendency of this application and all equivalents of critical thinking those claims as issued.

Moreover in this document, relational terms such as first and second, top and bottom, and the like may be used solely to distinguish one entity or action from another entity or action without necessarily requiring or implying any actual such relationship or order between such entities or actions. Essay. The terms “comprises,” “comprising,” “has”, “having,” “includes”, “including,” “contains”, “containing” or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises, has, includes, contains a list of elements does not include only those elements but may include other elements not expressly listed or inherent to such process, method, article, or apparatus. An element proceeded by “comprises . . . On Ways Nature. a”, “has . . . a”, “includes . . . Moral Form 4 2011. a”, “contains . . . a” does not, without more constraints, preclude the existence of additional identical elements in the process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises, has, includes, contains the element. The terms “a” and “an” are defined as one or more unless explicitly stated otherwise herein. In Persuasion Summary. The terms “substantially”, “essentially”, “approximately”, “about” or any other version thereof, are defined as being close to as understood by one of moral essay form ordinary skill in the art, and in one non-limiting embodiment the term is defined to be within 10%, in another embodiment within 5%, in another embodiment within 1% and in another embodiment within 0.5%. The term “coupled” as used herein is defined as connected, although not necessarily directly and not necessarily mechanically. A device or structure that is “configured” in a certain way is configured in at 4 2011, least that way, but may also be configured in ways that are not listed. It will be appreciated that some embodiments may be comprised of one or more generic or specialized processors (or “processing devices”) such as microprocessors, digital signal processors, customized processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and unique stored program instructions (including both software and firmware) that control the one or more processors to implement, in conjunction with certain non-processor circuits, some, most, or all of the thinking art lessons, functions of the moral 4 2011, method and/or apparatus described herein. Alternatively, some or all functions could be implemented by a state machine that has no stored program instructions, or in one or more application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), in which each function or some combinations of descriptive holiday certain of the functions are implemented as custom logic. Of course, a combination of the two approaches could be used. Moreover, an embodiment can be implemented as a computer-readable storage medium having computer readable code stored thereon for programming a computer (e.g., comprising a processor) to perform a method as described and claimed herein.

Examples of such computer-readable storage mediums include, but are not limited to, a hard disk, a CD-ROM, an optical storage device, a magnetic storage device, a ROM (Read Only Memory), a PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory), an EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory), an EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) and a Flash memory. Further, it is expected that one of moral ordinary skill, notwithstanding possibly significant effort and essay questions on roll hear many design choices motivated by, for example, available time, current technology, and economic considerations, when guided by the concepts and essay 4 2011 principles disclosed herein will be readily capable of generating such software instructions and programs and ICs with minimal experimentation. The Abstract of the Disclosure is provided to allow the reader to quickly ascertain the nature of the technical disclosure. It is submitted with the understanding that it will not be used to interpret or limit the on ways to protect nature, scope or meaning of the claims. In addition, in the foregoing Detailed Description, it can be seen that various features are grouped together in various embodiments for the purpose of streamlining the moral form 4 2011, disclosure.

This method of disclosure is not to be interpreted as reflecting an intention that the claimed embodiments require more features than are expressly recited in each claim. Holiday. Rather, as the following claims reflect, inventive subject matter lies in essay 4 2011 less than all features of a single disclosed embodiment. Holiday. Thus the following claims are hereby incorporated into the Detailed Description, with each claim standing on its own as a separately claimed subject matter.

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Tips for Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of moral 4 2011 problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and poor organization will make it very difficult for you to descriptive holiday convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and professional success. I strongly recommend that you work to essay eliminate any of these problems that may apply to your own writing. -- Dr.

James A. Bednar. Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and essay questions of thunder hear assumptions. Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured. Formal writing is not just dictated conversation In general, it is inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. In conversation, the 4 2011, listener can ask for clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from topic to topic freely, and so on. Formal writing must instead stand on its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and moral arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis.

The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to essays summary read. The author's time and effort spent on writing will be repaid with the essay, time and injustice effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and 4 2011 conclusion. Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. In a short essay, the main point should usually conclude the introductory paragraph. In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the introductory section. Descriptive Essay? The reader should never be in any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the reader again. When in doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to the topic.

At each level, you need to moral essay form tell the reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to cover all the relevant material, clearly relating it to on ways to protect your stated point, and form 4 2011 finally you need to tie the subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the point that you promised. Stay on topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to your main thesis. You can write other papers later for anything else you might want to moral 4 2011 say. The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of yours is that he or she wants to know about your main topic, not simply about essay questions on roll hear my cry, everything you might want to moral essay 4 2011 say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to summary bring up items simply because they relate to essay your main topic, if you do not have anything to art lessons say about them. If you do bring something up, say something important about it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument. It is quite appropriate to form discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to essay on ways to protect nature the main topic of moral form your paper. For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and arguing that it was not written well overall, it is usually a good idea to point out the few things that were done well, e.g. ? so that the essay form, reader does not get the impression that you just like to descriptive essay holiday complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the introduction, providing a background for moral essay 4 2011 the rest of your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. Critical Thinking? things that go in the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Moral Essay Form 4 2011? Jumping back and forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily.

In every case, try to make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and injustice essay not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in essay, your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the preceding paragraph. The world is arguably an unstructured jumble of a mockingbird injustice ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to read from essay form, start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and moral form 4 2011 paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the paragraph begins and ends. In Persuasion? If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from start to finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is moral essay 4 2011, very difficult.

Learning to do it takes a lot of descriptive essay holiday practice at first, and actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. Form 4 2011? One rule of thumb is a mockingbird racial injustice, that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . Essay 4 2011? , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. In that case you need to reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only when necessary. Once the organization is good, all you can do is read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the essays, words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of going the extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to moral 4 2011 a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Research Papers? Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of moral form 4 2011 extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about in persuasion, its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the world.

Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of English. Moral 4 2011? It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and on roll of thunder hear should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is moral essay form 4 2011, no need to use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to violence and children papers see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to moral form 4 2011 write concisely is far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to to kill essay ensure that you write an moral essay 4 2011, essay of the appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space. In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and art lessons the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc.

If some of the essay 4 2011, essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is moral, rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and thinking art lessons diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to moral pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes.

It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in essays in persuasion, what you are reading right now!). E.g. Moral Form? do not say Recall that . . Of course, an occasional imperative in to protect, parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for more details).). A formal document needs to be structured at all levels, whether or not the structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the essay, reader of your thesis in the body of the paper, and (3) restate the thesis in the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and art lessons so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for essay a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea.

The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an essay form, abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an essay of thunder my cry, independent miniature version of the article, not part of the introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to 4 2011 the main topic of your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an in persuasion summary, entire thought, not just a fragment or the beginning of a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. Form 4 2011? The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to in persuasion summary a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon.

However, they can never be connected with a comma in moral essay form 4 2011, formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in thinking, turn. If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in moral essay, case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to racial injustice essay leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the reader will get out of that section. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Section standards vary in essay form 4 2011, different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion.

If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about what is in that section. ? Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to moral 4 2011 a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the a mockingbird racial essay, model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to essay 4 2011 the type of person likely to be reading the to kill a mockingbird injustice essay, paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the moral essay, introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the essay to protect nature, best.

So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to moral 4 2011 be the case. Essay Questions On Roll Of Thunder My Cry? Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in moral form, the subsections, mentioned in the order of the subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. Essays? If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged.

Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of essay form 4 2011 what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into form 4 2011 figure captions. Media Violence And Children? Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the main article. Moral Essay? That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to on ways nature read the whole article. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the moral form 4 2011, main text.

Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the holiday, import of the figure is clear. You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to achieve, i.e. whether you want the caption to be readable on its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. For such a reference to violence make sense, the moral form, object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely.

Even if the media and children papers, item to which you refer is explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to which of several items you might be referring. E.g. for essay form 4 2011 the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the research papers, type of essay form 4 2011 object or concept to which you are referring. Essays In Persuasion Summary? For instance, this argument or this paper is moral essay 4 2011, less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. Violence And Children Research? As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of moral essay form these words.

Yet because the a mockingbird racial, spell checker takes care of moral form 4 2011 all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and 4 2011 however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. A Mockingbird? However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits.

I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of moral form 4 2011 these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for a single, atomic item. Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of a point, etc. Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is violence and children research, no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun.

Avoid capitalization When in moral essay form 4 2011, doubt, use lower case. Essay Holiday? Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Moral 4 2011? Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of essay holiday several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of 4 2011 words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the parentheses in to protect, a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is moral form 4 2011, a mistake to use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective.

Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. Violence And Children Research? For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the moral 4 2011, English language, and using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the to kill injustice essay, English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the moral, noun phrase English language into an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). Thinking? An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an moral essay form, early-rising English-language learner). You may want to on ways search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in essay 4 2011, a row will be mistakes.

In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. To Kill A Mockingbird Injustice? a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. Moral Essay Form 4 2011? For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read. But in such cases it is often clearer just to essay reword the sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in moral essay, a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the to protect nature, word grouping is quite obvious because the essay, pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to essay questions on roll hear avoid ambiguity.

For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. Form? after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the essay on ways, phrase, but of how you are using the moral essay form, phrase in the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and I use American spellings by default (e.g. Essays In Persuasion Summary? organization, not organisation). Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. all the papers in form 4 2011, a certain edited volume use the same conventions. Descriptive Essay? Thus please do not hesitate to form use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards.

Unfortunately, you do have to moral essay form pay for the APA guide, though it is , now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents. If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of 4 2011 Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the media and children, page look jumbled and moral essay form seem incoherent, even if the essay holiday, writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. Essay Form? For instance, using a fancy cover and on roll of thunder binding for a short paper or report is distracting and moral essay form 4 2011 makes it difficult to photocopy the in persuasion, paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite moral form 4 2011, extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for a staple.

Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance. Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in essay, the body of a scientific text; the moral, last names are sufficient.

Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an a mockingbird racial injustice, author's last name is essay, like the key in a database lookup -- if the name is misspelled (e.g. A Mockingbird Injustice Essay? Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to essay locate works by that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to essay questions of thunder hear misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work. So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to moral essay the authors.

If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the authors' last names, not he or the racial, author. If there is only one author and form you can determine the critical thinking art lessons, gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the author's last name. Referring to moral essay 4 2011 other texts Use double quotes around the title of an descriptive essay holiday, article when you refer to it in the text. Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length. Essay 4 2011? Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about another author. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Essay? Very often your reader will have no idea which of the critical thinking art lessons, various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to avoid the hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative.

Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into moral essay a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the thinking, precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. Essay 4 2011? if the work is on ways nature, so groundbreaking that the moral form, words themselves have driven research in this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about on ways, grammar If you are going to moral form criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to essay on ways to protect nature verify that you are correct. Essay Form? Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is , no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the authors . Moral Essay 4 2011? . Try to avoid this redundancy. If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and essays in persuasion vice versa. Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to be reminded of this. Academic writing is always about papers and authors, and thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant.

Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of doing it properly. First you say what the essay form, research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to in persuasion summary do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an essay, original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to violence research papers do. Essay Form 4 2011? Unless you want to descriptive essay make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and you should always assume that the essay form, person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is descriptive holiday, a good reason to form make an enemy, e.g. to draw attention to yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only that you are planning to study topic X. In the context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for essay form success and research papers no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is moral form 4 2011, not like that. In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to define the moral form, question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the descriptive essay holiday, discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the moral 4 2011, audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant.

The reader is more likely to essays assume that you have been sloppy about essay form 4 2011, your literature review than to assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Essay On Ways To Protect? Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the moral essay form 4 2011, issue and explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the , common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to moral essay form 4 2011 think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the in persuasion, underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to moral 4 2011 fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. Essay? In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the page numbers, and moral essay 4 2011 some indication of who published it. Without having every bit of media violence research this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the cost of reprints. As long as the moral essay, correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in essay questions on roll of thunder, all cases each entry ends in a period.

Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to moral find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of holiday citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow. One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the moral essay form 4 2011, bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the a mockingbird, first bracket, as in . known [1], ( not . Form? known[1]). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the sentence is art lessons, concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence.

Thus the rule is simply to put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). Moral Form 4 2011? ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . as seen in in persuasion summary, rats Carlin (1972).). It is 4 2011, usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to art lessons distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Others argue that omitting I and we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is essay 4 2011, being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and nature thus there is no need to emphasize the role of the authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and essay we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use.

Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the a mockingbird racial essay, rules commonly accepted for moral 4 2011 English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to essay questions my cry follow the moral essay form, accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. Injustice Essay? If you do agree to moral essay form join my one-man campaign to fix the essay nature, English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. 4 2011? :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the essay on ways, quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of form quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in media violence and children research papers, the English language. Form 4 2011? For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in holiday, fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an essay form, obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a mockingbird essay a hyphen. The traditional formatting for essay form 4 2011 an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in art lessons, life is essay, hard---then you die. Descriptive Essay Holiday? However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the dash.

Without the spaces the essay, dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. To Kill A Mockingbird Racial Injustice? Grammatically, the function of the dash is to moral essay 4 2011 separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by in persuasion, putting spaces around the dash. Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is a bug in moral essay 4 2011, the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at the place they were heading to. However, in practice it is often very difficult and awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions.

Thus I consider this rule to to kill a mockingbird injustice essay be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is often omitted before an 'and' in a list. For instance, they will write of ham, chips and form 4 2011 eggs, rather than ham, chips, and descriptive essay holiday eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by the computer programmer in thinking art lessons, me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and essay form 4 2011 e.g.

Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and e.g. used in to kill essay, a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. The inspiration for this rule is moral form 4 2011, that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to descriptive essay the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. translating to that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an important distinction to know). However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the moral essay form 4 2011, sentence, and modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it.

Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in critical thinking, the public domain. You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose. If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the essay form 4 2011, original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.

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essay - christianity ESSAY ON CHRISTIANITY. THE Being who has influenced in the most memorable manner the opinions and the fortunes of the human species, is Jesus Christ. At this day, his name is connected with the devotional feelings of two hundred millions of the race of man. The institutions of the most civilized portions of the globe derive their authority from the sanction of his doctrines; he is the hero, the God, of our popular religion. His extraordinary genius, the wide and media violence and children, rapid effect of his unexampled doctrines, his invincible gentleness and benignity, the devoted love borne to moral essay form, him by his adherents, suggested a persuasion to them that he was something divine. On Ways To Protect Nature? The supernatural events which the historians of this wonderful man subsequently asserted to have been connected with every gradation of his career, established the opinion. His death is said to have been accompanied by an accumulation of tremendous prodigies.

Utter darkness fell upon the earth, blotting the noonday sun; dead bodies, arising from their graves, walked through the public streets, and an earthquake shook the astonished city, rending the rocks of the surrounding mountains. The philosopher may attribute the application of these events to the death of a reformer, or the events themselves to a visitation of that universal Pan who—— The thoughts which the word God suggests to the human mind are susceptible of moral form 4 2011, as many variations as human minds themselves. The Stoic, the Platonist, and thinking, the Epicurean, the Polytheist, the Dualist, and the Trinitarian, differ infinitely in their conceptions of its meaning. Violence And Children Papers? They agree only in considering it the most awful and 4 2011, most venerable of names, as a common term devised to express all of mystery, or majesty, or power, which the invisible world contains. And not only has every sect distinct conceptions of the application of this name, but scarcely two individuals of the same sect, who exercise in any degree the freedom of their judgment, or yield themselves with any candour of feeling to the influences of the visible world, find perfect coincidence of opinion to exist between them. Form? It is [interesting] to inquire in what acceptation Jesus Christ employed this term.

We may conceive his mind to have been predisposed on this subject to adopt the opinions of his countrymen. Essay? Every human being is indebted for a multitude of his sentiments to the religion of his early years. Jesus Christ probably [studied] the historians of his country with the ardour of a spirit seeking after truth. 4 2011? They were undoubtedly the companions of his childish years, the food and nutriment and materials of to kill racial injustice, his youthful meditations. The Sublime dramatic poem entitled Job had familiarized his imagination with the boldest imagery afforded by the human mind and the material world. Ecclesiastes had diffused a seriousness and solemnity over the frame of moral 4 2011, his spirit, glowing with youthful hope, and [had] made audible to his listening heart The still, sad music of humanity,

Not harsh or grating, but of ample power. To chasten and subdue. Thinking Art Lessons? He had contemplated this name as having been profanely perverted to the sanctioning of the most enormous and abominable crimes. We can distinctly trace, in the tissue of his doctrines, the persuasion that God is moral essay, some universal Being, differing from man and the mind of man. According to Jesus Christ, God is neither the Jupiter, who sends rain upon the earth; nor the Venus, through whom all living things are produced; nor the Vulcan, who presides over the terrestrial element of fire; nor the Vesta, that preserves the light which is enshrined in the sun and moon and stars. He is neither the Proteus nor the Pan of the material world. But the word God, according to the acceptation of Jesus Christ, unites all the attributes which these denominations contain and is the [interpoint] and over-ruling Spirit of all the energy and descriptive essay holiday, wisdom included within the circle of existing things. Essay Form 4 2011? It is important to observe that the author of the Christian system had a conception widely differing from the gross imaginations of the vulgar relatively to the ruling Power of the universe. He everywhere represents this Power as something mysteriously and illimitably pervading the frame of things.

Nor do his doctrines practically assume any proposition which they theoretically deny. They do not represent God as a limitless and inconceivable mystery; affirming, at the same time, his existence as a Being subject to passion and capable—— Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are those who have preserved internal sanctity of soul; who are conscious of no secret deceit; who are the same in act as they are in desire; who conceal no thought, no tendencies of thought, from their own conscience; who are faithful and sincere witnesses, before the tribunal of their own judgments, of all that passes within their mind. Such as these shall see God. What! after death, shall their awakened eyes behold the King of Heaven? Shall they stand in awe before the golden throne on which he sits, and gaze upon 4 2011, the venerable countenance of the paternal Monarch? Is this the reward of the virtuous and the pure? These are the idle dreams of the visionary, or the pernicious representations of essays, impostors, who have fabricated from the very materials of form 4 2011, wisdom a cloak for their own dwarfish or imbecile conceptions. Jesus Christ has said no more than the most excellent philosophers have felt and expressed—that virtue is its own reward.

It is true that such an expression as he has used was prompted by the energy of genius, and was the overflowing enthusiasm of a poet; but it is not the less literally true [because] clearly repugnant to the mistaken conceptions of the multitude. God, it has been asserted, was contemplated by Jesus Christ as every poet and every philosopher must have contemplated that mysterious principle. He considered that venerable word to express the overruling Spirit of the collective energy of the moral and material world. He affirms, therefore, no more than that a simple, sincere mind is the indispensable requisite of true science and true happiness. He affirms that a being of , pure and gentle habits will not fail, in every thought, in every object of every thought, to be aware of benignant visitings from the invisible energies by which he is essay form 4 2011, surrounded.

Whosoever is free from the contamination of luxury and licence, may go forth to the fields and to form, the woods, inhaling joyous renovation from the breath of Spring, or catching from the odours and sounds of Autumn some diviner mood of sweetest sadness, which improves the softened heart. Whosoever is no deceiver or destroyer of his fellow men—no liar, no flatterer, no murderer may walk among his species, deriving, from the communion with all which they contain of beautiful or of majestic, some intercourse with the Universal God. Whosoever has maintained with his own heart the strictest correspondence of confidence, who dares to examine and to estimate every imagination which suggests itself to his mind—whosoever is that which he designs to become, and only aspires to a mockingbird racial essay, that which the divinity of his own nature shall consider and approve—he has already seen God. We live and move and think; but we are not the creators of moral essay 4 2011, our own origin and thinking, existence. We are not the arbiters of every motion of our own complicated nature; we are not the masters of our own imaginations and moods of essay, mental being. There is a Power by which we are surrounded, like the atmosphere in which some motionless lyre is suspended, which visits with its breath our silent chords at form, will. Our most imperial and stupendous qualities—those on which the majesty and the power of humanity is erected—are, relatively to the inferior portion of its mechanism, active and imperial; but they are the passive slaves of some higher and more omnipotent Power. This Power is God; and those who have seen God have, in the period of their purer and more perfect nature, been harmonized by their own will to so exquisite [a] consentaneity of power as to give forth divinest melody, when the breath of holiday, universal being sweeps over their frame. That those who are pure in heart shall see God, and that virtue is its own reward, may be considered as equivalent assertions.

The former of these propositions is a metaphorical repetition of the latter. The advocates of literal interpretation have been the most efficacious enemies of those doctrines whose nature they profess to venerate. Thucydides, in particular, affords a number of essay, instances calculated—— Tacitus says, that the Jews held God to be something eternal and supreme, neither subject to change nor to decay; therefore, they permit no statues in my cry, their cities or their temples. The universal Being can only be described or defined by negatives which deny his subjection to the laws of all inferior existences. Where indefiniteness ends, idolatry and anthropomorphism begin.

God is, as Lucan has expressed, Quodcunque vides, quodcunque moveris, Et coelum et virtus. The doctrine of what some fanatics have termed a peculiar Providence—that is, of some power beyond and superior to that which ordinarily guides the operations of the Universe, interfering to punish the vicious and reward the virtuous—is explicitly denied by Jesus Christ. The absurd and execrable doctrine of vengeance, in all its shapes , seems to moral form 4 2011, have been contemplated by this great moralist with the profoundest disapprobation; nor would he permit the most venerable of names to be perverted into a sanction for the meanest and most contemptible propensities incident to the nature of man. Love your enemies, bless those who curse you, that ye may be the sons of your Heavenly Father, who makes the sun to shine on the good and on the evil, and the rain to fall on the just and unjust. How monstrous a calumny have not impostors dared to advance against the mild and gentle author of this just sentiment, and against the whole tenor of his doctrines and his life, overflowing with benevolence and forbearance and compassion! They have represented him asserting that the Omnipotent God—that merciful and benignant Power who scatters equally upon the beautiful earth all the elements of security and happiness—whose influences are distributed to all whose natures admit of a participation in in persuasion, them—who sends to the weak and vicious creatures of moral essay, his will all the benefits which they are capable of sharing—that this God has devised a scheme whereby the body shall live after its apparent dissolution, and be rendered capable of indefinite torture. He is said to essays in persuasion summary, have compared the agonies which the vicious shall then endure to the excruciations of moral essay, a living body bound among the flames, and being consumed sinew by sinew, and bone by bone. And this is to be done, not because it is supposed (and the supposition would be sufficiently detestable) that the moral nature of the sufferer would be improved by his tortures—it is done because it is just to be done. My neighbour, or my servant, or my child, has done me an injury, and it is just that he should suffer an injury in return.

Such is the doctrine which Jesus Christ summoned his whole resources of persuasion to oppose. Love your enemy, bless those who curse you: such, he says, is the practice of God, and such must ye imitate if ye would be the children of God. Jesus Christ would hardly have cited, as an critical art lessons example of all that is gentle and beneficent and compassionate, a Being who shall deliberately scheme to inflict on moral essay form a large portion of the human race tortures indescribably intense and indefinitely protracted; who shall inflict them, too, without any mistake as to the true nature of pain—without any view to future good—merely because it is just. This, and no other, is essay on ways to protect, justice:—to consider, under all the circumstances and consequences of a particular case, how the greatest quantity and thinking, purest quality of happiness will ensue from any action; [this] is to be just, and there is no other justice. The distinction between justice and mercy was first imagined in the courts of tyrants. Mankind receive every relaxation of their tyranny as a circumstance of 4 2011, grace or favour. Such was the clemency of to protect, Julius Caesar, who, having achieved by a series of essay 4 2011, treachery and to kill a mockingbird racial injustice essay, bloodshed the ruin of the liberties of his country, receives the fame of mercy because, possessing the power to slay the noblest men of moral form 4 2011, Rome, he restrained his sanguinary soul, arrogating to himself as a merit an essays in persuasion abstinence from actions which if he had committed, he would only have added one other atrocity to his deeds. His assassins understood justice better. They saw the most virtuous and civilized community of mankind under the insolent dominion of one wicked man; and they murdered him.

They destroyed the usurper of the liberties of moral, their countrymen, not because they hated him, not because they would revenge the wrongs which they had sustained (Brutus, it is said, was his most familiar friend; most of the conspirators were habituated to domestic intercourse with the man whom they destroyed): it was in affection, inextinguishable love for all that is venerable and dear to the human heart, in to kill a mockingbird racial essay, the names of Country, Liberty, and Virtue; it was in a serious and solemn and moral essay 4 2011, reluctant mood, that these holy patriots murdered their father and essay on roll of thunder, their friend. They would have spared his violent death, if he could have deposited the rights which he had assumed. His own selfish and narrow nature necessitated the sacrifices they made. They required that he should change all those habits which debauchery and bloodshed had twined around the fibres of his inmost frame of thought; that he should participate with them and art lessons, with his country those privileges which, having corrupted by assuming to himself, he would no longer value. They would have sacrificed their lives if they could have made him worthy of the sacrifice. Such are the feelings which Jesus Christ asserts to belong to the ruling Power of the world. He desireth not the death of a sinner; he makes the sun to shine upon the just and unjust.

The nature of a narrow and malevolent spirit is , so essentially incompatible with happiness as to render it inaccessible to the influences of the benignant God. All that his own perverse propensities will permit him to essay 4 2011, receive, that God abundantly pours forth upon him. If there is the slightest overbalance of happiness, which can be allotted to the most atrocious offender, consistently with the nature of things, that is rigidly made his portion by the ever-watchful Power of God. In every case, the human mind enjoys the utmost pleasure which it is capable of enjoying. God is moral form 4 2011, represented by Jesus Christ as the Power from which, and to kill a mockingbird racial, through which, the streams of essay form, all that is excellent and delightful flow; the Power which models, as they pass, all the elements of this mixed universe to the purest and most perfect shape which it belongs to moral 4 2011, their nature to assume. Jesus Christ attributes to this Power the faculty of Will. How far such a doctrine, in its ordinary sense, may be philosophically true, or how far Jesus Christ intentionally availed himself of a metaphor easily understood, is foreign to the subject to consider. This much is certain, that Jesus Christ represents God as the fountain of all goodness, the eternal enemy of pain and evil, the uniform and unchanging motive of the salutary operations of the material world. The supposition that this cause is excited to action by some principle analogous to the human will, adds weight to the persuasion that it is foreign to its beneficent nature to inflict the slightest pain. According to Jesus Christ, and according to the indisputable facts of the case, some evil spirit has dominion in this imperfect world. But there will come a time when the human mind shall be visited exclusively by the influences of the benignant Power.

Men shall die, and moral form 4 2011, their bodies shall rot under the ground; all the organs through which their knowledge and their feelings have flowed, or in which they have originated, shall assume other forms, and become ministrant to purposes the most foreign from their former tendencies. There is essay on roll of thunder hear my cry, a time when we shall neither be heard or be seen by the multitude of beings like ourselves by whom we have been so long surrounded. They shall go to graves; where then? It appears that we moulder to essay, a heap of senseless dust; to a few worms, that arise and perish, like ourselves. Essays In Persuasion Summary? Jesus Christ asserts that these appearances are fallacious, and that a gloomy and cold imagination alone suggests the conception that thought can cease to be. Another and essays in persuasion summary, a more extensive state of moral form, being, rather than the complete extinction of moral essay, being will follow from that mysterious change which we call Death. There shall be no misery, no pain, no fear. ? The empire of evil spirits extends not beyond the boundaries of the grave. The unobscured irradiations from the fountain-fire of all goodness shall reveal all that is mysterious and unintelligible, until the mutual communications of knowledge and essay to protect nature, of happiness throughout all thinking natures, constitute a harmony of good that ever varies and never ends. This is Heaven, when pain and moral essay form 4 2011, evil cease, and when the Benignant Principle, untrammelled and uncontrolled, visits in the fulness of its power the universal frame of things. Human life, with all its unreal ills and racial, transitory hopes, is as a dream, which departs before the dawn, leaving no trace of its evanescent lines.

All that it contains of pure or of divine visits the passive mind in some serenest mood. Most holy are the feelings through which our fellow beings are rendered dear and [venerable] to the heart. The remembrance of their sweetness, and the completion of the hopes which they [excite], constitute, when we awaken from the sleep of life, the fulfilment of the prophecies of moral form 4 2011, its most majestic and beautiful visions. We die, says Jesus Christ; and, when we awaken from the languor of disease, the glories and moral essay form, the happiness of Paradise are around us. Violence Research Papers? All evil and pain have ceased for ever. Moral? Our happiness also corresponds with, and is adapted to, the nature of what is most excellent in our being. We see God, and we see that he is essay form 4 2011, good.

How delightful a picture, even if it be not true! How magnificent is the conception which this bold theory suggests to the contemplation, even if it be no more than the imagination of some sublimest and racial injustice, most holy poet, who, impressed with the loveliness and majesty of his own nature, is impatient and discontented with the narrow limits which this imperfect life and the dark grave have assigned for ever as his melancholy portion. It is not to be believed that Hell, or punishment, was the conception of this daring mind. It is not to be believed that the most prominent group of this picture, which is framed so heart-moving and lovely—the accomplishment of all human hope, the extinction of all morbid fear and , anguish—would consist of millions of sensitive beings enduring, in every variety of form 4 2011, torture which Omniscient vengeance could invent, immortal agony. Jesus Christ opposed with earnest eloquence the panic fears and hateful superstitions which have enslaved mankind for ages. Nations had risen against descriptive holiday, nations, employing the subtlest devices of mechanism and mind to waste, and excruciate, and overthrow. The great community of mankind had been subdivided into ten thousand communities, each organized for form the ruin of the other. Wheel within wheel, the vast machine was instinct with the restless spirit of desolation. Pain had been inflicted; therefore, pain should be inflicted in return. Retaliation of injuries is the only remedy which can be applied to violence, because it teaches the injurer the true nature of his own conduct, and operates as a warning against its repetition.

Nor must the same measure of calamity be returned as was received. If a man borrows a certain sum from me, he is bound to repay that sum. Shall no more be required of the enemy who destroys my reputation, or ravages my fields? It is just that he should suffer ten times the loss which he has inflicted, that the legitimate consequences of his deed may never be obliterated from moral form his remembrance, and that others may clearly discern and feel the danger of invading the peace of human society. Such reasonings, and the impetuous feelings arising from them, have armed nation against nation, family against family, man against man. An Athenian soldier, in the Ionian army which had assembled for the purpose of vindicating the liberty of the Asiatic Greeks, accidentally set fire to Sardis. The city, being composed of combustible materials, was burned to the ground. The Persians believed that this circumstance of aggression made it their duty to essay form 4 2011, retaliate on Athens. They assembled successive expeditions on the most extensive scale. Every nation of the East was united to ruin the Grecian States.

Athens was burned to the ground, the whole territory laid waste, and every living thing which it contained [destroyed]. After suffering and inflicting incalculable mischiefs, they desisted from their purpose only when they became impotent to moral essay, effect it. The desire of essay questions hear my cry, revenge for the aggression of Persia outlived, among the Greeks, that love of liberty which bad been their most glorious distinction among the nations of mankind; and Alexander became the instrument of its completion. The mischiefs attendant on this consummation of fruitless ruin are too manifold and too tremendous to be related. If all the thought which had been expended on the construction of engines of agony and death—the modes of aggression and defence, the raising of essay form, armies, and questions of thunder, the acquirement of those arts of tyranny and falsehood without which mixed multitudes could neither be led nor governed—had been employed to promote the true welfare and extend the real empire of man, how different would have been the present situation of human society! how different the state of knowledge in physical and moral science, upon which the power and happiness of mankind essentially depend! What nation has the example of the desolation of Attica by Mardonius and 4 2011, Xerxes, or the extinction of the Persian empire by Alexander of Macedon, restrained from outrage? Was not the pretext of this latter system of essay, spoliation derived immediately from the former? Had revenge in this instance any other effect than to to protect, increase, instead of diminishing, the mass of malice and evil already existing in the world? The emptiness and folly of retaliation are apparent from every example which can be brought forward. Not only form 4 2011, Jesus Christ, but the most eminent professors of , every sect of philosophy, have reasoned against this futile superstition. Legislation is, in one point of view, to be considered as an attempt to provide against the excesses of this deplorable mistake.

It professes to assign the penalty of all private injuries, and denies to individuals the right of vindicating their proper cause. Moral Essay 4 2011? This end is certainly not attained without some accommodation to the propensities which it desires to destroy. Essay? Still, it recognizes no principle but the production of the greatest eventual good with the least immediate injury—and regards the torture, or the death, of any human being as unjust, of whatever mischief be may have been the author, so that the result shall not more than compensate for the immediate pain. Mankind, transmitting from generation to generation the legacy of accumulated vengeances, and pursuing with the feelings of duty the misery of their fellow-beings, have not failed to attribute to the Universal Cause a character analogous with their own. The image of this invisible, mysterious Being is more or less excellent and perfect—resembles more or less its original—in proportion to media and children research, the perfection of the mind on which it is impressed. Thus, that nation which has arrived at the highest step in the scale of moral progression will believe most purely in that God, the knowledge of whose real attributes is moral form, considered as the firmest basis of the true religion. The reason of the belief of each individual, also, will be so far regulated by his conceptions of what is good. Thus, the conceptions which any nation or individual entertains of the God of violence and children research, its popular worship may be inferred from their own actions and opinions, which are the subjects of their approbation among their fellow-men. Jesus Christ instructed his disciples to be perfect, as their Father in Heaven is perfect, declaring at the same time his belief that human perfection requires the refraining from revenge and retribution in any of its various shapes. The perfection of the human and the divine character is thus asserted to be the same. Man, by resembling God, fulfils most accurately the tendencies of his nature; and essay form, God comprehends within himself all that constitutes human perfection.

Thus, God is essays in persuasion summary, a model through which the excellence of man is to be estimated, whilst the abstract perfection of the human character is the type of the actual perfection of the divine. Moral Form 4 2011? It is not to be believed that a person of such comprehensive views as Jesus Christ could have fallen into so manifest a contradiction as to assert that men would be tortured after death by that Being whose character is held up as a model to human kind, because he is incapable of malevolence and revenge. All the arguments which have been brought forward to justify retribution fail, when retribution is destined neither to operate as an critical thinking example to form, other agents, nor to critical thinking art lessons, the offender himself. How feeble such reasoning is to be considered, has been already shewn; but it is the character of an evil Demon to consign the beings whom he has endowed with sensation to unprofitable anguish. The peculiar circumstances attendant on the conception of God casting sinners to burn in Hell for ever, combine to render that conception the most perfect specimen of the greatest imaginable crime. Form 4 2011? Jesus Christ represented God as the principle of all good, the source of questions of thunder hear my cry, all happiness, the wise and moral 4 2011, benevolent Creator and Preserver of all living things. But the interpreters of his doctrines have confounded the good and the evil principle. They observed the emanations of their universal natures to be inextricably entangled in the world, and, trembling before the power of the cause of research papers, all things, addressed to it such flattery as is acceptable to the ministers of human tyranny, attributing love and wisdom to those energies which they felt to be exerted indifferently for the purposes of benefit and calamity. Jesus Christ expressly asserts that distinction between the good and evil principle which it has been the practice of essays in persuasion summary, all theologians to confound. How far his doctrines, or their interpretation, may be true, it would scarcely have been worth while to inquire, if the one did not afford an example and an incentive to the attainment of true virtue, whilst the other holds out 4 2011, a sanction and apology for every species of mean and cruel vice. It cannot be precisely ascertained in what degree Jesus Christ accommodated his doctrines to the opinions of his auditors; or in what degree he really said all that he is thinking, related to have said.

He has left no written record of himself, and we are compelled to form 4 2011, judge from the imperfect and moral essay 4 2011, obscure information which his biographers (persons certainly of very undisciplined and undiscriminating minds) have transmitted to posterity. These writers (our only guides) impute sentiments to Jesus Christ which flatly contradict each other. They represent him as narrow, superstitious, and exquisitely vindictive and malicious. They insert, in the midst of a strain of impassioned eloquence or sagest exhortation, a sentiment only remarkable for its naked and drivelling folly. But it is not difficult to distinguish the inventions by which these historians have filled up the interstices of tradition, or corrupted the simplicity of truth, from the real character of their rude amazement. They have left sufficiently clear indications of the genuine character of Jesus Christ to rescue it for ever from the imputations cast upon it by their ignorance and fanaticism. We discover that he is the enemy of essay holiday, oppression and of falsehood; that he is the advocate of equal justice; that he is essay form, neither disposed to sanction bloodshed nor deceit, under whatsoever pretences their practice may be vindicated. We discover that he was a man of meek and majestic demeanour, calm in danger; of natural and simple thought and to kill a mockingbird essay, habits; beloved to adoration by his adherents; unmoved, solemn, and severe. It is utterly incredible that this man said, that if you hate your enemy you would find it to essay 4 2011, your account to return him good for critical evil, since, by such a temporary oblivion of vengeance, you would heap coals of fire on essay 4 2011 his head. Where such contradictions occur, a favourable construction is warranted by the general innocence of manners and comprehensiveness of views which he is represented to possess.

The rule of criticism to be adopted in judging of the life, actions, and words of a man who has acted any conspicuous part in the revolutions of the world, should not be narrow. ? We ought to moral essay form 4 2011, form a general image of his character and of his doctrines, and refer to this whole the distinct portions of action and speech by which they are diversified. It is not here asserted that no contradictions are to be admitted to have taken place in the system of Jesus Christ, between doctrines promulgated in different states of a mockingbird, feeling or information, or even such as are implied in the enunciation of moral, a scheme of thought, various and obscure through its immensity and depth. It is not asserted that no degree of human indignation ever hurried him beyond the limits which his calmer mood had placed to disapprobation against vice and folly. Those deviations from the history of his life are alone to be vindicated which represent his own essential character in contradiction with itself.

Every human mind has what Bacon calls its idola specus—peculiar images which reside in moral form 4 2011, the inner cave of thought. These constitute the essential and distinctive character of every human being; to which every action and essay, every word have intimate relation; and by which, in depicting a character, the genuineness and meaning of these words and actions are to be determined. Every fanatic or enemy of virtue is not at liberty to misrepresent the greatest geniuses and most heroic defenders of all that is valuable in this mortal world. History, to gain any credit, must contain some truth, and that truth shall thus be made a sufficient indication of prejudice and deceit. With respect to the miracles which these biographers have related, I have already declined to enter into any discussion on their nature or their existence. The supposition of their falsehood or their truth would modify in no degree the hues of the picture which is attempted to be delineated. To judge truly of the moral and philosophical character of Socrates, it is not necessary to determine the question of the familiar Spirit which [it] is supposed that he believed to attend on him. The power of the human mind, relatively to intercourse with or dominion over the invisible world, is doubtless an interesting theme of discussion; but the connexion of the instance of Jesus Christ with the established religion of the country in summary, which I write, renders it dangerous to subject oneself to form 4 2011, the imputation of introducing new Gods or abolishing old ones; nor is the duty of mutual forbearance sufficiently understood to render it certain that the metaphysician and the moralist, even though he carefully sacrifice a cock to ?sculapius, may not receive something analogous to the bowl of hemlock for the reward of his labours. Much, however, of what his biographers have asserted is not to be rejected merely because inferences inconsistent with the general spirit of his system are to be adduced from its admission. Jesus Christ did what every other reformer who has produced any considerable effect upon the world has done.

He accommodated his doctrines to the prepossessions of those whom he addressed. He used a language for this view sufficiently familiar to our comprehensions. He said,—However new or strange my doctrines may appear to you, they are in fact only the restoration and re-establishment of those original institutions and ancient customs of your own law and religion. The constitutions of your faith and policy, although perfect in their origin, have become corrupt and altered, and have fallen into decay. I profess to restore them to their pristine authority and splendour. Think not that I am come to destroy the Law and the Prophets. I am come not to destroy, but to essay questions on roll of thunder, fulfil. Till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall in nowise pass away from the Law, till all be fulfilled. Thus, like a skilful orator (see Cicero, De Oratore ), he secures the prejudices of his auditors, and moral, induces them, by his professions of sympathy with their feelings, to essay questions on roll of thunder my cry, enter with a willing mind into the exposition of his own.

The art of persuasion differs from that of form, reasoning; and it is of no small moment, to the success even of a true cause, that the judges who are to determine on its merits should be free from those national and media, religious predilections which render the multitude both deaf and blind. Let not this practice be considered as an unworthy artifice. It were best for the cause of moral essay form 4 2011, reason that mankind should acknowledge no authority but its own; but it is useful, to a certain extent, that they should not consider those institutions which they have been habituated to reverence as opposing an questions of thunder my cry obstacle to its admission. All reformers have been compelled to practise this misrepresentation of their own true feelings and opinions. It is deeply to be lamented that a word should ever issue from human lips which contains the minutest alloy of dissimulation, or simulation, or hypocrisy, or exaggeration, or anything but the precise and rigid image which is present to form 4 2011, the mind, and which ought to dictate the expression. But the practice of utter sincerity towards other men would avail to no good end, if they were incapable of practising it towards their own minds. In fact, truth cannot be communicated until it is perceived. The interests, therefore, of truth require that an orator should, as far as possible, produce in his hearers that state of mind on which alone his exhortations could fairly be contemplated and examined. Having produced this favourable disposition of mind, Jesus Christ proceeds to qualify, and finally to moral essay 4 2011, abrogate, the system of the Jewish law. He descants upon its insufficiency as a code of moral conduct, which it professed to be, and absolutely selects the law of retaliation as an instance of the absurdity and immorality of its institutions.

The conclusion of the speech is in a strain of the most daring and , most impassioned speculation. He seems emboldened by the success of his exculpation to the multitude, to declare in public the utmost singularity of his faith. He tramples upon all received opinions, on all the cherished luxuries and essay form 4 2011, superstitions of mankind. He bids them cast aside the chains of custom and blind faith by which they have been encompassed from the very cradle of their being, and receive the imitator and minister of the Universal God. EQUALITY OF MANKIND. The spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath chosen me to preach the gospel to the poor: he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives and recovering of sight to critical thinking, the blind, and to set at liberty them that are bruised. (Luke, Ch. IV. v. 18.) This is an enunciation of all that Plato and Diogenes have speculated upon the equality of mankind. They saw that the great majority of the human species were reduced to the situation of squalid ignorance and moral imbecility, for the purpose of purveying for the luxury of a few, and media violence research, contributing to the satisfaction of their thirst for form power. Too mean-spirited and too feeble in resolve to attempt the conquest of their own evil passions, and of the difficulties of the material world, men sought dominion over their fellow-men, as an easy method to gain that apparent majesty and power which the instinct of their nature requires.

Plato wrote the scheme of moral form 4 2011, a republic, in which law should watch over the equal distribution of the external instruments of unequal power—honours, property, c. Diogenes devised a nobler and a more worthy system of opposition to the system of the slave and tyrant. He said: It is in the power of critical thinking art lessons, each individual to level the inequality which is the topic of the complaint of mankind. Let him be aware of his own worth, and the station which he occupies in the scale of moral beings. Diamonds and gold, palaces and sceptres, derive their value from the opinion of mankind. The only sumptuary law which can be imposed on the use and fabrication of these instruments of mischief and deceit, these symbols of to kill a mockingbird injustice, successful injustice, is the law of opinion. Every man possesses the power, in this respect, to 4 2011, legislate for himself. Let him be well aware of his own worth and moral dignity. Let him yield in meek reverence to any wiser or worthier than he, so long as he accords no veneration to essay on ways nature, the splendour of his apparel, the luxury of his food, the multitude of moral 4 2011, his flatterers and slaves.

It is because, mankind, ye value and seek the empty pageantry of wealth and social power, that ye are enslaved to its possessions. Decrease your physical wants; learn to live, so far as nourishment arid shelter are concerned, like the beast of the forest and the birds of the air; ye will need not to complain, that other individuals of your species are surrounded by the diseases of luxury and the vices of subserviency and oppression. With all those who are truly wise, there will be an entire community, not only of thoughts and feelings, but also of external possessions. Insomuch, therefore, as ye live [wisely], ye may enjoy the community of whatsoever benefits arise from the inventions of civilized life.—They are of value only for purposes of mental power; they are of value only research papers, as they are capable of moral, being shared and applied to the common advantage of philosophy; and, if there be, no love among men, whatever institutions they may frame must be subservient to the same purpose—to the continuance of inequality. If there be no love among men, it is best that he who sees through the hollowness of media violence papers, their professions should fly from their society, and suffice to form, his own soul.

In wisdom, be will thus lose nothing in power, he will gain everything. In proportion to the love existing among men, so will be the community of property and essays in persuasion summary, power. Among true and real friends, all is common; and, were ignorance and envy and superstition banished from the world, all mankind would be friends. Essay? The only perfect and nature, genuine republic is that which comprehends every living being. Those distinctions which have been artificially set up, of nations, societies, families, and moral essay 4 2011, religions, are only general names, expressing the abhorrence and contempt with which men blindly consider their fellowmen.

I love my country; I love the city in which I was born, my parents, my wife, and the children of my care; and to this city, this woman, and this nation, it is essay, incumbent on me to do all the benefit in my power. Descriptive Essay Holiday? To what do these distinctions point, but to an evident denial of the duty which humanity imposes on you, of doing every possible good to every individual, under whatever denomination he may be comprehended, to whom you have the power of doing it? You ought to love all mankind; nay, every individual of moral essay 4 2011, mankind. You ought not to love the individuals of your domestic circles less, but to love those who exist beyond it more. Once make the feelings of confidence and of affection universal, and the distinctions of property and power will vanish; nor are they to be abolished without substituting something equivalent in mischief to them, until all mankind shall acknowledge an entire community of rights. But, as the shades of night are dispelled by the faintest glimmerings of dawn, so shall the minutest progress of the benevolent feelings disperse, in some degree, the gloom of tyranny, and [curb the] ministers of and children papers, mutual suspicion and abhorrence.

Your physical wants are few, whilst those of your mind and essay, heart cannot be numbered or described, from their multitude and complication. To secure the gratification of the former, you have made yourselves the bond-slaves of each other. They have cultivated these meaner wants to so great an excess as to judge nothing so valuable or desirable [as] what relates to their gratification. Hence has arisen a system of passions which loses sight of the end they were originally awakened to attain. Fame, power, and gold, are loved for form 4 2011 their own sakes—are worshipped with a blind, habitual idolatry. The pageantry of empire, and the fame of thinking art lessons, irresistible might, are contemplated by the possessor with unmeaning complacency, without a retrospect to the properties which first made him consider them of value. It is from the cultivation of the most contemptible properties of essay form 4 2011, human nature that discord and in persuasion, torpor and indifference, by which the moral universe is disordered, essentially depend. Essay Form? So long as these are the ties by which human society is connected, let it not be admitted that they are fragile.

Before man can be free, and equal, and truly wise, he must cast aside the chains of habit and superstition; he must strip sensuality of its pomp, and selfishness of its excuses, and contemplate actions and objects as they really are. He will discover the wisdom of universal love; he will feel the meanness and the injustice of sacrificing the reason and on ways to protect, the liberty of his fellow-men to the indulgence of his physical appetites, and moral essay form 4 2011, becoming a party to their degradation by the consummation of , his own. Such, with those differences only incidental to the age and state of society in which they were promulgated, appear to have been the doctrines of Jesus Christ. It is not too much to assert that they have been the doctrines of every just and compassionate mind that ever speculated on the social nature of man. The dogma of the equality of mankind has been advocated with various success, in different ages of the world. It was imperfectly understood, but a kind of instinct in its favour influenced considerably the practice of ancient Greece and to kill a mockingbird racial essay, Rome. Attempts to establish usages founded on this dogma have been made in modern Europe, in several instances, since the revival of literature and the arts. Rousseau has vindicated this opinion with all the eloquence of sincere and earnest faith; and is, perhaps, the philosopher among the moderns who, in the structure of essay 4 2011, his feelings and violence papers, understanding resembles most nearly the mysterious sage of Judea. It is impossible to read those passionate words in which Jesus Christ upbraids the pusillanimity and sensuality of mankind, without being strongly reminded of the more connected and systematic enthusiasm of Rousseau. No man, says Jesus Christ, can serve two masters.

Take, therefore, no thought for moral to-morrow, for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. If we would profit by the wisdom of a sublime and poetical mind, we must beware of the vulgar error of interpreting literally every expression it employs. Media? Nothing can well be more remote from truth than the literal and strict construction of such expressions as Jesus Christ delivers, or than [to imagine that] it were best for man that he should abandon all his acquirements in moral essay, physical and intellectual science, and depend on the spontaneous productions of nature for his subsistence. Nothing is more obviously false than that the remedy for the inequality among men consists in their return to the condition of savages and beasts. Philosophy will never be understood if we approach the study of its mysteries with so narrow and illiberal conceptions of its universality. Rousseau certainly did not mean to essay, persuade the immense population of his country to abandon all the arts of life, destroy their habitations and their temples, and become the inhabitants of the woods. He addressed the most enlightened of his compatriots, and endeavoured to persuade them to set the example of a pure and simple life, by placing in the strongest point of view his conceptions of the calamitous and diseased aspect which, overgrown as it is with the vices of sensuality and selfishness, is exhibited by civilized society. Nor can it be believed that Jesus Christ endeavoured to prevail on the inhabitants of Jerusalem neither to till their fields, nor to of thunder hear, frame a shelter against the sky, nor to provide food for the morrow. He simply exposes, with the passionate rhetoric of enthusiastic love towards all human beings, the miseries and mischiefs of that system which makes all things subservient to the subsistence of the material frame of man. He warns them that no man can serve two masters—God and Mammon; that it is moral essay form, impossible at once to be highminded and just and wise, and to comply with the accustomed forms of human society, seek power, wealth, or empire, either from the idolatry of habit, or as the direct instruments of sensual gratification.

He instructs them that clothing and food and shelter are not, as they suppose, the true end of human life, but only certain means, to moral essay form 4 2011, be valued in media and children research, proportion to their subserviency to that end. These means it is the right of every human being to possess, and that in the same degree. In this respect, the fowls of the air and the lilies of the field are examples for the imitation of mankind. They are clothed and moral essay form, fed by the Universal God. Permit, therefore, the Spirit of this benignant Principle to visit your intellectual frame, or, in other words, become just and pure. When you understand the degree of attention which the requisitions of your physical nature demand, you will perceive how little labour suffices for on ways nature their satisfaction.

Your Heavenly Father knoweth you have need of these things. The universal Harmony, or Reason, which makes your passive frame of thought its dwelling, in proportion to the purity and majesty of its nature will instruct you, if ye are willing to attain that exalted condition, in what manner to possess all the objects necessary for your material subsistence. All men are [impelled] to become thus pure and happy. 4 2011? All men are called to participate in the community of Nature's gifts. Research? The man who has fewest bodily wants approaches nearest to the Divine Nature. Satisfy these wants at the cheapest rate, and expend the remaining energies of your nature in the attainment of virtue and knowledge. The mighty frame of the wonderful and lovely world is the food of your contemplation, and living beings who resemble your own nature, and moral form, are bound to you by similarity of sensations, are destined to be the nutriment of your affection; united, they are the consummation of the widest hopes your mind can contain. Ye can expend thus no labour on mechanism consecrated to luxury and pride. How abundant will not be your progress in all that truly ennobles and extends human nature!

By rendering yourselves thus worthy, ye will be as free in your imaginations as the swift and many-coloured fowls of the air, and as beautiful in pure simplicity as the lilies of the field. Moral? In proportion as mankind becomes wise—yes, in exact proportion to that wisdom—should be the extinction of the unequal system under which they now subsist. Government is, in fact, the mere badge of their depravity. Form? They are so little aware of the inestimable benefits of mutual love as to indulge, without thought, and almost without motive, in the worst excesses of selfishness and malice. Hence, without graduating human society into a scale of empire and subjection, its very existence has become impossible. It is necessary that universal benevolence should supersede the regulations of precedent and prescription, before these regulations can safely be abolished. Meanwhile, their very subsistence depends on the system of injustice and holiday, violence, which they have been devised to palliate. They suppose men endowed with the power of deliberating and determining for their equals; whilst these men, as frail and as ignorant as the multitude whom they rule, possess, as a practical consequence of this power, the right which they of necessity exercise to , prevent (together with their own) the physical and moral and intellectual nature, of all mankind. It is the object of wisdom to equalize the distinctions on which this power depends, by exhibiting in their proper worthlessness the objects, a contention concerning which renders its existence a necessary evil. The evil, in fact, is virtually abolished wherever justice is practised; and it is abolished in moral 4 2011, precise proportion to the prevalence of true virtue.

The whole frame of to kill racial injustice, human things is infected by an insidious poison. Hence it is moral form, that man is blind in his understanding, corrupt in his moral sense, and diseased in his physical functions. The wisest and most sublime of the ancient poets saw this truth, and embodied their conception of its value in retrospect to the earliest ages of mankind. ? They represented equality as the reign of Saturn, and taught that mankind had gradually degenerated from the virtue which enabled them to enjoy or maintain this happy state. Their doctrine was philosophically false. Later and more correct observations have instructed us that uncivilized man is the most pernicious and miserable of beings, and that the violence and injustice, which are the genuine indications of real inequality, obtain in moral essay 4 2011, the society of these beings without palliation. Their imaginations of a happier state of essay on roll of thunder my cry, human society were referred, in truth, to the Saturnian period; they ministered, indeed, to thoughts of despondency and sorrow. But they were the children of airy hope—the prophets and parents of man's futurity. Alan was once as a wild beast; he has become a moralist, a metaphysician, a poet, and an astronomer. Moral Essay Form? Lueretius or Viril might have referred the comparison to themselves and, as a proof of the progress of the nature of man, challenged a comparison with the cannibals of Scythia. The experience of the ages which have intervened between the present period and that in which Jesus Christ taught, tends to prove his doctrine, and to illustrate theirs.

There is more equality because there is more justice, and there is more justice because there is more universal knowledge. To the accomplishment of such mighty hopes were the views of Jesus Christ extended; such did he believe to be the tendency of his doctrines—the abolition of artificial distinctions among mankind, so far as the love which it becomes all human beings to bear towards each other, and the knowledge of truth from which that love will never fail to be produced, avail to their destruction. A young man came to Jesus Christ, struck by the miraculous dignity and simplicity of his character, and attracted by the words of power which he uttered. He demanded to be considered as one of the followers of his creed. Moral Form? Sell all that thou hast, replied the philosopher; give it to the poor, and follow me. But the young man had large possessions, and he went away sorrowing.

The system of equality was attempted, after Jesus Christ's death, to be carried into effect by his followers. They that believed had all things in common; they sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to questions of thunder, all men, as every man had need; and they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart. ( Acts , Ch. II.) The practical application of the doctrines of strict justice to a state of society established in its contempt, was such as might have been expected. Moral Essay 4 2011? After the transitory glow of enthusiasm had faded from the minds of men, precedent and habit resumed their empire; they broke like an universal deluge on one shrinking and solitary island. To Kill A Mockingbird Racial Injustice Essay? Men to whom birth had allotted ample possession looked with complacency on sumptuous apartments and luxurious food, and essay form 4 2011, those ceremonials of essay, delusive majesty which surround the throne of moral 4 2011, power and essay questions, the court of wealth.

Men, from whom these things were withheld by their condition, began again to gaze with stupid envy on pernicious splendour; and, by desiring the false greatness of essay questions on roll hear my cry, another's state, to sacrifice the intrinsic dignity of their own. The demagogues of the infant republic of the Christian sect, attaining through eloquence or artifice, to influence amongst its members, first violated (under the pretence of watching over their integrity) the institutions established for the common and equal benefit of all. These demagogues artfully silenced the voice of the moral sense among them by engaging them to attend, not so much to moral form 4 2011, the cultivation of a virtuous and happy life in this mortal scene, as to the attainment of essay to protect nature, a fortunate condition after death; not so much to the consideration of those means by which the state of man is adorned and improved, as an inquiry into essay form the secrets of the connexion between God and the world—things which, they well knew, were not to be explained, or even to be conceived. Descriptive Holiday? The system of equality which they established necessarily fell to the ground, because it is a system that must result from, rather than precede, the moral improvement of human kind. It was a circumstance of no moment that the first adherents of the system of moral essay 4 2011, Jesus Christ cast their property into a common stock. The same degree of real community of property could have subsisted without this formality, which served only to extend a temptation of dishonesty to the treasurers of so considerable a patrimony. Every man, in proportion to his virtue, considers himself, with respect to the great community of mankind, as the steward and guardian of their interests in the property which he chances to essay on ways nature, possess.

Every man, in proportion to his wisdom, sees the manner in which it is questions my cry, his duty to employ the resources which the consent of mankind has intrusted to his discretion. Such is the [annihilation] of the unjust inequality of powers and essay form, conditions. existing in the world; and so gradually and inevitably is the progress of equality accommodated to the progress of wisdom and of virtue among mankind. Meanwhile, some benefit has not failed to flow from the imperfect attempts which have been made to erect a system of moral essay form, equal rights to property and essay on ways, power upon the basis of arbitrary institutions. Moral Essay? They have undoubtedly, in every case, from the instability of their foundation, failed. Still, they constitute a record of those epochs at which a trite sense of essays in persuasion, justice suggested itself to the understandings of men, so that they consented to moral, forego all the cherished delights of luxury, all the habitual gratifications arising out of the possession or the expectation of power, all the superstitions with which the accumulated authority of ages had made them dear and venerable. Essay Form 4 2011? They are so many trophies erected in the enemy's land, to mark the limits of the victorious progress of truth and descriptive essay holiday, justice. No mistake is more to moral form, be deplored than the conception that a system of essay to protect nature, morals and religion should derive any portion of its authority either from the circumstance of its novelty or its antiquity, that it should be judged excellent, not because it is reasonable or true, but because no person has ever thought of it before, or because it has been thought of from the beginning of time. The vulgar mind delights to [abstract?] from the most useful maxims or institutions the trite reasons of their preferableness, and to accommodate to the loose inductions of their own indisciplinable minds. Thus mankind is governed by precedents for actions which were never, or are no longer, useful and deluded by the pretensions of any bold impostor.

Such has been, most unfortunately, the process of the human mind relatively to the doctrines of Jesus Christ. Their original promulgation was authorized by an appeal to the antiquity of the institutions of Judaea; and in vindication of superstitious professing to be founded on them, it is asserted that nothing analogous to their tenor was ever before produced. The doctrines of Jesus Christ have scarcely the smallest resemblance to the Jewish law: nor have wisdom and benevolence and pity failed in whatsoever age of the world to generate such persuasions as those which are the basis of the moral system he announced. The most eminent philosophers of Greece had long been familiarized to the boldest and most sublime speculations on God, on the visible world, and on the moral and holiday, intellectual Nature of 4 2011, Man. The universality and unity of God, the omnipotence of the mind of critical, man, the equality of human beings and the duty of internal purity, is either asserted by Pythagoras, Plato, Diogenes, Zeno, and their followers, or may be directly inferred from their assertions. Nothing would be gained by the establishment of the originality of Jesus Christ's doctrines but the casting a suspicion upon its practicability. Let us beware therefore what we admit lest, as some have made a trade of its imagined mysteries, we lose the inestimable advantages of its simplicity. Let us beware, if we love liberty and truth, if we loathe tyranny and and children papers, imposture, if, imperfect ourselves, we still aspire to moral 4 2011, the freedom of internal purity, and cherish the elevated hope that mankind may not be everlastingly condemned to thinking, the bondage of their own passions and the passions of moral form 4 2011, their fellow beings, let us beware. Racial Injustice? An established religion turns to deathlike apathy the sublimest ebullitions of most exalted genius, and essay, the spirit-stirring truths of a mind inflamed with the desire of media violence research papers, benefiting mankind.

It is the characteristic of 4 2011, a cold and tame spirit to imagine that such doctrines as Jesus Christ promulgated are destined to follow the fortunes and share the extinction of a popular religion. Forman's Editorial Preface: The Essay on Christianity was first given by Lady Shelley, in essay nature, the Shelley Memorials (1859), where it is accompanied by the following note:—The reader will observe some unfinished sentences in the course of this Essay; but it has been thought advisable to print it exactly as it was found, with the exception of a few conjectural words inserted between brackets. In this and other respects the text of the Memorials is here followed; but I have added from the St. James's Magazine for March, 1876, what appears to be a part of a recapitulation and moral essay, conclusion. It is reasonable to think that this would have been further developed; but the final sentences are peculiarly weighty, and likely to be the conclusion of the whole matter. Mr. Rossetti assigns this Essay, not very confidently, to the year 1815: if that be not the date, I should incline to place it a little later rather than earlier.—H.B.F. calculated——: It seems likely that it was a part of the scheme of descriptive essay holiday, this Essay to examine and illustrate the Beatitudes seriatim . The passage now printed as the conclusion of the Essay occupies a page and a half of a sheet of foolscap paper: on the other leaf of the sheet, and not continuously with the rest are written and cancelled the following passages:— I, the Redeemer of mankind; I who dare to.

Lament no more ye meek and gentle beings: bear on against the oppressions of the hard and unfeeling world—with resolute and tranquil mind; for moral essay form in the calmness of your own spirit shall be your reward, and on ways nature, the. him: See Note on this subject, Vol. Moral 4 2011? III, p. 312. Scythia: Jesus Christ foresaw what the poets retrospectively imagined. [Shelley's Note.] Jesus Christ did not. Essay? It is at this point that the Essay ends in the Shelley Memorials . The rest is from the St. James's Magazine . superstitions professing. Cancelled reading, a system professing to be founded on these doctrines . produced: Cancelled reading, Let us proceed to vindicate . law: There is another erasure here, The Philosophers of Greece, and their imitators, the Romans, bear.

The: Cancelled reading, The doctrines were speculations of the most eminent, c. Plato: In the MS., The Platonists and Stoics is here struck out. practicability: Cancelled passage, It promises , and again, would persuade man not to be tyrant of man . liberty and essay form 4 2011, truth: In the MS., our fellow men is here struck out in thinking, favour of liberty and truth . It is the characteristic. Cancelled reading, It is a cold and palsying tame thought . follow the fortunes: In the MS. the words share the fate originally stood here.