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BA English Literature past or example essay questions please! Watch. Rs Coursework. Could any current students or anyone else with access to these please post some that would be great! Any of the modules would be great but here are the first year modules: Reading, Theory and thesis customer satisfaction www.kaskus.us Interpretation. Rs Coursework Racism. Literatures in worksheets Time: Texts and Contexts from the eighth to the sixteenth century. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to rs coursework, laurablair. Essay. I really wouldn't worry about the level for racism questions, the essay whole course is rs coursework racism designed to of professions an essay labor, get you thinking at university level very quickly. Racism. Most of the essays aren't long at all to start with - they are more like 'exercises' to help you think specifically about essay what they're asking. I can give you a rundown of racism, what kind of things they'll have you do.
All I can say is, try and keep up with the reading because it moves pretty fast - some weeks are light reading and you'll think 'thank god for that', but the next week might be a nightmare. Also, have a look at questions for papers adhd case study future assignments as you go along, because sometimes you'll find a gem in rs coursework racism a lecture that will be relevant. As the year goes on, they love you showing extra reading or memory from essay, other modules, as long as it's completely relevant. Rs Coursework Racism. I absolutely love the adhd case course and racism the second year modules are awesome, so even if what you're studying on first year isn't what you necessarily love, it will be useful in beach experience second year. Hope you enjoy it! Feel free to contact me if you want anything else. We have a brilliant team of more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on rs coursework racism, The Student Room, helping to make it a fun, safe and system of professions an essay on the division useful place to rs coursework, hang out. 0 new posts Learning about photsynthesis worksheets Islam Started by: BlinkyBill Forum: Faith and rs coursework racism Spirituality Replies: 213 Last post: 1 minute ago GCSE English Literature instead of English Language Started by: Maestro Forum: Medicine Replies: 3 Last post: 1 minute ago Anyone not in Britain Started by: TAShannon Forum: Psychology Replies: 0 Last post: 1 minute ago Hull York Medical School for system of expert 2018 entry Started by: MollBritton98 Forum: Medical Schools Replies: 28 Last post: 1 minute ago Civil Service Fast Stream 2017/18 Started by: ShaniRob Forum: Public sector Replies: 717 Last post: 1 minute ago No Computer Science option on rs coursework racism, UCAS Started by: waagh Forum: Applications, Clearing and beach UCAS Replies: 2 Last post: 1 minute ago Why Started by: Samboy10 Forum: Part-time and rs coursework temporary employment Replies: 6 Last post: 1 minute ago The Werewolves of causes, TSR- Round 7: Night One Started by: LibertySea Forum: Forum games Replies: 75 Last post: 2 minutes ago The Commons Bar Mk XIV - MHoC Chat Thread Started by: Rakas21 Forum: Model House of rs coursework, Commons Replies: 2061 Last post: 2 minutes ago The Werewolves of TSR- Round 7: Night Two Started by: LibertySea Forum: Forum games Replies: 18 Last post: 2 minutes ago Moles and gas volumes HELP. Causes And Effects Of Technology Essay. Started by: brookleahy Forum: Chemistry Replies: 11 Last post: 2 minutes ago Should I retake English Literature? Started by: xxSonuxx Forum: GCSEs Replies: 0 Last post: 3 minutes ago Undergrad Medicine 2018 Entry Discussion Started by: tizzaclaire98 Forum: Medicine Community Discussion Replies: 435 Last post: 3 minutes ago The Official Cambridge Applicants 2018 Thread Started by: Banana00 Forum: University of Cambridge Replies: 2400 Last post: 3 minutes ago TSR Desi Music Society Started by: asif007 Forum: Music Replies: 4683 Last post: 3 minutes ago Age Gap in Relationships. Racism. Started by: DesiGirl31 Forum: Relationships Replies: 27 Last post: 4 minutes ago How to essay on the art of war by sun tzu, get a job Started by: Samboy10 Forum: Advice on racism, everyday issues Replies: 12 Last post: 4 minutes ago dropping out and effects of technology essay, Started by: loub123 Forum: Student Financial Support Replies: 2 Last post: 4 minutes ago I'm in love with somebody and now they'll never know.
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Genocide In Darfur Essays and Research Papers. “ Genocide in rs coursework racism Darfur ” Why should the United States have to be the country that has to help save everyone? The . genocide in Darfur , a region in Sudan, has been happening since 2003 and not much attention or effort has been put on the crisis. It has been stated that the Arabs in Darfur think that they are the only good race and research papers study, are murdering everyone else. The United States is the main leader in giving the Darfurians the aid and support they need. Rs Coursework Racism. Although the United States has not yet given military. Genocide , International Criminal Court , Iraq War 1499 Words | 4 Pages. Bodies is it a Genocide ? No Not really “ Darfur is more than an causes of technology, occasional headline in rs coursework racism the newspaper or 20 seconds on a forgotten . Beach Essay. nightly newscast. It is racism where genocide continues to happen while the rest of the world goes through the motions of concern but does nothing of substance to stop it.
Will the world ever wake up?” (Steidle) Rape, murder, and destroying villages are happening in Darfur , Sudan. The Africans of Darfur having nowhere to go, and almost the whole population in system of professions division Darfur starving to. Darfur , Darfur conflict , Genocide 2440 Words | 6 Pages. ? The Genocide of Darfur Darfur is a region of Sudan that lies in the outermost locality of the Republic of . Sudan, where it borders the Central Africa. The total area of Darfur is around 580000 (km) (Johnson, 2006). This area is immensely large and can be considered bigger than the total area, which is rs coursework racism occupied by degree customer www.kaskus.us, Austria, Netherland, Switzerland and Germany, all together. Often heard, a common fallacy is propagated regarding the rs coursework, merciless event that had occurred in Darfur . It is commonly said. Antisemitism , Genocide , Khartoum 2187 Words | 6 Pages. Period 10 Genocide in papers adhd study Darfur In 2003, a genocide began in the Darfur region of rs coursework racism, Sudan. According to system on the division of expert, . the website, “World Without Genocide ” the Sudanese government armed arab militia groups to attack ethnic affair groups.
This has escalated to the mass slaughter of rs coursework, 480,000 people. The Sudanese government called this campaign “getting at the fish by draining the beach, sea”. Racism. This is why countries around the world should open up their eyes and help a country that is going through a genocide . The genocide is occurring. African Union , Darfur , Genocide 734 Words | 3 Pages. Sudan, Darfur , meaning land of the fur people, has been getting a lot of and effects essay, attention lately due to an ongoing armed conflict called . Rs Coursework. Genocide . The genocide , meaning, “deliberate and systematic destruction of papers adhd, a racial, political, or cultural group” (Merriam -Webster), has been ongoing for quite some time now, and has proved to be a deadly war. This Genocide has been described as the “first great episode of genocidal destruction in the 21st century” (Reeves, 2005).
Discussion The genocide in Darfur began. Darfur , Darfur conflict , Genocide 1213 Words | 4 Pages. ?Kochanek English 1-period 1 04 March 2013 Darfur , Sudan Genocide Atrocities such as genocide could very well . be considered an ethnic cleansing in rs coursework some cases. System. But why do people debate whether or not the situation is one or the other? What exactly is the difference between the two? Well, what's the difference between a brown and yellow banana? A ripe, red strawberry or a black, shriveled one? An ethnic cleansing, yellow banana, and ripe red strawberry all have one thing in common: they look. Aegis Students , Darfur , Genocide 1082 Words | 4 Pages. Global Issues in Crime and Justice The war and genocide in Darfur (Sudan) (2003-2010) The conflict in . Darfur officially started in February of 2003 when a rebel group launched an attack on Golo.
This rebel group refers to themselves as Sudan Liberation Army (SLA). Not long after, another Darfur rebel group arose, identifying itself as the rs coursework racism, Justice and Equality Movement (JEM). On The. The uprisings from the rs coursework racism, rebel groups, however, did not draw immediate reaction from the Sudanese Government. Darfur , Darfur conflict , Genocide 2402 Words | 6 Pages. The ten years of carnage became known as the Darfur genocide and represented one of the beach, worst atrocities in the modern era, that . still rages on today. Many of the defined stages of genocide can be recognised in this period including classification, organisation, preparation, extermination and ultimately afterwards denial. Thanks to the UN, as well as various Journalists, the rest of the world was informed, and thousands of lives have been saved.
Darfur is the rs coursework racism, major region in the west of Sudan. The. Comprehensive Peace Agreement , Darfur , International Criminal Court 873 Words | 3 Pages. Darfur and the Crime of essay art of war by, Genocide Book Report. In the book Darfur and the Crime of Genocide by John Hagan and Wenona Rymond-Richmond, the authors discuss the atrocities in racism . Darfur from a criminological viewpoint. The book is split up into 8 chapters, all discussing very important topics and issues. War By Sun Tzu. The prologue to the book introduces the problems in Darfur by rs coursework racism, use of a testimony from former Secretary of State Colin Powell before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee calling the massacre in Darfur genocide . From this point on, the book discusses. Criminology , Genocide , Human rights 1569 Words | 4 Pages. Conflicts in Sudan: Genocide in Darfur. The Republic of Sudan, or Sudan as it more commonly known, is currently in a state of crisis.
Darfur , in western Sudan, is in the middle of the . Of Technology. worst humanitarian crisis in the world right now. Racism. They are on the brink of genocide , the research case, deliberate killing of a very large number of people from a particular ethnic group or background. Like Most civil wars the incidents have been occurring for over twenty years. The armed conflict began to get serious in February of 2003. It was then that the rs coursework racism, Sudanese. Chad , Darfur , Genocide 1548 Words | 4 Pages. remain silent while the leaders of the world make excuses for failing to protect the people of Darfur . I am writing to and effects essay, voice my compassion for . the victims and my anger at the leaders who are timorous, complacent, and unwilling to take risks.
Remember: Silence helps the killer, never his victims.” -Professor Elie Wiesel In early 2003, the struggle for land and power in the western Sudanese region of Darfur erupted into violence between Sudanese government forces and rebel groups protesting the growth. Darfur , Genocide , International Criminal Court 965 Words | 3 Pages. ? Genocide is generally defined as “the intentional destruction of a particular race, ethnicity, religious group, or nationality” 1 and it is . probably as old as human beings. We can be sure that somewhere way back in the beginning of humans, some primitive people picked up their stone axes and spears and set off to wipe out another tribe. Racism. In fact, many anthropologists think this is photsynthesis for kids probably what happened to Neanderthals. Was it the differences between our species and the Neanderthals that caused us. Bosnia and Herzegovina , Ethnic cleansing , Genocide 1314 Words | 4 Pages. ? Genocide : For the Dead and Living We Must Bear Witness Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: Everyone has the . right to life, liberty and security of person. Rs Coursework Racism. The right to life seems like the causes and effects, most basic right; a person is rs coursework born, and they have the right to breathe air, drink water, and make any other necessary decisions to live. Experience. However, every now and rs coursework, then someone (or a group of adhd study, people) decides that a person, or an entire race, does not deserve to live.
Genocide , the. Genocide , Human rights , Million 1110 Words | 3 Pages. ?What is the Darfur Genocide ? -A current mass slaughter of Darfuri men, women and children that began in rs coursework racism the spring of 2003 -In . September of 2004 President George W. Bush declared this Crisis Genocide Where is this taking place? -This is of professions on the division taking place in Sudan, Africa (Largest country in Africa) - Darfur is a region in Western Sudan which is where this Genocide is taking place -About the size of Texas -Population is an estimated 6,000,000 -Divided into 3 states -There are between 40-80 ethnic. Chad , Darfur , George W. Rs Coursework. Bush 270 Words | 2 Pages. in the Darfur region of the worksheets, Sudan is racism genocide . A genocide similar to the holocaust of the Jews during WWII. Both . the holocaust and of professions, the Darfur genocide have many similarities and differences. The holocaust was to exterminate all Jewish people. Rs Coursework Racism. In Darfur the conflict is not against two different religions but instead against causes and effects essay, two different races. Like the rs coursework, holocaust many innocent civilians have lost their lives in both genocides . There many similarities and differences between both the Darfur genocide. Darfur , Genocide , International Criminal Court 774 Words | 2 Pages.
Save Darfur : Anna Chalk General Topic: Persuade people about helping Darfur Specific Topic: Persuade people about helping . Darfur by donating money, making your voice heard, and be aware. Thesis: Introduction: I. Attention-getting device: 400,000 people have died. 2.3 million people have fled their homes and communities and now live in IDP’s. 200,000 are now living in refugee camps in neighboring Chad. How many more will die before this genocide stops? Who knows. II. Signifgant statement. Darfur , Darfur conflict , Genocide 1287 Words | 4 Pages. March 2012 Extermination in Genocide All genocides that have occurred in human history include various stages that . are usually present; however, extermination, the 7th stage of genocide , is one that is present in all genocides . From the essay, Armenian genocide and rs coursework, Darfur genocide , to the Rwandan and Jewish genocides , extermination is ever present in all of these. Extermination is an essay division of expert explained to be mass killings of people, which defines the legal term “ genocide ”, and is caused when the killers.
Armenian Genocide , Armenians , Ethnic cleansing 1105 Words | 4 Pages. The Darfur Conflict: Those Who Seem to Support It, Those Who Suffer Most from It, and the Difficulties in Ending It #8195; Conflict . in racism the Darfur region of Sudan has taken the sun tzu, lives of over 400,000 persons in the 21st century, perhaps as much as 20 percent of the regional population (Wikipedia, 2008). Nearly 2.5 million have been displaced from land they have inhabited for many years (Lynch, 2007). But, the world has done little to stop it or assist the rs coursework, people affected. The situation. Darfur , Genocide , International Criminal Court 1324 Words | 4 Pages. Darfur , Sudan is in causes and effects of technology western Africa with Egypt to the north, Ethiopia to the east, and Chad to the left. Rs Coursework. Darfur is a place where a . conflict involving the system of professions on the of expert labor, Janjaweed, a government-supported militia recruited from local Arab tribes, and the non-Arab people of the racism, region.
This is a place where both sides are largely black in skin tone, and the distinction between Arab and anon-Arab and is disputed heavily by customer www.kaskus.us, the Sudanese government. In a country with a population of (since July 2005) 40,187,486, the. Africa , African Union , Health care 739 Words | 2 Pages. Genocide : Rwanda, Darfur , and the Holocaust “I can’t go on. It’s over” (Wiesel 56). Racism. This quote from Elie Wiesel’s Night is on the war by . the thought pattern of Wiesel and the captives of the concentration camps who faced, and rs coursework racism, are still facing genocide . Genocide is defined as “the deliberate and systematic extermination of essay on the war by, a national, racial, political, or cultural group” (Dictionary.com). Through mutinous acts of genocide , the concept of exterminating ethnic groups thrives in the region of Darfur in Sudan.
Genocide , Hotel Rwanda , Hutu 973 Words | 3 Pages. ?MD Rahatin Hassan English- 1302- 15 October 2014 Genocide Millions of people have been killed all the way through history by their government . or rulers. There are many reasons to hate them like nationality, race, diversity, religion and rs coursework racism, ethnicity. Global problems have many causes and effects as well. One of the global problems that have affected the world history is genocide . In 1941 Raphael Lemkin a polish Jewish created the war by sun tzu, term genocide by combining Greek words “genos” which means race and “cide”. Genocide , Hutu , Nazi Germany 1834 Words | 7 Pages. Rwanda Genocide * Rwanda officially known as the Republic of rs coursework racism, Rwanda is a sovereign state in central and east Africa. * The term . System An Essay Division Of Expert Labor. ‘ genocide ’ did not exist before 1994.
It is rs coursework a very specific term referring to worksheets, violent crimes committed against members of a national, ethical, racial or religious group with the intention of rs coursework, destroying the existence of the group. Geno- comes from the Greek word for race or tribe and –cide comes from the Latin word for killing. Research Papers Study. Genocide came into general use only. Burundi , Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana 1477 Words | 4 Pages. ? Genocide in Darfur Amerika Jayme 2-20-13 World Geography Beginning in rs coursework the 1980s there has been . conflict surrounding the Region of Darfur in the country of an essay on the division, Sudan. What started as mild competition for rs coursework racism resource between ethnic groups quickly escalated into mass genocide through a combination of Rebel and Government conflicts. After years of drought and famine in Sudan, ethnic conflict begins to emerge. In 1998 Arabic speaking groups begin terrorizing the Masalit people.
Darfur , Genocide , International Criminal Court 584 Words | 2 Pages. U.S. Involvement in the Crisis in Darfur. U.S. Involvement in the Crisis in Darfur Since the end of the Cold War, Africa has been a continent rife with violence mainly in the form of . civil war. This can be attributed greatly to on the war by, the halt of economic and political progress after the two superpowers, the United States and racism, the Soviet Union, no longer needed to compete in Africa.
Now that the rivalry has subsided neither country has any real reasons, economic or political, to have as large of a presence in the Post-Cold War era. Not only. Darfur , Genocide , International Criminal Court 2388 Words | 6 Pages. this extermity with me, you hope for some understainding, some insight, some flicker of self-knowledge---a moral, or a loesson or a clue about how to behave . in this world: some such information. System On The Labor. I don't discount the possibility, but when it comes to genocide , you already know right from wrong. Rs Coursework Racism. The best reason I have come up with for looking closely into Rwanda's stories is that ignoring them makes me even more uncomfortable about existence and my place in it. . . . (At p. 19.) Gourevitch tells in. Burundi , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Human 1504 Words | 5 Pages. Never Forget the causes and effects of technology, Genocides Although the Holocaust ended in 1944 with the deaths of millions, the genocide in . Racism. Darfur claimed the experience essay, lives of 400,000 people and racism, displaced over 2,500,000 in 2003 and thesis - online satisfaction, is still going on to this day (Document G). Rs Coursework. With so many lives lost in the tragic genocides people wonder if there is for kids anything that can be done to prevent more from rs coursework racism occurring. The basic concept of genocide developed in 1915 with the Armenian Genocide (Document H).
In 1944 the term genocide was formed based. Adolf Hitler , Genocide , Nazi Germany 857 Words | 3 Pages. The term genocide was not coined until 1943 when Raphael Lamkin used it to of professions an essay of expert, describe the Nazi reign in Europe (ROD notes). . Rs Coursework Racism. Genocide refers to the systematic destruction of a racial or cultural group. Two examples of this are the system division labor, Holocaust and the Rape of Nanking. The Holocaust deals with the Nazi’s takeover of Europe during World War II, and rs coursework, the Rape of Nanking is the Japanese invasion of China in the late 1930’s.
These events in for kids worksheets history serve a painful reminder of the rs coursework racism, cruelest depths of human nature. International Criminal Court , International Military Tribunal for the Far East , Nanking Massacre 1216 Words | 3 Pages. humanity that shows our capacity for hatred and ignorance. Unfortunately, genocide is a real part of our history and is still occurring in a . world that should not allow this type of atrocity to happen. Causes And Effects Of Technology Essay. There are four events in our history where a mass murder of rs coursework, a people happened and although it is in our human nature to of professions an essay on the of expert, label these murders as genocide , I will explain why I think only some of these events can be called genocide . During the times of exploration of our world, travelers from rs coursework racism faraway. Adolf Hitler , Crusades , Genocide 946 Words | 3 Pages. of genocides There have been many genocides throughout history, and most of them have been mass killing fields such as Rwanda, . Cambodia, the Nazi holocaust, the Belgians against the Congolese, and the African slave trade. Research Adhd Study. “No problem is as profound and no evil as prevalent as state power”(Sartwell 232). Rs Coursework Racism. In this quote Sartwell infers that the cause of all genocides or at master degree - online, least the ones described on top are derived from one and rs coursework racism, only cause; and that is the state itself (government).
Genocide is of professions of expert inevitable. Genocide , Hate speech , Nazi Germany 1506 Words | 4 Pages. The Rwandan Genocide History has a funny way of repeating itself. After World War II, the United States and the rest of the international . Rs Coursework Racism. community promised to adhd case, do all they could to prevent future genocides . However this was a promise they were unable to keep. In 1994 when Rwanda went through genocide the United States and U.N were absent, leaving the Tutsis to racism, be brutally murdered by the Hutus. As a consequence 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were killed and dumped into mass graves. Once again. Arusha Accords , Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana 1759 Words | 5 Pages. Armenian Genocide Throughout history, instances of religious groups turning to violence or being victimized for their religion have . unfortunately occurred.
The most prominent instance of this that immediately comes to an essay division, mind for most is the rs coursework racism, Holocaust, where millions of degree - online satisfaction, Jews were killed by rs coursework, the Germans, led by Adolf Hitler (Ke?vorkian 8). Many have not been educated to an essay on the division labor, the fact that there have been many other significant genocides within the last one hundred years based on rs coursework racism religious violence, one. Armenia , Armenian Genocide , Ethnic cleansing 1446 Words | 4 Pages. Genocide in a Photo: an Essay Describing the Societal and Emotional Impacts of Photographs from the causes of technology, Civil War in Darfur. Running Header: Genocide in a Photo Genocide in a Photo: An Essay Describing the Societal and Emotional Impacts of . Photographs from the rs coursework racism, Civil War in Darfur Robert K. de la Rosa South Texas College Miss Laura Steinert ENGL 1302.WO6 September 18, 2008 Abstract Photos of the genocide and casualties of master degree thesis - online customer satisfaction, war from Dafur show the world the darker side of humanity.
The particular photos inside this essay embody the hard life and murder that the citizens must face. Darfur , Darfur conflict , Genocide 1217 Words | 4 Pages. |Root Factors of a Genocide : A Comparison Between Sudan and Rwanda . |4/8/2013 As humans we all have moral and legal obligations, and rs coursework racism, since none of us can succeed on beach experience our own, we need to invest in each other, in order to fully reap our potential. The following. Genocide , Human rights , Omar al-Bashir 1491 Words | 5 Pages.
Who Was Most to Blame for the Darfur Conflict? Using my own knowledge and information, who do I think was most to blame for the Darfur Conflict? The Sudan Conflict (Also known as the . Darfur Conflict) began in rs coursework the 1980’s with disputes between the Black Africans and the Arabs over remaining farmland that hadn’t become scarce due to a series of droughts. The Arabs (who bred and grazed cattle) needed land that the beach experience essay, Black Africans had. Because their land had become desolate and the remaining land was limited, the Black Africans refused for the Arabs. Aegis Students , Darfur , Genocide 967 Words | 3 Pages. “Never Again” After World War II, the phrase “Never Again” was used in response to the Holocaust. Since then, the world has failed to rs coursework, respond to the . genocides in Rwanda, Uganda, and Sudan. The phrase “Never Again” means exactly what it says. The world knew that the war was so bad, and so many people had died, that they would never let it happen again.
Many nations reacted to the Holocaust, which is beach why it was a world war. Britain and France declared war on racism Germany two days after Hitler invaded. Genocide , Omar al-Bashir , Rwandan Genocide 1103 Words | 3 Pages. The Consequences of the Bangladesh Genocide In the beginning of 1971, West Pakistan attempted to eliminate the Bengali culture in Eastern . Pakistan. With the formation of the Bengali nationalists creating their own country, the degree - online customer satisfaction www.kaskus.us, liberation war occurred in Bangladesh which caused the genocide . In reality the liberation war was a smoke screen to hide the genocide that was being committed on the Bengali people, from the Pakistan government. Over three million people were killed and over fifteen million. Ayub Khan , Bangladesh , Bangladesh Liberation War 2736 Words | 7 Pages.
Genocide in the 20th Century; the rs coursework, Factors That Ignite and Sustain Such Atrocities. Genocide in the 20th Century; The Factors that Ignite and Sustain such Atrocities Contemporary History 410 Professor K, Muir October 20, . - Online Customer Satisfaction. 2007 When will these atrocities ever stop? Throughout history there have been occurrences and reoccurrences of acts of genocide . During the twentieth century, these incidents of genocide have become more apparent; due to racism, the fact that communication and master degree thesis - online www.kaskus.us, media have advanced so far there have been more specific details that have come to light. Cambodia , Genocide , Khmer Rouge 2431 Words | 7 Pages. Rwanda: The Aftermath of the Genocide. Aftermath of the racism, Genocide By taking a closer look at Rwanda and its people, I came to realize that despite the worksheets, genocidal violence that . occurred, Rwanda was its' own country with its' own unique traditions, customs, and cultures. Nonetheless the media attention surrounding the genocide in rs coursework racism Rwanda is unavoidable. War By. By researching Rwanda I have come to find out that one thing the media does not cover is the aftermath of the genocide . I will take a closer look into why the genocide happened, what we. Genocide , Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana 2299 Words | 7 Pages.
1,071,000 people were killed in three months due to the genocide . This genocide is considered as the conflict between the two . tribes in racism Rwanda---Hutus, carrying out the essay art of sun tzu, genocide , and Tutsis, having been massacred. Racism. Since it was really an amazing unfortunate event, many people in the world sympathized with that sad incidence. For Kids Worksheets. However, most people today think that we, as the citizen of the democratic society, are inconsequential to that genocide ; it just happened because of the conflict of those two. Genocide , Juvenal Habyarimana , Kigali 820 Words | 3 Pages. and the Tutsi’s. The Rwandan Genocide officially began on April 7th, 1994 and lasted approximately one hundred days; however, acts of murder . have been occurring since the power shift from rs coursework a Tutsi lead government, to a Hutu lead government, in causes and effects essay the 1950’s. This genocide is one of the most well know and publicized genocides , only second to rs coursework racism, the Nazi’s in World War II. This genocide has become a model for the United Nations on adhd study how to work to prevent another act of genocide , such as this one, in the future.
Burundi , Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana 881 Words | 3 Pages. ?Cambodian Genocide By Ryan O’Leary We all continue to remember the genocides , of Cambodia and the Holocaust and all of their . horrors. They each killed millions of people, but if you dig into the genocides even more you will see distinct similarities and distinct differences. Although both the Holocaust and the Cambodian Genocide both were caused by powerful leaders seizing power and they both have similar ways of killing large amount of people, they differ in the effects of the genocide such as the. Cambodia , Khmer Rouge , Nazi Germany 1209 Words | 5 Pages. relatively unknown country. It was during this period that the genocide in Rwanda began, and nearly 800 000 people were deprived of their . Rs Coursework. life’s. The intense media coverage gave us the art of sun tzu, opportunity to rs coursework racism, behold one of modern time’s worst human disasters since the holocaust. The world witnessed when schoolchildren were killed by experience essay, their teachers and women of rs coursework racism, their men, these were mainly Tutsis who were killed by Hutus by using all available tools. The genocide meant that about 9 percent of the population died in.
Genocide , Hutu , Jean Kambanda 2020 Words | 5 Pages. Rwandan Genocide Genocide is the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of essay art of, a particular ethnic . group or nation. ( Genocide ) Introduction In 1994 Rwanda experienced the worst genocide in modern times. The Rwandan Genocide was a genocidal mass slaughter of the Tutsis by the Hutus that took place in 1994 in the East African state of rs coursework racism, Rwanda. It is system of professions an essay of expert considered the most organized genocide of the 20th century. Over the course of rs coursework, approximately 100 days (from the assassination.
Democratic Republic of the Congo , First Congo War , Hutu 1519 Words | 5 Pages. to blame for the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Discuss with reference to the events before, during and after the 100 days. The international . community, the for kids worksheets, United States and the United Nations were to blame for the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. The United States, where people would normally look for help, surprisingly did not do as much apart from watching the genocide happen. The United Nations also did not provide enough support as they withdrew all their forces during the rs coursework racism, genocide . The international community. Burundi , First Congo War , Hutu 1535 Words | 5 Pages.
Genocide in Rwanda Genocide does not have one particular source; rather it seems to essay, occur when many social psychological . variables pile up and rs coursework racism, produces a catastrophe. The Rwandan Genocide is no exception to photsynthesis for kids worksheets, this. Many variables contributed to the horrifying events that took place in Rwanda such as the history and culture, ecological resource scarcity, the role of the elite and powerful, as well as the ordinary people who participated and stood by rs coursework, as killings took place. Rwanda Genocide was a premeditated. Hutu , Interahamwe , Paul Kagame 1578 Words | 5 Pages. ? Genocide in Rwanda (Culminating Task) Lynch Alcala a.) Summary Rwanda is separated into two major ethnic groups, the Huts and the . Tutsis. Majority of Rwandans are Hutus who make up about 80 per cent of the photsynthesis for kids worksheets, population, and only about 15 per cent are Tutsis.
These two ethnic groups shared the racism, same language and culture, but there had been conflicts between the two groups that occurred during the colonial period. Rwanda was colonized by Belgians after the first World War. There had been racism. Burundi , Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana 830 Words | 3 Pages. Miss C/Mrs. Jordan AP World History Period 6 7 June 2013 Genocide : The Holocaust vs. the Rwandan Genocide The word . genocide comes from the Greek word genos meaning race or clan and system of professions an essay division of expert, cide meaning killing. In Raphael Lemkin’s words, genocide is the crime of destroying a specific group of rs coursework, religious and/or racial people. Some areas in which genocide may occur is Africa, the Middle East, or any other third-world countries.
Genocide tends to occur in recently collapsed areas of infrastructure. Adolf Hitler , Genocide , Hutu 1694 Words | 5 Pages. Raphael Lempkin coined the term ‘ genocide ’ in 1944 and some of his ideas on genocide were adopted in of professions an essay on the division the United Nations . Genocide Convention in 1948. The UN definition of genocide is very important because it is the internationally accepted definition. It defines genocide as; acts which are committed with the intent to destroy the whole, or part of a national, ethical, racial or religious group through killings, serious bodily and racism, mental harm, deliberately inflicting conditions onto the group intended. Convention on the Prevention and adhd, Punishment of the Crime of Genocide , Genocide , Jews 2411 Words | 7 Pages.
educated Hutus, killing over 90,000 in rs coursework racism four months. With the death tolls on both sides of the of technology essay, Tutsi-Hutu conflict rising, Rwanda and racism, Burundi began to gain . world wide attention. The United states characterized the Burundi Slaughter of for kids, Hutus as “Selective Genocide ” but took no action in order to end the killings. After this, there were no more Hutu-Tutsi conflicts between 1973 and 1990. By the early 90s, Hutu extremists began to broadcast their resentment towards Tutsis through nationwide radio. Rwanda. Burundi , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Hutu 903 Words | 3 Pages.
?The Causes and Effects of the racism, Rwandan Genocide by Arnav Kapur In 1994, Rwanda erupted into one of the most appalling cases of division, mass murder the racism, . world has ever witnessed since World War II. Many of the majority Hutu (about 84% of the population) turned on the Tutsi (about 15% of the population) and moderate Hutu, killing an estimated total of papers adhd study, 800,000 people. Racism. The main causes of the Rwandan Genocide were the shooting down of the President’s plane, high population density, the media, the photsynthesis for kids worksheets, unresponsive. Burundi , Hutu , Paul Kagame 1534 Words | 4 Pages. 2011 The Genocide of Rwanda Losing a loved one has devastating effects on rs coursework racism a person that last a lifetime. After a death, a human being goes . through a range of emotions, including anguish, depression, and sorrow. Add to these emotions the experience of watching a loved one die.
The trauma of helplessly witnessing a neighbor hack another person to death. Suddenly, emotions are elevated and research adhd case study, evolve into an extreme level of fear and heartbreak. This is what happens during genocide , the systematic. Burundi , Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana 1815 Words | 5 Pages. Armenian Genocide Andy Leeds Ms. Bullis English 1 April 24 Armenians are a Christian nation, and when they were a country, they were the . Rs Coursework Racism. first to proclaim Christianity as the state religion. The Ottoman Empire took control of Armenia during the 15th century, and they were mistreated for quite a while due to art of sun tzu, religious differences (Christians vs. Rs Coursework. Muslims), and this mistreatment culminated and peaked during 1915-1918. Photsynthesis Worksheets. During World War I, the rs coursework, Ottoman Empire took the opportunity among a world of. Armenia , Armenian Genocide , Iran 2109 Words | 6 Pages. The Rwandan Genocide During the summer of 1994, in the eastern African country of Rwanda, ethnic and class tensions which had been building . up over decades finally reached its peak.
In this small country, one of the largest genocides in history took place. In a country roughly the size of Massachusetts, nearly one million people were killed over the course of one hundred days. In the aftermath of the slaughter, scholars were left to and effects essay, analyze the rs coursework racism, history of Rwandan ethnic violence and the sociology. Burundi , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Hutu 1444 Words | 4 Pages. In 1994, there was a mass genocide between the Hutus and the Tutsis of Rwanda. Rwanda is located near Uganda, Congo, and Tanzania. Research. These . Racism. countries are located in Africa. Due to the location of division labor, Rwanda it caused controversy because many countries surrounding it wanted to take control over it.
It caused tension between multiple countries and rs coursework racism, sparked a war which lead to master degree thesis - online customer, a genocide . There are three groups in rs coursework racism Rwanda – Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa. Beach. The Twa group was initially the rs coursework racism, first group to settle in Rwanda. Burundi , Genocide , Hutu 2598 Words | 7 Pages. post-World War II illusion that the master degree thesis customer satisfaction, world would no longer stand idly by while genocide was openly occurring. Unlike the genocide . Racism. of the causes, Khmer Rouge in Cambodia that took the lives of nearly two million people in the 1970s while Cambodia was rigidly closed to the outside world, the atrocities in Rwanda were recorded on nightly television reports. The 1948 International Convention on rs coursework the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of papers adhd case, Genocide was shamelessly violated. Several countries, including the United States. Genocide , Hutu , Peacekeeping 1553 Words | 5 Pages. ? Genocide in Bosnia The Bosnian genocide is often referred to as the rs coursework racism, hidden genocide , yet it had catastrophic . effects on humanity. Over 100,000 people were killed and causes of technology, it displaced millions of people. The genocide occurred between 1992 and racism, 1995.
The Social Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was made up of six nations under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito. Once Tito passed away in 1990, there was a power vacuum, and politicians began a nationalistic campaign pitting Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks. Bosnia and Herzegovina , Bosnian War , Ethnic cleansing 2457 Words | 9 Pages. What do you think is the master degree customer satisfaction www.kaskus.us, best definition of genocide ? Justify your answer in relation to the scholarship and arguments that have most . influenced your thinking. Genocide is a term defined by legal, scholar and social professionals in vastly different views ranging from board to narrow. The trail to adequately define this complex act has dominated discussions and rs coursework, debates since the term’s development in 1943 by Polish lawyer Raphael Lemkin in beach experience essay his publication Axis Rule in Occupied Europe 1944. By reading.
Acts of the Apostles , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Definition 1179 Words | 4 Pages. Genocide in Bosnia By the End of the Cold war the world had already seen the rs coursework racism, end of hundreds of wars and countless violations of human . rights. With witnessing, these events substantial progress had been made to defining what human rights are and essay sun tzu, what constitutes a violation to human rights. The first of theses inalienable human rights being the biblical right to life. Several Non- governmental organizations dedicate their time and energy to rs coursework racism, maintaining a close watch over the world to report on. Bosnia and Herzegovina , Bosniaks , Bosnian War 1434 Words | 4 Pages. Douglass 18 January 2010 Genocide in Mexico This paper explores incidents of genocide that occurred in Mexico from 1945 to . 2001. Research focuses on four main episodes of genocide : the October 2, 1968 massacre in of technology essay Tlatelolco; the rs coursework, Corpus Christi massacre on June 10, 1971; and Mexico’s Dirty War that occurred from the adhd case, early 1970’s through the 1980’s; and the genocide of women that has been occurring since the Dirty War.
Research indicates that the first three episodes of genocide were the responsibility. Adolfo Lopez Mateos , Adolfo Ruiz Cortines , Gustavo Diaz Ordaz 1857 Words | 5 Pages. Generalising Genocide What qualities do us as people inherit from our gender, are men brazen and women reserved? Can we truly accept a . Racism. feature of us to be definitive, and then does that stereo type become true? Alyssa Elver indulges a strong opinion on both the male and female gender as people and their ‘natural’ qualities in this piece of Satirical Monologue ‘Oh, Girls Are No Good At Genocide ’. Voicing her message through a dictator admiring schoolgirl, a Caricature of sorts, Elver presents.
Female , Gender , Gender role 1262 Words | 4 Pages.
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Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of dat voldoende is master degree thesis www.kaskus.us om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of rs coursework verlies. De berekening is simpel. Photsynthesis For Kids Worksheets! Het aantal verkochte producten per racism maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Essay On The Art Of! Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven.
Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of racism dienst van toepassing is. Art Of War By Sun Tzu! (21%, 6% of racism 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over. Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. And Effects Of Technology! Dat wil in racism de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening. Essay Art Of War By! Betalen je klanten direct (contact of PIN) zoals in rs coursework de detailhandel, of experience essay moet je weken op je geld wachten. Rs Coursework! Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn.
Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen. Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix. War By! Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden. Rs Coursework Racism! Ga je direct in essay je eerste maand omzet maken, of is er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel?
Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen. Racism! Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in art of te kopen is je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop.
De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. Racism! De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad. Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in master degree thesis customer producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten. Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is rs coursework aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen. Experience! Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’). Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald.
Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. Rs Coursework Racism! Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. Master Degree Thesis - Online Satisfaction! Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of rs coursework racism ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. Research Adhd Case! Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Racism! Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen.
Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. For Kids Worksheets! verse levensmiddelen), of kun slechts één keer per kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is rs coursework racism niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in research papers adhd case of je bedrijf rendabel is. Rs Coursework Racism! Door de omzet en kosten in beach experience essay een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in een oogopslag zien of rs coursework racism je bedrijf winst of causes of technology essay verlies maakt.
In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld. Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is rs coursework de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). Master Degree Thesis - Online Satisfaction Www.kaskus.us! Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Dit bepaalt of rs coursework je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Degree Thesis Customer Satisfaction Www.kaskus.us! Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Racism! Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Sun Tzu! Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in rs coursework de vaste activa van je bedrijf.
Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. Photsynthesis Worksheets! Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Racism! Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. For Kids! Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Rs Coursework Racism! Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst.
De nettowinst is de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of beach VOF. Racism! In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Essay On The War By Sun Tzu! Het salaris is rs coursework een kostenpost voor de BV. Causes! De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. Racism! We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of for kids er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Rs Coursework Racism! Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of on the war by sun tzu door klanten die laat betalen.
Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in rs coursework de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in experience de liquiditeitsbegroting. Racism! Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering. De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in essay welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. Racism! Zeker in master degree thesis - online customer satisfaction www.kaskus.us een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in rs coursework racism de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Photsynthesis For Kids Worksheets! Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW.
In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee. Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. Rs Coursework! De cashflow berekent vervolgens of jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of research case study er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. Rs Coursework! De cashflow is experience positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. Rs Coursework Racism! De cashflow is war by sun tzu negatief als er per racism jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt. Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen.
Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in kaart. Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen. Een afschrijving is het in experience de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over rs coursework, een bepaalde periode.
Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. And Effects Of Technology Essay! Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of racism vrachtwagens in degree - online de loop van de jaren afnemen. Rs Coursework Racism! De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of beach essay afschrijvingskosten genoemd. Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Racism! Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in papers de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is rs coursework het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken.
Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over causes and effects essay, je onderneming. Racism! Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden. Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen?
Twijfel je of causes of technology het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen. Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in rs coursework hun bedrijf. Beach Experience Essay! We bieden coaching, kennis in rs coursework de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot ˆ 250.000. Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programma’s van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert.
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A Business Plan for Nivea for Men Marketing Essay. Men#8217;s grooming industry is one of the rs coursework fastest growing markets in recent years (Euromonitor International: Men#8217;s Grooming Products Thailand, 2009). This sector is dramatically booming in Asian countries, especially Thailand. One of the leading brands in men#8217;s grooming market in Thailand is NIVEA FOR MEN brand, operated by Beiersdorf Thailand, which is selected to be the case study in this research. To be the leading brand in this fast growing industry, NIVEA FOR MEN needs to master - online customer satisfaction www.kaskus.us create business plan with a very strong strategic marketing plan. In general, a business sets the overall direction for the company through a business plan. The business plan is created in order that the rs coursework goals and objectives of the company are to be achieved. Research Papers! In other words, goals and objectives of a business are the underlying foundation of the business plan (The times 100, 2008). The marketing plan is certainly a vital part of the business plan and plays active roles to achieve the rs coursework racism targets.
The strategic marketing planning process flows from a mission and vision statement to the selection of target markets, and the formulation of specific marketing mix and brand or product positioning objective (RESTREPO, N.A.). Moreover, Kotler (1994) presents the organization as a value creation and delivery sequence. To choose the study value, the rs coursework strategist needs to proceed to beach essay segment the market, select an appropriate market target, and develop the rs coursework offer#8217;s value positioning, which is known as a vital strategy of #8220;Market-oriented perspective#8221;. It seems to be unavoidable that Beiersdorf Thailand has to come up with the marketing strategies to penetrate and to be the leader in men#8217;s grooming market by doing the right segmentation, selecting the best-suited target markets, and creating the competitive brand/product positioning. Experience Essay! In sum, the formula of segmentation, targeting, positioning, #8220;STP#8221; strategies, is the heart of strategic marketing (Kotler, 1994).
The literature review is divided into two main parts. The first part focuses on the previous work on market-oriented approach, as opposed to resource-base view perspective. The second part covers the relevant work on the process of rs coursework segmentation, targeting, and positioning as well as implementation of the marketing strategy. Part 1: Market-oriented perspective and master degree thesis customer satisfaction www.kaskus.us, Resource-based view perspective. Part 2: Three essentially related topics. Part 1: Market-oriented perspective and Resource-based perspective. This part will specifically study on market-oriented perspective, which underlies a market power imperative, through previous academic research.
There are many studies about the implication of resource-based view and market-oriented perspective for a company to be successful in racism, terms of profitability. Case Study! Also, there are discussions about what perspective is the rs coursework racism appropriate one. According to Porter (1991), a successful company has to use market-oriented approach to study the external market and then apply to internal resources. Market orientation , according to Kohli and Jaworski (1990), requires various departments in an organization to sun tzu engage in activities geared towards developing an understanding of customers#8217; needs, and then develop the products to meet target customer#8217;s needs (Hooley et al., 2008). In addition, Porter#8217;s (1991) work relies heavily on the pursuit of advantages which are determined by racism firm#8217;s exogenous variables that require analysis of the competitors and division labor, opportunities in the market. In Porter#8217;s (1991) theory of competition strategy, he stated that the competition strategy of a firm is to seek an advantageous competitive position in the marketplace or to build up a profitable market position by drawing on varieties of factors that are critical to being competitive in an industrial sector. Following the rs coursework racism Porter#8217;s work, a recent research from experience essay Ren, Xie, and Krabbendam (2010) also studied the sustainable competitive advantage with the market-oriented perspective, which covered market innovation. Their work strongly supported the use of market-oriented perspective, with the conclusion that market-oriented approach can lead companies to racism success and gain more profits.
Additionally, they suggested that companies analyse various marketing factors to discover new competitive advantages in order to achieve marketing innovation. However, Prahalad and Hamel (1990) and Sharkie (2003) undertake different perspective by arguing that external focus, in the view of market orientation, which requires the company to concentrate on conditions and constraints in the external environment cannot create competitive advantage for a company. Nonetheless, the resource-based view approach is believed to somehow lead to competitive advantages as it suggests that a firm#8217;s unique resources and capabilities provide the basis for a strategy. In a previous study, Grant (1991) proposed a practical framework for resource-based approach to strategy formulation. The organizing framework for his study is a five-stage procedure for strategy formulation which are 1) analysing the firm#8217;s resource-base, 2) appraising the firm#8217;s capabilities, 3) analysing the profit-earning potential of firm#8217;s resources and capabilities, 4) selecting a strategy, and 5) extending and upgrading the firm#8217;s pool of resources and capabilities. Ren, Xie, and Krabbendam, (2010) had a reservation on the use of resource-base view, explaining that resources would contribute to sustainable competitive advantage just when a firm possesses valuable, scarce, inimitable and irreplaceable resources. They stated that in the real world, not every company has the causes of technology essay resources with all of those characteristics (Ren, Xie, and Krabbendam, 2010). Part 2: The Process of rs coursework Segmenting, Targeting, and Positioning. 2.1 MARKET SEGMENTATION. 2.1.1 Definition of Market Segmentation. Market segmentation is defined as the division of a mass market into identifiable and distinct groups or segments, each of which have common characteristics and needs and of professions an essay division of expert, display similar responses to racism marketing actions (Rosscraig, 2007).
As the market consists of diverse types of products, customers, and personnel needs, the marketers should divide the market into distinct group of buyers in of technology essay, order to appropriately determine which market segment offers the rs coursework best opportunity for beach achieving company objectives. Perner (2008) indicated that it is very unlikely that one product could meet the satisfaction of all consumers. In this perspective, a company which chose to focus on a specific group of consumers rather than customers in general would be more successful in terms of profitability. Dibb (1998) suggested that companies divide large markets into smaller segments in order to identify customers#8217; purchasing behaviors. Furthermore, Brassington and Pettitt (2003) also suggested that marketers find ways of rs coursework breaking the market down into photsynthesis for kids, manageable parts, groups of customers with similar characteristics in terms of commonly used classifications to measure demographics, which include socio-economics, geographic and personality, and to concentrate their efforts on selecting one or more of these areas.
While various literatures stated that it is essential to consider the market segmentation, MC Donald (1998) argued that market segmentation always faced the racism problem that many different types of customers used the same products in essay on the art of war by, diverse markets. It meant that these different types of customers were in fact subsumed under the same category. Besides, Moschis (1997) also stated the problems of segmentation that the demographics change and the aging of the rs coursework population change were significant factors that affected the age composition of the consumer market. Day and Wensley (1983) criticised that the division labor market segmentation relating to the consumer market sector alone was not sufficient as it generally reflected the one-sidedness of marketing. The competitive structure was to be taken into account as it yielded the racism basic information on research papers study segment formation. Rs Coursework Racism! The research from Day and Wensley (1983) concluded that the formation and selection of segments could be improved if theoretical aspects of competitor orientation are included.
Dibb (1997) outlined three condition classifications which help identify potential consumers in each segment; those are as follows. The expected benefits must be identifiable; Having identified these benefits, marketers must divide people into research papers adhd, recognisable segments; One or more of the resulting segments must be accessible to the firms#8217; marketing efforts. 2.1.3 Segmentation Variables/ Market Segmentation in Consumer Markets. Racism! To segment consumer markets, the market information, in terms of customer variables, product variables, and customer satisfaction www.kaskus.us, situation related variables, must be collected for rs coursework further analysis. In the study of The Application of Social Class in for kids, Market Segmentation, Carman (1965) stated that social class was a major segmentation variable to divided customers into racism, groups.
However, later on in 1994, Raaij and Verhallen argued that social class cannot be used as a main segmentation variable as the photsynthesis society had become less vertically organised with more buying power across larger layer of society, and also concluded that social class concept had lost its unique segmentation value. They claimed that other demographic variables, such as age and education, and other psychological characteristics were more appropriate for segmentation. Raaij and Verhallen (1994)#8217;s research studied the market segments and types of people as target groups for marketing activities; market segmentation is then classified into three main levels according to the level of generality of the variables which were general, domain-specific, and brand-specific levels (figure [2-1]). Level of Variable. (behavioural patterns: Person characteristics) Frequency of rs coursework use. Brand loyalty (behavior) Frequency of use. Brand Loyalty (attitude) Figure [2-1]: Classification of Segmentation Variables by Raaij and Verhallen (1994) However, in the late of system division of expert labor 2000#8217;s, Rosscraig (2007) suggested that media usage and technology usage could be a concern of rs coursework market segmentation approach (See Appendix [2-1]).
He stated that the variables used in segmenting consumer markets could be broadly divided into three main classes including: Profile criteria: Background customer characteristics. Master - Online Www.kaskus.us! Psychological criteria: customer attitudes. Rs Coursework! Behavioral criteria: Actual behavior in the market place (Figure [2-1]). Purchase/transaction Consumption/ usage. Figure [2-2]: Segmentation criteria in consumer markets. Master Degree - Online Customer Www.kaskus.us! With respect to profile criteria, customer characteristics are to be examined with isolation from the specific market of interest.
The profile segmentation criterion is used for identiflying the target consumers and in the consumer goods markets which are most suitable to them (Rosscraig, 2007). According to Rosscraig (2007), this simple segmentation variable includes using demographic method, socio-economic method, and geographic method. Demographic method can be determined by age, gender, ethnicity, nationality, religion, family size, generation, and etc. This method is rs coursework useful in assisting media planning and marketing communications as the media selection criteria have been developed around these variables. Socio-economic method can be shaped by occupation, income level, social class, and of technology essay, education. Socio-economic status determines whether a consumer will be able to afford a product. Geographic location method is rs coursework shaped by geographical areas; markets can be considered by country or region, by town or size of city, by population density such as urban, suburban, or rural areas, or by photsynthesis worksheets postcode. This approach is rs coursework useful when there are clear location differences in tastes, consumption, and preferences. Moreover, this method is widely applied with direct sales operations as they can use census information to develop better customer segmentation and predictive models.
The profile segmentation approach is criticised in respect of uncertainly. While one segment is based on consumer background characteristics, members of each variable may behave differently in photsynthesis for kids worksheets, the marketplace for various reasons while members in the different segments may seek for the same things and have the same interest in a particular product/brand (Hooley et al., 2008). Rs Coursework Racism! In shorts, this type of segmentation variable describes who and where the consumers are, but it does not explain the basic reasons why consumers behave so. The psychological criteria draw a casual relationship between customer profiles and marketing behavior (Hooley et al., 2008). Of Technology Essay! The psychological variable includes the characteristics of attitude of the customers. Rs Coursework Racism! Attitudes to the product class and attitudes toward brands in the market have both been used as productive bases for market segmentation (Hooley et al., 2008). According to Rosscraig (2007), psychological variables used for segmenting consumer product markets include using attitudes and perceptions, lifestyle of consumers, and the types of benefit sought by essay art of sun tzu customers from rs coursework racism products and brands and master degree thesis, their consumption choices.
The use of attitudes and perceptions aims at rs coursework racism identifying segments of respondents who view the master degree thesis - online customer www.kaskus.us products on offer in a similar way (Green et al., 1989). Consumer lifestyles segmentation is based on the analysis of rs coursework consumers#8217; activities, interactions with others, and opinions to understand consumers#8217; individual lifestyles and patterns of behavior (Hooley et al., 2008). In 2003, Taylor Nelson Sofres (TNS) developed a UK Lifestyle Typology based on lifestyles and classified the following types of of technology lifestyle categories which are belonger, survivor, experimentalist, conspicuous consumer, social resistor, self-explorer, and the aimless (Rosscraig, 2007). Racism! The most important benefits of consumer lifestyle research are for guiding the creative content of advertising (Hooley et al., 2008). The main idea of the benefit segmentation is that the company should provide customers with exactly what they want, based on the benefits that they derive from the products that they use, not based on how the company designs products for them (Rosscraig, 2007). According to causes essay Hooley et al. (2008) benefit segmentation tells the basic reasons why customers buy the rs coursework products and essay war by, why customers are attracted to the product offerings. Holley (1982) also suggested that the development in techniques of analysis make them particularly suitable for identifying benefit segments (Hooley, 1982). Overall, segmentation on the basis of rs coursework psychological yields more useful basis for marketing strategy development than merely consumer profile characteristics (Hooley et al., 2008). Master Degree Thesis - Online Customer! It gets closer to the underlying reasons for behavior of consumers, so it should be used as the basis for segmenting the market (Hooley et al., 2008). Rs Coursework Racism! However, there are some major drawbacks of Psychological segmentation techniques, one of which is that this techniques require often costly primary research and sophisticated data analysis techniques (Hooley et al., 2008).
Doing segmentation on essay art of the basis of the rs coursework racism behavior of consumers in the market is the papers case most direct method of segmenting markets. Behavioral segmentation includes purchase behavior, consumption behavior, media usage and technology usage (Rosscraig, 2007). Purchase behavior approach concentrates on racism the time of purchase which is early or late in the product#8217;s overall life cycle, and the patterns of purchase which is the - online customer identification of brand-loyal customers. This approach could concentrate on innovator segmentation, concerning with initial purchase. Marketers will pay high attention to rs coursework innovator groups when new products are launched. Innovators as initial target segments can improve the for kids worksheets products#8217; chances of acceptance on rs coursework the market (Hooley et al., 2008). In addition, brand loyalty has been widely used as a basis for segmentation, concerning with the repeat purchasing (Hooley et al., 2008). A company may segment a market on the basis of how often a customer uses its products, categorizing these into high, medium, and low users, by usage rate (Rosscraig, 2007). The examination of causes and effects of technology usage patterns and volume consumed can pinpoint where to focus marketing activity and can be used to develop service specifications or marketing mixes for each of these groups of users (Hooley et al., 2008). Cook and Mindak (1984) have shown that product and brand usage has a major advantage over many other situation-specific segmentation variables as it can be obtained, in case of many consumer products, from secondary sources.
It is very essential to understand and profile audience media usage in rs coursework, the process of communication planning (Chatterjee, Hoffman, and papers, Novak (1998). Since 1950s the information of racism media consuming, such as television viewing, radio listening, and print reading, have been continuously collected. And in more recent years, web usage data has also been collected by market researchers to photsynthesis worksheets help profile web users, basing on usage characteristics (Rosscraig, 2007) (See Appendix [2-2]). Furthermore, according to Olney, Holbrook, and Batra (1991) and Holbrook and Gardner#8217;s (1993), duration of use is critical measure of consumption experiences and is a useful behavioral indicator of advertising effects (See Appendix [2-3]). Racism! By following this method of segmenting, marketers can observe the behavior of consumers while utilising the products and media, and this segmentation can be used as an important source for new products ideas, new product design, and of professions an essay on the of expert labor, product development (Rosscraig, 2007). Additionally, marketers can then create appropriate communication themes for product promotion and can specify new markets for rs coursework existing products after having the right behavioral segmentation. In recent years, behavioral segmentation has become more popular as marketers tend to study the consumers media usage and technology usage in order to further create successful advertising campaigns. To support this, it was asserted by Advertising.com(TM), Inc., a leading provider of results-based interactive marketing services to advertisers and publishers, (2004), that behavioral segmentation helped improve advertising campaign performance by revealing that targeting campaign delivery based on real-time user behaviour increases advertisers#8217; ROI by reaching the audience segments most likely to respond to an ad message. Moreover, Hallerman (2004), a senior analyst at e-Marketer, a New York-based research company, stated that the beach experience logic behind behavioural segmentation and targeting gets to the heart of the internet#8217;s potential as an advertising medium. Racism! His opinion is hereby quoted: #8220;In today#8217;s world of essay war by sun tzu audience fragmentation, it#8217;s much more effective to reach individuals not by abstract demographics but through their actions online.#8221; 2.1.4 Segmentation in Male Grooming Products.
According to Mintel (1995), a study about men#8217;s toiletries industry, male grooming products and toiletries is a fast growing industry. In 1980s, the market of rs coursework racism male grooming products started to be segmented with the papers study development of products types, including male body spray and shower cream (Sturrock et al., 1998). According to Sturrock et al. (1998), in 1998, the market of men#8217;s products were divided into different categories of products based on rs coursework racism consumers needs and uses, including body sprays, deodorants, men#8217;s shaving, fragrances, shampoo, shower cream, etc. Dunn (1995) and White (1995) studied characteristics of master thesis - online customer satisfaction men who use male grooming products and concluded that men used grooming products as they want to increase self-care practice and self-concept. Moreover, Langer (1986) has prior stated that using men#8217;s grooming products helps encourage a concern to stay attractive. For consumer products, Milner and Fodness (1996) has done a research on product gender perception and concluded that specific gender of the products is critically important to the consumers when deciding to buy a particular product.
In the segmentation process, Milner and Fodness (1996) claimed that gender is the first segmentation variable that most marketers apply for consumer products. The reason behind is that both men and women want to use the products that were specifically made for rs coursework them. According to Milner and Fodness (1996), many consumers clearly are psychologically uncomfortable using products which do not seem made for them. Thesis - Online Satisfaction! Therefore, many companies, particularly manufacturers of consumer products, divided consumers into segments by using gender variables. In skin care industries, products are conventionally made for women. However, in the post modern era, a lot of skin care products are launched to serve male consumers (Sturrock et al., 1998). The products for male consumers are launched as a result of segmentation strategy which companies divide its consumer market into two broad categories, male and female markets. Rs Coursework! The benefit sought variable is also one of the best ways for companies to segment its market. This statement is supported by Kotler (1997) and Wedel and Kamakura (1998), stating that the real features of an essay on the of expert labor products have been considered the rs coursework racism most actionable bases for segmentation. It is critically important that consumer products must offer real benefits to on the war by users to create product positioning (Blythe, 2005). In men face care market, companies and brands always divided consumers segments based on products#8217; features.
For example, NIVEA FOR MEN offers wide ranges of facial cleansers with benefits of whitening, oil-control, wrinkle protection, refreshing skin, and moisturizing effects (Nivea Website, 2010). Loreal Men Expert offers benefits for facial cleansers which are whitening, anti-tightness, anti-fatigue, pure #038; matte oil control, anti-regreasing (Loreal website, 2010). There are some researches showing that competitive brands have similar ways of segmentation (Dawes, 2006, and Fennell et al., 2003). In other words, competitive brands often appeal to consumers who have similar demographic or psychographic characteristics. Moreover, Ehrenberg et al. (2004) supported this statement by stating that different brands in the same product category tend to offer a similar range of racism product variants. 2.1.5 Loyalty Segmentation and Relationship Segmentation. A focus on #8220;Loyalty segmentation#8221; provides strategic and system of professions division labor, tactic insights that will assist in building a strong brand (Aaker, 1996).
It is necessary to build customer loyalty as it is a key success of racism growth for a business (Crosby et al., 2004). By having loyalty segmentation, a company can learn more about the master satisfaction profiles of loyal customers, and racism, this leads to the focus at the highest value segment (Markey et al., 2007). Crosby et al. (2004) stated that the purpose of the loyalty-based segmentation is to seek to address the managerial questions as follows. Who are the most/least potential customers? How can customers be segmented according to worksheets the types of rs coursework relationships they would like to have with the product/brand/company? Which loyalty segment should be targeted? What changes are required to instill the highest levels of loyalty among the targets? Crosby et al. Causes Essay! (2004) affirm that loyalty-based segmentation is the racism complement of existing segmentation frameworks and it can also be used to degree thesis - online customer satisfaction www.kaskus.us discover new segmentation frameworks by starting with customer loyalty research.
According to Aaker (1996), in focus of the loyalty segmentation, a market can be divided into the following groups. Non-customers: those who buy competitor brands or not product class users, Price switchers: those who are price sensitive, The passively loyal: those who buy out of habit rather than reasons, Fence sitters: those who are indifferent between two or more brands, and. Rs Coursework! The committed: those who are committed to the brand, or a loyal customer. Loyalty segmentation can be very successful when the company can increase the number of customers who are not price switchers and who would pay more to use the brand while the fence sitter and and effects of technology essay, the committed should be critically managed (Aaker, 1996). Especially in high competitive markets, companies should exercise best efforts to enhance the loyalty of the fence sitters and the committed by developing and rs coursework, strengthening the relationship between customers and the brand (Aaker, 1996 and Drypen, 2010). Master Degree Thesis - Online Customer Satisfaction Www.kaskus.us! Research from rs coursework Raaij and Verhallen (1994) indicates that the company should also segment its market by loyalty segmentation method. The results of the research shows that the company should move customers from the lowest level of loyalty pyramid which is overall total potential customers to the highest level which is the heavy buyers.
The major marketing strategy is to increase the frequency and intensity of their purchases and to take measures to maintain customers for as long as possible (Raaij and Verhallen, 1994). This also highly relates to the relationship marketing which develop relationship between buyers and brand to stimulate purchasing. 2.2 MARKET TARGETING. 2.2.1 Definition of beach essay Targeting. The next step of the market segmentation in STP process is market targeting. Rs Coursework Racism! It is the photsynthesis process of determining which segments should be targeted and made the focus of a comprehensive marketing programme. Moreover, in the process of market targeting, a group of rs coursework customers are identified for war by whom the offering should be right, and to whom firms will direct the majority of its marketing resources, time, and rs coursework, attention (Cahill, 1997). Choosing the target market, before creating positioning and marketing mix, is a part of developing effective marketing strategy.
In order to target the right group of master degree - online customer www.kaskus.us customers, the rs coursework racism firm has to study the needs and buying behaviours of customers in each segment. Then the beach firm will be able to develop marketing strategies that suit requirements of rs coursework racism each segment. According to Cahill (1997), a target market is simply the market of submarket at which the firm aims its marketing messages. By specifying customer targets, the company will also know which segments are not the target groups so that the company will not make special effort to serve them. Cahill (1997) said that market targeting is beach essay essential because it forces the rs coursework company to worksheets focus at the customers and the markets by racism determining the best fits between target customers and the product offerings. Kotler and Armstrong (2001) suggested that a firm make the decision how many and which segments to system of professions target in their market positioning and rs coursework, its decision should be based on a clear understanding of company#8217;s resources and capabilities, nature of the competition, and the characteristics of the market. The company should evaluate market segments by first collecting and analysing data on current segment sales, growth rates, and then determine which segment can constantly enable the company to receive the an essay division of expert greatest opportunities in terms of profitability and rs coursework racism, market demands in order to target main customers. However, Wright (1996) denied statement of war by sun tzu validity of market targeting by claiming that there was no logical reason to adopt target marketing.
Wright and rs coursework racism, Esslemont (1994) studied the logical formulations of the target marketing argument and study, summarised that target marketing did not necessarily give the rs coursework best overall market response and also does not constantly give superior return than other approaches such as mass marketing. The two main targeting strategies are suggested by Dibb (1997). They are concentration strategy, and multi-segment strategy. Concentration strategy is master degree - online customer satisfaction defined as a process that a company manages its marketing efforts towards a single target. When targeting to one single segment, a firm can better satisfy target customers#8217; needs and requirement.
However, this strategy is not always effective and the company may face business failure if target customers#8217; demand for the products decline or shift to other segments. Racism! Multi-segment strategy is described as a strategy that a company directs its market efforts towards two or more market targets. The company should then develop appropriate marketing mix to suit each type of target groups, by all together considering product diferrentiation, target price, distribution method, and promotional strategies. In brief, the step of the selection of the potential target market is very critical in creating and developing comprehensive marketing strategy. Master Degree Thesis Satisfaction Www.kaskus.us! The robust competitive positioning will then be developed after the market targets are clearly identified and the requirements and motivations are fully examined. 2.2.3 Doing Targeting in Different Market Environment. Rs Coursework Racism! Marketers have to experience decide whether to target single segment or multiple segments in the product market; there are several factors affecting the management#8217;s targeting strategy decisions, including stage of maturity, industry structure, company#8217;s capabilities and resources, and opportunities for gaining competitive advantage (Cravens, and Piercy, 2009). The maturity is racism used as a basis for considering different targeting situations; the market target strategy will be varied in each market environment or stage of product-market maturity. Four different product-market stages, closely related to product life cycle (PLC) stages, include emerging product-market, growing product-market, mature product-market, and system of professions an essay division of expert, declining product-market. The strategists can use product life cycle model to analyse the maturity stage of the products and also industries in order to develop the strategies that should be implemented. Source: Spencer (2009) According to Cravens, and Piercy (2009), segments are likely to be found in the stage of growth in the product life cycle, as identifying customer segments with similar value requirements improves targeting.
In growth stage of product life cycle, consumers tend to gain awareness of products and to understand the benefits of the product, and company will likely to rs coursework expect a rapid sales growth and will also try to build brand loyalty and photsynthesis, increase market share (Spencer, 2009). High growth markets is rs coursework racism very attractive, therefore it can attract a lot of competitors who want to compete for market shares. Cravens, and Piercy (2009) revealed their finding about the market structure that at the growth stage, existing companies tend to enter new product-market as they have capabilities and resources to support the market entry, and this market offers high potential to be very profitable. Lambkin and Day (1989) suggested three targeting strategies in growth markets which are: Extensive market coverage for firms that has already developed the business in the related market, Selective marketing for firms with diversified product portfolio, and. Worksheets! Focused targeting strategy for small firms serving one or few segments.
Moreover, in the stage of growth, competitors will definitely enter into the market. The existing players in the growth market will automatically face price competition and increase in promotion and marketing costs. According to Spencer (2009), a firm should adapt itself to handle the changing condition in growth stage in the following ways: Product: The product quality should be improved in terms of additional features, supported services, and packaging design. Price: The price should be adjusted as followed the consumer demand in the market. Promotion: The promotion should be aimed at a broader audience, and the company tends to spend more with promotional strategy in rs coursework racism, order to build brand loyalty. Place: Products should be allocated in research adhd case study, the right place, and more distribution channels might be required due to rs coursework racism increase in consumer demand. 2.2.4 Alternative Targeting Strategies. Kotler (1997) suggested that targeting strategies can be divided into broad approaches which are undifferentiated marketing, concentrated marketing, and differentiated marketing. Undifferentiated marketing or full market coverage: This is an approach that the company treats the market as one whole by attempting to serve the entire market.
This is widely used in Porters#8217; (1980) cost leadership strategy (Hooley et al., 2008). Division! Undifferentiated approach was widespread in the mass marketing era before the implementation of market segmentation (Hooley et al., 2008). Concentrate strategy, focused marketing, or single segment strategy: Concentration strategy suits the company that has limited resource, aiming to focus attention on one market segment with one marketing mix strategy. Racism! This approach will make the company build a strong position in a selected market; hence it leaves other markets to competitors (Hooley et al., 2008) Differentiated marketing, selective specialization, or multi-segment strategy: Differentiated marketing is adopted when a company offers different products to each target market of the market. Different marketing mixes are also offered to different segments. Case Study! However, the differentiated marketing can lead to high cost of manufacturing, production, promotional advertising, and distribution process, as a company offers a wide product line to rs coursework racism the markets. Product specialization: The firm specializes in a particular product and tailors it to different market segments. Master Degree Thesis - Online Customer Satisfaction! Market specialization: The firm specializes in serving a particular market segment and offers that segment an array of different products. 2.3 MARKET POSITIONING. 2.3.1 Definition of Positioning.
Positioning process is the third part of the STP process, coming after determining market segments, evaluating potential and size of the market segments, and specifying target groups. According to Gunter and Furnham (1992), the strategist should, after selecting target markets, develop positioning objectives and racism, develop them into papers adhd case, a detailed marketing mix. Competitive positioning together with market segmentation is important as a core element to rs coursework develop the effective marketing strategies, and to create the critical direction for a brand (Hooley et al., 2008). Positioning determines which product could be differentiated from one another in photsynthesis for kids worksheets, the marketplace and it gives consumers reasons to buy product (Rosscraig, 2007). Moreover, in the positioning strategy, the rs coursework company should not only focus on target segment, but also concern competitor targets as well as overall competitive advantage. Brooksbank (1994) stated that the positioning strategy is fused by 3 elements, including: Target customers, focusing on the target segments, Competitor targets, focusing on the external environment, Competitive advantage, focusing on art of war by sun tzu the environmental analysis.
Additionally, a company which looks for a success must create a position in the marketplace which considers strengths and weaknesses of both a company and its competitors (Ries and Trout, 2001). Racism! Essentially, to create the competitive positioning, strategists should realise that positioning is concerned with understanding how customers compared alternative offerings on the market and building strategies that describe to the customers how the company#8217;s offering differ significantly from those of potential competitors. Dibb (1997) stated that the basic approach of positioning is not to create something interesting to the products but to create in the minds of on the art of target consumers a sense of rs coursework racism a greater values and master degree - online customer www.kaskus.us, benefits of marketing mix. Likewise, Ries and Trout (1972) also suggested that the marketer should concern much about the communication as an racism important element of brand positioning. To determine the positioning of the experience essay brand in rs coursework racism, the market, a company must position the art of war by sun tzu brand in the mind of consumers as the statement of Ries and rs coursework, Trout (1972) that #8220;positioning is not what you do to a product; positioning is what you do to the mind of the prospect.#8221;
According to Rosscraig (2007), positioning consists of two basic components which are. physical contributes, the functionality and capability that a brand offers, and. brand communication as well as consumer perception relative to other competitors in the marketplace. This concept supported Kotler (1997) who believed that positioning is an element in developing marketing strategy and defined positioning that #8220;Positioning is the act of system of professions an essay division of expert designing the company#8217;s offering an image so that they occupy a meaningful and distinct competitive position in racism, the target customer#8217;s mind#8221;. Essay! Therefore, positioning is considered as a strategy which concerns the way customers value the products/brands/companies compared to other competitors in rs coursework, the marketplace, and also products/brands/companies#8217; abilities to deliver messages to - online customer satisfaction www.kaskus.us target customers (Rosscraig (2007). 2.3.2 Targeting and Positioning through Marketing Mix and Differentiated Strategy. Rs Coursework Racism! According to Kotler (1994), Gunter and Furnham (1992), and Wilkie (1990), the stage of product positioning and system of professions an essay, marketing mix development, concerning the market conditions, should be created to match with each market target in order to fulfill customers#8217; needs.
It is necessary to racism choose a generic competitive strategy, and review the selected strategy across segments, after the essay on the firm chose a market targets (Aaker, 1996). Kotler (1994) claimed that only differentiated strategy works well in rs coursework, the segment targets and also disagree with the low cost strategy, giving opinion that this alternative strategy is not sustainable in of technology essay, the segmented market. To make the business successful, the company should select the tactics that distinguishes itself from its rivals, and the products must be differentiated from other competitors#8217; products. Rs Coursework Racism! Moreover, the differentiating approach must generate customer value, provide perceived value, and be difficult to imitate (Kotler, 1994). Aaker (1996) supported that successful differentiation involved multiple elements, including total organisation, people, cultures, company#8217;s overall structure, and company#8217;s systems. However, Aaker (1996) defined positioning as #8220;the part of the system an essay on the of expert labor brand identity and value proposition that is to rs coursework racism be actively communicated to the target audience and that demonstrates and advantages over competing brands#8221;. As a result, he recommended that marketers develop the positioning objective only after the developing of the brand identity and value proposition. In other words, brand building plays an important role to create value positioning for a particular product.
Therefore, to create a unique selling proposition for a product, one of the most effective ways is differentiation through brand building. Research Papers Adhd! Lepla and Parker (1999) identified brand as a method of differentiation in marketing. The brand concept is dynamic and can be developed to suit each market target. In order to win consumers#8217; minds in each target market, a firm should consider brand equity building as it helps create competitive barriers (Lepla et al., 2003). The brand equity building aims to rs coursework create unbreakable customer relationship by trying to make consumers committed to the brand (Lepla et al., 2003) (Figure [2-3] ). Figure [2-3] Brand Equity Pyramid: Moving up the pyramid creates an unbreakable customer relationship. Source: Davis, LePla, and Parker (2003), p.8, Figure 1.2. In sum, building a strong brand is very important as it is one of the most powerful approach to create differentiated strategy in research papers, order for a company to be in the hearts and minds of target consumers. The brand strategy which has been successfully created would help maintain the target consumers not to deviate to racism competitors easily as they have already chosen to be associated with the brand.
2.3.3 Perceptual Map. In the positioning issue, the brand positioning must be created in consumer#8217;s perceptual map of the market. Perceptual mapping is used to art of war by sun tzu determine how various brands are perceived according to rs coursework racism key attributes that target customer values. According to Sinclair and Stalling (1990), perceptual mapping makes companies know how their own brand and competitors#8217; brands are perceived in the marketplace. Blankson et al. (2004) stated that there are factors that consumers always use to beach essay determine product positioning, which are: Top-of-the -range: This refers to products that, the consumers believe, are the best or the most expensive in rs coursework racism, the market. Value for papers adhd case money: This refers to products that, the consumers feel, are worth for rs coursework racism the money paid. Reliability: This is about the experience product which the consumers believe to be more/less reliable than those offered by competitors.
Country of origin: The consumers may have perceptions, no matter it is right or wrong, that some countries are reliable or, by racism contrast, are notorious of manufacturing particular products. According to photsynthesis Lee and Liao (2009), perceptual map is essential in rs coursework racism, creating brand positioning and system of professions an essay on the division labor, conducting associated research for a company, by using information about racism, consumer perceptions and preferences for analytical purposes. They also asserted that to do perceptual map, a company can use brand similarity perceptions to analyse other competitors to create further marketing strategies. Lee and Liao concluded in their research of consumer preferences and perceptions that brand positioning has a great effect on consumer preferences and perceptions as consumers always have different perceptions towards brands even though the products are the same. To create needed positioning in consumers#8217; perceptual map, companies need to of professions of expert put emphasis on both products#8217; attributes and brand image, and then well communicate the messages to racism target audiences. According to Rosscraig (2007), the company needs to use marketing communications to support a brand to make customers well understand the brand positioning, and to adjust the essay on the sun tzu perceptions towards the racism brand. Additionally, competitor analysis should be in concern for a company to create brand positioning.
Competitor analysis is system of professions division of expert labor essential in the positioning strategy, as the company needs to understand its competitors in order to compete, especially in the condition of rs coursework high degree of competitiveness. Kotler and Armstrong (2001) suggested that competitor analysis is system on the very useful as it gives a company the greatest possible competitive advantage and rs coursework, also helps company create strong position in relation to competitors in the industry. Moreover, Kotler and Armstrong (2001) claimed that a company must compare itself with its competitors by using marketing mix in order to help specify areas of potential competitive advantages. Business Aims and objectives. Consider variables for segmenting market. Look at profile of emerging segments.
Validate segments emerging. Photsynthesis Worksheets! Decide on targeting strategy. Decide which and how many segments should be targeted. Understand customer perceptions. Position products in the mind of the rs coursework racism customers. Marketing Strategy: Marketing Mix.
In todays world, all businesses are facing the dynamic of world economy. In business world, there is always strong competition in on the war by sun tzu, the market with new business players and convergence of the. Its easy to see why skin care is a huge business with more and more people - men and racism, women alike - wanting to master - online customer stay looking and feeling healthy and young for as long as possible. Skincare products. Brand management helps to develop a strong a long term emotional connection between a band and customer. Brand management represents a company product to rs coursework racism the market. Branding can reveal about of professions on the of expert, the.
The introduction of rs coursework racism a new product is photsynthesis challengeable and even such large companies as Adidas may face substantial difficulties, while introducing new sport shoes. Rs Coursework Racism! The successful introduction of the. This industry is characterized by on the art of war by sun tzu the absence of price competition in its traditional form. Racism! Existing competitors use a variety of indirect methods such as different price levels aimed at reaching. The marketing plan explains the creation of an on line T-shirt Company by the name of The T-shirt. It explains on what grounds the company is made and the tactics to run the art of business. The. Implement marketing activities 1.0 Executive Summary The marketing plan outlines a strategy for success, and breaks it down into comprehensible, actionable components that will enable Starbucks. Analysis and recommendations of the rs coursework racism existing marketing strategies Tiger Balm is case a well-known herbal ointment remedy that was developed to relieve the aches and pains in racism, ancient China. It is a very. Didn't find the essay?
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Essay: A Summary of Research Involving Bioluminogenic Probes in Bioluminescence. The medical industry is constantly looking for ways to improve healthcare for the general population. One important facet of the healthcare industry is imaging. Rs Coursework Racism! Being able to see inside the body and to more fully understand what is happening inside the body is one of the most reliable ways to on the art of sun tzu determine a method of treatment for a patient. X-rays and other radiological methods are commonly used today to obtain images of the rs coursework racism, body, but these don’t often allow for understanding to be reached of chemical or other specific pathological processes. Sun Tzu! That is where the idea of bioluminescence comes in. According to Urano et. al.1, bioluminescence is a powerful tool that can be used to rs coursework racism study complex chemical and photsynthesis pathological processes in the body, and one of rs coursework racism, its advantages is that it doesn’t require outside lighting in order to achieve luminescence like fluorescence does. Using bioluminescence, a chemical signal can be stimulated deep inside the body and can be detected with minimal interference from the surrounding tissue. Master Thesis - Online Customer Www.kaskus.us! The biggest problem that scientists are facing today with implementing bioluminescent probes is the limitation of current design strategies to deliver the bioluminescent material to the desired area of the body. Racism! Yasuteru Urano et. al. came up with a new idea to help solve this problem and of professions on the division of expert labor potentially provide a wide range of useful bioluminogenic probes. In Yasuteru Urano’s experiment they proposed the idea of rs coursework racism, controlling the bioluminogenic substance aminoluciferin (AL) by using a moiety of causes and effects, a benzene which could transfer electrons to excite the luminophore.
This is done by a process they call bioluminescent enzyme-induced electron transfer, or BioLeT. Their goal experimentally was to investigate how electron transport affects the luminophore and therefore control the luminescence of the molecule. This concept can be observed in figure 1. As molecules are excited chemically, an rs coursework racism electron is transferred from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to case the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). When this happens in a fluorophore or luminophore, an electron from the rs coursework racism, respective group jumps up to beach experience essay the LUMO and en electron from the benzene moiety drops down to fill its spot, releasing energy in the form of light. This idea to racism use luminophore comes from the process by which other fluorescent methods operate, namely Photo-induced electron transfer, as can be observed in figure 1-A. The BioLeT mechanism is similar, the only difference being the use of research papers adhd case, Luciferase in the place of outside light. As can be observed in figure 1-B, 2 substrates were prepared, substrate 2 being the rs coursework racism, urethane derivative of substrate 1. They then reacted aminoluciferin with photinus pyralis and found that even though substrate 2 has a bulkier group on the benzene moiety, substrate 2 showed a luminescence 70 times greater than substrate 1 even though substrate 1 was completely consumed. They concluded that even though substrate 1 reacted with luciferase, luminescence was not emitted in the process possibly because the reaction took place faster than the luminescence process. Yasuteru’s team decided to call this process bioluminescent enzyme-induced electron transfer (BioLeT). Yasuteru Urano’s team next had the task to establish the feasibility and photsynthesis worksheets actual existence of this phenomenon. Rs Coursework Racism! This had to photsynthesis worksheets be accomplished in order for a reliable approach could be made to develop probes that act by the process of BioLeT instead of rs coursework, traditional fluorophores.
To accomplish this they prepared a series of aminoluciferin derivatives containing different benzene moieties with different HOMO energy levels. They examined the an essay on the division, difference between luminescence activity and racism the energy level in each HOMO (see figure 2). They found that the energy level of the for kids worksheets, HOMO on each benzene moiety played a large role in the luminescent activity of each molecule. As the energy level of the HOMO increased, luminescent activity decreased, some of which were nearly non-luminescent at energy levels -5eV and above. This procedure validated the existence of BioLeT. In order to prove that the BioLeT principle is useful for designing bioluminescent probes, Dr. Rs Coursework Racism! Urano and his team developed their own probe using BioLeT luminescence as the mechanism in their molecule. They decided to use NO as their target molecule because diaminobenzene groups react with NO in a way that creates a substantial change in HOMO energy levels. They named their molecule diamino-phelylpropyl-aminoleuciferin (DAL) and its structure and reaction mechanism with NO can be observed in figure 3. They measured the HOMO energy levels of both DAL and its reaction product, DAL-T, to be -4.68eV and -6.22eV respectively. They predicted that the product would be sufficiently different in the HOMO energy level to produce a sufficiently different intensity in luminescence.
The results were as expected, showing that DAL-T produced fluorescence that was greater than DAL by 41 times as can be observed in figure 3. Division Labor! These results support the idea that the excited state regulated by BioLeT is occurring in DAL and DAL-T and that luminescence by DAL is rs coursework quenched by the luminophore, again supporting the operation of BioLeT. Dr. Urano later experimented with the detection of NO in vitro using DAL which found a great increase of luminescence when addition of a solution containing NO or NOC7 was added, as can again be observed in experience figure 3-B. They found that DAL was converted to DAL-T as the rs coursework racism, product, as expected. DAL is selective only for NO, not reacting with other species to produce DAL-T and by extension luminescence.
The amount of NOC7 was correlated with luminescent activity and was graphed, as can be observed in figure 3-C. They conducted this experiment with rats, first injecting a rat with DAL and photsynthesis for kids worksheets later with NOC7 into the rat’s peritoneal cavity. Images of the rs coursework, rats were taken 40 minutes after the injection with NOC7 and the luminescence intensity was quantified. The results of this experiment can be seen in figure 4. In these rats, DAL was distributed throughout the on the sun tzu, entire body, and thus could effectively monitor NO levels throughout the whole body. This experiment illustrates the rs coursework, application of DAL in vivo, and further illustrates the system on the division labor, possibility of creating bioluminescent probes using the rs coursework, BioLeT process. The bioluminescent signal can be detected very accurately, even through tissue and hair. Master - Online Satisfaction! This ability provides greater reliability over rs coursework racism, fluorescence probes for in vivo imaging. In this article, Dr.
Urano demonstrates the essay art of sun tzu, possibility of using a new method for monitoring various biological chemicals in vivo. Just as fluorescent probes have been designed using their PeT properties to gather information in vivo, bioluminescent probes can be engineered using their BioLeT properties to racism do the same in an even more accurate and sensitive manner. The Work of photsynthesis, Yasuteru Urano. Urano’s area of research centers heavily in biochemical science, especially in pharmacology, biomolecular chemistry and applied chemistry. Racism! He has largely spent his academic and professional life at the University of Tokyo where he conducted his undergraduate and graduate studies. He obtained his Ph.D. there in 1995 in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Studies. He then served as a post-doc fellow there from 1995-1997 under Professor Tetsuo Nagano. He then served as Assistant Professor from 1997-2005 and then Associate Professor from master degree - online customer satisfaction 2005-2009 in the Graduate School of racism, Pharmaceutical Studies. During much of that time, from 2004-2008 he served under an additional research post at the school. He now serves as a Professor in the Graduate School of Medicine and also in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Tokyo. One of Dr.
Urano’s earliest articles was published in worksheets 1996, soon after his undergraduate studies were finished. This article emphasizes the role O-dealkylation mechanisms play in an oxidizing system depending on the different substrates available. They found that the rs coursework, oxidation determinant was if the substrate had a phenolic hydroxyl group at the ortho- or para- position relative to the alkoxy group in cytochrome P 450-dependent monooxygenases.2 Dr. Urano was interested in biological function early on in his career as a scientist. Dr. Urano published another article in research papers case study 1998 along with several other authors from the rs coursework racism, University of Tokyo that was of significance3. It currently has 140 citations. This article outlined an experiment they conducted where they examined the essay on the war by sun tzu, role that nitric oxide plays on the brain. In this experiment they used a fluorescent indicator to directly detect the presence of racism, nitric oxide in samples of rat brain.
The samples were from both acute cases and normal. They found that in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in the acute rat brain sample showed fluorescence. And Effects Essay! This was later confirmed by cell culture from the rs coursework racism, hippocampus. For Kids Worksheets! This was a significant finding because nitric oxide production has never been found in that area of the brain before. This experiment also proved the usefulness of using fluorescence in biological assays because of its sensitivity and real-time ability to provide feedback. Another article published in the year 1999 improved upon the significance of the rs coursework racism, previously mentioned one, with 264 citations4. This article continues on the trend that Dr. Urano has developed in fluorescence over the years. In this report they outline how they developed and can use a fluorescent indicator for NO. Research Case Study! This indicator is called diaminofluoresceins (DAF5).
These DAF’s react with a NO+ equivalent such as N2O3 formed by oxidation of NO. When they react they produce a highly fluorescent compound called triazolofluoresceins through nitrosation and dehydration mechanisms. If NO is not present these DAF’s will not react, making them useful for detection of NO produced by cells in vivo. One issue they ran into was the problem of pH, fluorescent ability is sensitive to changes in pH and the intensity will drop if the pH fluctuates too much. One additional benefit of this technique, however, is that it does not interfere with signal transduction inside a cell. In an article published in 2000, Dr. Urano helped to develop a biological fluorescent probe that reacts with zinc and improves upon the properties off 6-hydroxy-9-phenylfluorone5. Racism! Zinc plays an - online customer important role in the body. It is an important component of many protein structures, it plays a role in nerve signaling and plays a role in rs coursework racism the controlled death of cells.
Even though it is known that zinc plays an papers adhd study important role in rs coursework the cell, not much is known about the regulation of zinc in a cell, as opposed to calcium, sodium or potassium where much is known. Because of these findings, Dr. Yasuteru and degree thesis - online satisfaction www.kaskus.us others sought to develop a way to monitor zinc levels in the body in order to observe and racism learn more about photsynthesis worksheets, this important element of cellular function. Rs Coursework! They also made improvements on their previously formed fluorescent sensor molecules in beach experience essay order to improve results. Rs Coursework! They found that the previous molecules had a slow complex formation rate as well as a small yield, so they decided to utilize fluorescein’s high-yield and created molecules they called ZnAF-1 and ZnAF-2. The structure of ZnAF-1 and ZnAF-2 can be observed in adhd study figure 5. They found that when not in the presence of Zn2+ there was little to no fluorescent activity, but when Zn2+ was introduced the fluorescent activity increased by 17-fold. The increase in fluorescent activity can be observed in rs coursework racism figure 6. In 2001 Dr.
Urano and causes of technology others conducted an rs coursework racism in-depth study on fluorescein and its chemical properties6. They concluded that the fluorescent properties of master degree thesis - online satisfaction, fluorescein come from the benzoic acid moiety to the xanthene ring and are controlled by a photoinduced electron transfer process. They measured the threshold to be around -8.9 eV, which basically serves as the on/off switch for the molecule as far as fluorescence is racism concerned. Using this information, they designed a probe using 9-[2-(3-carboxy-9,10-dimethyl)anthryl]-6-hydroxy-3H-xanthen-3-one (DMAX) to research papers detect oxygen. They have confirmed that this molecule serves as the most sensitive currently known for racism, O2.
The 9,10-dimethylanthracene moiety serves as a trap for oxygen that acts very rapidly. As expected, DMAX by itself is barely fluorescent at all, but when it is paired with oxygen its fluorescence gains much greater intensity. DMAX could possibly be a great fluorescent probe for oxygen in papers adhd biological systems. The mechanism through which fluorescein works is shown in figure 7. The chemical structure of fluorescein can be observed in rs coursework figure 8. In 2001 Dr. Urano and others synthesized fluorescent probes sensitive to anions7. At the time the only anion probes that were known only functioned in organic solvents. Beach Experience! In order to be able to have an application in a biological setting, the anion probe would have to function under biological conditions including functionality in water at a neutral pH. In this report they introduce a fluorescent probe that is sensitive to anions and functions under biological conditions. The sensor molecule they designed is rs coursework called 1-Cd111 with the fluorescent portion being made up of 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin. They found that ATP and ADP showed strong signals when they tested biological anions, but cAMP produced little response.
The mechanism for this reaction can be observed in figure 9. The introduction of an causes of technology anion produces enough of an excitation to the molecule to cause it to fluoresce and emit light. Racism! This experiment provides great potential for for kids worksheets, biological imaging because anions play large roles in living organisms. Having the rs coursework, ability to monitor anion activity in thesis - online satisfaction real time in racism a biological setting can produce some very valuable biological and analytical appllications. In 2004 Dr. An Essay Of Expert Labor! Urano and others experimented more with NO8. This article currently has over 360 citing references. NO is an important messenger molecule both inside and outside of cells. Unfortunately, it is rs coursework released in very small amounts and it is very reactive with certain molecules, especially thiols.
These facts have made it difficult to measure NO accurately in vivo with the tools currently available today. Master - Online Www.kaskus.us! Even fluorescein moieties have been lacking enough sensitivity to actively measure NO. In this report, a molecule called boron dipyrromethene is used and compared with fluorescein as a fluorescent probe for NO. The molecule they developed based off of boron dipyrromethene is rs coursework called DAMBO-PH, short for 8-(3,4-diaminophenyl)-2,6-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene, which they found to be a highly sensitive probe for NO. It initially has a very low fluorescence measurement, but when exposed to NO it fluoresced strongly due to a photo-induced electron transfer mechanism. The development of and effects, this molecule was significant because they had to do some fine tuning of the rs coursework, molecule in essay on the order for it to function well independent of pH and to avoid probe stacking. It was found that DAMBO was more specific to rs coursework react only with NO and had higher reactivity at the same time. Dr. Urano conducted even more research regarding NO. Papers Case Study! One notable article of racism, his from November 2004 was again about improving upon the imaging techniques used to monitor NO activity. The techniques that have been discussed thus far regarding NO activity monitoring are limited by the fact that fluorescent probes emit a wavelength of light in the visible spectrum.
This area of wavelengths is absorbed readily by body tissues and prevents observation in deeper tissues because the light is absorbed too quickly by for kids, tissue. Fluorescent probes that emit light in the near-infrared on wavelength spectrum9 would be much more useful in this regard, and so Dr. Rs Coursework Racism! Urano developed fluorescent probes that are highly reactive to NO and emit light in the IR spectrum of light. He created the probes with two parts. The first is tricarbocyanine, an IR emitting fluorophore, and worksheets o-phenylenediamine as the NO reactive portion. They called the chemical group diaminocyanines (DAC’s) which are classified into two types: DAC-P’s which are DAC’s with two propyl groups attached to allow the DAC through a cell membrane easily and DAC-S’s with sulfonate groups to make them highly soluble in water. The chemical scheme of these molecules is shown in figure 10. The absorbance spectra and emittance spectra of DAC-S is shown in rs coursework figure 11 with the master - online customer satisfaction, presence of varying amounts of NO. These spectra findings indicate that the racism, photo-induced electron transfer process is regulated successfully in these molecules to produce light in the IR spectrum. This finding is significant because at that time only one other probe was reported to produce IR wavelengths through regulation by photo-induced electron transfer. Research! The ability of DAC to produce IR wavelengths has been observed to produce clearer results because of less interference from light absorbance in surrounding tissue.
Figure 12 shows the results of administration of NOC13 in the presence of rs coursework, DAC-P in a rat kidney. The administration was given at increasing concentrations in order to allow for good comparison of fluorescence between doses. This new technique can allow for many future applications, especially accurate fluorescent imaging in deep tissues using infrared wavelengths. More research on fluorescein and developments on system an essay on the division labor, creating finely tunable fluorescent probes10 was shown in an article published in October 2004 by Dr. Urano. In this article he shows how he isn’t afraid to rs coursework think outside the box and challenge other people’s ideas.
Up until this point it was basically understood that the carboxyl group of an essay on the labor, fluorescein was indispensable to the function of the molecule, so nobody really messed with it. This was a mistake, however, because fluorescent probes have to be modified to fit different substrates in order to observe specific chemical activities in the body. Being able to modify the fluorescein molecule to fit your need was essential in rs coursework racism order to of professions an essay division achieve the desired goal. This is the main reason fluorescein was limited, because of the lack of design strategies to fit the variety of needs. In this article, Dr. Rs Coursework! Urano breaks through the traditional form of fluorescein to of professions an essay division labor achieve a new approach to fluorescein probes based on a photochemical basis. He shows that it is possible to replace the carboxyl group with a different substituent and still have a functional fluorescent probe. Racism! He illustrates the feasibility of this idea by using this method to thesis create a probe that is sensitive to rs coursework beta-galactosidase which is the most widely used reporter enzyme. As can be observed in figure 13, he first replaced the carboxyl group with a methyl group and of technology fluorescence was still achieved. The same principle works with other substituents placed on the top benzene group, which adds much greater flexibility to future fluorescein moieties. In an article published in December of 200611 Dr.
Urano discusses further the greater options that become available when the carboxyl group is replaced on the benzene moiety of rs coursework, fluorescene. In this article he talks about photsynthesis for kids, a different molecule called tetramethylrhodamine. This molecule has good potential for use as a fluorescent probe because of its resistance to pH, its excellent photochemical properties and rs coursework racism longer excitation time and wavelengths. Thus far it has been used very little, perhaps because of difficulty in modifying it to a useful probe. Causes And Effects Of Technology! Here he applies the same principle he used before and synthesized a new derivative called hydroxymethyltetramethylrhodamine (HMTMR). They found that HMTMR displayed a large amount of absorbance and fluorescence in protic solvents but little in rs coursework racism aprotic or basic solvents. This led them to discover the thiol analogue (HySOx) which is less dependent on pH and system division of expert labor functions similarly.
It was found that HySOx was sensitive to HOCl, a chemical generated inside phagosomes just after phagocytosis is completed. They then applied HySOx to help visualize phagocytosis of pathogens. As can be observed in figure 14, the activation of these phagosomes could be observed visually as the HOCl contained in the phagosomes reacts with HySOx and causes excitation and luminescence. They found that these probes can be useful to observe real-time phagocytosis in vivo. As was mentioned earlier, fluorescent dyes that can produce wavelengths near-infrared frequency are desirable because of their attributes of being less absorbed by surrounding tissues and racism low background autofluorescence. Experience Essay! These properties make imaging much clearer and more accurate. These dyes have been utilized to diagnose various different diseases, such as arteriosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer.
The problem that is being faced with these probes is rs coursework that most of them don’t function well in aqueous media because the molecules stack on each other and prevent efficient emission of luminescence. In 2012 Dr. Urano reported on the development of fluorescent dyes that are excitable in near-infrared wavelengths based on research papers case, the rhodamine scaffold that was discovered in the previous mentioned experiment12. They used a strategy of lengthening the rhodamine ring to adjust the wavelength emitted by the molecule when it became excited and were able to create several different rhodamine-based molecules that emitted near-infrared wavelengths, were efficient in aqueous media, and had good photostability. They then took one of the molecules they developed named SiR-700 and labeled it with an antibody to a glycoprotein known to be specific for racism, malignant gliomas called tanascin-C (TN-C). They then injected the compound into a mouse prepared with human malignant meningioma cells.
The fluorescent signal of the molecule was observed later after 24 hours. The fluorescent imaging can be observed in figure 15. The signal amazingly remained observable for 10 days. This displays the huge developments he has made in creating probes that are resistant to photobleaching and can last for a long time in vivo and causes essay still display an accurate image. Dr. Rs Coursework! Urano’s history as a scientist has been largely devoted to causes essay biological imaging. His background in biochemistry, pharmacology and applied chemistry has given him an edge in using chemical knowledge to come up with new ideas to improve the way diseases are observed and accurately diagnosed. With each passing year he has improved upon rs coursework racism, his previous studies and thesis - online satisfaction www.kaskus.us experiments to produce greater results that have very useful applications, especially in the field of medicine. Other studies done in this field. Intra-cellular processes are very important to be able to understand, especially when it comes to genes that get turned on that result in disease, such as cancer, autoimmunity and chronic inflammatory diseases.
Dr.’s Gross and Piwnica-Worms have conducted research where they engineered a luciferase called IkappaB alpha-FLuc. In a living cell this reporting luciferase gave feedback regarding IKK activation, which is a critical regulatory control point for the activation of a DNA transcription factor called NF-kappaB which has been linked to many diseases. This IkappaB alpha-FLuc reporter now provides continuous feedback of IKK activity in vivo and provides a reliable way to monitor NF-kappaB signaling and potential signs of disease. The intra-cellular processes mentioned earlier are especially important in the field of racism, immunology. The transcription factor NF-kappaB mentioned earlier is one of the key transcription factors involved in B cell activation in cell-mediated immunity.
Clarification of these intracellular events is very important in order for us to understand how immune reactions are stimulated, controlled and halted. As Negrin and Contag mention in their article, the master degree thesis customer, pathophysiology regarding grafts is a subject that is currently being researched. Bioluminescence imaging has great potential to be a reliable modality for observing cell trafficking and gaining greater understanding of rs coursework, biological systems relating to immunity and grafts. Further manipulation of the luminescent protein luciferase has yielded wider possibilities of applications in essay intracellular gene analysis. In Hattori and Ozawa’s article, they detail how they use a new strategy called split-luciferase complementation. Rs Coursework Racism! This technique enables protein-protein interactions to beach be detected intracellularly in living cells. Rs Coursework! This technique has a wide variety of research, possible applications, such as phosphorylation monitoring, G-protein-coupled receptor screening, and even Ph monitoring in addition to observing protein-protein interactions. Dragulescu-Andrasi et. al. Racism! further emphasize the importance of being able to identify and understand various interactions between proteins in the cell. They describe a system using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer that makes it possible to identify protein-protein interactions not only in culture, but in deep tissue in master degree thesis www.kaskus.us a living organism. Rs Coursework! They outline the potential usages of this system to investigate protein-protein interactions in the context of target validation and drug screening in a patient.
The potential usage of this technique is wonderful, especially because of its non-invasive requirements. Wehrman et. al., generated a sequential reporter enzyme that works to report beta-galactosidase activity in vivo using luminescence. This was accomplished using a caged D-luciferin-galactoside conjugate which must react with beta-galactosidase before the luciferin can be released to create luminescence. They state that one benefit of this method, besides the non-invasiveness that comes with using bioluminescence, is the ability for the probe to remain fully active even when it is outside of the cell since beta-galactosidase is able function without the aid of beach essay, intracellular enzymes. Because of this ability, antibodies conjugated to the recombinant beta-galactosidase can be used to rs coursework detect extracellular antigens or other endogenous cells in vivo, which provides applications that weren’t previously possible with older methods. In an experiment conducted by Hickson et. al., a useful method using bioluminescence has the potential to deliver rapid and sensitive feedback regarding drug efficacy and therapeutic action. Of Professions An Essay On The Division Labor! Using a modified version of luciferin called Z-DEVD-aminoluciferin, they measured the rs coursework, amount of luminescence delivered after injecting this modified luciferin into research papers adhd case, cancerous animals prior to treatment with docetaxel.
They also had a control group who were not injected with docetaxel. Z-DEVD-aminoluciferin is cleaved by caspase-3, which is released in apoptotic cells, which in turn releases the rs coursework racism, luciferin and results in - online satisfaction www.kaskus.us luminescence. Light was detected in significantly greater amounts in the group that was treated with docetaxel. What was even more significant to rs coursework racism note was that these significant readings which occurred at degree thesis - online customer satisfaction approximately 24 hours after treatment confirmed what a caliper measurement showed nearly 4-5 days later. This helps to illustrate the possibility bioluminescence has in terms of testing drug functionality in vivo. Knowledge of how a drug is rs coursework racism working can be obtained many days before older methods could measure. Van de Bittner et. al. conducted an experiment using bioluminescence and related it to hydrogen peroxide.
It is known that hydrogen peroxide is generated by living organisms to kill invading pathogens and to maintain immunity. The specifics on for kids worksheets, hydrogen peroxide’s general effects on aging and rs coursework health are largely unknown largely attributed to the difficulties of being able to master thesis - online www.kaskus.us study it in vivo. In their experiment they report on their use Peroxy Caged Luciferin-1 which serves as a bioluminescent probe that selectively reacts with hydrogen peroxide, causes the release of rs coursework racism, luciferin and consequently creates luminescence. Beach! Because of the sensitivity and selectivity of Peroxy Caged Luciferin-1, a real time image of basal levels of hydrogen peroxide can be observed. The effects of hydrogen peroxide, in racism addition to all kinds of other chemicals, on aging, disease and health can now be observed where previously it was impossible.
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