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biography etymology Born in 1949 in England, Fred Frith began musical life with violin lessons at capsule, the age of CSULA, five and a place in the church choir. He first picked up a guitar while in his teens and gave his earliest performances in time paper, the relatively forgiving atmosphere of British folk clubs. In 1968 he joined up with Tim Hodgkinson to form Henry Cow, an enduring eotheri rock group which achieved a certain notoriety on the European independent circuit and beyond. Mla Thesis Page? Through this intense ten-year collaboration, Frith developed a willingness to try anything and time learn as he went along, as well as a lasting appetite for collective work. He also began to approach composing from an improviseris perspective, and vice-versa. After the break-up of Henry Cow in 1978, Frith moved to New York, where he came into contact with many of the musicians with whom heis since been associated, including John Zorn, Tom Cora, Bob Ostertag, Ikue Mori and many others. Fourteen years in New York gave rise to groups like Massacre (with Bill Laswell and Fred Maher), Skeleton Crew (with Tom Cora and Zeena Parkins), Keep the essay, Dog (a sextet performing an extensive repertoire of Frithis compositions), and the continuing Guitar Quartet. It also provided a fertile environment for improvisation, an activity which is still close to his heart. Starting in the late eighties, Frith began to concentrate on capsule paper, composing for dance, film, and theatre, and this in turn led to writing music for others to play. Recent examples include iLong on should essays, Logici and iFreedom in Fragmentsi for paper, ROVA Sax Quartet; iIn Memoryi for four voices, four guitars and four percussionists; the string quartet iLelekovice,i iPacifici for the twenty-piece Ensemble Eva Kant in Bologna; and college prompts iHelter Skelter,i an opera that resulted from a six-month visit to Marseille working with iyoung, unemployed rock musicians.i As a composer, his work is characterized by an unusual approach to melody and the way that melodies are played, a fascination with continuously subverting musical surfaces, the contradiction between rigorous form and improvised content, and the incorporation of efoundi sound and home-made instruments. He has been as much influenced by painters and writers as by other musicians, particularly in the contrast between brutal reality and lyrical fantasy (and the epigrammatic structures) inherent in time term, the work of Eduardo Galeano and the Parisian painter BEatrice Turquand diAuzay.
Alongside his other activities, Frith has continued to perform in a variety of contexts, playing bass in John Zornis Naked City, violin in Lars Hollmeris Looping Home Orchestra, and guitar on recordings ranging from the The Residents and how long RenE Lussier to Brian Eno and Amy Denio. Time Term? Current projects include iStone, Brick, Glass, Wood, Wirei (graphic scores for 11 to 21 players), a forthcoming collaboration with the Ensemble Moderne, and music for choreographers Amanda Miller and Paul Selwyn Norton. He is the ralph emerson essays, subject of paper, Nicolas Humbert and ralph waldo emerson emerson Werner Penzelsi award-winning documentary film iStep Across the term paper, Border. Mla Thesis Page Format? as guest musician: Between 1975 and present, has played on records by Eugene Chadbourne, Lindsay Cooper, Curlew, Amy Denio, Brian Eno, Heiner Goebbels, Half Japanese, The Residents, Michihiro Sato, Rebby Sharp, Chris Stamey, The Swans, Tenko, the time term paper, Dr. Umezu Band, Violent Femmes, Robert Wyatt, Zazou Bikaye, John Zorn and many others. Born in Yancey Mills, Virginia, Tom Cora made his musical debut as drummer on a local television program, DandyDoodleShow . Reared on the gospel, blues and country music of the CSULA optional, Appalachians, he passed the mid-seventies as guitarist with the house-band of a Washington, DC jazz club. He then suddenly abandoned the guitar and took up the cello instead. Time Capsule Paper? Cora secluded himself and studied cello with Casals' student, Luis Garcia-Renart. During this time he explored non-idiomatic improvising and Turkish and Eastern European folk music, as well as constructing instruments for his group, The Moose Skowron Tuned Metal Ensemble.
For two years, prior to essay the age of Reagan, he led a government funded group that spent its summers performing at various ports along the Hudson River, aboard the Floating Foundation of Photography; and he toured Europe with a group led by Karl Berger that included Lee Konitz and Don Cherry. Time Capsule Term Paper? By 1979 Tom had moved to gilgamesh statement thesis New York where he began an time term paper extended working relationship with Shockabilly guitarist Eugene Chadbourne, introducing the cello to the honky tonk circuits of North America. Between stints on the road with Chadbourne he became a familiar face in the improvising clubs and venues of New York alongside John Zorn, Wayne Horvitz, David Moss, Toshinori Kondo and be on gre others. There followed the capsule paper, formation of Curlew, a collaboration with George Cartwright, whose records won much recognition for helping define new areas of rhythmic music. Emerson? In the summer of time capsule paper, '82 Tom Cora and Fred Frith formed Skeleton Crew. College Essay? It was based on the premise of stretching the resources of the minimum number of people in the maximum number of capsule term paper, ways. They divided up the admissions prompts 2014, drum kit between them and played it at the same time as their other instruments, an extension of the one-man-band principle.
Tom took up the bass guitar and began constructing musical contraptions to time capsule term be played with the feet, thus throwing himself into waldo emerson essays, a four-limbed approach to music. During its five years --the last two of which it became a trio with Zeena Parkins-- Skeleton Crew performed hundreds of concerts in North America, Europe and Japan, including an time extensive tour of Eastern Europe. 1986 was the year that Tom began in earnest to address himself to the problem of the solo concert. The iproblemi lay in page format, the fact that the prospect of carrying a concert-length performance single-handedly seemed deeply frightening to time term the budding cellist, but that was also part of the attraction. Ten years later, with two solo records behind him, Cora honed the solo to a deft balancing act of risk and intention which has been burned into the memory of audiences all over CSULA, North America, Europe and time term Japan. Meanwhile, Cora was no stranger to collaboration: CURLEW was reviving itself as a performing and touring band; NIMAL, with Momo Rossel, was born; a duo with Hans Reichel was not only a meeting of essay prompts, strings but a meeting of daxophone and daxello; the collective FRAME (with E. Sharp, N. Rothenberg and time P. Hollinger) toured what was then called the Soviet Union; and THIRD PERSON was born from live collaborations with percussionist Samm Bennett. This trio, with the third position constantly shifting, documented a year of live concerts at the Knitting Factory with their first CD, The Bends. Third persons have included Butch Morris, Mark Ribot, Zeena Parkins, Kazutoki Umezu and Steve Lacy.
In 1990 Tom took a week-long pause from a European tour to rehearse and play two concerts as a guest with the veteran Dutch band, THE EX. Though the two had been longtime mutual admirers, little did they know at should, this first meeting that they were to be hurled directly into some years of intense collaboration together; collaboration in time capsule term, the truest sense. Essays? Now, six years, two CDs and nearly a hundred concerts later, their resolve continues. The Dutch connection also meant a two month residency at capsule term, STEIM, the electro-acoustic research center in Amsterdam where Tom tailored a live sampling and triggering system to his ifour-limbed approach,i which was unveiled with a 25 concert solo tour in the Fall of '92. Though most visible as a performer in recent years, Cora has been equally occupied in less nomadic activities: composition commissions from Guy Klucevsek and Ralph Records; film music for the National Film Board of Canada; music for the video The Misfits, a documentary of 30 years of the Fluxus movement; a Bessie award-winning composition for longtime collaborator choreographer Donna Uchizono; a NewYork Foundation for the Arts Fellowship; and a solo cello film score for Dziga Vertov's, Man With the college prompts 2014, Movie Camera, commissioned by the American Museum of the Moving Image. Time Capsule Paper? This turned into more than 30 live performances in optional, Europe (late '94/early '95), with solo cello in front of Vertov's icity symphony.i Cora was recently awarded a Meet the capsule term paper, Composer Commissioning Grant to realize an ensemble score for Man with the Movie Camera. Mla Thesis Page? It will be performed live with the film at several North American venues in the Spring of '96. Most recently there is time ROOF, the meeting place of Tom Cora, Phil Minton, Luc Ex and Michael Vatcher.
It's not just a collective, but a band whose highly articulate improvisational spirit serves tightly rehearsed compositions. The membersi widely differing backgrounds belie a pointed empathy as often at epic, the service of the subversion of capsule term paper, expectations as in the affirmation and joy of collective music making. Thesis? Their first CD, The Untraceable Cigar, has just been released on RedNote (Amsterdam). And last, but not least, Tom finds himself once again collaborating with Skeleton Crew on Etymology, a sound sample library on CD-ROM. This license-free CD-ROM contains the sonic sounds and wire manipulation techniques of Fred Frith and Tom Cora. In the AIFF format, Etymology is designed for musicians and sound designers who use digital audio workstations on the Mac O/S platform.
Sound designer, Thomas Dimuzio is term paper producing Etymology for Rarefaction. TOM CORA / SELECTED DISCOGRAPHY Or Complete Discography.
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malta essay Transcript is a. ESSAY: 'Malta’s Jonah Complex' by Antoine Cassar. In-nies ta' fuqha jbahhru. bla qatt ma jaslu. Every island is a boat. The people on board sail on. never to term arrive. Oliver Friggieri 1. One of the salient threads running through the poetics and literary criticism of Oliver Friggieri, the should institutional Maltese poet per antonomasia , is his tireless preoccupation with the tension between stability and change, idleness and voyage. Indirectly applied to his homeland, Malta is identified in the above haiku as a stationary boat, in a ‘fixed flux’ symptomatic of the capsule paper passengers’ deeply-rooted collective malaise: that of a permanent, inexorable sensation of anticlimax, as the part-Latin, part-Semitic society struggles to how long gre pursue its desire to sail on into the promised waters of the time capsule future.
The metaphor of a craft lost at sea is poignant for format an ultra-Catholic micro-nation which, in 2011, has just approved the introduction of the term right to divorce following a consultative referendum (hailed as a major victory despite going through by only 52.67 %), retains the colonial George Cross on its national flag, and still widely considers its native tongue as a ‘kitchen language’, to such an ralph waldo, extent that the capsule University of mla essay questions, Malta has recently renewed a rule that forbids its students from capsule, sitting their examinations in ralph emerson any language other than English (except for those related to degrees in Maltese or foreign languages). Elementary psychology would indeed contend that, before the islands can begin to row themselves out of the whirlpool and steer the rudder in a chosen direction, the first fundamental step would be to carry out a self-searching etat des lieux , taking stock and time term thereby coming to grips with their own condition and situation. Self-acceptance, even of the emerson essays most prudent type, has never been much of an idiosyncratic Maltese virtue. Take a (very powerful) magnifying glass, zoom into the globe a good ten thousand percent or so, and somewhere behind the letter M, the main island of the archipelago will appear as a (not-so-) big fish, with its tail up, its mouth open, and its eye looking up toward Sicily and capsule term the toes of continental Europe. Like Friggieri’s rickety boat, the fish does not seem to be going anywhere, as if holding itself back from the questions need to settle into and blossom out of its own scales and skin. Judging by the proportions of its abdomen, the big fish could perhaps be better seen as a whale, which in turn offers itself as an accurate biblical symbol: in 1968, psychologist Abraham Maslow’s coining of ‘the Jonah complex’ based itself on the Old Testament character who, too frightened to capsule paper accept and perform his mission to preach to the peoples of Nineveh, fled 180? to Jaffa in order to sail to Tarshish, only to be thrown overboard in a storm and swallowed by a whale, finding refuge in the tenderness of its belly.
Comfortably trapped inside its own soft tummy and in no rush to CSULA optional essay find its way out and face its destiny, Maltese society could well be suffering from the time term paper same fear of ‘self-actualisation’ as defined by Maslow (the refusal to be what one essentially is, and trace out one’s own path accordingly). 2. Post-independence Maltese authors have been well aware of their country's entrapment in this complex, that is, of the population’s difficulty in accepting itself as a Mediterranean people, as much culturally Christian European as North African or Semitic, as the local language and ethnology instantly reveal to the passing visitor. How Long Should Essays Gre! Modern and contemporary Maltese literature, and poetry in particular, have attempted to lead the time paper first expeditions out of the cetacean’s belly, and continue to do so. CSULA Optional Essay! During the late 1960s and early 70s, the Moviment Qawmien Letterarju (MQL, ‘Movement for the Revival/Promotion of Literature) 3 , a broad, eclectic crowd of Maltese writers, took the time paper first energetic steps towards overcoming the epic gilgamesh statement thesis profound identity crisis that had quickly set in following the advent of self-government. This initial epanouissement or 'flowering' was double-edged: not only did authors such as Friggieri, Mario Azzopardi, Victor Fenech, Albert Marshall and Achille Mizzi seek to shatter the capsule paper rusty shackles of mla essay, colonialism in their writing – which they did successfully –, but they were a lot more concerned with leaving behind the late Romantic muse, steeped in gratuitous Catholic patriotism and the anti-Moslem sentiment of authors such as Dun Karm (still considered the term ‘national poet’ to this day).
The break with the past was never complete – “ more evolution than revolution ”, as Friggieri himself, perhaps the most Romantic and formalist of the mla essay questions new wave, pointed out time paper 4 –, and the outburst of the MQL was relatively short-lived, quickly becoming an institution in ralph waldo emerson emerson essays itself (and in some aspects remaining rather colonial, with its committees, secretaries and capsule term treasurers). Nevertheless, Maltese poetry did experience a highly generous import of literary currents from the continent, with Azzopardi explicitly declaring in the inaugural 1967 issue of the MQL’s own organ Il-Polz (‘The Pulse’, ironically printed at the ‘Empire Press’) the need for Malta to place itself on the international literary map. 5 Briffa’s assertion of the paradox whereby “ the writers of the Sixties modelled their literary output on epic gilgamesh statement, Anglo-American sources ” (2007: 16) is perhaps exaggerated, as several authors, including Azzopardi and Mizzi, looked for inspiration to the poetries of Eastern Europe (Mizzi was an avid translator of Pushkin), Marshall to the symbology of the Indian subcontinent, and Fenech to the classical kigo -based haikus of Japan. In essence, these writers carried Maltese poetry away from schoolbook provincialism and into the international sentiment of modernism, the post-WW2 recognition of our species as an time, exhausted humanity, populated with tenets that appeared to run contrary to the general local mood of political liberation. 2014! Central to these modernising efforts are poems such as Identita ('Identity'), Bettieha (‘Melon’) and Xjenza (‘Science’) by Achille Mizzi 6 , who whilst remaining deeply and explicitly religious, ventured wholeheartedly into time, Jung’s theory of the collective unconscious, tracing in his poem Deja Vu a diachronic voyage across defining moments of human experience, from the caves of Altamira to the mushroom cloud above Hiroshima, toward a communion with a divine, all-encompassing world soul. At the same time, the essay prompts 2014 local element was never too far, albeit portrayed with a tongue-firmly-in-cheek stance, such as in Azzopardi’s Ritratti quddiem Caffe Premiere (‘Pictures at the Caffe Premiere’, where the MQL’s literary gatherings often took place), in which pigeons foul a monument to term Queen Victoria. Later in the same year of gilgamesh thesis, publication of capsule paper, this poem in the anthology Antenni (1968) 7 , during an arts festival at Valletta’s Manoel Theatre, the MQL was to encounter its first major face-off with the Establishment, which accused Azzopardi, Fenech, Daniel Massa and how long should a handful of capsule term paper, fellow authors of penning ‘anti-patriotic’ and ‘sexually explicit’ poems; as narrated by questions, Briffa, “ [w]hen the authors decided, nevertheless, to read their works as planned, the Manoel Theatre was patrolled by plain-clothes policemen to make sure that the controversial works were deleted from the time capsule term evening’s repertory. ” (2007: 41).
Fast-forward to prompts 2014 2011, and the Establishment continues to stamp its heavy-footed authority over the literary production of contemporary Maltese authors, or at least tries to: the national Attorney-General recently appealed against term paper the acquittal in court of college admissions essay, Alex Vella Gera and Mark Camilleri, who the police had accused of respectively writing and publishing the time capsule term paper obscene short story Li Tkisser Sewwi (‘Repair what you Break’), the scathingly parodical and explicit monologue of a perverse Maltese macho, in page the student newspaper Ir-Realta . 8 The real danger, as exclaimed by Vella Gera in a press interview following his acquittal 9 , is not the capsule paper censorship imposed from above, but that of the self-censorship certain authors may feel cornered into by such forces. Nevertheless, as oblivious as Malta’s irjus kbar (‘big heads’, i.e. the most politically influential) may be to CSULA optional what does and does not constitute art and fiction, let alone the time capsule term paper ongoing developments of its own literature, whether mainstream or peripheral, the so-called ‘next wave’ of contemporary authors continues somewhat in the same vein as the ‘new wave’, variably building on the legacy left by the MQL, albeit with a much sharper attentiveness to Malta’s Jonah-like condition. 10 Time will tell just how indebted the mla thesis ‘next wave’ are to term paper the ‘new wave’, although the collective intellectual and creative desire to stretch beyond the provincial belly of the whale remains an innermost preoccupation of the new poetics, sought no doubt with an ever-renewed vigour and urgency. In this second epanouissement of modern Maltese literature, to questions varying degrees, the time term authors evince a full understanding of the need to admissions prompts foster a planetary sense of place without extricating their roots from the local soil. If world literature, as defined by time paper, Vinay Dharwadker in his Cosmopolitan Geographies 11 , is college essay “ a montage of overlapping maps in time paper motion ”, the new Maltese writers have consciously furthered the shift from insularity to the acute awareness of forming part of a multi-dimensional global jigsaw where the laws of CSULA essay, cause and effect stretch far beyond the static notion of nation state. Beyond the proliferation of literary events and publications advertising themselves as ‘ imqarba ’ (‘naughty’) – a reflection not so much of a live bookish community struggling to expand its own limits of mind-set and imagination, but more of the need to capsule paper challenge the general public’s perception of local literature as innocently bland and be on outdated (a prejudice better understood when one realises that Romantic poetry still constitutes the bulk of core texts in the school syllabus, and that the time capsule paper Qawsalla anthology consulted by pupils bears the national flag on the front cover) –, the necessary audacity professed by contemporary Maltese literature can be seen as a two-fold reaction to the society’s protracted Jonah complex. The first fold is inward-looking, as writers actively re-examine and interrogate the recent past (the legacy left by the transition to an independent nation) and more so the prompts 2014 present, not shy to capsule term paper stir the spotlight toward the pressures holding Malta back from self-actualisation, and therefore the page format acceptance of herself and of the natural direction she should take. From Vella Gera’s novel L-Antipodi (‘Antipodes’; a Bildungsroman documenting an altar-boy’s conversion before, during and after his experience at the Woodstock festival), through the short stories of Pierre J. Time! Mejlak such as Ir-Rih tal-Bidla (‘The Wind of Change’) and Dar ix-Xoghol (‘The House of Work’), to optional Clare Azzopardi’s theatre play L-Interdett taht is-Sodda (‘The Interdict beneath the Bed’, the first literary work to expressly tackle one of the darker episodes of capsule, modern Maltese history, when Archbishop Mikiel Gonzi – the uncle of the current prime minister– excluded all members of the how long essays be on socialist party from the rites of the Church), today’s Maltese writing freely scrutinises the time paper obsession with parochial politics and the widespread desire to remain at an ideological standstill in the face of necessary social change, and strives to keep the readers aware of the fact that history can easily repeat itself in deceptively different forms. The second emancipatory fold is outward-looking, seeking to re-bridge links with the Eastern and Southern shores of the Mediterranean, that is, to a vital element of Maltese identity all too often negated by those wishing to believe that their culture “ has always been, and will always be, essentially European ” (despite the more than evident Semitic substrate shaping the basis of their mother tongue).
This second, outward-looking fold is more the domain of contemporary Maltese poetry than of CSULA optional essay, prose and the theatre, and time it was precisely the mla essay questions phrase just quoted, taken from the May 2004 issue of the magazine Malta This Month , which spurred Adrian Grima to compose the cheekily-rhymed poem Essenzjalment , taken from his second Maltese collection Rakkmu (‘Embroidery’): Malta is essentially European. and the Maltese are essentially European. The Mediterranean is a basin of water. and I think I know where it essentially comes from. The words I speak are essentially Maltese. and you could say they constantly come out of my mouth, and although they’re not all essentially European, whenever I am away from Malta.
everyone tells me ‘how sweet’, for perhaps they don’t always sound. I’m starting to think that maybe I’m not truly Maltese. And you too, I think you’d better have a good check. Time Capsule Term! 12. Other poems from page, Grima’s Rakkmu that have a pinch at Malta’s fantasised identity are less directly comical and much more biting, the product of a highly critical and lyrical consciousness: B’Idejna (‘With our Hands’), for example, takes a sarcastic blow at the daily 8 o’clock singing of Dun Karm’s national anthem at school (“Our anthem, I discover each time / is played to remind me that I am what I am, / that I wear this sun-coloured skin / and this garigue-coloured mind”), whilst Malta Hanina (‘Merciful Malta’), dedicated to eight Iraqi refugees forced to go through bureaucratic hell in Malta, describes the time island as “a pimple that never healed” (“ ponta li ma fieqet qatt ”). Grima, a researcher of CSULA optional essay, Mediterranean literature and an industrious cultural and human rights activist, is one of the leading figures responsible for opening Maltese poetic discourse out paper towards the Arab world (a process which has been ongoing for around a decade, culminating in should essays be on the most recent edition of the time paper Malta Mediterranean Literature Festival 13 , with seven of the invited writers hailing from Egypt, Sudan, Syria and Tunisia, all hotbeds of the Arab Spring). A prominent example is Ramallah –the leading poem providing the admissions essay prompts title and term paper central leitmotif of the collection Rakkmu –, which recreates the story of a mother sitting and weaving outside her home in Nablus, shot repeatedly by a passing Israeli soldier for no apparent reason, with no subsequent explanation given by the authorities. 14 In this and many other committed poems, Grima employs the narrative strategy of 'complicity', whereby fresh, direct observation of events and phenomena on the part of the poet is CSULA optional replaced by the intimate exchange of intuition and experience with a member of the community in focus.
In the case of Ramallah , the murdered protagonist happens to term be the mother of a dancer of the Palestinian group El-Funoun, invited by Grima and Inizjamed to give a performance in Malta in 2004. Even before the epic statement thesis publication of Id-Demm Niezel bhax-Xita ('Blood Falls Like Rain', co-edited by Grima) 15 , an anthology of prose and time capsule poetry published in solidarity with the people of Gaza following January 2009's 'Operation Cast Lead', a number of other Maltese poets had turned their attention to the ordeals of ordinary Palestianians, among them Norbert Bugeja, Maria Grech Ganado, Roderick Mallia and Walid Nabhan. Demm, awarded second prize in the national book awards, brings together the CSULA optional energetic contributions of a good fifteen local authors, and in the absence of non-academic literary journals published on time, the islands, would rightly be considered the broadest and most recent showpiece of contemporary Maltese verse. Rather auspiciously, three of those contributing poets are Azzopardi, Fenech and Mizzi, veterans of the MQL still going strong and far from couching on their laurels, and statement thesis more than content to capsule term paper follow the direction led by the rising generation. Guardian and Telegraph reporter Karl Schembri, the other co-editor of Demm presently stationed in how long Gaza, is another important voice in this current, injecting the immediacy of journalism into hard-hitting, emotionally charged verse of angry yet unfailingly cordial empathy. Ghalik, sur President ('For you, Mr President') is a quick-paced poem placed in the mouth of Muntadhar al-Zaidi, as he hurls his shoe towards George Bush during a Baghdad press conference; Jenin 3 , dedicated to an anonymous Samir whose mother's remains are in the process of time term paper, being trampled over by armoured trucks, is epic thesis of such scathing compassion as to come close to resonating with absurd sarcasm. Where Schembri leaves room for the autobiographical, it tends to be tied in with the collective, as illustrated by his touchstone poem Biljett Miftuh ('Open Ticket') 16 , in a solemnly straightforward timbre where Walt Whitman meets the late Mahmoud Darwish. Journeying among unspecific sceneries and encounters but taking his homeland along with him – here the simile of island as boat returns, this time mobile 17 – Schembri lists of a number of characters he may have met along the way with slight, yet sufficient, detail about their stories: I know a Japanese guy who’s bike’s been nicked. / I know a Libyan travelling with no passport / who works in a quarry. / I know a girl in Kosovo / who plays the caved-in carcass of a piano . Some lines before this, looking back towards home, the poet offers an accurate expression of the time term paper discomfort of not a few bible-bashed Maltese: Now listen to mla essay the bells taking the time term piss. reminder of the hour in an eternal day.
the promise of a drop of quietude. from the incense that invades our throats each day. Standing on my church’s parvis, I reject. the bibles foisted on mla essay questions, me through the years. the gilded tabernacles on the altars. which are locked tight by time capsule term, keys of human fears. For the ever-restless Immanuel Mifsud, a poet who takes almost full advantage of the quintessentially physical nature of the Maltese language, the true bible is something much closer to home, written not in lead or ink but in the fluids of the body. The following short poem Bibbja ('Bible') –perhaps the most sensual of blasphemies – recently appeared in Bateau Noir , a bilingual collection with parallel translations in French 18 , containing several texts which were yet to appear published in ralph emerson emerson essays the original Maltese. Allow me to read this bible you wrote for me. in the opening between your legs that pull me inside, pressing me like a vice for me never to capsule leave.
There is a bible written in how long should be on gre there, written. in blood, in tears of love, in sweat – your sweat, my sweat – in sperm. I have added my chapter to this bible, to read the poems written inside it, to chew on time term, the images, to feel them in my mouth. 19. Although Mifsud pours most of how long should essays gre, his creative energy into prose and drama, he is well-known at home and abroad as an at once critical and nostalgic travel poet, no doubt spurred on in part by the claustrophobia of time term, life in Malta (albeit the importance given to particularity of place does occasionally emerge in poems dedicated to specific Maltese locations).
Having figuratively thrown his passport – and all it symbolises – into should, the sea in an early poem 20 , Mifsud sets out to document, in loose modern-toned hendecasyllables, the distantly personal and closely foreign thoughts and time paper experiences from waldo emerson, his itinerant voyages across the Mediterranean, Eastern Europe and time term beyond. The empathy conveyed for the victims of not-so-faraway conflicts is subtler yet sorer than in much of the verse of Grima, Schembri and others, as is the case of the prose poem Laringa ('Orange') 21 – in which the fates and fears of mla essay, two housewives, Jael from Israel and Nadwa from Palestine, are described as two halves of the same orange –, and more so in several of the poems that make up the ' Ftit weraq minn… / A few leaves from… ' series forming the 2005 bilingual collection km , written in or after places such as Auschwitz, Prague and Bosnia. On his return from each flight, it would seem, when Mifsud sets his foot once more on il-Blata ('the Rock'), Friggieri's rickety boat or the 'big fish or whale' that is Malta, the feeling of restlessness all but dissipates. Capsule! Whether or not Maltese society is steadily sailing or swimming on college admissions, into the future –that is, into term, itself, into its self-acceptance and actualisation–, the journey is too slow for Mifsud's liking, and waldo emerson essays his penning of a convinced cynical despondency becomes almost inevitable. Judging from the poem below, written on the occasion of registering his firstborn son, once out of the cetacean's belly, it would seem better for capsule term paper Jonah to simply continue fleeing. Although not the most encouraging of messages for the next generation, the poem reflects an intricate netting of uneasiness from which the unending sense of disappointment and anticlimax can find no way out. Nikol Mifsud, Maltese Citizen. Nikol, today you became a citizen of the Republic.
I gave them your name for them to bestow a number. that they’ll know you by till you dry up. Nikol, don’t love this Republic; teach it to CSULA optional essay look upon you with total respect. And when it wearies you as it’s wearied me, find the first craft on the water’s surface. and sail away without once looking back. 22. 1. Friggieri, Oliver, 2001. Il-kliem li tghidlek qalbek (Malta: Mireva).
2. Maslow, Abraham Harold, 1968. Capsule Term Paper! Toward a Psychology of Being (New York: D. Prompts 2014! Van Nostrand). 3. Time! A brief and useful overview of this Movement is provided by Briffa, Charles, 2007. New Wave Literature in Malta (Malta Ministry for Tourism and college admissions 2014 Culture). 4. Time Capsule Term! Apud Briffa 2007: 16. 5. Apud Briffa 2007: 31. 6. Collected and edited by Toni Cortis in statement thesis Mizzi, Achille, 1993.
Poeziji 1963-1989 (Malta: Mireva). 7. Azzopardi, Mario; Camilleri, J.J.; Fenech, Victor Mahoney, Raymond, 1968. Antenni (Malta: self-published). 9. We could win a thousand court cases, but if an artist getting ready to write begins to time capsule censure himself –morally, not aesthetically–, then this verdict means nothing. Every artist needs to overcome the gre fight with the self first. From the second video here. 10. The term ‘next wave’ is used by Briffa in the conclusion of his cited monograph (2007: 58). Term Paper! 11. In his introductory presentation of essays gre, contemporary Maltese poetry in the online US magazine The Drunken Boat (2007), Adrian Grima indicates Henry Holland’s short poetry collection L-Artist tat-Trapiz (1996) as the work that marks the beginning of this ‘next’ new wave.
12. Dharwadker, Vinay, ed., 2001. Capsule Paper! Cosmopolitan Geographies: new locations in literature and culture (London: Routledge). 12. Optional! Grima, Adrian, 2006. Rakkmu (Malta: Klabb Kotba Maltin). Translated by Antoine Cassar. The Maltese rhyme in -ew (Ewropew - European, hlew - sweetness, tassew - truly, sew - good, proper; the last three words derive from Arabic) would be difficult to replicate without adding to the meaning of the original.
13. The programme of the MML Festival, organised by Inizjamed in conjunction with Literature Across Frontiers, is available at http://www.inizjamed.org/mediterranean_literature_festival_11.htm. 14. The sixth stanza of Ramallah , reproduced in the introductory pages of Rakkmu so as to set the tone for the book, has been translated by Maria Grech Ganado as follows, successfully retaining the rhythm of the original: And you tell me a story / of a mother embroidering / on the porch of her home; / and the shots that came raining / without their explaining / and the distracted dance / of her daughter in trance / and capsule term paper her mother embroidered by essays, guns. / 'No pretence. No apology. No explanation.' ” The full translation is available at http://www.thedrunkenboat.com/grima.html. 15. Schembri, Karl Grima, Adrian, eds., 2009. Id-Demm Niezel bhax-Xita (Malta: Edizzjoni Skarta). Time! http://skarta.org/id-demm_niezel_bhax-xita.htm.
16. Jenin 3 and Open Ticket can be read in Albert Gatt's English translation on CSULA, Poeticanet. 17. My island sails along the currents / snuggles against the whir of time, planes / and lies to rest before me / on the sill of open train windows. 18. Mifsud, Immanuel, 2011. Bateau Noir , with French translations by Nadia Mifsud and Catherine Camilleri (Malta: Edizzjonijiet Emmadelezio).
19. Translated by Antoine Cassar. 20. I threw my passport into the sea / I saw the ink run / the pages tear / but my face smiled for the first time. Passaport , taken from Mifsud, Immanuel, 1998. Fid-Dar ta’ Clara (Malta: self-published). Translation by Antoine Cassar. 21.
Published in both Id-Demm Niezel bhax-Xita and Bateau Noir , and online on the website of the Malta Council for Culture and mla essay questions the Arts.
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004. It has been said, “Not everything that is capsule term paper, learned is contained in mla thesis page format, books.” 004. Term. It has been said, “Not everything that is learned is contained in books.” Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from admissions essay prompts 2014, books. Capsule Paper. In your opinion, which source is more important? Why? 21:03 start, 21:31 finish, actual time 28 min, 296 words. Ralph Emerson Emerson. Nowadays most of people in the world begin their lives studying at school.
They read books, explore the experience that was written by previous generations. They aspire to get well-educated person in time paper, order to should essays be on gre prepare for adult life. Knowledge obtained from capsule, books are precious. But when they face difficulties in real life, it is widespread situation these knowledge do not work. I think it is quite clear knowledge gained from experience are much more important than books’ ones. Because the latter ones could appear to be not acceptable enough for the person and after all they should not be correct in every situation. The first thing, knowledge in statement thesis, books are often too common. Facts in capsule term paper, book are summary of mla essay questions, experience of many other people.
But they are not the rules that suit totally everybody. In order to learn how they can be applied in real life people should use them carefully and learn on their own mistakes. But that is paper, already experience knowledge. Namely this thing most likely will help people in the future. The second thing, pieces of advice from should essays be on gre, book do not work sometimes. Capsule Paper. That happens most often because of mla essay questions, particular problems people face in time capsule paper, real life.
But even more important, things from book can not be instructions for absolutely each state people are inclined to waldo emerson emerson essays get. Life is goos, but it is unexpected and suprising and hazardous sometimes. So nobody can predict or predestine anything in advance. To comprise, the solutions from books can not be treated as silver bullet solutions that can be applied everywhere and always. With no doubt they should be supported by capsule term paper, real examples and mla essay, real experience of time capsule term, each person.
But when person is young and he has not experience enough books are the admissions essay prompts, most valuable source of information. Words I needed: experience(syn:knowledge of time, life,adopt best practices), aspire (syn:to strive for), in advance(syn:early,in good time,ahead of time,beforehand,a priori), knowledge (syn:acquirements,data,information) 003. Nowadays, food has become easier to prepare. 003. Nowadays, food has become easier to how long essays be on prepare. Has this change improved the way people live? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 15:07 start, 15:30 finish, actual time 23 minutes, 238 words. Time Capsule Term Paper. Nowdays in CSULA essay, order to get food people no longer need to capsule term expose their lives to dangerous and hazardous situations like it was in mla essay questions, ancient times. Capsule Term Paper. They can just go to supermarket and buy totally everything what they need.
Most importantly in order to make food acceptable to eat people no longer need to make fire in the forest with the advent of technological devices such as microwave horns and other electrical things we got used to apply for should essays be on gre, preparing food. Paper. Yes, this change improved people’s life with no doubt. People got more time for some other activities and their nutrition has become more qualitative. The less time you need to prepare food the more time you have for other useful things. People spend this extra time on different subjects. For instance, they relax, they study, they study, they care about other people. The level of mla thesis page format, life continues increasing. Food preparation process’ simplification causes healthier nutrition. At present most of time, people in the world can afford to nutrite in right way. And more even important they can feed their babies with useful meal.
All of college essay 2014, that influences our physical condition and our health in common in a positive way. To resume, day by day our life is getting easier. The things we could not dream about before these things became true and even ordinary today. So without doubt the better we nutrite the better we live. And the happier.
Words I needed: prepare food (syn:cook, make ready), kitchen (just microwave,gas heater, eletrical fryer, oven), nutrite! (feed, nourish,eat, eat well, be well fed) 002. Parents are the best teachers. 002. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the time capsule term paper, best teachers. Use specific reasons and college essay prompts, examples to support your answer. 21:47 start, 22:09 finish, actual time 22 minutes, 246 words. Nowadays modern society requires people to be educated.
And in order to get educated people have to learn new things every day. People study when they are children, when they are young, when they are adults. Process of education is constant. But the most crucial part of education is capsule paper, going on in childhood. Kids need good teachers.
And I believe the best ones for them are their parents. Namely parents spend much time together with children, they perfectly know needs of essay, their sons and daughters, nothing saying about they normally concern about time term paper, them. Actually, parents and children are together a lot of CSULA, time. If the parents are good of course. Parents do not have to put new knowledge into kids at specified hours like at school. Appropriate moments for teaching appear in natural way when for example some things happen. It is known, parents know what children need for fair. And parents teach exactly that things children want to know. Finally, parents are such people who do care indeed.
It is notorious fact, several teachers at school and at university do not like they job. They consider education as just a way to term earn some money. On the contrary normal parents want the best destiny for their little kids. So parents have all features to be the splendid teachers for their children. Gilgamesh Statement. And when kids grow up they do not forget about that significant role their parents played in their lives. Parents deserve respect and care. Words I needed: modern(syn: present-day, contemporary), children (syn: kids, infants, babies), constant (syn: ceaseless, unceasing, incessant) 001. People attend college or university for many different reasons.
001. Capsule Paper. People attend college or university for many different reasons (for example, new experience, career preparation, increased knowledge) Why do you think, people attend college or university? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 14:40 start, 15:10 finish, actual time 30 minutes, 244 words. Every year millions of young people all over epic statement, the world try to enter some university or college.
It is hard to enter, it is hard to study, it is hard to graduate. Then why people do not stop on school level education but continue study in high level education establishments? I am sure, as you obtain an education at university you make a basis for your future career, bind useful connections and get valuable knowledge for you adult life. Proper education could help you to build up your career. That is true.
In order to find a good job we often need some proof of our knowledge to show an employer we are valuable candidates. Diploma of some famous university could be kind of such a proof. University is a place to make connections. During the years of capsule term paper, study together with your groupmates a strong connection appears between all of us. And namely these useful acquaintances could play a big role in future. Nowdays people value well-educated persons. If you know a lot about mla essay questions, history of time paper, your native country or about some famous picture of Rembrandt and you are able to tell about it during some intelligent party you could gain everybody’s acclaim. So education directly affects your future adult life. How Long Essays. And it is very reasonable to time capsule term get an education where you are young.
In order not to worry about it when you are a senior and you do need it for some reason. Words I needed: underbuild (to make a basis), useful (syn: beneficial, profitable, helpful), famous (syn: renowned, celebrated, illustrious), value (syn: appreciate), affect (syn:influence) Grammar I needed: prepositions (at, in, on) My goal is to pass TOEFL English language test. Before going to the certification center, i am going to write 100 essays on free subject.
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Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to time paper, elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). The repertory grid was introduced and used in a session in which the participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to epic gilgamesh, write an evaluation of the activity as an instrument to elicit beliefs. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to time paper, detect the participant’s perceptions of the activity and to shed further light on college essay the value of this instrument. Time Capsule Term Paper. Conclusions about the how long should essays be on applicability of the repertory grid technique and, in particular, the instrument used in this study in second language teacher education and teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development.
It is widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an impact on their behaviour. Thought and action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and term feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. Optional Essay. 25). Reviewing the relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on teaching practice in time term a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and essay interpretation of teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in a social and cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and theoretical in term paper a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and modified in the light of practical knowledge (i.e. experienced knowledge) to fit it to teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. Gilgamesh. unconscious and difficult to verbalise, and time term paper those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to verbalize them, to waldo emerson essays, provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. open to time capsule paper, change; however, it is mla thesis page uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and time term paper deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and emerson essays practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an time capsule term paper essential role in how long be on gre the practice of teaching and teacher education. Time. It is shaped by schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. faced in the institutional context the teacher is employed in), and own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in an interactional relation to teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and is informed through them. It is important to uncover teachers’ beliefs in order to initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to facilitate professional development. When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and professional development programs are likely to be ineffective because input (e.g. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is unlikely to epic gilgamesh statement, be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and term assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to mla essay, articulate them (Donaghue, 2003).
Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of time term paper, espoused theories which are in contrast to theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to epic statement, explore teacher beliefs.
Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the term repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and ralph waldo assumptions (see Appendix A). Instead of using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of personal construct, according to which an individual makes sense of the capsule term world by generating constructs which shape an individual’s personal theory. Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. 75), i.e. Mla Essay. individuals perceive elements of their experience in such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). For example, an effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Roberts, 1998, p. 31).
Accordingly, in paper the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to compare three different people and to affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and the third is different. The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at college admissions prompts the beginning of courses in teacher training or professional development. It aims at informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and assumptions about language teaching. Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is related to time capsule term, an element. For this reason, conclusion from results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather ‘a catalyst to thought and reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to gain generalisable results. Consequently, this study is concerned with the applicability of the instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves.
The study sought to find out how the emerson emerson adapted repertory grid by Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by six teachers at paper a Turkish middle school. Mla Thesis Format. For this reason, the participants were asked to evaluate the instrument and it was intended to find out to capsule term paper, what dimensions of teacher cognition the participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participants’ comments might be understood as an indicator for evaluating in how far the instrument is capable of initiating reflective thinking. Emerson Essays. No less importantly, the participants’ perceptions might contribute to time capsule paper, developing the instrument. Following these considerations the study sought to answer the following questions:
1. How do the participants evaluate the elicitation technique used in essay this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the elicitation technique for their professional development? The participants in this study were six teachers at a private middle school in a southeastern city in Turkey. The pupils attending the school come from families belonging to the middle and upper middle class. In order to get some background information, the participants were asked to fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the activity some biographical information. Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years.
2 male 45 bachelor 17 years. 3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years. 5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in ELT and time term vary in ralph waldo emerson teaching experience as evidenced by the years of time capsule term paper, teaching. Admissions Essay 2014. Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for capsule paper five years and participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at the private school.
Participant 2 is of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Kuwait), and college has been working at the private school for two years. Data Collection Procedures and Tools. The participants were invited to a session in which the activity was carried out. Time Capsule Paper. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Optional. Donaghue, 2003, p. 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the aim of the study and explains all steps. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and explains the concept of personal constructs. 2. Participants are divided into pairs.
Each pair receives one set of cards containing the term paper elements of the grid (cf. Appendix A). They think of waldo emerson essays, a real person that matches the element best. Time Paper. Participant A writes the name of the person at the top of the card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the person. An example is given in mla thesis Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A).
Pairs choose three cards at time term paper random, and individually think how two persons are similar and one is different writing their personal constructs in the ‘construct’ column. Participants put a tick to the elements that are the same and optional essay a cross to the one that is different. 4. Time Term Paper. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the should end of the session, the participants were asked to evaluate the repertory grid by completing the term Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately.
The aim of the optional semi-structured interview was to find out if the repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the participants. For this purpose, the time capsule term paper participants were invited to comment on their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). The interviews were hold in English and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to prepare them for mla thesis the data analysis. During the repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in time capsule order to document how the epic gilgamesh statement thesis participants responded to the activity. Four types of data were collected during the study: the repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to detect the participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to research the participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in the introduction of this paper).
The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to term paper, answer the research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009). The coding categories were attributed to mla essay questions, six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is organised as follows: It starts with the participants’ general evaluation of the capsule paper repertory grid activity using data both from the repertory grid evaluation form and the interview as there were overlaps in the data coming from both collection tools. Emerson Emerson Essays. Then, it is reported how the capsule paper teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and classroom practices. The participants’ views on how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on how to develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in general?
All the participants gave positive comments on mla essay the activity in capsule paper the repertory grid evaluation form, and mla essay these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in time capsule the interviews. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of optional, professional development, and its quality as an enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to elicit beliefs as the elicitation process is based on time capsule term paper real people the participants are familiar with. Participant 1, for example, stated that she was not aware of the importance of social skills for teaching before the activity: I didn’t think about some of the mla essay qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. Capsule Paper. (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to the students, listening to mla thesis page format, them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1). Two participants emphasised that that the procedure helped them to formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6). Two participants pointed to the part during the activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the time capsule paper activity as the following excerpt from the interview illustrates:
I learned much from the epic gilgamesh statement thesis activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by the way I learned them and I think this activity is something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for the profession and our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to reflection, i.e. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of time capsule term paper, beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to professional development: You think, you remember and you evaluate yourself and the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of constructs is combined with comparison of three teachers (the elements), the activity forced the participants to challenge ideas. Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is negatively connoted, but in fact might be valuable as a quality of a teacher: In my point of view I think I have to think again and again of so many things; for example one of the characteristics of the questions teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for paper example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the time with the kids in order to teach them. Sometimes we have to be strict a little bit. Of course, we have to be patient, kind, friendly and so on. But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for us teachers (Interview, participant 2).
Participant 1 pointed to a further advantage of the activity: She said that she had difficulties to criticise other people or to be criticised. As the activity helped her to find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the ralph waldo emerson past and sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the participants found can be confirmed by the researcher’s observations of the teachers’ active participation in the activity and the willingness to elaborate on their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the term feeling of enjoyment was linked to the perception of contributing to professional development: It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in such an college admissions prompts 2014 activity. I want to make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one.
I want to be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6). What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to find out to what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of capsule paper, teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and classroom practice. How Long Essays Be On. The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the time term paper participants to gre, any of the areas teacher cognitions are located in. Term. Table 2 displays to what areas the participants attributed their beliefs of college prompts, their own accord. Participant’s Initial Attribution of Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially. 1 professional coursework.
2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by participants 2, 3 and capsule 5 were foregrounded for these teachers as they focused on them extensively during the interview. CSULA Optional Essay. The participants’ perceptions are reported in more detail in the following sections.
Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by term paper, participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English. Optional Essay. She also talked about one of her teachers who the time capsule term paper pupils made fun of thesis, because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in teaching. Two participants argued that the view of capsule term paper, schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in ralph emerson their teachers in childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on time capsule term enquiry, the gilgamesh thesis participants did not deny an influence of teacher education on time capsule paper their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by referring to their constructs in the repertory grid. Participant 4 mentioned the format name of one of her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students. We learned by living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the last sentence, indicates the time paper importance of epic, not only content but also of method in teacher education.
In the interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on. The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the context of private school had an time term paper influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only CSULA optional essay refer to time capsule, the teacher profession. The following excerpt summarises the responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is one of the sources ‘ one of them is our home. Questions. That is very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the ethics and something like that; one source is our experience in time capsule paper life in general; one of them is our culture.
For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from that of ralph waldo emerson, others, from time term, Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends ‘ the people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of teacher beliefs is perceived as not restricted to the immediate school context. Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs. A further contextual factor mentioned by CSULA optional, the participants was the time capsule paper context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to a variety of conditions. How Long Should Essays Gre. According to her, public school teachers do not care about capsule term, their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and parents do not come to school and ask about essays gre, their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to their attitude of indifference towards their profession. Capsule. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to the reduced amount of waldo emerson, class hours and restricted use of material in public schools on capsule the one hand and the willingness of private school students to learn English on the other hand. Participant 1 said that she tried to do her best because she worked at college prompts a private school. What all these voices have in common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice.
Similar as for schooling and professional coursework, the participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on beliefs and assumptions and consequently on teaching practice. Time Capsule Term Paper. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is different (…) I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year. So I have to be careful about everything during the lesson, after lesson and before lesson. So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the participants make on how to ralph waldo emerson, use the elicited beliefs and to time paper, develop the activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to use the elicited beliefs in a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to do and how to behave in the teacher profession.
The participants mainly saw the activity as a starter to reflect and to challenge own teacher beliefs. Some of the suggestions to develop the how long should essays gre activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to be carried out in the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. Capsule. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and how long essays being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to that perception. She also suggested applying an instrument to elicit learner beliefs to get the view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of time paper, public school teachers and even people from admissions 2014, other than school contexts to get outsider views. To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the time contextual factors at waldo emerson public school had the potential to time capsule paper, ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the activity could be utilised in the classroom:
Maybe we could add something to it [the activity], for example how to make your students better, how to make them better students every day (…). You can improve yourself, but you also have to think of the other part, I mean the students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of epic gilgamesh statement thesis, all of their students, so maybe the suggestions of the colleagues can help us to do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to capsule term, the part of the activity in which the partners share their beliefs. His comment indicates the CSULA essay need to work with the capsule term beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice.
As regards the procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the activity not in written form by writing down constructs and putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and college admissions prompts 2014 elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is time capsule term paper remarkable as the participant recognised the admissions prompts repertory grid technique as a form of interview (cf. Paper. Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: ‘The grid is college admissions prompts perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interview’). So far the participants’ perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. In the following section, conclusions are drawn and implications for second language teacher education are discussed. This study was carried out to explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at a Turkish private school went through.
The participants evaluated the elicitation tool and reflected on their beliefs and capsule paper the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an adapted version of the repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of eliciting beliefs and acting as incentive to reflection about own beliefs. This is in line with the participant feedback reported in the study by Donaghue (2003). It qualifies the instrument for further application, e.g. in pre-service or in-service. The fact that the activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the questions willingness of teachers to participate in professional development is not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003). It was seen that the participants in this study gave a variety of explanations and references while they were talking about the term activity and their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and epic statement different participants focused on different issues. This is not surprising when the ‘inconsistency’ of teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. Time Term. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an optional abstract idea) is taken under consideration, and it is also not surprising that, independently from each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the question of what to do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point.
She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the constructs into positive and negative ones. One of the participants in the current study suggested writing in a sentence what own strengths and term paper weaknesses emerged from the gilgamesh statement activity. From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’. Paper. These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to how long essays, trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for instance, in order to research in time capsule term paper how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in this study, I believe it is inevitable to contrast the beliefs with what research has to say about epic statement thesis, them.
There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by term, reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993). In fact, reflective practice is necessary to how long essays be on, make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is necessary to evaluate practical reflection. The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to bring reflection and theory together. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and time action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do.
Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109. Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education. Research and practice. London: Continuum. Day, R. (1993).
Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of Hawaii’s Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 1’13. Donaghue, H. (2003). Gilgamesh Statement Thesis. An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and capsule assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351.
Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004). Epic. A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Freeman, D. (2002). The hidden side of the paper work: Teacher knowledge and learning to teach. Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13.
Gabillon, Z. (2012). Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Frontiers of Language and gre Teaching 3, 190-203. Karaaslan, A. D. (2003). Time. Teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated professional development: a case study on Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara.
Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1217736/index.pdf. Kelly, G. Optional. A. (1991). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. 1: A theory of personality). London: Routledge. Lawes, S. (2003). What, when, how and why? Theory and foreign language teaching.
Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28. Pajares, M. F. (1992). Time Term Paper. Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. (1998). Language teacher education. New York: Arnold.
Saldana, J. (2009). CSULA Optional. The coding manual for capsule term paper qualitative researchers. College Admissions Prompts. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. Capsule Term Paper. (2005). Promoting reflective thinking in teachers. 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Thompson, N. Pascal, J. Essay. (2012).
Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. (2002). Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Time Term Paper. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. Questions. J. (1991).
Training foreign language teachers. A reflective approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997). Time Capsule Paper. Psychology for gilgamesh statement thesis language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher.
Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation. The aim of this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in capsule term the requested information. Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and they will be used for this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: ….. Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree. ….. Doctorate degree Other; please specify.
Number of epic statement thesis, years of teaching experience: ….. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: ….. years. Please evaluate the term paper repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity’? Appendix C: Semi-structured interview. 1. Questions. Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on your attitude and beliefs about teaching? 2. Do you have an idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the sources for time capsule term your beliefs? 2.1.
Can you identify beliefs coming from emerson emerson essays, your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Can you identify beliefs coming from your teacher education? 2.3. Capsule. Can you identify beliefs coming from statement thesis, your own classroom experience? 2.4. Can you identify beliefs coming from time term, your experience as a teacher at mla thesis format (name of the school)? 3. What do we do with the time constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at the beginning of a development course)
4. Do you have any suggestions on how the activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of questions, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on term paper hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is should essays gre qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to term paper, your essay question. Questions. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/education/essay-english-language-teachers-perceptions-of-an-activity-to-elicit-beliefs/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to capsule term, have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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