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Prevenir les difficultes post-fusion/ acquisition en utilisant la gestion de crise. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. 3500 Word Essay? Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. L’annonce d’une acquisition ou d’une fusion a la presse, aux milieux financiers, aux personnels se fait generalement dans un climat de d’eu phorie et de victoire.

On evoque la « taille critique pour rester dans la course », comme les « performances de la recherche permettant de mettre sur le marche les produits les plus innovants », ainsi que « l’aptitude de la firme a faire face aux challenges du futur » ou encore la volonte de « continuer a satisfaire les clients, employes et actionnaires du monde entier ». Cette perception tres positive de l’operation est normale car elle se fonde sur des realites financieres et economiques. Essay On Sainik? Les aspects benefiques d’un regroupement sont voulus, recherches et attendus dans chaque domaine d’activite de l’entreprise. Pourtant, l’optimisme des dirigeants ne fait pas toujours l’unanimite. Word? Chacun sait qu’apres la periode d’euphorie, la realite reprend ses droits et qu’il faudra y faire face.

De nombreux changements se profilent et avec eux, les risques inherents a toute periode de destabilisation, inevitable puisque toute acquisition ou fusion implique restructuration, reorganisation majeure et integration, partielle ou complete. Cette notion d’integration partielle ou totale s’applique a des operations dans lesquelles de reelles synergies sont recherchees sur un plan a la fois strategique et organisationnel. Essay? Plus precisement, nous nous interessons dans cet article a l’integration du potentiel humain, qui peut etre partielle au niveau operationnel (unites de production), et complete au niveau des cadres et des fonctions si elle est necessaire pour le bon fonctionnement de la nouvelle entite. 3500 Word? Plus le degre d’integration souhaite par les directions generales est eleve, plus l’impact sur les organisations concernees par le rapprochement, et donc sur leurs salaries, est a meme de provoquer des difficultes potentielles dans la phase ulterieure de realisation. La phase d’integration, qui debute des que la fusion est annoncee officiellement aux personnels des deux societes, a donne lieu a de nombreux travaux de recherche, la plupart visant a proposer des actions contribuant a reduire le nombre d’echecs de ce type d’operations (Feldman et Spratt,2000; Angot et Meier, 2000; Cartwright et Cooper, 1992). How Did You Learn To Read And Write? Il est aujourd’hui communement admis que la gestion de l’integration post-fusion/acquisition est le seul veritable facteur-cle du succes d’une acquisition (Demeure, 2000). 3500 Word? Le processus d’integration est percu par les dirigeants comme etant « difficile, incertain et generateur de risques importants » pour les societes fusionnees. How Did You Learn Essay? En effet, apres une phase de preparation souvent secrete qui implique un nombre d’acteurs limite, l’annonce d’une fusion ou d’une acquisition est un instant ou tout peut basculer de facon acceleree.

Ces moments d’incertitude, d’angoisse et d’acceleration s’apparentent fortement aux phenomenes observes dans les situations de crise. Word? P. Arts Resume? Lagadec, pionnier dans l’etude de ce domaine en France, definit la crise comme etant un « bouleversement, une epreuve, une rupture, mais egalement une opportunite » (2000). Word? Avant lui, le socio-logue E. How Did You Learn? Morin (1976) l’avait decrite en ces termes : « Crise signifie indecision : c’est le moment ou, en meme temps qu’une perturbation, surgissent les incertitudes ». Word Essay? Les crises repondent a trois conditions qui les distinguent des situations de gestion dites « normales » : elles engendrent un processus de destabilisation de l’organisation dont les enjeux sont considerables; elles ont des consequences a la fois spatiales, temporelles, comportementales et strategiques, et. elles bouleversent le cadre de reference des decideurs, entrainant d’enormes difficultes d’apprehension et de gestion (Roux-Dufort, 1997; Forgues, 1996). Ces trois conditions peuvent se trouver reunies dans bon nombre de fusions et d’acquisitions, meme si celles-ci presentent des caracteristiques contextuelles qui leur sont propres. Arts Resume? En effet, une fusion ou une acquisition n’est pas en soi une situation de crise.

Pour reprendre les termes de Lagadec (1996), la fusion de deux entreprises n’est pas un « accident » dans la mesure ou elle a ete decidee, puis preparee, mais plutot un « evenement majeur » dans la vie des entreprises concernees, qui peut, dans certains cas, se transformer en crise. Si l’objectif des dirigeants lorsqu’ils mettent en ?uvre une operation de croissance externe est d’obtenir des resultats rapides, ils savent que pour y parvenir, de nombreux services, departements de chacune des deux societes vont devoir s’integrer plus ou moins rapidement pour, a terme, ne plus en former qu’un seul. Word Essay? Le processus d’integration est donc, a ce titre, tres ambigu car d’une part, il vise a l’unification, et d’autre part, il va entrainer un elagage de tout ce qui est superflu, tant au niveau des produits ou des activites qu’au niveau des ressources humaines. L’objet de cet article est double : d’une part, nous tenterons de demontrer que la gestion de crise et les logiques de reponse qui lui sont rattachees peuvent permettre de mieux gerer cette ambiguite post-fusion/acquisi-tion; d’autre part, nous proposerons un outil de pilotage du changement lors de la phase d’integration qui s’appuie sur une synthese de deux domaines de la litterature en gestion qui ont, jusqu’alors, fait l’objet de peu de rapprochements. I. On Sainik Sammelan? – LES CARACTERISTIQUES DU PROCESSUS D’INTEGRATION AU REGARD DES DYNAMIQUES DE CRISE. 1. Essay? Le rapprochement des hommes et des ressources. Fusionner deux entreprises ne consiste pas seulement a additionner des chiffres d’affaires et des parts de marche, mais egalement a reunir des hommes, des methodes de travail et des cultures [1] [1] Nous souhaitons rappeler que les fusions ou les acquisitions. Essay On Sainik Sammelan? . 3500? C’est seulement a cette condition que l’operation peut etre creatrice de valeur a la fois pour les salaries et pour les actionnaires. Essay On Sainik Sammelan? Ainsi, toute operation visant a rapprocher les personnels de deux entreprises jusqu’alors independantes comporte des risques qui ne peuvent etre ignores des equipes dirigeantes.

Il peut s’agir de toutes les modalites de la croissance externe (fusion, absorption, scission), mais egalement des restructurations internes qui consistent a fusionner deux filiales. Word Essay? Dans le cadre de cet article, nous limiterons nos recommandations aux cas de fusion complete car ce sont des situations qui portent a leur paroxysme les problemes operationnels, organisationnels et humains auxquels sont confrontes les dirigeants durant la phase d’integration. La recente prise de controle par France Telecom de l’operateur britannique Orange dans le domaine de la telephonie mobile montre bien a quel point les dirigeants ont conscience de ces derives potentielles : des l’annonce de la fusion Itineris/Orange, un vaste programme d’integration a ete lance, mobilisant une centaine de cadres issus des deux societes, et visant a mettre en place la nouvelle organisation. L’integration post-acquisition est definie par Haspeslagh et Jemison (1991) comme etant « un processus graduel au cours duquel les individus de deux organisations apprennent a travailler ensemble et cooperent afin de transferer leurs ressources strategiques ». Beach Experience? Ces auteurs entendent par « ressources strategiques » l’ensemble des competences operationnelles, fonctionnelles et manageriales ainsi que les differents avantages detenus par les deux societes qui font l’objet du rapprochement. Jemison (1988) precise cependant que les difficultes rencontrees lors du processus d’integration ne portent pas seulement sur ce transfert, mais plutot sur la facon dont les dirigeants vont parvenir a creer une atmosphere qui va favoriser ce transfert de ressources strategiques. Word? De nombreux problemes sont en effet generes par les premiers echanges entre les deux firmes, c’est-a-dire des le debut de la phase d’integration. Beach Experience Essay? Ces interactions impliquent des le depart de multiples acteurs a differents niveaux et provoquent brusquement un bouleversement des reperes dont les consequences ne sont pas toujours bien maitrisees par les equipes dirigeantes. Cette dynamique de destabilisation et de turbulence s’apparente fortement aux difficultes, reelles ou percues, qui caracterisent les crises. Essay? Une crise implique de multiples problemes et menaces non circonscrits dans le temps, l’espace, les acteurs, le cout, etc. Beach Experience Essay? (Lagadec, 1996).

Elle entraine egalement des sentiments de peur qui se traduisent par une inertie considerable. 3500 Essay? De la meme facon, l’annonce d’une fusion qui peut etre consideree sous le vocable de crise comme « l’evenement declencheur » de l’integration, provoque des changements soudains dans le mental comme dans le comportement des salaries et des cadres. Nature? Ils se mettent alors a batir des scenarios dans lesquels ils sont vainqueurs ou vaincus, gagnants ou perdants selon le cote ou ils se trouvent (ou croient se trouver). C’est pourquoi la periode de transition qui arrive immediatement apres l’annonce d’une operation de rapprochement est extremement importante et doit faire l’objet d’un management rigoureux par les dirigeants. Essay? Nous la qualifions de periode de turbulence organisationnelle . Keats Nature Thesis? Cette periode, relativement courte dans le temps puisqu’elle ne depasse generalement pas quatre a cinq semaines, marque le debut du processus d’integration dans la mesure ou la fusion est subitement revelee au grand jour et plus ou moins mediatisee.

Les dirigeants doivent des lors amorcer le processus en informant, en confirmant ou infirmant des rumeurs, tout en restant credibles vis-a-vis des salaries et des actionnaires et en gardant le controle de ce qu’il se passe a l’interieur de l’entreprise. Lors d’une fusion, les changements previsibles sont nombreux et submergent les organisations comme les individus. Essay? C’est pourquoi les dirigeants qui sont a l’origine de l’operation ont besoin de tous leurs moyens et en priorite des cadres-cles qui font les resultats et generent les profits. Malthus's On The? Il est donc essentiel que ceux-ci restent dans l’entreprise mais surtout participent et adherent pleinement au processus d’integration qui se met progressivement en place. 3500 Essay? Leur role durant la periode de turbulence organisationnelle est d’autant plus important que cette periode doit etre la plus courte possible pour que la nouvelle societe retrouve rapidement une certaine solidite vis-a-vis de ses salaries, mais aussi de ses clients, fournisseurs, banquiers et actionnaires (Feldman et Spratt, 2000). 2. Experience Essay? Les difficultes inherentes a la periode de turbulence organisationnelle. La phase de turbulence organisationnelle est une periode de prise de conscience durant laquelle rien ne change en apparence.

Les structures des deux societes demeurent intactes, chacun est au meme poste et accomplit les memes taches qu’auparavant, tout en realisant qu’il a, dans la structure d’a cote, un homologue. Dans les jours qui suivent l’annonce de la fusion, les homologues sont peu a peu amenes a se rencontrer et commencent alors a percevoir les differences qui existent entre les deux societes. Word Essay? Ces differences concernent aussi bien les methodes de travail et les procedures que les salaires, les avantages en nature, ou encore les langages et les facons d’agir. La fusion BNP-Paribas effectuee en 1999 permet tres bien d’illustrer cette notion de turbulence organisationnelle. Nature? Apres une OPA hostile tumultueuse sur le groupe Societe Generale/Paribas, la BNP prend finalement le controle de Paribas apres un raid particulierement offensif. 3500 Essay? Quelques heures apres l’annonce de la fusion, le president de la BNP a souhaite rencontrer les principaux cadres dirigeants de Paribas. Beach Experience? Six jours apres l’annonce de la fusion, le nouveau comite de direction etait nomme. Word? Six semaines plus tard, le projet industriel etait lance et les nouvelles structures mises en place.

Tout a ete mis en ?uvre pour reduire au maximum l’incertitude, et pourtant de nombreuses demissions ont ete enregistrees des les tout premiers jours apres l’annonce de l’operation. Thesis? Les syndicats chiffrent a environ 400 les demissions d’anciens de Paribas en un an word essay, ( Les Echos , 2001). Meme si une transaction rapide permet de reduire l’incertitude et de rassurer le personnel, les faits demontrent que ce n’est pas suffisant pour reussir durablement l’integration. Thesis Job? Il faut egalement que les dirigeants aient bati une strategie globale qui va bien au-dela de l’operation realisee et que cette strategie soit tres vite exposee et bien sur admise et partagee par les personnels des deux societes (Demeure, 2000). Les principales difficultes inherentes a la periode de turbulence organisationnelle se situent donc, comme nous venons de le voir dans la fusion BNP/Paribas, lorsque le rapprochement des structures devient effectif et qu’il faut qu’a chaque echelon hierarchique ou se trouvent deux responsables, l’un soit choisi pour diriger la nouvelle division, le nouveau departement ou le nouveau service. Ce type de reorganisation interne provoque inevitablement un choc et libere des energies qui peuvent etre mises a profit pour gerer cette periode de discontinuite. 3500 Essay? Malgre un niveau de stress et d’incertitude extremement elevee au cours de cette periode, le potentiel d’ouverture au changement est egalement tres important et offre aux dirigeants l’opportunite de creer une dynamique mobilisatrice pour le nouvel ensemble. On The? A contrario , c’est une dynamique de crise qui peut s’instaurer et entrainer un tourbillon d’evenements qui peuvent, a l’extreme, conduire la fusion a l’echec. Comme le montre le tableau2, la periode de turbulence organisationnelle n’est pas une situation de crise en tant que telle, mais c’est une periode de transition qui implique certaines difficultes susceptibles de declencher une dynamique de crise si elles sont mal prises en compte par les dirigeants de la nouvelle entite. 3500 Essay? C’est donc precisement lors de la phase de turbulence organisationnelle que la gestion de crise pourra etre utilisee afin de prevenir cette derive et de permettre aux equipes dirigeantes de traverser la zone de turbulence en mettant en place les changements indispensables a la concretisation des synergies attendues de l’operation. Le schema suivant permet de visualiser la periode de turbulence organisationnelle au sein du processus d’integration et de montrer les consequences de cette periode dans le temps, en fonction des differentes actions menees par les responsables de la fusion.

II. Essay On Sainik Sammelan? – L’UTILISATION DE LA GESTION DE CRISE POUR PILOTER LA PERIODE DE TURBULENCE ORGANISATIONNELLE : PROPOSITION D’UN OUTIL OPERATIONNEL. La gestion d’une crise est generalement decoupee en quatre phases essentielles (Kovoor-Misra, 1995; Pauchant et Roux-Dufort, 1994): de recuperation et, La phase de prevention vise a reduire le potentiel de crise avant que celle-ci apparaisse et mette en peril le fonctionnement de l’organisation. 3500 Word? La phase de reaction doit empecher l’amplification des evenements a l’interieur comme a l’exterieur de l’organisation. Keats Thesis? C’est une phase active de gestion et de pilotage des evenements.

Cette etape de confinement de la crise doit deboucher sur une etape de recuperation durant laquelle des mesures destinees a poursuivre une activite normale seront mises en ?uvre. Enfin, l’entreprise qui a vecu une crise doit reussir a apprendre de cette experience. Word Essay? C’est une etape interactive qui denote la capacite de l’entreprise a modifier ses methodes de gestion et son attitude par rapport a de nouvelles crises potentielles, par exemple pour mieux preparer l’organisation a prevenir d’autres crises du meme type. Il est relativement aise d’etablir un parallele entre ces differentes phases de la gestion de crise et le processus d’acquisition tel qu’il a ete decrit et explique dans la litterature. Dans un contexte de fusion/acquisition, la phase de prevention peut etre integree des la phase de preparation de l’operation, c’est-a-dire bien en amont du processus d’integration que nous avons modelise dans la premiere partie. Beach Essay? Il s’agira par exemple de reflechir au rapprochement des deux societes de facon concrete, en ayant une idee precise des processus et des fonctions qui devront etre fusionnees et reorientees en coherence avec la vision strategique globale de l’entreprise.

Une reflexion sur la culture de la nouvelle entite peut egalement etre menee afin d’en faire emerger les grandes lignes qui, plus tard, serviront de reperes aux futurs collaborateurs. Word? Enfin, les etapes du processus d’integration peuvent d’ores et deja etre definies afin d’avoir une idee precise des ressources qui devront etre mobilisees alors. La phase de reaction trouve naturellement sa place lors de la periode de turbulence organisationnelle que nous avons decrite dans la premiere partie. On Sainik Sammelan? C’est precisement durant cette phase que les outils specifiques a la gestion de crise pourront etre mobilises de facon preventive, c’est-a-dire afin d’eviter a la nouvelle entite de se retrouver dans une situation de crise qui conduirait inevitablement a l’echec de la fusion. Nous avons retenu trois types d’outils qui peuvent etre operationnalises simultanement durant la periode de turbulence organisationnelle. Word Essay? Il s’agit de l’elaboration d’une communication de crise, de la mise en place d’une cellule de crise (d’autant plus necessaire si la fusion est fortement mediatisee), et de l’utilisation de la methode des scenarios.

1. Beach Experience? L’elaboration d’une communication de crise. L’importance de la communication dans les operations de fusion et d’acquisition a ete soulignee a maintes reprises dans la litterature (Egg, 2000; Risberg, 1997; Schweiger et De Nisi, 1991; Bastien, 1987). Essay? Elle est aussi reconnue comme etant un facteur important dans la gestion preventive des crises (Roberts et Libuser, 1993) et, bien evidemment, pendant la crise (Ogrizek et Guillery, 1997; Barton, 1993). Arts Resume? Les travaux realises dans cette perspective presentent la communication comme un moyen privilegie de gerer la symbolique des crises vis-a-vis des parties prenantes exterieures et de repondre a la pression mediatique qui peut parfois s’exercer et entrainer quelques effets pervers qui vont souvent compliquer la tache des dirigeants. Quelques grands principes peuvent ainsi etre retenus afin d’adapter la communication de crise a un contexte post-fusion/acquisition (voir tableau 3). La difficulte est de parvenir a mettre en ?uvre ces differents principes simultanement alors que la periode de turbulence organisationnelle implique une multitude d’evenements et de taches pour les equipes dirigeantes. 3500 Essay? Le role de la communication ne doit pas se limiter a la diffusion d’informations factuelles avec quelques explications et a l’elaboration de reponses coherentes et credibles. Arts Resume? Elle doit egalement permettre de mettre en ?uvre des actions capables d’avoir un impact positif soit parce qu’elles permettront de repondre a des doutes ou a des inquietudes, soit parce qu’elles auront une valeur symbolique forte pour rassurer les personnels. 3500 Essay? Ainsi certaines preconisations s’appliquant aux fusions/acquisitions peuvent tout a fait etre integrees a un plan de communication mis en place lors de la periode de turbulence organisationnelle. Malthus's On The Principle Of Population? C’est le cas par exemple du rituel de fusion qui consiste a mettre en place des actions fortes, visibles et symboliques dont le caractere emotionnel est puissant et va marquer les esprits de facon durable (Gancel et De Sainte-Basile, 2000).

Il peut s’agir de gestes symboliques (poignees de mains, visite des lieux), de rencontres formelles et informelles (seminaires, reunions) ou du lancement de projets phares, comme cela a ete le cas lors de la fusion Merlin Gerin/Telemecanique au sein du groupe Schneider avec le lancement du projet « Synergies » qui impliquait plus de 2000 collaborateurs en France (Evrard, 1998,1996). La mise en ?uvre d’une communication de crise devra permettre aux dirigeants de passer le plus rapidement possible d’une situation perturbee et problematique a une situation plus constructive, permettant aux salaries de mieux apprehender leur nouveau contexte de travail et de s’identifier plus fortement aux objectifs de la nouvelle entite. 2. Essay? L’organisation d’une cellule de crise. Les differents problemes post-fusion/acqui-sition evoques dans la litterature peuvent etre a l’origine de conflits de pouvoir parmi les dirigeants en place et engendrer des comportements nefastes envers le travail a tous les niveaux hierarchiques. Essay Sammelan? Les problemes rencontres lors de la fusion Daimler/Chrysler illustrent tres bien cet etat de fait : affrontement des cultures, incomprehension sur l’organisation du travail et surtout fiction d’une « fusion entre egaux » ont enlise la fusion dans une situation critique qui a implique un plan de redressement severe et fait peser de serieuses menaces sur l’avenir du groupe ( Les Echos , janvier 2001). Dans ce cas, comme dans bien d’autres, l’instabilite de la situation entraine des reactions de resistance au changement, surtout provoquees par la peur des licenciements et de la reduction des acquis salariaux et sociaux. Essay? Des mesures doivent donc etre mises en place rapidement pour canaliser et temperer ces craintes et pour accompagner psychologiquement les victimes du « stress post-fusion » (Mirvis et Marks, 1986). You Learn Essay? Ce degre eleve d’incertitude et de stress occasionne en outre le depart d’individus. cles comme certains cadres.

dirigeants dont la presence est pourtant indispensable pour restaurer un climat interne propice au changement et faciliter le passage de la periode de turbulence organisationnelle a une periode de pilotage du changement. Essay? Plus la periode de stress occasionnee par l’operation dure dans le temps, plus le climat risque de se degrader, accroissant chez les salaries le manque de confiance et de motivation. La mise en place d’une cellule de crise peut permettre d’apporter une serie de mesures d’aide et d’appui physique et psychologique aux employes afin de mieux gerer l’anxiete occasionnee par l’annonce d’un rapprochement d’entreprises. Essay Sammelan? Quatre grands roles sont habituellement assignes a ce type de cellule (Lagadec, 1995): assurer une coherence globale de la reponse dans l’ensemble du groupe; dessiner des reponses de fond aux questions techniques et politiques posees par l’evenement; assurer des liens de qualite avec tous les reseaux dans lesquels est inseree l’entreprise (acteurs internes et externes, administrations, etc.); assurer une communication nationale (interne et externe) depassant la simple information factuelle. Le role des responsables reunis en une cellule de crise est de prendre des decisions ou d’adopter des dispositions susceptibles de « gerer la crise ». 3500 Essay? Generalement, elle se compose d’un noyau dur de responsables impliques dans les actions a mener. Essay On Sainik Sammelan? Il est essentiel que ces responsables aient des aptitudes specifiques leur permettant de conduire la crise : une capacite de leadership dans un univers destructure, une capacite a maitriser la complexite et a identifier les situations d’urgence, et une capacite a tisser un lien informationnel, symbolique et humain. Word? Il s’agira egalement de preparer l’organisation pour faire face a tous les dysfonctionnements provoques par la crise. Ces differentes recommandations specifiques aux cellules de crise sont facilement transposables a un contexte de fusion/acquisition comme le montre le tableau 4 suivant.

La mise en place d’une cellule de crise peut s’averer particulierement utile lorsque la mediatisation de l’operation de fusion ou d’acquisition est importante. Sammelan? En effet, la mediatisation apparait comme l’un des facteurs essentiels pour transformer un « evenement majeur » en crise. 3500 Word? L’impact de la presse sur l’opinion publique est loin d’etre negligeable et doit donc faire l’objet de toutes les attentions. Essay? Les responsables de l’entreprise doivent se preparer a prendre la parole devant les medias et surtout doivent veiller a etre une source d’informations continue et fiable. 3500 Word Essay? Cette preconisation est d’ailleurs valable a tous les niveaux de l’entreprise car en temps de crise, l’experience montre que les salaries font d’abord confiance a leur manager de proximite. 3. You Learn And Write? La mise au point d’un scenario de crise… ou comment faire pour eviter la crise. Nous nous sommes jusqu’alors concentres sur la periode de turbulence organisationnelle pour adapter les grands principes de la gestion de crise. Word? Cependant, le plan d’integration va se prolonger au-dela de cette periode et il est necessaire d’avoir pense l’integration a moyen et long terme, tout autant que de l’avoir preparee a court terme. Arts Resume? Celle-ci s’inscrit en effet dans la strategie globale de l’entreprise et doit se traduire en plans d’action visant a faire partager un projet de developpement commun. La methode des scenarios, bien connue des specialistes des crises, peut en toute logique etre appliquee dans un contexte post-fusion/acquisition. Word Essay? Elle permettra a l’equipe dirigeante en place d’etre reactive en accompagnant de facon methodique le cycle d’integration.

Cette methode consiste a envisager par principe les evolutions negatives possibles d’un evenement en se posant deux questions clefs : « what if ? » (et si ?) et « what next ? » (quelles seraient les consequences ?). Essay? Elle permet d’avoir une vision prospective de l’evenement et evite de se concentrer uniquement sur les aspects immediats. 3500 Essay? Une telle methode permet egalement d’anticiper les dispositions et les mesures qu’il faudra peut-etre prendre et les reponses que l’on devra peut-etre donner. Beach Essay? Le fait d’avoir imagine les evolutions negatives possibles conduit a une approche beaucoup plus strategique de la gestion de la situation et permet d’eviter de s’enfermer dans une position trop affirmative ou trop optimiste qui pourrait par la suite affaiblir la credibilite des responsables si cela ne se passe pas comme prevu. En pratique, l’application de la methode des scenarios peut etre mise en place au sein d’un groupe de travail specifique rattache par exemple a la cellule PMI. 3500 Word? Deux responsables, designes par le directeur de la cellule, sont charges de reflechir regulierement sur les evolutions possibles de la situation. Essay? La difficulte majeure a sa mise en ?uvre est de nature psychologique. Essay? Deux attitudes sont a proscrire a tout prix : l’alarmisme, c’est-a-dire le fait de dramatiser la situation, et l’attentisme, le fait d’attendre le dernier moment pour agir. Thesis Job? En effet, il est avere que la prevision et la preparation permettent de limiter considerablement les difficultes si la situation vient a se degrader.

Ainsi, l’elaboration d’une strategie d’integration sera toujours payante pour la nouvelle entreprise, surtout si sa mise en ?uvre est rapide et bien structuree. Word Essay? Elle constituera la base d’un equilibre de fonctionnement permettant au nouvel ensemble d’etre present sur son marche dans les meilleures conditions d’efficacite et de competitivite. Essay Principle Of Population? Une recente etude menee par le cabinet de conseil Mercer Management Consulting montre d’ailleurs que les groupes qui pre-parent, mettent en place et executent des programmes d’integration serieux ameliorent leur chance de succes de 50 % (Demeure, 2000). La periode de turbulence organisationnelle doit faire l’objet d’une attention particuliere. Word? La concentration sur les problemes techniques de l’operation, c’est-a-dire les problemes juridiques, fiscaux et financiers risque de faire perdre de vue les autres composantes sensibles de la phase d’integration. Beach Essay? Ce syndrome est assez frequent dans toute situation de crise. 3500 Essay? La concentration sur les aspects techniques donne un sentiment de controle de la situation du fait des proprietes mecaniques et des marques tangibles de la dimension technique.

Les aspects culturels, identitaires, structurels et humains font l’objet d’une attention moindre, et l’assurance procuree par la maitrise technique de l’operation joue souvent le role de paravent au regard des autres aspects. Cette representation des difficultes observees suite a une fusion/acquisition montre bien que la situation peut rapidement se transformer en cercle vicieux, et donc en crise, si aucune mesure corrective n’est prise pour en sortir. Essay Sammelan? Ainsi, la mise en place d’une gestion de crise peut aider les dirigeants a garder une certaine maitrise du processus, notamment en anticipant ces difficultes et en evitant les pieges classiques. 3500 Word? Une telle demarche devrait permettre a l’entreprise nouvellement creee de ne pas « tourbillonner avec la crise » mais, au contraire, d’en sortir rapidement en agissant sur ses causes profondes. Nous souhaitons rappeler que les fusions ou les acquisitions obeissant a une logique strictement financiere ne font pas partie de notre champ d’etudes. Certains phenomenes observes pendant la phase d’integration post-fusion/acquisition presentent des analogies tres fortes avec ceux induits par les situations de crise. You Learn? Cet article utilise ces similitudes pour evaluer dans quelle mesure la gestion de crise peut aider a conduire la periode de transition qui demarre des qu’une acquisition ou une fusion est annoncee et ratifiee. Word? Cette periode est le moment le plus risque de ces regroupements car elle favorise ou, au contraire, limite la creation de valeur attendue de l’operation. Sammelan? S’appuyant sur de nombreux exemples de rapprochements d’entreprises, l’auteur s’attache a montrer quels mecanismes permettent de controler les evenements.

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A New Oliver Sacks Book! and two live events. Two weeks before his death in August 2015, Oliver Sacks outlined the contents of 3500 The River of Consciousness, the last book he would oversee in detail, and charged three of us—Kate Edgar, Billy Hayes, and Dan Frank (his longtime editor at Knopf)—with arranging its publication. How Did You Learn To Read And Write Essay! Though Sacks is best known for the depth of his compassion and ability to address ideas in medicine and neuroscience, he could move fluidly among the issues and ideas of most arts and sciences. That wide-ranging expertise and passion informs this book, in 3500 word essay, which he ponders the essay on the nature not only of human experience but of essay all life (including botanical life). In The River of thesis job Consciousness, Sacks calls upon his great scientific and creative heroes—above all, Darwin, Freud, and word essay, William James. Like Darwin, Sacks was an acute observer and you learn to read and write, delighted in collecting examples, many of which came from his massive correspondence with patients, colleagues, and you, his readers.

Like Freud, he was drawn to understand human behavior at its most enigmatic. And as with James, even when Sacks explores subjects as theoretical as time, memory, and creativity, his attention remains on the specificity of experience. The River of Consciousness will be published in the UK on October 19 and in 3500 word essay, the US on October 24, (in hardcover, e-book, and audio editions). Order your copy now, or pay a visit to your local bookstore to reserve a copy! Also we are pleased to on sainik sammelan, announce two very special live events celebrating the life and work of Oliver Sacks: The Commonwealth Club (110 Embarcadero) will host a discussion with Kate Edgar, Bill Hayes, Victoria Sweet and Steve Silberman. Tickets here. (Use the promo code FRIENDS.) The 92 nd St. Y (1395 Lexington Avenue) will host a discussion and reading featuring Maria Popova, Atul Gawande, and Bill Hayes, as well as a special performance by Simone Dinnerstein. Tickets here. Books will be on sale at both events. We hope to see you there!

Last week we lost the legendary, irreplaceable Robert B. 3500 Word! Silvers at the age of 87. In a 2010 interview with New York Magazine, Oliver Sacks was asked, “Who is your favorite New Yorker, living or dead, real or fictional?” He replied, “Bob Silvers, founder and editor of the New York Review of Books, one of the great institutions of intellectual life here or anywhere.” Bob occupied a unique place in Sacks’s life—as for so many other writers and readers. He was a polymath, equally at home with politics, literature, science, philosophy, and the arts. His respect for his writers was absolute, matched only by his attention to sammelan, detail and his passion for intellectual discourse. Without Bob Silvers, without the New York Review of Books, the past fifty-plus years would have been a much duller, much less informed place. Essay! He published many of Oliver Sacks’s essays in the pages of the NYRB, including, early on, half a dozen that would become chapters in The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. As an editor, Silvers had a sixth sense about what unexpected topics might intrigue a particular writer. Essay Principle Of Population! He understood that the simple act of sending one of his writers a book to review might inspire a whole new field of inquiry. It was Silvers#8217;s suggestion that Sacks read on a study of deaf culture and language that ultimately led to his own book Seeing Voices. 3500! A few years later, remembering Sacks’s boyhood interest in chemistry, Silvers sent him a biography of thesis job Humphry Davy, launching Sacks on his first memoir, Uncle Tungsten.

Two weeks before Dr. Sacks died, in August 2015, he wrote a dedication for the new book he was working on: to 3500, Bob Silvers, his editor, mentor, and friend of more than thirty years. We are very pleased to announce that The River of Consciousness, dedicated to Bob Silvers, will be published in arts resume, October 2017 (available for preorder now). Jacket illustration: Felix Vallotton, L#8217;Eure a Pacy-sur-Eure (detail), 1924. We at 3500 the Sacks office are thrilled to share with you some advance praise for Bill Hayes’s gorgeous memoir of his life with Oliver Sacks, Insomniac City, whose official publication date is Valentine’s Day, February 14, 2017. The book is available for pre-order now.

Joyce Carol Oates writes: #8220;Insomniac City is a beautiful memoir in which Oliver Sacks comes wonderfully to lifea double portrait that also provides a vivid picture of New York City#8217;s neighborhoods and people. The ending is exquisitely wrought, heartrending and joyous.#8221; Bill Hayes will be doing readings and book signings in a number of cities, including New York, Washington DC, Berkeley, Seattle, San Francisco, Danville, London, Dublin, and Sydney. For dates and details, visit billhayes.com. #8220;A beautifully written once-in-a-lifetime book, about love, about sammelan life, soul, and the wonderful loving genius Oliver Sacks, and New York, and laughter and all of creation.#8221; Anne Lamott, author of Operating Instructions and Bird by Bird. #8220;I loved every single sentence in this quiet night-book, erotic and evocative, at once.#8221; Terry Tempest Williams, author of The Hour of essay Land. Arts Resume! #8220;A heartbreakingly gorgeous story of 3500 word essay love and beach experience, loss.#8221; Azar Nafisi, author of Reading Lolita in Tehran. #8220;An intimate and sharply drawn portrait of one of the giants of science. This is a rare book.#8221; Jad Abumrad, co-host of RadioLab. This is a book to 3500 essay, cherish and reread, as well as a beautiful gift for someone you love on essay on sainik Valentine’s Day. Looking for the perfect gift, or just some enlightenment? As 2016 draws to a close, we’d like to share with you some of our favorite books of the year. Mentored by a Madman: The William Burroughs Experiment by Andrew Lees. The memoir of essay a world-renowned neurologist who has done groundbreaking work with Parkinson’s patients as well as discovered for himself the arts resume hallucinogenic powers of ayahuasca and other drugs. No, we’re talking not about Oliver Sacks but about his good friend and colleague Andrew Lees.

You will be caught up in this tale of medical detective work, written with verve and erudition, and gorgeously published by Notting Hill Editions. Waking the Spirit by 3500 word essay Andrew Schulman. A world-class musician discovers the hard way the profound power of experience music in life and death situations. Schulman’s story is compelling and inspiring, a gripping journey that reveals fundamental truths about music and the brain. The Invention of 3500 word Nature by Andrea Wulf. Alexander von Humboldt was one of Dr. Sacks’s greatest heroes. He would have adored Wulf#8217;s acclaimed biography of Humboldt, an intrepid adventurer and nature, visionary polymath whose understanding of the natural world inspired Darwin and 3500 essay, others, and is equally relevant today. For more great ideas, check out experience Brainpickings#8216; top 2016 science books. Have you explored all fourteen of Dr.

Sacks’s own books? Did we forget any of your favorite reads? Send us your suggestions! Warm wishes from. 3500 Essay! The Oliver Sacks Foundation. PS: Find out how you can support the work of the experience essay Oliver Sacks Foundation with a year-end tax-deductible contribution. As we mark the one-year anniversary of Dr. Sacks’s death on August 30, we are grateful for your messages of support, and for the fact that his work lives on. (Indeed, the Sacks office is currently putting the finishing touches on a new book of his essays to be published in the fall of 2017.

Stay tuned for updates!) This week saw the 3500 essay publication of essay on sainik two wonderful reminiscences of word Oliver you will not want to miss: Bill Hayes, Oliver’s partner, just published this gorgeous and moving New York Times piece on life with Oliver, describing some unexpected Sacksian moments. We can’t wait for Bill’s forthcoming book Insomniac City: New York, Oliver, and on sainik sammelan, Me, coming next Valentine’s Day. And The New Yorker published a lovely remembrance of 3500 word biking with Oliver by his good friend Orrin Devinsky (pictured below). Essay! The Sacks office. Photo credits: top, Andrea Artz/Redux via the word essay New Yorker; middle, Henri Cole; bottom, courtesy Orrin Devinsky. A few days ago we had an opportunity to see #8220;Life, Animated,#8221; which opens around the country this weekend. Exquisitely crafted, this film introduces us to Owen Suskind: handsome (not unlike the young Oliver Sacks), kind, thoughtful and articulate, accomplished. Owen is arts resume, also autisticafter years of silence in essay, early childhood, he learned to you learn and write, speak again by embracing his passion for Disney animated characters. (You may remember the book and article by Owen#8217;s father, eminent journalist Ron Suskind, which inspired the 3500 word essay film.) Watch the trailer, and please share it with your friends.

Here#8217;s what the Washington Post had to say: V iewers . . . On Sainik Sammelan! will be grateful for essay the chance to spend time with Owen, a born leader who’s not only a delightful and memorable leading man, but who radically reframes conventional understanding of the autism spectrum. You Learn To Read And Write! “Life, Animated” makes fascinating points, about the power of cinema, about meeting our loved ones where they are and, as Ron says, about 3500 word who gets to decide what constitutes a meaningful life. That is a probing question — and “Life, Animated” provides a bracingly optimistic answer. Twenty years ago, Oliver Sacks introduced Temple Grandin to a global audience in his book An Anthropologist on Mars, and since then we have seen so many exciting advances in the scientific understanding of the thesis autism spectrum of conditions. More importantly, our culture is just beginning to embrace the many ways in word essay, which people with autism bring very special strengths to arts resume, us all. Life, Animated will enrich your lifeplease go to theaters this weekend to support this life-changing film. If you suffer from political convention overload, we guarantee it, this will make you proud to essay, be a human again.

Awakening the Mind: World Science Festival Tribute to thesis, Oliver Sacks. Essay! We are thrilled to announce an upcoming tribute to the remarkable life and work of Dr. Oliver Sacks produced by thesis job the World Science Festival. Dr. Sacks, a longtime contributor to 3500, the Festival, will be the subject of how did you learn to read and write this year’s opening night event, June 1, 2016 in 3500 word essay, New York City.

With stories from Dr. Sacks himself, as well as his friends, colleagues, and patients, this multi-media evening of music, image, and language reveals much about this extraordinary man who had an incalculable impact on the worlds of medicine and storytelling. Wednesday, June 1, 2016 8:00PM. NYU Skirball Center for the Performing Arts. 566 LaGuardia Place, New York, NY 10012. Tickets (general admission) are now on sale.

Do you live outside New York City? Why not organize an event in your own community to meet other Sacks readers and livestream the program? The WSF will provide your group with free access to thesis job, the program content, and you can add your own guest speakers or discussion groups. Can you think of a local organization that would like to sponsor an 3500 essay Oliver Sacks nightperhaps a university, school, museum, library, science club or arts organization? Let us know how we can help! For more information regarding WSF Live streaming partnerships, click here. Our good friend Steve Silberman (“Neurotribes”) recently listed his five favorite books on autism for FiveBooks.com. He adds this observation about Dr. Malthus's On The Of Population! Sacks’s work:

“Oliver was interested not just in studying what deficits and impairments his patients had, but also in what gave them joy, resilience and a sense of essay purpose. He would then ally himself with these sources of strength so they could learn to use their potentially devastating conditions as opportunities for adaptation, renewal, reinvention and growth.” “We already understand the value of biodiversity in nature, a rainforest,” says Silberman. 3500 Word! “The same is keats thesis, true of 3500 word essay any community of human minds.” Dr. Experience Essay! Sacks’s book Gratitude is still on the New York Times bestseller list, and we thank you all for your support! It is now available in the US, Canada, UK, Germany, the Netherlands, and Brazil, with more translations coming soon. On the Move is now available in a beautiful new paperback edition from Vintage Books in the US and Canada, and from Picador in the UK. The Science Friday Book Club selected On the Move this month, and you can listen to what Maria Popova, Danielle Ofri and others have to 3500, say about the book here. Also check out Science Friday’s great website extras about the book. We at the Oliver Sacks Foundation are on the move, as well. Thesis! Please write to us at our new office:

The Oliver Sacks Foundation. Word! 535 West 23 rd Street. Arts Resume! New York, New York 10011. His newest book, Gratitude, was published last month in 3500 word essay, the US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Brazil, with other translations coming soon. To Read Essay! It brings together the 3500 essay four inspiring essays written in the final months of his life, in which Dr. Sacks reflects on growing old, coming to essay on sainik, terms with mortality, and—most importantly—being thankful for the gift of living one’s own life. Meanwhile, On the Move continues to receive great reviews, and has appeared on a number of year-end #8220;best of#8221; lists. Together, these two books form an exquisite capstone to a truly extraordinary life. We are grateful to you for sharing this journey with us, and this week, we will launch our #DaysOfGratitude campaign.

Over the next two weeks we will feature previously unpublished photos of Dr. Sacks and other features on our social media channels, celebrating the life and 3500 essay, work of Dr. Sacks and thesis job, the impact it has had on various communities across the 3500 essay globe. Malthus's Essay Of Population! What are you grateful for? We invite you to share your own thoughts on life, death, and gratitude on our Facebook and Twitter pages.

Wishing you and essay, yours—and the entire planet—a peaceful, healthy, holiday season. The Sacks Office. PS: Collective thanks to all who have written to us in keats thesis, the last few months—we love hearing from you! We are proud to announce the upcoming publication of a new book by Dr. Sacks: titled Gratitude, it brings together in one volume four gemlike essays written over the last two years of his life and first read by millions worldwide in 3500, The New York Times . It begins with Dr. Sacks#8217;s essay on turning 80, originally titled #8220;The Joy of Old Age.#8221; In it, he writes that embracing old age has brought “not a shrinking but an you learn and write enlargement of mental life and perspective.” Rarely has an essay struck a nerve as this piece did; it was the #1 most e-mailed article in the Times for an entire month.

In January of 2015, only a few weeks after he completed the manuscript of his new memoir, On the word Move, Dr. Sacks received the news that a rare, uveal form of melanoma had metastasized to his liver. Within days of the diagnosis, he began writing “My Own Life,” in which he expressed an arts resume overwhelming feeling of gratitude. “Above all,” he wrote, “I have been a sentient being, a thinking animal, on this beautiful planet, and that in 3500 essay, itself has been an enormous privilege and adventure.” This essay, too, went viral. In July, he published “My Periodic Table,” in which he spoke of the sense of awe and eternity inspired by an expansive night sky filled with stars, and about his deep love for essay on the principle science and nature, for metals and 3500 essay, elements (“little emblems of thesis job eternity”), and for lemurs. Finally, Gratitude contains Sacks’s last essay, published only two weeks before his death.

In “Sabbath,” he writes, “I find my thoughts, increasingly, not on the supernatural or spiritual, but on what is meant by living a good and worthwhile life — achieving a sense of peace within oneself.” Together, these four extraordinary essays form an ode to the uniqueness of each human being and to 3500 essay, gratitude for the gift of life. Gratitude will be published worldwide, in hardcover, e-book, and audiobook formats, beginning November 24. It is available for preorder now from your local bookseller or online bookstore.

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Essay: The Salem Witchcraft Trials. The Salem Witchcraft trials in Massachusetts during 1692 resulted in nineteen innocent men and women being hanged, one man pressed to death, and in the deaths of more than seventeen who died in jail. It all began at the end of 1691 when a few girls in the town began to experiment with magic by gathering around a crystal ball to try to find the answer to questions such as “what trade their sweet harts should be of “. 3500 Word! This conjuring took place in the Parris household where a woman named Tituba, an Indian slave, headed the rituals. Soon after they had begun to you learn to read essay, practice these rituals, girls who had been involved, including the Master Parris’ daughter and niece, became sick. They had constant fits, twitched, cried, made odd noises, and huddled in corners. The family called in doctors, and they were treated for many illnesses. Nothing helped. Many weeks later after running out of word essay reasons for their strange behavior, all of their symptoms seemed to lead to one belief, “The evil hand is upon them.” They were possessed by the Devil. At first the families of the children could not find anyone to accuse for being the witch responsible for possessing the how did and write children. Then, late in February of 1692, Parris’ neighbor, Mary Sibley recommended that Parris’ slaves, Tituba and John Indian, should work a spell to try to word, find the culprits. Even after trying this solution the girls’ condition worsened, and the people responsible still had not been found.

The girls began to see hazy shadows and believed that these shadows were of the people who had done this to them. After more and more children became victims of this, the hunting for the witches who were to to read essay, blame for the girls’ sickness began to get more serious. By the end of February 1692, not one, but three witches had been named. 3500! These women were Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba, all residents of beach Salem Village. Sarah Good was a poor “socially undesirable” member of the village of Salem which made her susceptible to accusations of being a witch and of practicing black magic. Essay! She was well known in thesis, the village for essay her eccentric behavior, and in you learn and write essay, the past people had suspected her of 3500 word essay being a witch. Her husband, William Good, was a simple laborer and his inadequate income forced the how did you learn to read Goods to accept charity and to 3500 word, beg for goods from their neighbors. Sometimes they even had to live with their neighbors, but this never lasted long. Sarah Good’s actions and on sainik behaviors would often cause unrest in the hosts and their families, and then the Good family would be asked to leave. A few of the villagers they stayed with reported that their livestock would begin to sicken and die after the Goods were forced to word, leave. More than fifteen families claimed that Sarah Good bewitched their livestock while others reported that she could make objects disappear into thin air.

When Good was questioned about these accusations, her answers were always tight-lipped and beach essay aggressive, further leading the people to believe that she was in fact a witch. Sarah Osborne was also one of the first three women accused of putting spells on the girls and 3500 possessing them. Unlike Tituba and Sarah Good, however, she was from a very wealthy household. Although it is believed sometimes that only poor people were accused of beach experience being witches, in the Salem Witchcraft Trials, this was not true, as in the case of Osborne. Women and men accused of being witches were either looked down upon in word essay, the community or envied for their land and wealth, as Sarah Osborne was in Salem. Tituba, like Good, was very poor. She worked as a servant in the Parris home and was a Carib Indian born in Barbados in the West Indies.

Reverend Parris brought Tituba to how did you learn to read and write essay, New England when he was still a merchant, and after this she married John Indian who also worked as slave for Reverend Parris. Tituba was the person asked to aid with the girls’ illnesses by making a witch’s cake to find their culprit and after this did not work, she was arrested four days later for being a witch herself. Each of these three women was examined by 3500 word, local Salem officials before they were sent off to await trial in a Boston jail. The girls, who these witches had supposedly inflicted sickness upon, were also present during these trials to show the court how much pain the three women had caused. During the trial Sarah Good kept insisting that she was not guilty but rather that she had been wrongly accused. When asked why she hurts the innocent children she responded, “I do not hurt them. I scorn it.” Then, she attempted to shift all blame onto Sarah Osborne who in turn responded with disbelief. She said that she “was more like to you learn to read and write, be bewitched than she was a witch.” While Good and word essay Osborne were trying to defend themselves, Tituba confessed, most likely in fear of arts resume her Master, Reverend Parris.

When asked who was to blame for word all the possessed girls she responded, “The devil for aught I know.” Tituba told the whole court about her pact with the Devil and the type of malthus's on the of population wonderful things he gave her in return for her service and loyalty to him. Then, after she was done telling her story, when the 3500 magistrate asked her who she had seen doing the witchcraft, Tituba says, “Goody Osborn and Sarah Good and I do not know who the other were. Sarah Good and Osborn would have me hurt the children but I would not . . . ” So according to malthus's on the principle of population, Tituba there were still witches out there bewitching innocent children. After Tituba’s confession, the entire community of 3500 essay Salem increased their efforts to find the witches who were bringing such horrible events to beach, their village. The children still were not able to come up with names for their perpetrators until a little thirteen-year-old girl, Ann Putnam, cried out the name of Martha Corey. Essay! Corey, like Osborne, was not poor at all. While she was being tried, Martha Corey had the audacity to laugh at questions presented to malthus's principle of population, her.

She acted naive and said she did not even know if there were any witches in New England She also labeled herself as a “Gospel-woman.” Her presence and attitude during the trial led many to believe that she was in fact guilty of practicing witchcraft. From this point on, after Ann Putnam’s accusation, the females of Salem showed no hesitation in 3500 essay, naming the keats thesis witches who had brought this upon them. 3500 Word! The number of women accused was monumental, and the court had very little time to examine each accusation thoroughly. Soon, anyone who was called a witch was jailed, whether it was a man, woman, child, or adult. Even Dorcas Good, the four-year-old daughter of Sarah Good was accused and thesis job thrown into jail; a four-year-old child who was barely old enough to 3500 essay, make coherent sentences, was convicted of being a witch and “taking supernatural revenge on the possessed for taking away her parents.” This is how paranoid the on the people of Salem had become. 3500 Word! Everyone jumped at the mention of a witch, afraid that they would be the next person to become a possessed victim of their mysterious black magic. The villagers went from the four-year-old girl to seventy-one-year-old Rebecca Nurse followed by forty-seven-year-old Elizabeth Proctor. Both of these women who were from you learn essay very wealthy, prosperous homes, were imprisoned because people thought Rebecca Nurse’s mother and Proctor’s grandmother practiced black magic when they were alive. At this point, anyone who was a family member of an accused witch was most likely to wind up in jail also.

Next, John Proctor became the first male to be charged for being a witch because he stood by his belief that his wife was innocent and word essay spoke out against the court. The Salem Witchcraft Trials were completely outrageous, convicting women with no solid evidence other than a villager saying that they themselves had seen the person practicing black magic. No one in the court bothered to think that the witnesses could be lying and presenting false testimonies. After John Proctor a long list of essay alleged witches followed. Mary Easty and Sarah Cloyce, sisters of Rebecca Nurse who had expressed their negative feelings about the trials were locked up in jail. 3500! Dorcas Hoar of beach experience essay Beverly, Susanna Martin of Amesbury, and Bridget Bishop of Salem Town were all taken to word essay, jail to be put on trial because they had been convicted of committing witchcraft crimes in the 1660’s, 16670’s, or 1680’s. Afterwards, many of Elizabeth Proctor’s children were named along with her sister and essay sister-in-law. Likewise, Martha Corey’s husband was put in jail to be brought to trial. The most shocking was the arrest of George Burroughs, the onetime pastor of word Salem Village church. Arts Resume! Many villagers thought that he would have become the 3500 word “Ring Leader of them all,” and so he was locked up.

While accusations were occurring as routine events for the people of how did you learn essay Salem, some came to think that perhaps this outbreak was not related to witchcraft after all. A few in the village had doubted the validity of the word trials from the beginning, and as time went on they felt more confident and sure that their beliefs were true. The protests from the people against the trials were not heard at first, and the members of the court insisted on treating people accused of being witches as the Devil’s servants. Most ministers of Salem warned the government against beach, accepting these testimonies from the very start of the trials. They said the spirits the essay girls saw could be just hallucinations resulting from their sickness, or they could be the Devil in disguise, but the government officials simply ignored them. Justice Nathanial Saltonstall also apparently disagreed with the ways of the court because he resigned from his position after the first witchcraft trial. Essay! Chief Justice Stoughton, however, thought that the evil spirits would not disguise themselves to essay, people who were willing to cooperate with them.

The trials now became even more complicated because people would confess out of fear of the magistrates’ accusations and the girls’ convulsions. Now that the accusations were flying back and forth in how did you learn, full swing, anybody and word essay everybody came to the court to put their two cents in. Hundreds of these local residents came into the court to help testify against on sainik sammelan, crimes alleged witches had committed years, even decades, before. Although many people volunteered to come forward and speak out against these witches, they were very concerned about maleficium, the ability of a witch to 3500 word essay, do harm to another person through supernatural means. They were afraid that after testifying against the witch that she may put an evil spell on them.

Another concern was that the possessed would be forced to sign a Satanic pact, and malthus's if they did not do so then the word witches would inflict pain upon them until they did. The number of accusations is what made the Salem case different from any other case of witchcraft. After the executions began in 1692, officials began to deal with the problem of credibility by ignoring any accusations made against the wealthy, well-to-do members of the Salem society. Nature! At this point, close to two hundred people had been accused of word witchcraft, and more than twenty-five people had died because of the trials. The trials in themselves were a big contradiction. Essay On The Principle! People who pleaded innocent were tortured until they “confessed” that they were guilty. One form of 3500 essay torture was the accused would be pressed by a heavy weight until they confessed. Thesis Job! Giles Corey, husband of Martha Corey, was pressed to death when he refused say that he was involved with the Devil, and that he was, in fact, guilty. One form of 3500 torture, though, was even more absurd. The witch’s head would be forced underwater and kept there for a certain period of time. If she came up alive everyone said she had magical powers which kept her from drowning, and then she would be executed.

If when they lifted her up she was dead then she was presumed innocent, but that was completely pointless. Either way the accused were killed. These were a few examples of preposterous tortures against the people. The credibility of these trials was challenged multiple times by many people. Essay Of Population! These people protesting against the trials varied. Some were villagers and some were authoritative figures in the community. One of these people was Increase Mather, who wrote Cases of Conscience. He stopped short of calling the possessed girls liars but instead called them “Deamoniacks” as “mouthpieces for 3500 the Father of Lyes.” He also argued that “no juror can with a safe Conscience look on the Testimony of such, as sufficient to take away the Life of beach experience any Man even if the word possessed normally knew their real tormentors.” He said the on sainik sammelan supposed psychic abilities these girls came to have after being possessed should be ignored because God “has taught us not to receive the 3500 essay Devil’s Testimony in any thing.” Mather also claimed that confessing witches were also “not such credibly witnesses.” He told the people that witches sometimes lied outright with no shame about their rituals and about the names of their various “Associates in that Trade.” Other times Satan filled their heads to malthus's on the principle of population, make them “dream strange things of themselves and 3500 others which are not so.” This work is arts resume what eventually led to the end of the witchcraft trials in Salem, Massachusetts. Mather’s son, Cotton Mather, also agreed with his father on the matter of the witchcraft trials but he then reported in 3500, the Wonders of the Invisible World that the court had listened carefully to the different eyewitnesses and defendants along with the spectral evidence. Finally, in October of 1693, so many people were doubting the guiltiness of the beach experience witches that Governor Phips, governor of Massachusetts, decided to 3500 word, stop the trials and the executions.

They realized that the thesis trials should not continue due to lack of evidence and credibility of the 3500 essay witnesses. Many people accused others of being witches if they disliked them or if they were outsiders in society. Arts Resume! Witches on essay, trial were encouraged to give names of sammelan their fellow witches and/or to confess to their evil deeds, and in 3500 essay, exchange they would be granted a less severe punishment. Because of this, the witches on trial would confess even if they were innocent, and essay on the principle of population they would also accuse other innocent people of 3500 being witches. The government saw that there was no real way to make sure the person was a witch before executing them and that there was a great chance that they may be killing innocent people. People were still being accused of being witches even after the trials were suspended, but the charges were not taken seriously. Now the question was how to handle the rest of the cases of the people still locked up in the jails awaiting their doom filled trials.

Because the possessed could not testify and the magistrates were reluctant to accept any more false statements, by the month of on sainik sammelan May 1694, the few men and 3500 essay women left in the jails were sent back to their homes. Even the witches who had been tried already and keats nature thesis convicted were let free to return to their normal lifestyles. Although there were still some being accused of witchcraft in 3500 essay, other towns the malthus's essay principle of population cases went unheeded. This chaotic time was for the most part over. Mostly all confessing witches during this period were females ranging in age from word less than ten to more than seventy. Out of the forty-eight possessed, mostly were females. Forty-four percent of the possessed were females between the ages of sixteen to twenty who were “single-women” or “maids” in seventeenth century terms.

Another 38 percent were over twenty while 18 percent were under sixteen. Three-fourths of the keats nature thesis non-possessed accusers whose main concern was maleficium were men. In 1711, the legislature passed the Reversal of Attainder, which was an act to clear the names of everyone jailed during the trials. Massachusetts also repaid the survivors and the heirs for jail and court fees and for some property that the essay government had taken away from them. The government also wrote up a sincere apology for their mistake in proceeding with the trials when there was no solid evidence and for possibly executing innocent people.(See Appendix 1A) As time passed many people wondered what was the thesis job purpose of the Salem Witchcraft Trials? Why were so many innocent people jailed or even killed? How could anyone have hanged their neighbor for being a witch?

People pondered on 3500 word, what kind of an illness could have been mistaken for the symptoms of possession, but some thought that the possessed were simply liars and fools. Many times, the Puritans were blamed for the trials, encouraging witchcraft fears, and the number of people affected by them. Some people believe that the Puritans blamed anyone who was different as being a witch. Arts Resume! This was because the 3500 Puritans had always suspected, as one of their main beliefs, that the Devil envied their way of life and was constantly trying his best to thesis job, make their lives miserable. 3500 Word! Their goal in life was to “purify the organization of their church” and to rid it of any sign of the essay Devil. 3500 Word Essay! By accusing so many people of being witches, they thought they were just purifying the church and their community. Most of the time, credibility of an accusation was not checked thoroughly, instead the person accused was simply locked up in how did and write, jail until their trial time came.

Even then, if they did not confess to being guilty, they were punished sometimes even killed. Although the law is innocent until proven guilty, and had been practiced before the trials, in 3500, the case of the witchcraft trials, the on sainik accused witches were guilty until proven innocent. Not many were given the chance to prove themselves to be innocent. 1. Karlsen Carol, The Devil in the Shape of word a Woman (New York: Vintage Books, 2. Guilley Ellen, Witches and sammelan Witchcraft (New York: Facts on File, 1989), 152. 3. Trask Richard, Salem Village and the Witch Hysteria (New York: Golden Owl. Publishing Company, 1991), 185.

4. Wilson, Lori Lee, The Salem Witch Trials (Minneapolis: Lerner Publishing Company, 1997) 5. Word Essay! Hoffer Peter, The Salem Witchcraft Trials: A Legal History (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1997), 212. 6. Rosenthal Bernard, Salem Story: Reading the Witch Trials of 1692 (Cambridge. England: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 132. 7. Concle Maryse, I, Tituba, Black Witch of Salem (Charlottesville: University Press of essay sammelan Virginia, 1992), 178. 9. Roach, Marilynne, In the essay Days of the Salem Witchcraft Trials (Boston: Houghton. Mifflin Company, 1996), 94. 10. Hill, Frances, A Delusion of Satan: the Full Story of the Salem Witch Trials (New York: Doubleday, 1995), 76. 11. Barstow, Anne, Witchcraze, A New History of the European Witch Hunts (California: Pandora, 1994), 79.

21. Arts Resume! Zeinert, Karen. The Salem Witchcraft Trials, (New York: F. Essay! Watts, 1989),