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Science, Technology, and Society (STS) National Science Foundation. Division of Social and Economic Sciences. Full Proposal Deadline(s) (due by 5 p.m. submitter's local time): February 02, 2015. February 2, Annually Thereafter. August 3, Annually Thereafter. IMPORTANT INFORMATION AND REVISION NOTES. The solicitation revises the characterization of the program to emphasize that it studies the phd thesis quality higher, full range of scientific, technological, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, including medical science, using historical, philosophical, and social scientific approaches; and that it focuses on the intellectual, material, and social facets of STEM.
The solicitation being replaced emphasized the fun creative ideas, interface between science and society. Quality Assurance Education. Scholars Awards and Postdoctoral Fellowships are distinguished as separate modes of funding; they were previously combined into one mode. The caps set on specific budget items (such as those on undergraduate, graduate, and lucia dessay, post-doctoral research assistants) have been eliminated. The caps on the award are now stated in terms of direct costs rather than the quality higher education, total costs, which included indirect costs; for most modes of essays funding, the designated cap effectively increases the cap on total costs indicated in phd thesis, the old solicitation. Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grant proposals now only have one deadline per format, year, August 3, and they are submitted to the STS program only under this solicitation. Any proposal submitted in response to this solicitation should be submitted in accordance with the revised NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG) (NSF 17-1), which is effective for proposals submitted, or due, on or after January 30, 2017.
Science, Technology, and Society (STS) The Science, Technology, and Society (STS) program supports research that uses historical, philosophical, and social scientific methods to investigate the intellectual, material, and social facets of the scientific, technological, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines. It encompasses a broad spectrum of STS topics including interdisciplinary studies of ethics, equity, governance, and education, policy issues that are closely related to fun creative, STEM disciplines, including medical science. The program#146;s review process is approximately six months. It includes appraisal of proposals by ad hoc reviewers selected for their expertise and by an advisory panel that meets twice a year. Phd Thesis. The deadlines for the submission of proposals are February 2nd for proposals to be funded as early as July, and August 3rd for proposals to be funded in or after January. There is lucia dessay one exception: Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant proposals will have only one deadline per year, August 3rd. The Program encourages potential investigators with questions as to whether their proposal fits the goals of the program to contact one of the program officers. Cognizant Program Officer(s) and Additional Points of Contact: Frederick Kronz-Program Director, Program Officer, 995 N, telephone: (703) 292-7283, email: [email protected]
Wenda Bauchspies-Program Director, 990 N, telephone: (703) 292-5026, email: [email protected] Alexandra Cohen-Science Assistant, 995, telephone: (703) 292-4927, email: [email protected] Applicable Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number(s): 47.075 --- Social Behavioral and Economic Sciences. Anticipated Type of phd thesis assurance Award: Standard Grant or Continuing Grant or Fellowship. Estimated Number of Awards: 40. Anticipated Funding Amount: $6,200,000. Approximately $6,200,000 will be made available in FY 2015 to support an special education paper, estimated 40 awards. Estimated program budget and number of phd thesis higher awards are subject to the availability of funds. Proposals may only be submitted by the following: Organization limit varies by the mode of support: Standard Research Grants and Grants for Collaborative Research: US Academic Institutions and Non-Profit Research Organizations.
Scholars Awards and Postdoctoral Fellowships: US Academic Institutions and Independent Scholars. Argumentative Essay About. Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants: US Academic Institutions. Conference and Workshop Support: No limitations. See NSF's Proposals and Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG), Chapter I, Section E for categories of proposers eligible to submit proposals to NSF. See Section II. Program Description for quality higher education detailed information about each mode of support.
PI eligibility limit varies by the mode of support. See Section II. Program Description for detailed information about each mode of support. Limit on Number of Proposals per Organization: There are no restrictions or limits. Limit on Number of Proposals per lucia dessay, PI or Co-PI: There are no restrictions or limits. Proposal Preparation and Submission Instructions. A. Proposal Preparation Instructions. Full Proposals submitted via FastLane: NSF Proposal and Award Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG) guidelines apply.
The complete text of the PAPPG is available electronically on phd thesis assurance education the NSF website at: https://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=papp. Full Proposals submitted via Grants.gov: NSF Grants.gov Application Guide: A Guide for the Preparation and Submission of NSF Applications via Grants.gov guidelines apply (Note: The NSF Grants.gov Application Guide is available on the Grants.gov website and on the NSF website at: http://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=grantsgovguide). Cost Sharing Requirements: Inclusion of voluntary committed cost sharing is prohibited. Indirect Cost (FA) Limitations: Other Budgetary Limitations: Other budgetary limitations apply. đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣. Please see the full text of this solicitation for further information. Full Proposal Deadline(s) (due by 5 p.m. submitter's local time): February 02, 2015.
February 2, Annually Thereafter. August 3, Annually Thereafter. Proposal Review Information Criteria. National Science Board approved criteria apply. Additional award conditions apply.
Please see the full text of this solicitation for further information. Standard NSF reporting requirements apply. Science, Technology, and Society (STS) is an phd thesis, interdisciplinary field that investigates topics relating to the scientific, technological, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, including medical science. The STS program supports proposals across a broad spectrum of STS research areas. STS research uses historical, philosophical, and social scientific methods to investigate STEM theory and practice, and it may be empirical or conceptual. Specifically, it may focus on the intellectual, material, or social facets of STEM including interdisciplinary studies of ethics, equity, governance, and policy issues. STS is an interdisciplinary field that investigates topics relating to the scientific, technological, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, including medical science. STS research uses historical, philosophical, and social scientific methods to investigate STEM theory and practice with regards to history and socio-cultural formation, philosophical underpinnings, and impacts of term paper science and technology on quality of life, culture, and society.
STS researchers strive to understand how STEM fields contribute to the development and phd thesis quality education, use of systems of đî_ÔÇ╣ knowledge, the production and use of materials and devices, the co-evolution of socio-technical systems and their governance, and the place of science and technology in the modern world. STS research focuses on the intellectual, material, and social facets of phd thesis quality STEM. Such research endeavors to understand how scientific knowledge is produced and movie titles format, sanctioned, and how it is challenged and changes. It explores broader societal ramifications and underlying presuppositions. STS research studies how materials, devices, and techniques are designed and phd thesis assurance higher, developed; how and by whom they are diffused, used, adapted, and rejected; how they are affected by social and term paper, cultural environments; and phd thesis assurance higher, how they influence quality of life, culture, and society. STS research explores how socio-cultural values are embedded in science and technology, and lucia dessay, how issues of governance and quality assurance education, equity co-evolve with the development and use of scientific knowledge and technological artifacts. STS researchers make use of methods from a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, communication studies, history, philosophy, political science, and sociology. Special Term. STS research includes interdisciplinary studies of ethics, equity, governance, and policy issues. Assurance Higher Education. STS studies may be empirical or conceptual.
The STS program supports proposals across the broad spectrum of STS research areas, topics, and approaches. Special Education Term Paper. Examples include, but are by no means limited to: Societal aspects of emerging high-tech technologies (e.g., nanotechnology, synthetic biology, neuroscience, robotics, drones, ubiquitous computing, crowdsourcing, remote-sensing) Societal aspects of emerging low-tech technologies (e.g., paper microscopes; whirlwind wheel chairs) Issues relating to equity, ethics, governance, sustainability, public engagement, user-centeredness, and inclusiveness. Integration of traditional STS approaches with innovative perspectives from the arts or humanities. Ethical, policy, and quality assurance higher, cultural issues regarding big data, surveillance and privacy in an increasingly networked world, and The science of broadening participation in STEM disciplines. In addition, the STS program is particularly interested in titles in mla, proposals that will contribute to NSF's research-focused Big Ideas: Harnessing the Data Revolution for 21st Century Science and Engineering Navigating the New Arctic The Quantum Leap: Leading the Next Quantum Revolution Work at the Human-Technology Frontier: Shaping the Future Understanding the Rules of Life: Predicting Phenotype Windows on the Universe: The Era of Multi-Messenger Astrophysics. Effective STS proposals will clearly present the research questions, describe and explain the suitability of the methods to be used to address those questions, and provide a detailed work plan with a timeline that demonstrates adequate resources and access to any required data.
If the plan involves research at archives, working in specific labs, or engaging with pertinent community groups, it is important to provide evidence of access and to phd thesis quality higher education, indicate the specific questions to be asked or addressed. If the plan involves surveys, the lucia dessay, proposal should discuss sample selection and survey design and content. Similar advice pertains for other modes of STS research involving focus groups, ethnographies, modeling, conceptual analysis, and so forth. Effective proposals suitably situate the proposed project in pertinent STS literatures, issues, and conceptual or theoretical frameworks, and articulate how the results of the proposed project would serve to advance STS, or subfields thereof. Finally, successful proposals make a strong case for broader impacts. The Project Summary should describe specific, feasible broader project impacts and phd thesis higher, detailed plans to achieve them. A work plan for maximizing potential broader impacts and dissemination of results to multiple audiences including stakeholders and movie titles essays, the public should be included in the Project Description. Quality Education. PIs are encouraged to engage in ideas, new modes of quality disseminating results broadly, not just to world, academics, but to stakeholders and phd thesis education, the general public. The STS program supports several distinct modes of funding in order to accommodate the diverse research needs of the STS community.
Modes of support include Standard Research Grants and Grants for essay service Collaborative Research, Scholars Awards, Postdoctoral Fellowships, Conference and Workshop Support, and Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants. To assist the phd thesis quality assurance, program in reviewing the writing, same types of proposals together, you must include a prefix in the title of the phd thesis higher education, proposal that indicates the essay about customer, mode of support being requested; for example, if the workshop title is “On the Reliability of Evidence in Forensic Science,” the workshop proposal title should be “Workshop: On the Reliability of Evidence in Forensic Science.” 1. STANDARD RESEARCH GRANTS and GRANTS FOR COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH. These grants support proposals for basic STS research. They also support proposals for phd thesis assurance higher infrastructure development that serves to đî_ÔÇ╣, enhance STS research; program support of quality higher infrastructure projects is lucia dessay directed towards scholarly research and data production, rather than administrative or logistical activities.
Eligibility Requirements for Standard Grants and quality, Collaborative Research Grants. These grants are made to U.S. academic institutions and to term, U.S. non-profit research organizations. Budget Guidelines for Standard Grants and education, Collaborative Grants. These grants are governed by NSF’s general policy, which limits salary compensation for lucia dessay senior project personnel to no more than two months of their regular salary in any one year. Other restrictions apply; see NSF’s Proposals and Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG) for details. Additional program guidelines and restrictions follow. Research assistance may be requested and must be justified in the Project Description in laying out the plan of work.
Funds may also be requested for other research related expenses, such as data collection or data processing activities, or travel expenses for quality assurance education research or for the dissemination of research results. đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ. Due to budgetary constraints, total direct costs will rarely exceed $400,000. (Total award size includes both total direct costs plus total indirect costs.) The duration is typically for two to three years. Proposals requesting larger amounts of phd thesis quality support or a longer duration will be considered, if extraordinarily well justified and merited. Scholars Awards provide up to full-time release for an academic year and a summer to conduct research. This time can be distributed over lucia dessay, two or more years. In exceptional circumstances, longer releases can be requested. Some of the budgetary guidelines for Scholars Awards indicated below deviate from NSF’s Proposals and Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG). As indicated in phd thesis education, the PAPPG, program solicitation guidelines supersede PAPPG guidelines.
Eligibility Requirements for Scholars Awards. Scholars Awards are normally made to U.S. Lucia Dessay. academic institutions, although an assurance education, individual who is not affiliated with an titles in mla, appropriate U.S. academic institution may submit a proposal as an independent scholar, in which case the scholar must be a U.S. Quality Higher Education. citizen or national, or have permanent resident status. Budget Guidelines for Scholars Awards. These awards provide course-release support for ideas research up to one full-time academic year (nine person-months), covering both salary and fringe benefits. They may also provide support for up to phd thesis assurance higher, two summer months, including salary and fringe benefits. Research assistance may also be requested and special term paper, must be justified in the proposal's work plan.
Funds may also be requested for other research related expenses, such as data collection or data processing activities, or travel expenses for research or the dissemination of research results. Due to budgetary constraints, total direct costs will rarely exceed $180,000. (Total award size includes both total direct costs plus total indirect costs.) The duration is typically for phd thesis higher one year. Proposals requesting larger amounts of support or a longer duration will be considered, if extraordinarily well justified and merited. 3. POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIPS. Postdoctoral fellowships support researchers within five years of receipt of their doctoral degree in đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, order to enhance their methodological skills and phd thesis quality education, research competence.
Proposals for postdoctoral fellowships must include a mentoring plan, consistent with the PAPPG (Part I: Proposal Preparation and Submission Guidelines, Chapter II) and which includes mentoring in the ethical conduct of research. The site of the fellowship must be different than the institution where the scholar received her or his doctoral degree and the mentor must be someone other than members of the scholar’s doctoral committee. The proposal should justify the choice of venue and the host faculty member. Host institutions should provide letters agreeing to provide appropriate space and facilities. Fun Creative Writing. A letter of phd thesis assurance support must also be included from the scholar's dissertation advisor. These letters should be placed in the Supplementary Documents section of the titles format essays, proposal.
Eligibility Requirements for phd thesis Postdoctoral Fellowships. Postdoctoral Fellowships are normally made to U.S. academic institutions, although an individual who is not affiliated with a U.S. academic institution may submit a proposal as an independent scholar, in which case the scholar must be a U.S. citizen or national, or have permanent resident status. Budget Guidelines for Postdoctoral Fellowships. Postdoctoral Fellowships normally provide an annual stipend of $50,000 per year to cover both salary and fringe benefits for a maximum of two years. Funds may also be requested for dbq 21 world other research related expenses, such as data collection or data processing activities, or travel expenses for research or the dissemination of research results.
Due to budgetary constraints, total direct costs will rarely exceed $120,000. (Total award size includes both total direct costs plus total indirect costs.) The maximum duration is typically for two years. Proposals requesting larger amounts of support or a longer duration will be considered, if extraordinarily well justified and merited. 4. CONFERENCE AND WORKSHOP SUPPORT. These proposals should be prepared in accordance with NSF’s Proposals and quality education, Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG). Additional program guidelines and restrictions are provided below. The STS program provides financial support for titles in mla format national and international conferences, symposia, and research workshops. The program is assurance higher particularly interested in proposals that promote new research networks between researchers in STS and scientists and engineers, or between STS scholars and members of titles essays scholarly communities not normally in contact with each other. Phd Thesis Quality Assurance Education. A goal of the lucia dessay, gathering should be development of a new field of scholarship, pedagogy, or research. Proposals for conference or workshop support should describe the need for the gathering, the proposed date and location, topics and higher education, persons who will be involved, prior related meetings, publicity, and expected outcomes.
Conferences and workshops may be carried out as special sessions in regular meetings of professional societies if justified. Workshops may be held at NSF at no charge provided that meeting-room space is available. Special Education Paper. Meetings usually should be open. Phd Thesis Higher Education. Every effort should be made to include younger scholars and members of underrepresented groups as speakers, organizers, attendees and in format, other pertinent roles; these efforts should be described in the Project Description component of the proposal. Eligibility Requirements for Conference and Workshop Support. All categories of proposers recognized by NSF are eligible to apply. See the PAPPG (Chapter 1, Section E) for phd thesis education more information about argumentative about service, who may submit proposals.
Budget Guidelines for Conference and Workshop Support. Support for quality assurance higher education conferences and workshops typically do not exceed $25,000 in dbq 21 war 2 essay, direct costs. Expenses (travel, stipends, etc.) for education attendees should be entered on the Participant Support line of the budget. A small percentage of the total direct costs may be requested for administrative support, such as a graduate student paid to assist the organizer with logistical concerns. Dissemination of results to as broad an đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣, audience as possible is encouraged and plans for quality higher maximizing broader impacts should be included in the project description. 5. DOCTORAL DISSERTATION RESEARCH IMPROVEMENT GRANTS (DDRIGs) DDRIGs provide funds for dissertation research expenses not normally available through the student's university. The dissertation director is the Principal Investigator on these proposals; the doctoral student should be listed as Co-Principal Investigator. DDRIG proposals should be prepared in accordance with the guidelines for world essay regular research proposals specified in NSF’s Proposals and Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG). Phd Thesis Quality Assurance Higher Education. The Project Description should not exceed 10 pages and should describe the scientific significance of the work, including its relationship to other current research, and the design of the project in sufficient detail to permit evaluation.
It should present and special education paper, interpret progress to date if the research is already underway. Phd Thesis Quality Higher. The Results from special education term paper, Prior NSF Support section is not required for these proposals. Awards are not intended to cover the full costs of phd thesis quality assurance education a student's doctoral dissertation research. Funds may be used only for valid research expenses which include, but are not limited to, conducting field research in settings away from campus that would not otherwise be possible, data collection costs, payments to subjects or informants, supplies, travel to archives, special collections or seminars, and facilities or field research locations, and partial living expenses for lucia dessay conducting necessary research away from the student's university. Funds are to be used exclusively for the actual conduct of dissertation research and dissemination of results. These funds may not be used as a student stipend, for tuition, textbooks, journals, or for the typing, reproduction, or publication costs of the student's dissertation. Funds may be requested for research assistants only in very special circumstances, which should be carefully justified. The Results from assurance, Prior NSF Support section is not required for DDRIG proposals.
The program has additional requirements that are specified below. One of those requirements deviates from the PAPPG; specifically, the fun creative writing, program requires that a letter of support from the student’s dissertation director is to quality education, be included in the proposal. Please note that program solicitation guidelines supersede PAPPG guidelines, as indicated in the PAPPG. The proposal must include a letter from the dissertation director. This letter is not intended as a traditional recommendation, but should evaluate the student's promise as a researcher, the student's capabilities for undertaking this project, and the value and titles, status of the proposed research. It should also discuss the phd thesis education, student's current progress in essay service, the graduate program, affirming that the student has passed the qualifying exams, completed all course work required for the degree, and obtained official approval of the dissertation topic or will do so within six months. If the doctoral student will use the award for travel expenses to work with a specialist, the proposal should provide a justification for this choice and a letter of collaboration from the specialist agreeing to work with the student. Quality Education. This letter of collaboration should not provide any evaluative content concerning the quality of the work or of the student. The letter of support from the dissertation director and letters of collaboration (if any) should be placed in the Supplementary Documents section of the FastLane proposal.
Eligibility Requirements for Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants. Only doctoral students who are enrolled in graduate programs at US graduate research institutions are eligible to apply. Doctoral students must have passed the qualifying exams, have completed all course work required for the degree, and have official approval of the dissertation topic prior to special term, receiving the award. Budget Guidelines for phd thesis assurance Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants. Due to budgetary limitations, dissertation grants typically do not exceed $10,000 in war 2, direct costs for research in North America and $12,500 in direct costs for phd thesis assurance higher international research, plus applicable indirect costs. Neither the PI (the dissertation director) nor any of the Co-PIs (including the dissertation student) should be listed on the Senior Personnel Listing on writing ideas the Budget page, since DDRIG proposals do not provide funds for salaries or stipends for the doctoral student, the dissertation director, or other faculty advisors. After the PI and the Co-PI(s) are entered on the Cover Sheet, their names should be manually removed from the Senior Personnel Listing on quality assurance the budget pages to avoid construal as voluntary committed cost sharing, which is not permitted. 6. OTHER GRANT OPPORTUNITIES.
The STS Program also participates in Foundation-wide initiatives such as CAREER, ADVANCE, CCE STEM, NUE and INSPIRE. Investigators may also wish to view the SBE Office of Multidisciplinary Activities (SMA) web site for additional funding opportunities. Anticipated Type of Award: Standard, Continuing Grant, or Fellowship Estimated Number of Awards: 40 Anticipated Funding Amount: $6,200,000 in FY 2015. Proposals may only be submitted by the following: Organization limit varies by world war 2 essay the mode of support: Standard Research Grants and Grants for Collaborative Research: US Academic Institutions and Non-Profit Research Organizations. Phd Thesis Assurance Higher. Scholars Awards and special education term, Postdoctoral Fellowships: US Academic Institutions and Independent Scholars. Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants: US Academic Institutions. Conference and phd thesis higher, Workshop Support: No limitations.
See NSF's Proposals and Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG), Chapter I, Section E for categories of proposers eligible to submit proposals to NSF. See Section II. Program Description for detailed information about each mode of support. PI eligibility limit varies by the mode of support. See Section II. Program Description for fun creative writing ideas detailed information about each mode of support.
Limit on Number of Proposals per Organization: There are no restrictions or limits. Limit on Number of Proposals per PI or Co-PI: There are no restrictions or limits. V. PROPOSAL PREPARATION AND SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS. A. Phd Thesis Quality Higher. Proposal Preparation Instructions. Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: Proposers may opt to submit proposals in response to this Program Solicitation via Grants.gov or via the NSF FastLane system. Full proposals submitted via FastLane: Proposals submitted in response to this program solicitation should be prepared and submitted in accordance with the general guidelines contained in special education term paper, the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG).
The complete text of the PAPPG is assurance education available electronically on the NSF website at: https://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=papp. Paper copies of the lucia dessay, PAPPG may be obtained from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse, telephone (703) 292-7827 or by e-mail from [email protected] Phd Thesis Quality. Proposers are reminded to identify this program solicitation number in the program solicitation block on the NSF Cover Sheet For Proposal to the National Science Foundation. Compliance with this requirement is critical to determining the relevant proposal processing guidelines. Failure to submit this information may delay processing. Full proposals submitted via Grants.gov: Proposals submitted in response to world war 2, this program solicitation via Grants.gov should be prepared and submitted in accordance with the phd thesis education, NSF Grants.gov Application Guide: A Guide for the Preparation and đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, Submission of NSF Applications via Grants.gov. The complete text of the NSF Grants.gov Application Guide is available on the Grants.gov website and on the NSF website at: (http://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=grantsgovguide). To obtain copies of the higher education, Application Guide and Application Forms Package, click on the Apply tab on the Grants.gov site, then click on the Apply Step 1: Download a Grant Application Package and Application Instructions link and enter the dbq 21 essay, funding opportunity number, (the program solicitation number without the NSF prefix) and phd thesis quality education, press the lucia dessay, Download Package button. Paper copies of the Grants.gov Application Guide also may be obtained from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse, telephone (703) 292-7827 or by e-mail from [email protected]
In determining which method to utilize in the electronic preparation and submission of the proposal, please note the following: Collaborative Proposals. All collaborative proposals submitted as separate submissions from multiple organizations must be submitted via the NSF FastLane system. PAPPG Chapter II.D.3 provides additional information on collaborative proposals. See PAPPG Chapter II.C.2 for guidance on the required sections of a full research proposal submitted to quality assurance, NSF. Please note that the proposal preparation instructions provided in lucia dessay, this program solicitation may deviate from the PAPPG instructions. Additional Proposal Preparation Instructions. The title of the proposal must identify the phd thesis assurance education, mode of support (five modes are distinguished above in Section II) using the appropriate title prefix: Standard Grant, Scholars Award, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Dissertation Grant, or Workshop. Section II of this solicitation provides detailed information and special instructions for each mode of support. The instructions for some of these modes of support deviate from the guidelines in the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG) and đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, the NSF Grants.gov Application Guide.
Inclusion of voluntary committed cost sharing is prohibited. Other Budgetary Limitations: See Section II. Program Description for detailed information. Full Proposal Deadline(s) (due by 5 p.m. submitter's local time): February 02, 2015. February 2, Annually Thereafter. August 3, Annually Thereafter. Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant proposals will have only one deadline per year, August 3rd.
For Proposals Submitted Via FastLane: To prepare and submit a proposal via FastLane, see detailed technical instructions available at: https://www.fastlane.nsf.gov/a1/newstan.htm. Education. For FastLane user support, call the FastLane Help Desk at world essay 1-800-673-6188 or e-mail [email protected] Phd Thesis Quality Assurance Education. The FastLane Help Desk answers general technical questions related to the use of the format, FastLane system. Specific questions related to this program solicitation should be referred to higher education, the NSF program staff contact(s) listed in movie titles in mla format, Section VIII of this funding opportunity. For Proposals Submitted Via Grants.gov: Before using Grants.gov for the first time, each organization must register to create an institutional profile.
Once registered, the applicant's organization can then apply for any federal grant on the Grants.gov website. Assurance Education. Comprehensive information about argumentative essay about, using Grants.gov is education available on the Grants.gov Applicant Resources webpage: http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/applicants.html. In addition, the NSF Grants.gov Application Guide (see link in Section V.A) provides instructions regarding the technical preparation of proposals via Grants.gov. For Grants.gov user support, contact the Grants.gov Contact Center at 1-800-518-4726 or by email: [email protected] The Grants.gov Contact Center answers general technical questions related to the use of Grants.gov. Specific questions related to this program solicitation should be referred to the NSF program staff contact(s) listed in Section VIII of this solicitation.
Submitting the Proposal: Once all documents have been completed, the Authorized Organizational Representative (AOR) must submit the application to Grants.gov and verify the desired funding opportunity and agency to which the application is submitted. The AOR must then sign and submit the application to Grants.gov. The completed application will be transferred to the NSF FastLane system for further processing. Proposers that submitted via FastLane are strongly encouraged to use FastLane to argumentative service, verify the status of their submission to phd thesis quality, NSF. For proposers that submitted via Grants.gov, until an application has been received and validated by NSF, the Authorized Organizational Representative may check the status of an đî_ÔÇ╣, application on Grants.gov. After proposers have received an e-mail notification from NSF, Research.gov should be used to check the status of an application. VI. NSF PROPOSAL PROCESSING AND REVIEW PROCEDURES. Proposals received by NSF are assigned to the appropriate NSF program for acknowledgement and, if they meet NSF requirements, for review.
All proposals are carefully reviewed by a scientist, engineer, or educator serving as an NSF Program Officer, and phd thesis quality assurance higher education, usually by three to ten other persons outside NSF either as ad hoc reviewers, panelists, or both, who are experts in the particular fields represented by the proposal. These reviewers are selected by Program Officers charged with oversight of the review process. Proposers are invited to suggest names of persons they believe are especially well qualified to review the writing, proposal and/or persons they would prefer not review the proposal. These suggestions may serve as one source in the reviewer selection process at the Program Officer's discretion. Submission of such names, however, is optional. Care is taken to ensure that reviewers have no conflicts of interest with the higher education, proposal.
In addition, Program Officers may obtain comments from education, site visits before recommending final action on proposals. Senior NSF staff further review recommendations for awards. A flowchart that depicts the entire NSF proposal and award process (and associated timeline) is included in PAPPG Exhibit III-1. A comprehensive description of the Foundation's merit review process is phd thesis assurance available on the NSF website at: http://www.nsf.gov/bfa/dias/policy/merit_review/. Proposers should also be aware of core strategies that are essential to the fulfillment of NSF's mission, as articulated in Investing in Science, Engineering, and Education for the Nation's Future: NSF Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 . These strategies are integrated in the program planning and implementation process, of which proposal review is one part. đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣. NSF's mission is particularly well-implemented through the integration of phd thesis quality higher research and education and broadening participation in NSF programs, projects, and activities. One of the lucia dessay, strategic objectives in support of NSF's mission is to foster integration of research and education through the programs, projects, and activities it supports at academic and research institutions. These institutions must recruit, train, and prepare a diverse STEM workforce to advance the frontiers of phd thesis quality education science and term, participate in the U.S. technology-based economy.
NSF's contribution to the national innovation ecosystem is to provide cutting-edge research under the guidance of the Nation's most creative scientists and engineers. NSF also supports development of a strong science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce by investing in building the knowledge that informs improvements in STEM teaching and learning. NSF's mission calls for the broadening of opportunities and expanding participation of groups, institutions, and geographic regions that are underrepresented in assurance, STEM disciplines, which is essential to the health and fun creative writing ideas, vitality of science and engineering. NSF is committed to this principle of phd thesis higher diversity and deems it central to the programs, projects, and essay about customer, activities it considers and supports. A. Merit Review Principles and Criteria. The National Science Foundation strives to invest in a robust and diverse portfolio of projects that creates new knowledge and enables breakthroughs in understanding across all areas of science and engineering research and education. Phd Thesis Assurance Higher Education. To identify which projects to support, NSF relies on a merit review process that incorporates consideration of both the technical aspects of a proposed project and its potential to contribute more broadly to advancing NSF's mission to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense; and for other purposes. Titles. NSF makes every effort to conduct a fair, competitive, transparent merit review process for the selection of projects. 1. Merit Review Principles.
These principles are to be given due diligence by quality assurance higher education PIs and organizations when preparing proposals and managing projects, by reviewers when reading and evaluating proposals, and by NSF program staff when determining whether or not to recommend proposals for funding and while overseeing awards. Given that NSF is the primary federal agency charged with nurturing and service, supporting excellence in phd thesis quality education, basic research and education, the following three principles apply: All NSF projects should be of the highest quality and have the potential to advance, if not transform, the frontiers of knowledge. NSF projects, in the aggregate, should contribute more broadly to achieving societal goals. These Broader Impacts may be accomplished through the research itself, through activities that are directly related to specific research projects, or through activities that are supported by, but are complementary to, the project. The project activities may be based on previously established and/or innovative methods and approaches, but in đî_ÔÇ╣, either case must be well justified. Meaningful assessment and evaluation of NSF funded projects should be based on appropriate metrics, keeping in mind the likely correlation between the effect of broader impacts and the resources provided to implement projects. If the size of the activity is limited, evaluation of that activity in isolation is not likely to be meaningful. Thus, assessing the effectiveness of these activities may best be done at a higher, more aggregated, level than the individual project. With respect to the third principle, even if assessment of Broader Impacts outcomes for particular projects is done at an aggregated level, PIs are expected to be accountable for carrying out the activities described in the funded project.
Thus, individual projects should include clearly stated goals, specific descriptions of the activities that the PI intends to do, and a plan in quality assurance, place to document the outputs of those activities. These three merit review principles provide the đî_ÔÇ╣, basis for the merit review criteria, as well as a context within which the users of the criteria can better understand their intent. All NSF proposals are evaluated through use of the two National Science Board approved merit review criteria. Education. In some instances, however, NSF will employ additional criteria as required to movie titles in mla, highlight the specific objectives of certain programs and activities. The two merit review criteria are listed below.
Both criteria are to quality education, be given full consideration during the review and decision-making processes; each criterion is necessary but neither, by itself, is sufficient. Therefore, proposers must fully address both criteria. (PAPPG Chapter II.C.2.d(i). Lucia Dessay. contains additional information for use by proposers in development of the phd thesis quality assurance higher education, Project Description section of the proposal). Reviewers are strongly encouraged to writing, review the criteria, including PAPPG Chapter II.C.2.d(i), prior to the review of a proposal. When evaluating NSF proposals, reviewers will be asked to consider what the proposers want to phd thesis quality higher, do, why they want to do it, how they plan to do it, how they will know if they succeed, and what benefits could accrue if the project is successful. These issues apply both to the technical aspects of the proposal and the way in which the project may make broader contributions. To that end, reviewers will be asked to evaluate all proposals against movie titles in mla format two criteria: Intellectual Merit: The Intellectual Merit criterion encompasses the potential to phd thesis assurance education, advance knowledge; and Broader Impacts: The Broader Impacts criterion encompasses the potential to benefit society and contribute to the achievement of specific, desired societal outcomes. The following elements should be considered in the review for both criteria: What is the potential for the proposed activity to Advance knowledge and understanding within its own field or across different fields (Intellectual Merit); and Benefit society or advance desired societal outcomes (Broader Impacts)? To what extent do the proposed activities suggest and ideas, explore creative, original, or potentially transformative concepts?
Is the plan for quality assurance higher carrying out the proposed activities well-reasoned, well-organized, and essay about customer, based on a sound rationale? Does the plan incorporate a mechanism to assess success? How well qualified is the individual, team, or organization to phd thesis assurance, conduct the proposed activities? Are there adequate resources available to the PI (either at argumentative customer service the home organization or through collaborations) to carry out the proposed activities? Broader impacts may be accomplished through the research itself, through the activities that are directly related to specific research projects, or through activities that are supported by, but are complementary to, the project. NSF values the quality assurance education, advancement of scientific knowledge and activities that contribute to achievement of societally relevant outcomes. Such outcomes include, but are not limited to: full participation of women, persons with disabilities, and underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣, mathematics (STEM); improved STEM education and educator development at any level; increased public scientific literacy and public engagement with science and technology; improved well-being of individuals in society; development of a diverse, globally competitive STEM workforce; increased partnerships between academia, industry, and others; improved national security; increased economic competitiveness of the phd thesis quality higher education, United States; and enhanced infrastructure for đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ research and education. Proposers are reminded that reviewers will also be asked to review the Data Management Plan and the Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan, as appropriate.
Proposals submitted in response to this program solicitation will be reviewed by Ad hoc Review and/or Panel Review. Reviewers will be asked to evaluate proposals using two National Science Board approved merit review criteria and, if applicable, additional program specific criteria. Phd Thesis Assurance Higher Education. A summary rating and fun creative, accompanying narrative will generally be completed and quality higher, submitted by each reviewer and/or panel. The Program Officer assigned to manage the proposal's review will consider the advice of reviewers and will formulate a recommendation. After scientific, technical and argumentative, programmatic review and consideration of appropriate factors, the NSF Program Officer recommends to quality higher education, the cognizant Division Director whether the proposal should be declined or recommended for award.
NSF strives to be able to tell applicants whether their proposals have been declined or recommended for movie in mla format essays funding within six months. Large or particularly complex proposals or proposals from new awardees may require additional review and processing time. The time interval begins on the deadline or target date, or receipt date, whichever is later. Phd Thesis Quality Assurance. The interval ends when the Division Director acts upon the Program Officer's recommendation. After programmatic approval has been obtained, the proposals recommended for funding will be forwarded to writing ideas, the Division of Grants and Agreements for review of business, financial, and policy implications. Quality Assurance Higher. After an administrative review has occurred, Grants and Agreements Officers perform the processing and issuance of special paper a grant or other agreement.
Proposers are cautioned that only a Grants and Agreements Officer may make commitments, obligations or awards on behalf of NSF or authorize the expenditure of funds. No commitment on the part of NSF should be inferred from technical or budgetary discussions with a NSF Program Officer. Higher. A Principal Investigator or organization that makes financial or personnel commitments in the absence of a grant or cooperative agreement signed by fun creative the NSF Grants and Agreements Officer does so at phd thesis assurance higher their own risk. Once an award or declination decision has been made, Principal Investigators are provided feedback about their proposals. In all cases, reviews are treated as confidential documents. Verbatim copies of reviews, excluding the names of the reviewers or any reviewer-identifying information, are sent to lucia dessay, the Principal Investigator/Project Director by the Program Officer. In addition, the quality higher, proposer will receive an explanation of the decision to award or decline funding. VII. AWARD ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION. Notification of the award is made to the submitting organization by a Grants Officer in the Division of Grants and in mla essays, Agreements.
Organizations whose proposals are declined will be advised as promptly as possible by the cognizant NSF Program administering the program. Verbatim copies of reviews, not including the identity of the reviewer, will be provided automatically to the Principal Investigator. (See Section VI.B. for additional information on the review process). An NSF award consists of: (1) the assurance higher, award notice, which includes any special provisions applicable to the award and movie titles, any numbered amendments thereto; (2) the budget, which indicates the amounts, by categories of expense, on which NSF has based its support (or otherwise communicates any specific approvals or disapprovals of proposed expenditures); (3) the proposal referenced in the award notice; (4) the applicable award conditions, such as Grant General Conditions (GC-1)*; or Research Terms and Conditions* and (5) any announcement or other NSF issuance that may be incorporated by reference in the award notice. Cooperative agreements also are administered in accordance with NSF Cooperative Agreement Financial and assurance, Administrative Terms and argumentative essay customer, Conditions (CA-FATC) and the applicable Programmatic Terms and Conditions. NSF awards are electronically signed by quality an NSF Grants and Agreements Officer and transmitted electronically to the organization via e-mail. *These documents may be accessed electronically on NSF's Website at http://www.nsf.gov/awards/managing/award_conditions.jsp?org=NSF. Paper copies may be obtained from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse, telephone (703) 292-7827 or by e-mail from [email protected] More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions and movie titles in mla format, other important information on the administration of phd thesis quality higher NSF awards is contained in the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG) Chapter VII, available electronically on the NSF Website at https://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=papp. Life-changing situations during the dbq 21, period of the award. NSF takes seriously career-life balance. Awardees who encounter any life-changing situation (e.g. birth or adoption of a child, serious illness or death of phd thesis quality assurance family member) during the period of the award will be encouraged to đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, reference http://www.nsf.gov/career-life-balance/ and to discuss resolutions with a program officer.
For all multi-year grants (including both standard and continuing grants), the Principal Investigator must submit an quality assurance, annual project report to the cognizant Program Officer no later than 90 days prior to movie in mla format essays, the end of the current budget period. (Some programs or awards require submission of more frequent project reports). No later than 120 days following expiration of a grant, the PI also is required to phd thesis higher, submit a final project report, and a project outcomes report for the general public. Failure to provide the required annual or final project reports, or the project outcomes report, will delay NSF review and lucia dessay, processing of any future funding increments as well as any pending proposals for all identified PIs and co-PIs on a given award. PIs should examine the quality assurance education, formats of the required reports in advance to assure availability of required data. PIs are required to use NSF's electronic project-reporting system, available through Research.gov, for preparation and submission of annual and final project reports. Such reports provide information on accomplishments, project participants (individual and movie in mla, organizational), publications, and other specific products and impacts of the project. Phd Thesis Quality Assurance Higher. Submission of the lucia dessay, report via Research.gov constitutes certification by the PI that the contents of the report are accurate and phd thesis higher, complete. Dbq 21 World War 2 Essay. The project outcomes report also must be prepared and submitted using Research.gov. Phd Thesis Quality. This report serves as a brief summary, prepared specifically for the public, of the nature and outcomes of the project.
This report will be posted on the NSF website exactly as it is submitted by the PI. More comprehensive information on NSF Reporting Requirements and other important information on the administration of NSF awards is contained in the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG) Chapter VII, available electronically on lucia dessay the NSF Website at https://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=papp. Please note that the program contact information is current at the time of publishing. Phd Thesis Assurance Education. See program website for ideas any updates to the points of phd thesis quality higher education contact. General inquiries regarding this program should be made to:
Frederick Kronz-Program Director, Program Officer, 995 N, telephone: (703) 292-7283, email: [email protected] Wenda Bauchspies-Program Director, 990 N, telephone: (703) 292-5026, email: [email protected] Alexandra Cohen-Science Assistant, 995, telephone: (703) 292-4927, email: [email protected] For questions related to the use of đî_ÔÇ╣ FastLane, contact: FastLane Help Desk, telephone: 1-800-673-6188; e-mail: [email protected] For questions relating to Grants.gov contact: Grants.gov Contact Center: If the Authorized Organizational Representatives (AOR) has not received a confirmation message from Grants.gov within 48 hours of submission of application, please contact via telephone: 1-800-518-4726; e-mail: [email protected]
The NSF website provides the most comprehensive source of information on NSF Directorates (including contact information), programs and funding opportunities. Use of this website by potential proposers is strongly encouraged. In addition, NSF Update is an information-delivery system designed to phd thesis assurance higher education, keep potential proposers and other interested parties apprised of new NSF funding opportunities and publications, important changes in world war 2, proposal and award policies and phd thesis education, procedures, and upcoming NSF Grants Conferences. Subscribers are informed through e-mail or the lucia dessay, user's Web browser each time new publications are issued that match their identified interests. Phd Thesis Higher Education. NSF Update also is available on NSF's website. Grants.gov provides an additional electronic capability to education, search for Federal government-wide grant opportunities. NSF funding opportunities may be accessed via this mechanism. Further information on Grants.gov may be obtained at assurance education http://www.grants.gov. ABOUT THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an dbq 21 world war 2 essay, independent Federal agency created by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended (42 USC 1861-75). The Act states the purpose of the NSF is to promote the phd thesis quality assurance higher, progress of in mla format essays science; [and] to advance the quality, national health, prosperity, and welfare by đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ supporting research and education in phd thesis education, all fields of science and engineering. NSF funds research and education in most fields of science and engineering. It does this through grants and cooperative agreements to more than 2,000 colleges, universities, K-12 school systems, businesses, informal science organizations and special term paper, other research organizations throughout the US. The Foundation accounts for about one-fourth of quality assurance education Federal support to lucia dessay, academic institutions for basic research. NSF receives approximately 55,000 proposals each year for research, education and training projects, of which approximately 11,000 are funded. In addition, the education, Foundation receives several thousand applications for movie essays graduate and postdoctoral fellowships. The agency operates no laboratories itself but does support National Research Centers, user facilities, certain oceanographic vessels and Arctic and Antarctic research stations. The Foundation also supports cooperative research between universities and industry, US participation in international scientific and engineering efforts, and educational activities at every academic level.
Facilitation Awards for Scientists and phd thesis higher, Engineers with Disabilities (FASED) provide funding for fun creative writing special assistance or equipment to enable persons with disabilities to work on NSF-supported projects. See the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide Chapter II.E.6 for instructions regarding preparation of these types of proposals. The National Science Foundation has Telephonic Device for the Deaf (TDD) and Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) capabilities that enable individuals with hearing impairments to communicate with the Foundation about NSF programs, employment or general information. TDD may be accessed at (703) 292-5090 and (800) 281-8749, FIRS at phd thesis assurance (800) 877-8339. The National Science Foundation Information Center may be reached at education term (703) 292-5111. The National Science Foundation promotes and phd thesis quality assurance, advances scientific progress in lucia dessay, the United States by competitively awarding grants and quality higher, cooperative agreements for special education research and assurance education, education in the sciences, mathematics, and engineering. To get the latest information about program deadlines, to download copies of NSF publications, and to access abstracts of awards, visit the NSF Website at http://www.nsf.gov. 4201 Wilson Blvd. Special Term. Arlington, VA 22230.
Send an e-mail to: PRIVACY ACT AND PUBLIC BURDEN STATEMENTS. The information requested on proposal forms and project reports is solicited under the authority of the phd thesis quality assurance higher education, National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended. The information on proposal forms will be used in connection with the service, selection of qualified proposals; and project reports submitted by awardees will be used for phd thesis higher education program evaluation and reporting within the Executive Branch and to Congress. The information requested may be disclosed to qualified reviewers and staff assistants as part of the proposal review process; to proposer institutions/grantees to provide or obtain data regarding the proposal review process, award decisions, or the administration of awards; to government contractors, experts, volunteers and researchers and educators as necessary to complete assigned work; to special term, other government agencies or other entities needing information regarding applicants or nominees as part of a joint application review process, or in order to coordinate programs or policy; and to another Federal agency, court, or party in a court or Federal administrative proceeding if the government is phd thesis quality higher education a party. Information about Principal Investigators may be added to the Reviewer file and used to select potential candidates to serve as peer reviewers or advisory committee members. See Systems of Records, NSF-50, Principal Investigator/Proposal File and dbq 21 war 2, Associated Records, 69 Federal Register 26410 (May 12, 2004), and assurance higher education, NSF-51, Reviewer/Proposal File and Associated Records, 69 Federal Register 26410 (May 12, 2004). Submission of the information is voluntary. Failure to provide full and complete information, however, may reduce the possibility of receiving an lucia dessay, award.
An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and quality education, a person is movie titles format not required to respond to, an information collection unless it displays a valid Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number. The OMB control number for this collection is 3145-0023. Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 12 hours per response, including the time for reviewing instructions. Send comments regarding the phd thesis quality assurance, burden estimate and any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to: Suzanne H. Plimpton.
Reports Clearance Officer. Office of the đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, General Counsel. National Science Foundation. Arlington, VA 22230. The National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA.
Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 | TDD: (800) 281-8749.
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We Test the Anova, Sansaire, and Nomiku Sous Vide Circulators. [Photographs: J. Kenji Lopez-Alt] It's been the year of the inexpensive water circulator. Previously, heating water circulatorsŚthe devices used to maintain the phd thesis quality assurance higher, temperature of a water bath to format essays 1/10th of a degree accuracy for sous-vide cookingŚwent for several hundred dollars. This year, three new devices targeted at the home cook have been released, all of them available for phd thesis assurance education under $300. It seems that sous-vide cooking has finally come home.
But how do the education term, three stack up against each other? For the last few weeks I've been testing all three devices side by assurance side, cooking with them in every type of situation a home cook is dbq 21, likely to run into (and some they aren't). Here's a feature-by-feature breakdown of the testing. Both the Anova and the Nomiku can be ordered immediately through the links provided, while the Sansaire will be ready to ship in January. I tested the accuracy of each of the circulators by heating up 4 gallons of quality assurance higher, water to 140░F and testing the temperature of the water using multiple thermometers. Once they'd reached their final holding temperature, all three units were accurate to within 2/10ths of a degree when measured at the water output port. I also tested temperature at various points around the water bath to confirm that the fun creative ideas, circulators were moving the water around enough to even out any temperature differentials. Phd Thesis Quality Assurance. All three managed 4 gallons of water with no problem. The one odd thing I noticed was that during the actual heating phase of the process, the Nomiku consistently registered temperatures that were 3 to movie 4░F higher than the phd thesis higher, actual water temperature.
I'm not sure if this is a hardware or firmware issue, but in any case, so long as you only care about the final holding temperature, it doesn't seem to lucia dessay make much difference to overall operations. The wattage of the heater in higher the device is a pretty good indication of how fast it'll bring water up to temperature (all three devices sport 1,000 watt heating elements), but design elements such as flow and temperature regulation algorithms can all effect how rapidly a circulator will heat. I tested each of the devices by writing timing how long it took to bring 4 gallons of assurance higher, water from 80░F from 140░F. The Sansaire was the fastest, taking only 16 minutes to complete the job. The Anova came in second, taking 20 minutes.
The Nomiku came on strong right out of the gate, getting to above 139░F in just 16 minutes, but that final 1░F took an additional 7 minutes to achieve, putting it at a total time of 23 minutes. All water circulators have minimum and maximum water levels for operation. The minimum ensures that water is being taken in by the input port so that the heater doesn't overheat. The maximum is to ensure that water-sensitive circuitry doesn't get wet. These relative minimum and maximum fill-lines can influence what vessels you can use to cook with. A wider range with lower lows and đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, higher highs is generally better. Having a wide range is phd thesis assurance, also important if long-cooking foods are on the agenda. At 150░ in a metal pot with a 10-inch diameter, 2 gallons of water will drop in essay about height by about an inch every 8 hours due to evaporation in my apartment. Covering the top with foil or plastic wrap can cut this down, but the possibility that the water level will drop below the minimum line during an phd thesis higher education extended cook is đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, a very real one.
All three devices have built-in automatic shut-offs if this happens, so there's no danger of breaking your device, but you are definitely in danger of ruining a cooking project if your bagged food ends up sitting in tepid water because the circulator shut off. For this reason, a wide water level range is quality, very important if prolonged cooking is on your agenda. Both the Sansaire and Anova have ranges that span 3 1/2 inches or larger, while the nomiku's range is only 1 1/4 inches. The Sansaire has a minimum fill line of 2.75 inches and a maximum fill of 6.5 inches. (3.75 inches total). The Anova has a minimum fill line of fun creative writing ideas, 2.75 inches and a maximum fill of 6.25 inches. (3.5 inches total).
The Nomiku has a minimum fill line of 3.5 inches and a maximum fill of higher, 4.75 inches. (1.25 inches total). When judging this section, I asked myself these questions: Are the controls intuitive and easy to operate? How long does it take me to get the unit set up and ready to cook? Are there any extraneous features that distract from the overall experience? Does it give me quick and easy-to-read feedback? Here are my thoughts: The Sansaire uses a rotating dial at the top of the unit to titles format adjust temperature. Its readout is large, easy to phd thesis assurance higher read (even from across the room or in a dark kitchen), and has no extraneous information. Special Term Paper. Think of this as the Apple of circulators: well designed, stripped down, and minimalist.
There are three buttons: a power button, a ░F/░C switch, and assurance, a button that tells you the argumentative essay about customer service, target temperature the unit is set to (the readout tells you the actual temperature unless you are adjusting the temperature ring or you press the phd thesis assurance, target temp button). The dial is intuitive though the resolution of adjustment is very sensitive, making it a little tough to hit the exact temperature you want. I felt like I was turning the movie format, shower knob where the difference between too hot and too cold was only a hair's width. Bonus points for having an always-on temperature display. It gives me peace of mind when I can glance across the kitchen in the middle of phd thesis quality assurance higher education, a long, slow cook and know that everything is going right. The Anova has a touch screen monitor with a number of more advanced functions that let you adjust temperature (in ░F or ░C) and cook time, as well as get diagnostic reports of how the system is đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, functioning. The pixelated screen and touch interface makes me confident that in quality assurance higher education the future, firmware upgrades might increase its functionality even more.
For instance, it'd be nice to have programmable cook settings which would let you cook a chicken breast at titles essays 145░F for a couple hours then drop the temperature down to a safe holding range of phd thesis higher, 130░F, which would allow you to đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ start cooking in phd thesis assurance the morning and have properly cooked meat when you get home from movie titles in mla format essays, work, even if you're late getting home. The interface does require you to make more button presses from startup to phd thesis quality assurance higher cook compared to the Sansaire or the Nomiku, so if ultimate simplicity is important to you, you may not be happy with the Anova's interface. Movie Essays. It also has a screen auto-shutoff, which requires you to touch the screen in order to confirm target and actual temperatures during a cook. The Nomiku's controls are a blend of the two, with a small touch screen readout that also presents system diagnostics, and a rotating green temperature knob around the perimeter. The knob on the Nomiku runs on an infrared sensor and has dynamically shifting resolution, which means that if you turn it fast, it'll make rapid jumps, but turn it slow and you can easily make small 1/10th of a degree adjustments (think of it like the scroll wheel on an iPod in terms of dynamic resolution). The Sansaire is great if you like simplicity, the Anova is the most adaptable, and the Nomiku lands in the middle. The clip is what keeps the unit secured to quality assurance the side of your cooking vessel. When judging the lucia dessay, clip, I was looking for one that felt sturdy and clamped securely. I don't want to worry about phd thesis assurance, knocking the unit into the water bath by accidentally bumping the cooking vessel as I walk by, and I don't want something that looks or feels like it might break off or bend with repeated use.
The Sansaire has a spring-loaded metal clip that looks something like a giant hair clip. đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ. It has adjustable width. It also feels a little flimsy for the weight of the assurance, overall product, but the Sansaire has the movie essays, added advantage of a wide, stable-feeling base, so the clip is really just a precautionary measure during use. Higher Education. The clip reaches all the way down to less than an inch above the bottom of the unit, which means that you can clip it onto basically any size pot. The Anova has a rubberized screw that allows you to get a very firm lock onto pots and containers of argumentative customer service, any width up to an inch or so.
You can move your container around with absolutely no fear of the phd thesis assurance education, Anova tipping over essay, or moving around. Its only problem is that it's not heigh-adjustable, which means that your pots need to have a minimum height of phd thesis assurance, about 7 inches if you want to attach the unit securely. The Nomiku has a rubberized plastic clip that feels nice and secure, though it's not actually powerful enough to hold the unit against a pot without letting it slip down. Like the Anova, pot size is limited to a minimum height of about 6 inches or so. All three units are relatively quiet (I had them running in special paper my kitchen with the door open while I took a nap on the couch about 20 feet away and could barely hear them), but the Nomiku is the loudest of the three. I've heard reports from other users that occasionally the Nomiku's stirring wand makes little scraping noises against phd thesis quality education the base of the unit, though I haven't noticed this in argumentative essay about customer service my own model. Category Winner: Sansaire and phd thesis quality assurance, Anova. Both the Sansaire and Anova have recommended maximum container capacities of 22 liters (5.8 gallons), while the Nomiku is designed for fun creative writing containers up to 20 liters (5 gallons). In reality, these numbers are estimates. Education. Insulation, outside temperature, and essay about service, water flow can affect how efficiently they heat.
For what it's worth, I did test each unit at its full capacity using a beer cooler as my heating vessel while cooking a dozen 6 ounce portions of protein. All performed as well as advertised. Category Winner: Sansaire and quality assurance higher education, Anova. In this category, I considered my overall user experience. Lucia Dessay. Are there features that I like about one more than another? Does the unit feel like it's built to last? Is it attractive? Does it store and set up easily? Sansaire : The greatest advantage the Sansaire has over the Anova and the Nomiku is better drainage at the bottom of the unit. This means you can lift the Sansaire out phd thesis higher of the water and within a few seconds, all excess water will drip out, allowing you to rest it on a kitchen towel or drying matt to drip-dry on its own.
The downside of the Sansaire? Its all-plastic chassis feels a little fragile. I can imagine the đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, casing cracking with an accidental spill, or perhaps the clips that hold that back panel in place cracking off with normal opening and phd thesis quality assurance higher education, closing for cleaning. This hasn't happened to me yet, but I can see it happening down the dbq 21 war 2 essay, road. Anova : This thing feels solid as a rock. It's heavy, sturdy, and just a really tight feeling piece of hardware. It's made by a company with a long history of high-quality products, which shows in its no-nonsense, solid design.
In terms of functionality, it's the phd thesis assurance higher, only unit that lets you adjust the direction of đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, water output, and the easiest to phd thesis assurance higher open up for cleaning or maintenance. The impeller is all-metal and dbq 21 world war 2, built to last. Nomiku : Another tight feeling piece of hardware, the oddest design choice might be the power brick that is phd thesis quality higher, always attached to special the main unit. It'd be nice if that power brick were attached to the cord that plugs into the outlet, reducing the storage profile of the unit itself. Phd Thesis Assurance. Opening and closing the Nomiku is also not possible, which means if you accidentally break a bag and gunk gets up in there. you're out of luck. I tested reliability over the course of a 72-hour cook with all three units.
The final copies I received of all three devices performed without flaw. The only ideas, reliability issues I've had with any unit were with an phd thesis assurance higher early tester copy of the Sansaire, which would inexplicably shut down after a few moments of cooking. To be fair, the lucia dessay, unit had been used by several other testers before me and was quickly replaced with a new unit (and an apology). Phd Thesis Quality Higher Education. Since then I've had no problems at all. The Nomiku offers a nice feature: it tells you if there were any power interruptions during a prolonged cook. It won't tell you how long the interruption lasted or if your food dipped down into special paper, dangerous territory, but it's at least one layer of phd thesis assurance education, feedback that the others don't offer. Water circulators all require occasional cleaning even with careful use to remove lime scale from hard water.
All you have to do is run the lucia dessay, machines with a de-scaler in the water for a few minutes. Easy. The bigger problem is if a bag breaks and gunk leaks out into the circulating water. Both the Sansaire and education, Anova feature a removable chassis, which makes cleaning out after a disaster relatively easy. This is fun creative writing ideas, not possible with the Nomiku.
Category Winner: Sansaire and Anova. The Sansaire and Anova both sell for $199, while the Nomiku goes for $299. It really depends on your needs. All three are strong products that, for the most part work. work as advertised, and any problems I've had with them were quickly solved either by troubleshooting with the manual, or emailing the manufacturers. I can't tell you for sure whether my personal experiences were identical to what others can expect, but from all reports I've heard, customer service for all three products has been responsive and phd thesis quality assurance education, helpful thus far. The larger size and faster heating of the Anova and fun creative ideas, the Sansaire will appeal to more serious cooks and chefs who have big projects planned, while the more compact design and cuter look of the Nomiku makes it a better option for more casual home cooks who are looking to cook smaller meals and quality assurance higher, host the occasional larger party. The lower price point of the movie in mla format essays, Anova and Sansaire is very appealing to assurance higher education me, and special paper, personally I prefer the slightly smaller profile of the AnovaŚit lets me slip it into a cabinet just a bit more easily than the bulkier Sansaire.
You should also ask yourself which interface you like. The Sansaire and phd thesis quality assurance, Nomiku are simpler to operate, but the Anova has more potential for features down the road. As for me? With all three devices currently residing in my kitchen, I've found myself reaching for the Anova most often. All devices are available for online order and delivery. About the author : J. Kenji Lopez-Alt is the Chief Creative Officer of Serious Eats where he likes to explore the science of home cooking in his weekly column The Food Lab. You can follow him at @thefoodlab on titles, Twitter, or at phd thesis quality education The Food Lab on Facebook. J. Kenji Lopez-Alt is the Managing Culinary Director of Serious Eats, and writing, author of the quality assurance education, James Beard Award-nominated column The Food Lab, where he unravels the science of home cooking. Education Term. A restaurant-trained chef and former Editor at Cook's Illustrated magazine, his first book, The Food Lab: Better Home Cooking Through Science is a New York Times Best-Seller, the recipient of a James Beard Award, and was named Cookbook of the Year in 2015 by phd thesis quality higher the International Association of Culinary Professionals. Your comment has been accepted and fun creative, will appear in a moment.
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The role and development of the quality assurance in higher education
5 Ways to Deal with Word Repetition. Quality Assurance Education. Word repetition can really weigh down your writing and slow down readers. Try out these five simple ways to tackle word repetition and improve your writing skills. I believe ôword rep.ö is the comment I write most frequently on student papers. Writing Ideas. Thatĺs because word repetition is a telltaleŚmaybe the telltaleŚsign of phd thesis higher, awkward, non-mindful writing, whether by students or anyone else.
The writer has presumably gotten the pertinent information onto the screen, but has not taken the time to read the sentence to herself, silently or out loud. If she did, that word rep. Lucia Dessay. would sound like fingernails on higher the blackboard. Consequently, ôlisteningö to your sentences with the sensitivity to pick up word repetition is education paper a strong first step to grappling with the problem. (There are a lot of phd thesis, other benefits to movie titles format essays reading your stuff out quality assurance higher, loudŚin fact, itĺs my number-one writing tip.) Today#8217;s post is by Ben Yagoda , author of How to Not Write Bad: The Most Common Writing Problems and the Best Ways to lucia dessay Avoid Them. Phd Thesis Quality Assurance Higher Education. He is a journalism professor in the English Department at the University of Delaware. đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ. He is the phd thesis assurance author of Memoir: A History; Will Rogers: A Biography; When You Catch an đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, Adjective, Kill It; The Sound on the Page; The Art of Fact; and About Town: The New Yorker and the World It Made ; and co-author of All in a Lifetime: An Autobiography about Dr. Ruth Westheimer. He has written for Slate, The Chronicle of Higher Education, The New York Times Book Review, Stop Smiling, and other publications. He lives in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, with his wife and two daughters. There are some nuances to my unified theory of word repetition, which boil down to: the more common the word, the more leeway you have in repeating it, and vice versa. In the previous sentence, I repeated ôto,ö ôword,ö ômore,ö and ôtheö (twice, for a total of three times).
That is not ideal, but itĺs okay; readers are not likely to notice. On the education other hand, I know I would have to wait at dbq 21 war 2 essay, least a few more pages (if this were a multi-page article) before reusing the expressions ôvice versaö and ôboils down to.ö Words like ôrepetitionö and ôcommonö would be somewhere in assurance education between. Dbq 21 Essay. No matter how long the assurance article is, I would not be able to use the notion of ôunified theoryö again. I once had a student submit something very close to the following in đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ an assignment: ôJohnson is the youngest representative in the legislature. When he was twenty-three, Johnson defeated the Republican incumbent.ö For some reason, a lot of people tend to needlessly repeat proper names, forgetting that they have at their disposal the very useful pronouns ôheö and ôshe.ö They have the added value of being in the category of phd thesis quality, common words, mentioned above, that can be repeated with near impunity. So the movie titles in mla essays passage above could become: ôJohnson is the youngest representative in the legislature. At the age of twenty-three, he defeated the Republican incumbent.ö 4. Just Say No to Elegant Variation. Phd Thesis Assurance Higher Education. H.W. Fowler, author of the great early twentieth-century book Modern English Usage , coined the term ôelegant variationö (which Iĺll call EV) to refer a synonym, near synonym, or invented synonym used for the express purpose of avoiding word repetition. In Fowlerĺs view, and movie titles format, mine, elegant variation is not a good thing.
Your efforts to avoid repetition are too clumsy and obvious. Take a look at quality higher education, two examples (EV in parenthesis): ôHartnell read the newspaper. When he was finished with (the periodical), he got up and went outside.ö ôSpence hit a home run in the second inning, his fifth (circuit clout) of the campaign.ö In both cases, as is often true, the simplest solution is just to take out the EV (along with the word ôwithö in writing the first example). Incidentally, perceptive readers may have noticed that the second passage contains another EV: ôthe campaign.ö Mediocre sportswriters are elegant variers to the bone, and they will reflexively seek to avid a common word, even if they havenĺt used it yet! However, ôseasonö is better than ôcampaign.ö Letĺs go back to something I wrote earlier: ôThe more common the word, the more leeway you have in assurance higher education repeating it.ö The repetition of ômoreö is okay and maybe even goodŚnot only đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ because itĺs a common word, but because the repetition is deliberate, and helps create a strong rhythm. (The same is true of phd thesis education, ôbecauseö and ôrepetitionö in the sentence I just wrote.) The key is using repetition deliberately, consciously, and strategically. If you donĺt think it can be effective, imagine if Shakespeare had had Macbeth say: ôTomorrow, and the next day, and the one after that, creeps in this petty pace from one twenty-four-hour period to another.ö 15 thoughts on lucia dessay “ 5 Ways to Deal with Word Repetition ” This article concerns repetive style; however, its writer exhibited flawed prose in the opening paragraph. #8220;Word repetition can really weigh down your writing and slow down readers. Education. Try out essay, these five simple ways to tackle word repetition and improve your writing skills.#8221; By assessing this paragraph we see that #8220;really#8221; isn#8217;t needed to modify weigh down. Further, the descriptor #8220;down#8221; is redundant and poorly selected.
The opening article would read better as follows: #8220;Word repetition can impair your writing and frustrate readers. Quality Education. However, utilizing these five methods will solve this issue.#8221; A more simple edit to đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ the published author#8217;s errant opening sentences would be: #8220;Word repetition can hamper your writing and slow readers. Try these five simple methods to phd thesis quality assurance education avoid word repetition. (The writer will imprive his craft by decreasing repetitive verbiage. Therefore, #8220;improve your writing skills#8221; can be omitted. Just my take on this piece. Thank you so much for the points about EV and deliberate repetition. I go a bit crazy with my editor who is an fun creative writing ideas, absolute fanatic about never, never repeating a word twice, even if it#8217;s the central point of the quality assurance article and detracts from the meaning if you use the wrong word, just for the sake of not repeating the lucia dessay first occurence. I am always searching online for articles that can help me.
There is obviously a lot to know about this. I think you made some good points in Features also. Phd Thesis Education. Keep working, great job! I would love to stop by. But, I think it might have to world war 2 essay wait until this summer. I did not know that Serlkay had ever expanded its size. Quality Assurance Higher. I must say that a succesful family owned business in this day and age is a very refreshing sight! As well as this is a very refreshing site!
How can sports writers avid word repetition? They may be able to avoid it with some diligence but I doubt they can ever avid it. The elegant variation point is a real eye opener. I think I fall into that trap a lot. War 2. Thanks for pointing that out. Phd Thesis Higher. Since #8220;Write#8221; in the title of your book is dbq 21 a verb, shouldn#8217;t it read #8220;How Not to Write Badly,#8221; using the adverb? Or am I missing the joke? I guess I missed the joke, too. I cringed when I read #8220;How Not to Write Bad.#8221; Otherwise, it was a good article. Thanks for the practical ideas on phd thesis assurance education repetition. Argumentative Customer Service. EV is evila prose-killer, fo sho. #128521; Whenever I see Brian#8217;s face in my inbox, I know I am getting a good blog.
And a good blog it was. Not repeating or re-using the same words over and over again and again is phd thesis a pretty good and decent way, method, and formula to keep your writing from lucia dessay being redundant, superfluous, extraneous, or full of unnecessary repetitions or unneeded terms, words, or phrases that you#8217;ve already used. Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow#8230; And all our yesterdays#8230;. Now that#8217;s deliberate! Great example. Phd Thesis Higher. Out, out, brief candle. Great article!
Word repetition is one of the most prevalant issues I find while beta reading. Prevalant? I cannot find that in my Webster#8217;s or OED!
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Kuenssberg, Sally (2015) The origins, operation - Enlighten: Theses
dave ross essays Investigations into The Antiquity of The Cross in Cygnus. Copyright 2000 by the author. (NOTE: The full text of this essay, complete with footnotes and illustrations, was published in Culture and Cosmos http://www.cultureandcosmos.org, v. 4, no.2 (Autumn/Winter 2000). Phd Thesis Assurance Higher! My thanks to the editor, Mr. Nicholas Campion, for his kind permission to reproduce the text of the article here. Dbq 21 War 2! -dr) The Age of Exploration did indeed give rise to a great deal of innovation and experimentation in celestial cartography. New constellations had to be devised to make sense out of the relative chaos explorers encountered on such distant waters.
This was also that age of religious fervor stirred by the Reformation and Counter-Reformation in phd thesis quality higher Europe. It should not be surprising then that a brief ôbiblicizingö movement arose among cartographers of the early 17th century and it Ĺs among these that we readily find explicit depictions of the Cross in Cygnus.* For Julius Schiller, whose Coelum Stellarum Christianum of 1628 offered a thoroughly Christianized portrait of the heavens, the dbq 21 world, stars of the Swan became ôSt. Helena with The Crossö, referring to the Emperor Constantineĺs mother and phd thesis assurance education, her legendary discovery of the wood of the ôTrue Crossö. The figure of the Cross in Schillerĺs maps is just where we would expect to find it. And, as I have already indicated, the movie format, era he invokes by associating it with Helena may prove to be an important clue for our investigation.
Another interesting example from phd thesis assurance, this period is Wilhelm Schickardĺs Astroscopium of 1623. This Lutheran pastor turned Hebrew scholar, mathematician, cartographer, printer, engineer and đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, astronomer is best remembered in the annals of computing for the calculating engine he invented for his more famous friend, Johannes Kepler, to aid in the laborious task of computing ephemerides. His Astroscopium featured an education, innovative conic projection and dbq 21, was among the phd thesis quality higher education, first modern style star maps to plot the term, constellations as they naturally appear in the sky. Reversed depictions were a convention passed down by phd thesis assurance education early globe makers that was slavishly retained by cartographers of his day, including Schiller. Schickard was content to essay portray the otherwise pagan but familiar classical constellations. However, he assigned each an imaginative biblical reference corresponding in phd thesis quality assurance some way or other to its figure. Cygnus the Swan is overlaid with his Crux Christi, making explicit the dual recognition these stars have come to inspire.*
The works of both of these biblicizers were influenced by the great Johannes Bayerĺs Uranometria of 1603. In the notes accompanying his map of the constellation Cygnus he comments how the recognition of a Cross there had long been known among the common folk.* Even so, my admittedly limited survey to date has searched back nearly a full millennium before encountering any similar reference to it. Such references must exist somewhere in the literatures of these earlier eras. That they seem to be so difficult to uncover may not be an entirely unexpected result, however. The Renaissance was marked by an obvious appreciation for the classical traditions of Greece and argumentative service, Rome. In astronomy this grew out of the recovery of phd thesis quality those traditions that took place during the later part of the Middle Ages as a result of European contact with the Arabic world.* From the ôHouse of Wisdomö founded by Caliph al-Maĺmun in the 9th century came translations of Greek philosophy and science that would eventually revive the intellectual life of the West. For the purposes of astronomy, not to mention astrology, the most influential texts of đî_ÔÇ╣ all proved to be Ptolemyĺs Syntaxis , better known by its Arabic title, the Almagest . So, whatever constellations or asterisms may have been part of the common knowledge of the day, those described and discussed, in the literature most accessible to phd thesis quality assurance higher us today, were those of the classical tradition. However, as we press further back in time we do encounter clues to distinctly Christian ways of envisioning the heaven of special term paper stars above. Searching through the education, pages of R. H. Allenĺs aging but still useful collection of starlore, a Cross reference is found under the constellation Delphinus, of all places.* The comment comes from the great Muslim historian and scientist of the 11th century, Abu Raihan Al-Biruni.
In his book The Chronology of Ancient Nations the section on the calendar of the Syrians contains a listing for Ayyar (May) 7th and special term, a Feast of the Apparition of the Cross in Heaven. Although Al-Biruni opens his comments with a discussion of the phd thesis quality education, Cross vision of Constantine the Great, and then summarizes the world war 2 essay, legend of Helenaĺs discovery of the relic of the True Cross, the vision commemorated on education, that day among Orthodox Christians is that of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, an event dated some several decades after the time of lucia dessay Constantine.* According to quality education Cyrilĺs account the cross was seen ôabove holy Golgotha stretching out as far as the holy Mount of Olives.ö Al-Biruni states, ôOther Christians, who are not learned people, speak of the cross in the constellation of the Dolphin, which the Arabs call Ka`ud (riding camel). They say that at that time this cross in the Dolphin appeared opposite that place where Messiah had been crucified.ö* In any case, the tantalizing reference leaves us wondering what these 11th century Syrian Christians may have made of nearby Cygnus, having found a cross in đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ little Delphinus. A contemporary student of medieval European astronomy, Stephen McCluskey offers what appears to be the earliest clear reference to the Cross we have been pursuing.
In the pages of his Astronomies and Cultures in phd thesis quality Early Medieval Europe he gives a summary of his earlier work in the journal ISIS regarding the late 6th century monastic writings of Gregory of Tours.* Gregory inherited rules for ordering monastery life which included the admonition found in John Cassianĺs De institutis coenobiorum , written sometime after 420 AD, which urged that the format, night offices of prayer should be kept by carefully observing the stars rather than being left up to the sleepy whim of whomever had been assigned the task of waking his brothers.* Just how the phd thesis higher education, stars were to paper be used in keeping time wasnĺt described there, but Gregoryĺs work De cursu stellarum ( On The Course of The Stars ), written shortly after his consecration as bishop in 573, gives thorough instructions for how this should be done; by careful observations of the rise and progress through the sky of select stars and constellations. De cursu stellarum was an exercise in practical astronomy that McCluskey has studied as an important means by which vestiges of the classical astronomy of the Greeks and Romans was preserved during the Dark Ages. Gregory exemplifies a Christian culture that had rejected the pagan mythologies that lay behind the traditional constellations and dismissed the superstitions of the astrologers. His constellations are mostly Christianized depictions. A handful of surviving manuscripts of De cursu feature illustrations intended to phd thesis quality higher education help the monks learn to recognize the patterns discussed in the text. It is here that we find the earliest clear reference to titles in mla format essays ôThe Greater Crossö among the stars of Cygnus flanked by an ôAlfaö or ôLesser Crossö in Delphinus and an ôOmegaö in Lyra.* A Cross flanked by the Alpha and Omega was a familiar theme in the Christian art of the Middle Ages, as McCluskey reminds us. Such familiarity would well serve the kind of instruction undertaken in Gregoryĺs manual.
Thus, the enigmatic reference of Al-Biruni concerning a cross in Delphinus finds a kind of quality assurance corroboration among Gregoryĺs constellations. Certain Christians as early as the 6th century did indeed see a cross there and also recognized a ôgreaterö one nearby. The Great and Lesser Crosses described in Gregory of lucia dessay Toursĺ De cursu stellarum . Phd Thesis Quality Assurance Higher Education! Time: 11 pm local time on 10/27/592 from central France. (All charts were prepared using Voyager II, Carina Software, 1992-1993.) The impulse to redraw the heavens as witnessed with the movie titles in mla essays, biblicizers of the 17th century is frequently described as originating with the writings of Bede the phd thesis quality assurance, Venerable in the 9th century,* but the example of Gregoryĺs manual is an obviously older antecedent. In fact, an essay by Jean Danielou, ôThe Twelve Apostles and the Zodiac,ö* reveals how Jews, Christians and Gnostics all had been busy claiming and transforming celestial imagery for a very long time indeed, at least since the đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, second century in the case of Christians. Schiller may have been the first to phd thesis assurance higher actually draw a zodiac made up of twelve disciples or apostles but the idea may go back as far as Genesis ch. 49 which, some interpreters allow, reveals zodiacal imagery in its descriptions of the twelve tribes.* Hugo Rahnerĺs Greek Myth and Christian Mystery outlines the many ways early Christians sought to transform and appropriate cosmic symbols such as the Sun and moon in support of the Gospel.* In the third century Hippolytus felt called to refute the evident excesses of the sect he calls the Astrotheosophists and their weakly Christian mythic allegories.* Yet, by the late fourth century Bishop Zeno of Verona would risk preaching a ôdivine horoscopeö for the benefit of the newly baptized ôchildrenö under his care, for fear that their astrological curiosities might otherwise lead them astray.* However, the closest we come to something like the recognition we have been seeking, prior to the 6th century, seems to be reflections on Platoĺs discussion in the Timaeus of the world-soul made manifest by the intersection of the two great circles of the đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ, astronomers, the ôheavenly chiö formed where the ecliptic and celestial equator invisibly meet. Rahner states that these otherwise invisible lines ôbecome for the Christian eye a heavenly cross,ö and that through Justin and Irenausĺ seminal doctrine of recapitulation a long meditation on phd thesis higher, the cosmic symbolism of the cross entered Christian tradition. By the fourth century the converted astrologer Firmicus Maternus declares, ôThe sign of a wooden cross holds the machine of the firmament together, strengthens the foundations of the earth, and leads those that cling to it towards life.ö*
The invisible ĹHeavenly Chiĺ, traced by the intersection of the celestial equator and the ecliptic, expressed for some early Christian writers part of the cosmic symbolism of the Cross. Precession had carried Ĺthe first point of Ariesĺ, the Sunĺs location at the vernal equinox, well into service, Pisces by the time of Constantine. Time: the phd thesis assurance education, ĹChiĺ would be near the meridian for observers at Rome around 9:30 pm local time on 10/27/312. Still, not until the 6th century do we encounter the earliest clear reference to the recognition. While this ought to satisfy our search, we have already encountered reasons to suspect that the recognition is actually older still. Gregoryĺs work surely represents elements of a received tradition. Cassianĺs rule about using the stars to keep the hours for prayer reflects the practice of the movie titles essays, monasteries of Lower Egypt which he had visited late in the 4th century. His writings reveal no details about phd thesis assurance, this but it seems reasonable to think that there may well be something like the material found in Gregoryĺs De cursu buried in some as yet untranslated, undiscovered, or perhaps lost Coptic manuscript, as McCluskey suggests. It seems easier to imagine, for example, that an earlier tradition diffused westward to Gregory and movie in mla format, eastward to Al-Biruniĺs Syrians than that Gregoryĺs Latin manual could exercise an influence so far east into quality higher education, Byzantium.* However, Eusebius goes on to relate how this daytime vision was repeated in đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ a dream or visitation at night.
Likewise, the writer known as the Christian Cicero, Lactantius, tells of quality assurance education Constantineĺs dream on the night before the battle, an account written just six years after the event.. He was advised ôto mark the celestial sign of đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ God on the shields of his soldiers.ö* Does the night time setting for higher, these dreams offer anything toward interpreting the vision? Some historians find here nothing more than a stereotypical late imperial setting for epiphanies of writing ideas this sort. Quality Education! But, there have been those who have sought a more night inspired explanation. F. Heiland, on the staff of the Zeiss planetarium at Jena back in the late 40ĺs and 50ĺs, wrote a piece for lucia dessay, that institutionĺs journal entitled ôDie astronomische Deutung der Vision Kaiser Konstantinsö (The Astronomical Interpretation of the Vision of The Emperor Constantine).* In it he observes that the Fall of the year 312 AD was indeed attended by a noteworthy spectacle: the syzygy or close alignment of three bright planets in the evening sky above the southwest horizon. Assurance! Mars, Saturn and Jupiter were positioned along a line within about 20 degrees of each other on movie essays, the border of Capricornus and Sagittarius. Such an event would surely have drawn the attention of the astrologers and diviners attached to all Roman armies who would have worried at what may well have been taken as an ill omen.
The contemporary histories, including some of pagan origin, hint at some such dark sign prior to the battle, one which Constantine defied in pressing his attack. Heilandĺs solution was to quality assurance suggest that Constantine overcame the psychological impact on his army of the pagan astrological omen by appropriating it to fashion a Christian token of đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ victory. Left to right: The 'staurogram' combining the Greek letters Tau and Rho, the Chi-Rho monogram formed by the first two letters in Christ, and the Iota-Chi monogram composed of the initials for Jesus Christ. Both Lactantius and Eusebius describe that token as something more than a simple Latin cross; as a ôstaurogramö in the case of the quality higher education, former or the Chi-Rho ômonogramö in that of the latter. Following Lactantiusĺ description, Heiland pictured a new and obviously temporary asterism formed by education combining the alignment of planets with surrounding stars. Prof. Michael DiMaio has more recently offered a modified version of Heilandĺs proposal, noting that Venus also eventually joined the alignment on education, the ecliptic in October of 312. The cross member is thus lengthened and lucia dessay, the upright with the ôRhoö becomes a rather enormous loop reaching all the way to bright Vega.* (See note #13 at: http://www.roman-emperors.org/conniei.htm) The alignment asterism of Heiland (heavier lines) and DiMaio, made by combining the quality assurance education, alignment of lucia dessay planets with stars borrowed from phd thesis quality higher education, several classical constellations.
Venus, in DiMaioĺs arrangement, would have been very near to setting at the end of special education term twilight on his proposed date of October 27th in 312 AD An eleven-day-old moon would be shining in the SE on the at date. Assurance! Time: 6:30 pm at Rome. Personally, I judge that these proposals somewhat tax the imagination. Can a precedent be cited for combining planets and term paper, stars to phd thesis assurance higher form such an ephemeral asterism? Would borrowing stars from such a variety of already existing and familiar star patterns be very convincing for titles in mla, Constantineĺs ôastrologically challengedö generals?
Although I think DiMaio is correct to quality higher include Venus in the alignment, since the presence of the queen of special education paper heaven always adds drama to quality assurance higher any evening sky, I note how very low to đî_ÔÇ╣ the horizon it is as twilight begins. By the time it had grown dark enough for stars in Ophiuchus to be discernible Venus would have all but set. And then thereĺs the presence of an 11 day old moon to assurance education deal with on the 27th. So, although I donĺt find the ôalignment asterismö very convincing I do think pointing out the alignment itself adds to our understanding of the atmosphere of portent found in the histories, something largely neglected by modern scholarship. Could the Cross in Cygnus offer a simpler interpretation? Without entertaining any illusions about being able to prove such a thing, let me briefly offer a way of crafting such an lucia dessay, interpretation that seems to phd thesis quality me to be at least as interesting and as plausible as the ôalignment asterismö. Describing the wide interest of early Christian writers in the symbolism of the Cross, Hugo Rahner put the matter this way. ôThe cross is everywhere- it is in dbq 21 the shape of the human form when we stretch out our hands in prayer, it is in the flight of birds, in the instruments of quality higher education husbandry, it is in the form of the lucia dessay, shipĺs mast when it is crossed by higher a spar.ö* Examples abound from the works of Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Minutius Felix and movie titles in mla essays, Methodius. The latter, writing in the early 3rd century, offers this observation, ôFor every creature, so to speak, has, for the sake of phd thesis assurance liberty, been marked with this sign; for birds which fly aloft, form the figure of the cross by the expansion of their wings. ö* Among those familiar with Aratusĺ Phenomena Cygnus was known simply as the paper, Bird, Ĺo ornis. Phd Thesis Quality Higher Education! Given that Christian imagination had recognized the titles, figure of the cross so widely and quality education, early on, if it really had failed to fin one in Cygnus before the 6th century we should wonder why not! Augury, divination based on bird signs, was regularly practiced on behalf of the Roman military, the idea being that winged creatures could convey messages from the lofty realm of the gods to mortals keen to read them on the earth below. The army carried the necessary complement of chickens wherever they marched.
Chief among birds was, of course, the bird of Zeus -the eagle, the aquila well known from so much Roman symbolism. Essay Customer! By imperial times the quality assurance education, aquila had long since become the principle standard carried by the legions and the worship of these standards was a regular part of army life. Lucia Dessay! Setting up a shrine to the aquila in assurance higher education the Temple was among the sacrileges inflicted upon the Jews of Jerusalem by the Roman army as the city fell in 70 AD, according to the historian Josephus.* The cross used by Constantine on the shields of his soldiers, the new standard under which they marched, called the movie in mla, ôlabarumö by Eusebius, in effect replaced the eagle of Imperial Rome. Phd Thesis Education! So notes the fun creative ideas, nineteenth century historian Philip Schaff.* It suggests to me an phd thesis quality assurance, interpretation of Constantineĺs vision which imagines it as a sort of celestial augury.
R. H. Allenĺs Star Names offers this note under the movie titles format, section on Aquila, ôThompson thinks that the phd thesis quality assurance higher education, fable, in Greek ornithology, of the essay about customer, eagle attacking the swan, but defeated by it, is symbolical of phd thesis ôAquila, which rises in the East, immediately after Cygnus, but, setting in đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ the West, goes down a little while before that more northern constellation.öö* Lord DĺArcy Thompson, the English naturalist, collected all manner of classical information for his book, A Glossary of Greek Birds , often with an assurance, eye toward aspects related to ôthe picture-book of the skyö, as he called it.* In my celestial augury the Eagle v. Swan combat suggests something like Aquila/Rome/Maxentius in conflict with Cygnus/Cross/Constantine. Perhaps this Cygnoid Cross, backed by the story of the essay about service, emperorĺs celestial epiphany, was employed to offer an effective promise of victory over against the astrologersĺ unnerving portent. The Ĺcelestial auguryĺ suggested by the way the Imperial Aquila is said to have been replaced by education the heavenly sign of God on the shields of Constantineĺs army and by the myth of an Eagle/Swan combat. Argumentative About Service! Although little commends it as more than an imaginative speculation, the legend of Constantineĺs Vision may have contributed to the eventual recognition of a cross in the stars of Cygnus. Time: 10:30 local time on 10/27/312 from Rome. What of the staurogram figure? To make Lactantiusĺ cross ôwith the top of its head bent round,ö* add a loop to phd thesis higher the traditional cross starting at Deneb, passing through omicron Cygni 1 and 2 and closing at gamma Cygni. No, these are not terribly bright stars and đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣, yes, there are competing stars sprinkled nearby. As star gazers know so well, all thatĺs necessary is to recognize the pattern once to lock it into the imagination. Quality Assurance Education! At least it has the advantage of lucia dessay simplicity. For those who may have access to any of quality assurance todayĺs computerized planetarium programs, just advance the time in half hour steps to ideas watch the conflict unfold until Cygnus rests unassailed and the victorious Cross stands upright on the northwest horizon after around 10:30 pm in the late October skies of 312 AD.
The sources that survive from 4th century Rome, lamented by phd thesis quality higher historians as a poorly documented era in any case, simply donĺt allow for very much resembling the possibility of definitive proof for any of the paper, various interpretations proposed for Constantineĺs vision. It has been interpreted as an outright miracle of faith, a political and religious fiction, a purely psychological experience, something to phd thesis higher education do with solar halos, something to do with stars, or combinations thereof. Each has had proponents over the years. Although my fond speculation about this ôcelestial auguryö remains improbable, more certain by far is the fact that Constantineĺs legend seems to have contributed, or else attracted, elements of dbq 21 world war 2 astral imagery. In interpreting the vision I tend to allow, with historians like Robin Fox, for a certain interplay of internal experience and external observation. Elusive as it is, imagination is key. As Fox puts it, ôA man only sees in the sky what he is predisposed to notice or recall. ö* What might Constantine have been predisposed to notice or recall? We cannot know fully, but perhaps there are clues. Christian advisors had at phd thesis assurance higher, some point gained access to the emperorĺs thoughts or else his conversion, whatever we make of it, would be completely unintelligible.
Yet, the world in which he lived, grew up, and aspired to the purple was still mainly a pagan world. Serving under the argumentative service, Tetrarchy at the close of the 3rd century makes it hard to imagine that the cults had not contributed something to his imagination, whether negative or positive. Mithraism, for quality, example, and the cult of Sol Invictus were very much a part of the lucia dessay, religious milieu of the army and the imperium. Modern researchers, notably David Ulansey and Roger Beck, have shown how thoroughly astral symbolism played a part in the Mithraic mysteries, although significant details are still being debated.* E. C. Kruppĺs recent book, Skywatchers, Shamans and Kings: The Astronomy and Archaeology of Power , rehearses the cosmic imagery behind Romeĺs empire; from Julius Ceasarĺs apotheosis upon the appearance a comet, to Augustusĺ use of Capricorn, his birth sign, on his coins and phd thesis quality higher, banners, to the erection of the movie titles format, Solarium Augustii.* That Constantine may have had similar interests in employing celestial imagery is suggested several ways. From 315, three years after defeating Maxentius, rare silver medallions minted at phd thesis education, Ticinum show Constantineĺs portrait and his helmet with its high crest or crown of ôfeathersö.* Although I am not aware of any specific study of the iconography of these decorations, to my eye their round shape and rayed appearance give the impression of nothing so much as stars.
Set among them is one fashioned in the figure of the ôChi-Rhoö of the labarum, one of its earliest known representations.* Do we have here something of a hint as to what he might have been predisposed to notice or recall? Or, was it mere rhetoric that inspired the emperor to lend these words, toward the end of his life, to the inscription on the monument to St. Peter in Rome, ôBecause of your leadership the glorious universe has reached to the furthest stars. ö?* Finally, and perhaps most tellingly, what of the way Constantineĺs memory is celebrated in the Eastern Church? Orthodox Christian monasteries celebrate the feast day of Saints Constantine and Helena, May 21st, with hymns that include the following lines for Matins, ôHaving stretched forth thy senses toward heaven and acquired the beauty of the stars, thou wast taught by them the mysteries of the Lord of all; and đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, the weapon of the Cross shone forth in their midst. Phd Thesis Quality Education! ö* The connection of astral imagery with Constantineĺs vision of the Cross is so clear in the hymn that we are left wondering what its source might be, since it seems to owe nothing to the histories usually relied upon for information about the emperorĺs life and reign. The Slavonic text for the Orthodox Menaion goes back only as far as the 17th century, but it is argumentative about service obviously based on more ancient Byzantine tradition. There is quality assurance education a considerable body of hagiographic literature inspired by Constantine and, especially, the legend of Helenaĺs discovery of the Cross.* So far my search for such astral imagery there has been in vain. Lucia Dessay! A possible but problematic source lies in the brief account of Constantineĺs conversion attributed to the Arian historian Philostorgius.
His lost 5th century Ecclesiastical History , judged by quality assurance higher historians to be rather unreliable as an account of the origin and spread of Arianism, comes to us as a 9th century epitome by Photius. It tells how ôthe sign of the cross was seen in the East, vast in extent and lit up with glorious light, and surrounded on each side by stars like a rainbow, symbolizing the world essay, form of letters.ö* The letters spell out the well known heaven sent message to Constantine, In hoc signo vinces , ôBy this sign you will conquer,ö apparently in Latin instead of Greek. But starry letters ôon each sideö of the Cross bears a striking similarity to what we find in Gregoryĺs De cursu stellarum . That such a theologically tainted source would have contributed directly to education the Orthodox liturgy is hard to imagine. But, Philostorgiusĺ account may still betray the ultimate source of all this starry imagery. With the few lines quoted above regarding Constantineĺs vision in dbq 21 war 2 essay mind, here is the account of Ignatius of Antioch concerning another celestial portent of interest to Christians. ôHow then were these mysteries revealed to the ages? A star shone in the sky, brighter than all other stars; its light was indescribable and its strangeness provoked wonder, and all the rest of the stars with the Sun and moon made a choir around that star which outshone them all. ö* The celestial sign Ignatius describes here is, of course, the Star of Bethlehem recorded in higher education the Gospel of Matthew.
Philostorgiusĺ sign of the cross shining with a wonderful light and surrounded by a rainbow of stars, a choir that silently spells out its message not so much of praise but of education paper assurance, bears a certain resemblance to phd thesis assurance higher education Ignatiusĺ commentary on the familiar nativity scene. Both may in fact have in mind the dreams of Joseph in Genesis ch. 37. Does the detail that the cross shines ôin the Eastö suggest that Philostorgius had in mind the tradition of the Christmas Star? If the lucia dessay, similarities between these passages are not simply coincidental, I would argue that they fit well with the recent interpretation offered by Richard Trexler regarding the role of the assurance higher, Magi and special paper, the star in Christian art from the Constantinian era.* Proposals tracing the evolution of the Chi-Rho of the labarum from a pagan star have been largely dismissed by historians. However, if Trexler and those his account relies upon phd thesis quality higher are correct perhaps an evolution from a Christian star should be considered. He notes, ôIn the few scenes of the Magi viewing the star that may predate Constantine, the form of the đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, Magiĺs star is twofold. Far the most common is a six-pointed star; in rare cases one encounters the superimposed Greek letters iota and chi (See Figure 3), the first letters in higher the Greek word for ôJesusö and ôChrist.ö After 312, however, both the star and the ôiota-chiö encounter competition from a superimposition of the letters chi and rho, the first two Greek letters of the word ôChrist.öö * An example that entails both monogram and staurogram as apparent stand-ins for the Bethlehem star can be found on the 5th century tomb of Flavius Julius Catervius in Tolentino, Italy.*
Mediated by đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣ this symbolic play of phd thesis assurance higher education letters (recall both Gregory of Tours and Philostorgius) Star and Cross, or at least Star and Labarum, came to be associated in đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ Christian art and imagination. Both had been celestial signs. The first brings the phd thesis quality higher, Magi, since the time of Tertullian increasingly imagined as kings, to worship the Christ child. The second likewise brings Constantine to đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ faith in quality assurance higher Christ and to the throne of Rome. Unless some explicit source in Constantinian hagiography remains to be identified, perhaps we need search no further for the origin of the đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ, astral language of the feast day hymns than the role the Magi and their star played in early and assurance higher education, later Christian imagination as presented in movie titles Trexlerĺs account. The things Constantine, and those after him, would have noticed and assurance higher education, recalled were perhaps richly stellar after all. If we approach the special paper, question more generally in terms of origins we are forced to wonder about phd thesis education, still earlier monastic traditions, now lost to in mla essays the mists of time, and the ways Christian imagination was directed toward the heavens by the stories of the phd thesis assurance education, Saviorĺs Star and the Emperorĺs Vision. Constantineĺs celestial sign, whether by day or night, fired the imaginations of essay about others who were soon, not surprisingly, granted epiphanies of their own. After 312 showers of heavenly cross visions seem to quality assurance rain down into Christian literature and art.
The emperorĺs mother, Helena, sees a heavenly sign guiding her search for đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, the True Cross in quality assurance higher education Jerusalem. Constantineĺs sons have cross visions, and, of course, Cyril of Jerusalem.* The celestial sign that brought the Emperor to Christ reminded Christians of the one that first guided the Magi to ideas the stable in Bethlehem. Cross and phd thesis assurance, Star came to be seen in each otherĺs glorious light. Behind the đî_ÔÇ╣, cruciform stars still found on our Christmas cards lies a long half forgotten history. Thus, regarding the phd thesis higher education, question of the asterismĺs origins perhaps the most certainty that can be gleaned is that if the recognition of a Cross in world the stars of Cygnus had not already taken place by or in the early part of the 4th century it soon became all but inevitable for one to be found there after Constantine. * Footnotes and illustrations have been withheld. Please consult the article as printed in Culture and Cosmos, v. 4, no.2. Online see http://www.cultureandcosmos.com or write to phd thesis education CC , PO Box 1071, Bristol BS99 1HE, UK. The author would like to acknowledge the movie in mla essays, kind assistance of Prof. Timothy Hegedus (Waterloo Lutheran Seminary), art historian Dr.
Hanna. Witte-Orr, and Dr. R.H. van Gent. Footnotes in the original article. indicate their specific contributions. Ilustrations presented in original article: The Cross of St.
Helena after Schiller Schickardĺs Crux Christi Crux Major from De Cursu Stellarum The Ticinum medallion Constantineĺs Vision from the 15th century Church of the Holy Cross of Agiasmati Right and Left end panels from the phd thesis higher education, tomb of Catervius Galla Placidaĺs celestial cross St. Lucia Dessay! Apollinare de Classeĺs starry cross Copyright 2000 by phd thesis higher education the author.
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Literature/Dr. Seuss term paper 1128. I took an unconventional approach in the topic I chose for my reading assignment - whereas most groups selected single novels, my partner and I opted to phd thesis quality higher, read a collection of short stories by none other than the lucia dessay, notorious Dr. Seuss. Were I writing this essay on a normal book, I would be able to phd thesis assurance, pose a question about the book itself and answer it in movie titles in mla essays an ordinary sort of way. However, given the assurance higher, subject matter I have chosen, an essay on an individual book, though possible, would be a very tricky thing to đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, do. It would be wiser, and probably easier, to respond to phd thesis quality assurance education, the man himself.
My decision to respond to fun creative, the man himself makes many more choices - what facet of Dr. Seuss shall I ask myself questions about? I think perhaps I first need to quality, give some brief biographical information on the man to understand the education paper, background he's coming from. In 1904, Theodore Seuss Geisel was born in Massachusetts, USA. Higher? I have not been able to find too much documentation about his childhood, but he certainly did not come from a terribly poor or terribly unsuccessful familyA?aéČAŽ in titles format essays fact, his family had owned a local brewery in education their home town of Springfield for đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, several years. Ever since his childhood, Geisel had dabbled in the fields we all know and love him for education, todayA?aéČAŽ for instance, during bible recitals, he read the verses to dbq 21 world, a rhythm and often in rhyme. Assurance Education? In High School he wrote many short essays and drew cartoons for the school paper, and even then he had adopted a pseudonym for himself - Pete the Pessimist. Upon graduation, Geisel began studying literature at Oxford university, as his original intent was to become an educatorA?aéČAŽ even then, he punctuated his time at Oxford with his job editing and special, contributing to the Jack-O-Lantern, their humour magazineA?aéČAŽ his work there was published under the name Dr. Theophrastus Seuss.
Upon Geisel's graduation, he found that work for educators was slimmer than that he had first expected, and performed various odd jobsA?aéČAŽ his big break into phd thesis quality, the writing business came in movie titles format 1937: Theodore had just gotten off a boat, and was sitting in a tavern. Due to a storm, the quality assurance education, boat had been rocked back and movie titles format essays, forth, and the rhythm of this rocking was still very prevalent in phd thesis quality higher his mind. Overcome by education term paper the rhythm, he got out some paper and penned And To Think That I Saw It On Mulberry Street, under the name Dr. Seuss. Seuss, obviously proud of what he had done, attempted to get his book published - 27 letters of rejection came in from 27 companies telling him that his work was much too unconventional for children to understand and relate to and all that mish-mash, and it was the 28th company that dared to publish his work. That risk certainly paid off for themA?aéČAŽ and the rest, as they say, is history. Writing all of this, I have just thought of a question to higher, explore: Many authors publish many books for in mla format, many different reasonsA?aéČAŽ to put them all into a very big nutshell, however, you can see them all in two different groups: Firstly, there are those who publish for money and fame, churning out one book after another in an attempt to capitalize/attract audience - although some people might argue this, current big-name authors like Tom Clancy and Michael Crichton fit into this category. Secondly, there are authors who publish for the thrill of creativity and writing, for the art rather than the moneyA?aéČAŽ they would rather contribute to the artistic world than their financial world (although most authors would agree that a bit of phd thesis assurance higher education, both would be nice).
Dr. Seuss, in the selections he publishes, talks about subjects that obviously most people in đî_ÔÇ╣ today's society would agree with. For Example: The Lorax deals with environmental issues which most people nowadays can attest to phd thesis education, caring about, and And To Think That I Saw It On Mulberry Street deals with the importance of the imagination, something that few people would dispute. Since Dr. Seuss' target audience is children (although his last two books, Oh, The Places You'll Go and You're Only Old Once were geared toward an older audienceA?aéČAŽ it would be interesting to see if he would have continued in that vein supposing he did not die), parents are the ones in charge of the buyingA?aéČAŽ and most 'responsible' parents would like their children to learn the morals and essay, ethics Seuss preaches in phd thesis assurance education his stories. Was Dr. Seuss simply writing stories targeted to moral-hungry parents to rack in the dollars, or did he seriously have something creative to say or do? That shall be the fun creative writing, subject of this essay.
Since I do not have any serious autobiographical information on the man, and since I'm not Dr. Seuss himself I obviously cannot get inside his head and decipher what exactly his intentions were. I shall attempt to answer that question using selections from his writing and artistry, for those are the closest we can get to the mind of this genius (and he is a genius whether he is a member of group 1 or 2 A?aéČAŽ marketing geniuses and creative geniuses both fit in the genius category). I shall go about this task in a typical report sort of way, by quality assurance showing the case for Group 1, showing the đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ, case for Group 2, and finally writing my personal opinion. Part 1 - Seuss as a money-hungry product of the system: I said it before, but I'll say it again: If you look at the works of Dr. Seuss, extreme moral undertones abound.
Books such as the so previously mentioned The Lorax and phd thesis quality education, Bartholomew and the Oobleck teach children to respect the environment, a message further improved upon by books like McElligott's Pool and đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ, One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish which show the phd thesis quality, diversity of đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, living things. Books such as The Foot Book teach children tolerance for all different type of people and things, denouncing racism and sexism and any other -ism you can think of. That message certainly should be heeded, but can it be proven that Seuss was an quality assurance higher adamant supporter of those morals? Being born in argumentative essay about service 1904, when the status of civil rights was very different, he was almost definitely raised with a less egalitarian viewpoint than children born in the past 20-30 years - he could have either been truly in opposition to what was going on phd thesis quality higher education, in the special term, 50's when The Foot Book was written, or he could have been latching onto the civil rights trends that were prevalent and, after a period of time, accepted. More evidence about this later. In 1950, Seuss read an article saying that educators and teachers thought children did not have good reading skills. Seuss decided to fulfill that need and wrote The Cat In The Hat, the first-ever beginner reader book that was fun to read (he would later publish many more books fulfilling the same function) - up 'til that point, the phd thesis quality higher education, ultra-bland Dick and Jane literature was the đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, only thing struggling young readers had any access to. Here's another little dilemma: Was the Cat in quality assurance the Hat an exercise of argumentative essay, creative power, an attempt to seriously improve upon the youth of assurance education, that time, or an attempt to make money by monopolizing on fun children's reading education (the Cat in the Hat, after all, sold 50 million copies). Seuss did originally want to become a teacher (come to think of it, he did teach millions of childrenA?aéČAŽ but that's another topic), so perhaps this educational altruism was what he really desiredA?aéČAŽ then again, how many teachers are in schools because they want to improve the minds of children and how many are in schools because they want to put food on their tables - I am fairly certain that there are more of the dbq 21 war 2, latter group than the former.
As you can recall, Seuss learned that children weren't reading well from quality assurance education, a magazine articleA?aéČAŽ did this article alert him to essay about customer service, a growing educational issue, or show him a mental image of phd thesis quality higher, what his big break should be? I'm afraid this question cannot be answered. Authors who write for the sake of writing usually always do it as a method of expressing their own creativity. In some of his works Dr. Seuss was flamingly creative (There's a Wocket in my Pocket, The Sleep Book, etcA?aéČAŽ nearly all the đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, ones that deal with biodiversity) via his artwork and interesting use of languageA?aéČAŽ as creative as creative can be. Phd Thesis Quality Assurance Higher Education? In other books, however, Seuss' work wasA?aéČAŽ dull. Bartholomew and the Oobleck, for instance, does not have any redeeming artwork, the ideas, words are in prose rather than poetry, and the storyline is quality assurance higher quite manufactured.
Hop on education term, Pop is phd thesis quality assurance obviously not a creative undertakingA?aéČAŽ phrases like Hop. Pop. Hop on Pop. aren't the cleverest things you can come up with. War 2? The creativity that Seuss was usually full of quality assurance higher education, was, in the end, childish creativityA?aéČAŽ few individuals have remained creatively intrigued by childish subjects all their lives (Jad Fair is an đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ example of one of those rarities), but, although his professional image makes it seem otherwise, Seuss was not one of phd thesis quality education, them. He had a wide range of adult ideas he wanted to get out writing too. For example, look at these two paintings of his - the first is untitled, and phd thesis quality higher education, the second is Cat Detective in the Wrong Part of special education, Town: Scenes of what I presume to be bondage (see the shackles on the cow's arm and the small masked woman?) and higher, downright trippiness aren't exactly children's fare. A true artist would attempt to publish whatever it was he wanted to, not cater to the audience he had already developed and, like Dr. Seuss, keep all of his creative activities that differ from the norm in wraps (these pictures were not publicized as much as any of đ×ĐŚÔÇÜ đî_ÔÇ╣, his booksA?aéČAŽ most people do not even know they exist).
Finally, another sign of an artist selling out phd thesis quality assurance higher education (in the music industry, anyway) is their advertising products that they do not genuinely, 100% believe in dbq 21 war 2 essay and want to share with the worldA?aéČAŽ it's a dead giveaway that you want money if you lend your original ideas to phd thesis education, something you don't support. Personally, I don't believe Dr. Seuss is as adamant a supporter of Cellophane and Narragansett ale as he is of environment-friendliness and civil rights. I may be wrong on that, who knows, but observe: With that, I conclude the first section of the essay, and begin the second. Part 2 - Seuss as a Creative, Altruistic Genius: In the last few pages, I posted many arguments that may have described Dr. Seuss as someone in search of money - given the society we live in, you really can't be blamed for dbq 21 essay, greed, but that is a different story. In those arguments there were many times when I countered myself, and assurance education, all of those counterings work toward this caseA?aéČAŽ please keep that in mind.
To summarize what I said: Given all the subject matter that Seuss has written about for so much of his life, it is impossible to think that the man wouldn't have any feelings on them at allA?aéČAŽ even if he just mildly believed in the morals he taught, he still educated many generations with them and did make a big impact on special term, the world. If you look at some of the things Dr. Seuss has done voluntarily, you see a moral and honorable manA?aéČAŽ during WW2 he was involved in phd thesis quality the making of government films, much like his contemporary Walt Disney. Although his films were injected with a heavy dose of American propaganda (remember the country that he was from, and the conditions he grew up inA?aéČAŽ anyone who has his upbringing will be pro-American), many of fun creative, them demonstrated morals as wellA?aéČAŽ as a matter of phd thesis higher, interest, in 1947 he won an Academy award for his film Design for death. Although I cannot put one of Seuss' films in this essay, I can show you some of đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ, his political cartoons. Yes, they are very slanted, but when it comes to assurance education, WW2 we all know who the good guys and who the bad guys wereA?aéČAŽ [Notice how in the turtle cartoon, he uses well-known he had already created to help get his message across] Although people who are serious about books often do not consider Dr.
Seuss, his impact is bigger than many authors we consider important. Fun Creative? Most important authors are read later in life, while Seuss novels are read early on when your mind is very impressionable and can be easily swayed. The impact Seuss' teachings have on you are likely to stay for a long, long time, whereas the impact of the teachings of an adult author likeA?aéČAŽ ummA?aéČAŽ Hemingway are only extreme if you're extremely into his books (actually, I haven't read anything by Hemingway so he isn't the phd thesis quality education, best exampleA?aéČAŽ I'm just using him as a generic author most educated adults agree on đî_ÔÇ╣, the talent of). On the other hand, Seuss (and other childhood books you've read) stays with you even if you only mildly enjoyed it. That's how the young mind works. What I mean to education, say is this: Seuss has made a huge positive impact, whether he truly wanted to or notA?aéČAŽ even if he did do it for money, the end result was undeniably good and perhaps that money was well-deserved.
A phrase from the last paragraph that I'd like to add on writing, to is do it for the money. Higher Education? When Dr. Seuss was born his financial situation wasn't one of the shabbiest in the world and when he died he was quite a wealthy man. đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ? Money, obviously, was something he wanted, but according to quality assurance education, some of his writings once he got it he didn't really appreciate the rich, socialite lifestyle that went with it. Dbq 21 War 2? A few of his poems have dealt with his disapproval of quality education, socialites and special education, their constant, pretentious parties that he forced himself to go to - for example:
Said an artist with minutes to quality assurance, live. I have very few minutes to give. To the Smarties and education term, Farties. At long local parties, And ended his life with a shiv. Seuss eventually got so fed up with the whole San Diego socialite scene that he just dropped out of higher education, it, preferring virtual isolation over đî_ÔÇ╣ đĆÔÇá┬▒__ÔéČ spending his time in phd thesis the breeding grounds of pretentiousness. Isolation brings forth suffering, and suffering for your art is a truly artistic thing to do indeed. The Bottom Line:
I have now presented both sides of the case. So far in this essay I've acted as the dbq 21 war 2 essay, prosecution and defense, and assurance higher education, now it is my turn to be the judge: Both sides do have some strong points. The Seuss wants money theory is strengthened so much by the ads displayed that only a very strong counter-argument could break it, but the political cartoons and anti-socialite messages used in about the Seuss was an artist theory manage to do it. It cannot be shown that Seuss was money-hungry all of his life, perhaps simply in its early stages when he just started off - he was heavily involved in advertising then, and his stories such as And To Think That I Saw It On Mulberry Street were not particularly ethic-conscious. Quality Assurance Higher? When Seuss died in 1991, however, you get a definite image of a creative, artistic genius of a manA?aéČAŽ his advertising career had come to a close, his books constantly taught to respect yourself, others and your surroundings, and he exercised his artistic freedom while writing his final two stories, both adult-oriented. Dr.
Seuss died an honorable man, and any selling out titles in mla that he may have been guilty of is definitely, definitely excusable. ''How did it get so late so soon? It's night before it's afternoon. December is education here before it's June. My goodness how the time has flewn. How did it get so late so soon?''
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