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Argumentative Essay about Why Smoking Should be Banned. Can You As A? Extracts from this document. ?Page | ________________ Ban Smoking in Public Places Smoking is one of the papers leading causes of preventable deaths in the United States, and write a thesis as a, doing it in public is even worse because smokers not only harm themselves, but also those around them. I remember how my great uncle would always smoke in for performance, his house regardless of his surroundings. When his daughter visited him for a vacation, she brought her three year old daughter with her. The baby was healthy before coming to her grandpa's house, but in less than two weeks, she had developed ear infections and a thesis, started to cough.
When they went to cause the doctors' office to find out how she had gotten it, the doctor linked it back to the second hand smoke that she was breathing in. When my great uncle found out about it, he finally started to care about where he was smoking and who he was with, and can you write a thesis as a, decided that he would smoke in a secluded place where no one but him may be affected. . read more. Though many smokers already know of the health risks that come with smoking cigarettes, but what most of them do not, is how secondhand smoking can affect other people. Papers On Pay For Performance? ?Breathing in low doses of secondhand smoke can increase a person?s risk of heart attack? according to a study by Dr. Write As A Question? Meyers, a professor of customer services essay, Cardiology and Preventive Medicine at University of can you write question, Kansas (Sciencedaily.com). Smokers should not risk non-smokers for something that they do. In continuation of Dr. Essay? Meyers? study is that, ?secondhand smoking increases the likelihood of a heart attack by making the blood ?sticky?, making it more prone to clotting, and reducing the amount of good cholesterol in the body? (Sciencedaily.com).
Non-smokers should not be worrying about paying more medical bills, especially in today?s economic situation. Many businesses provide health insurance to their employees. Write A Thesis As A Question? According to contest high a statistical data collected by Live Strong, employers spend an extra $49 million in can you as a, medical costs for essay employees who are exposed to secondhand smoking in their jobs (Nelson). . read more. Smoking in public should be banned at a federal level without question. Smoking negatively affects people, the environment and businesses. There are no logical reasons to allow smoking in public places and doing so does not benefit anyone but cigarette makers. Can You As A? Smokers should have secluded areas where they could smoke where no one may be harmed. The government should provide trash cans in these areas so smokers would not just throw their cigarette butts on the floor.
Anyone caught smoking in public places and littering their cigarettes should be fined. Smoking endangers people who chose not to engage in the same reckless behavior, like my baby cousin who had gotten so sick because of phd thesis in community health nursing, my great uncle?s smoking. It also dirties our environment and harms other animals that are in search of food. Write As A Question? Businesses who provide health insurance to their workers affected by watermarks paper second hand smoking are wasting money that could be used to hire more employees. Banning smoking in can you write a thesis, public may lead to a better way of life and a healthier place to live. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in contest high, our GCSE Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise essays. Should smoking be banned in public places?
Putting a ban on can you write a thesis question, smoking in cause world war 1 essay, public places would do great things for the economy and help businesses to attract more people. Can You As A? Non-smokers would feel less threatened and not have to sit and worry about the odd smoke cloud hitting them in the face while enjoying a drink or a meal. Pip was a common working boy; he was used to his status and was happy. But after he met the cold and proud Estelle, at Satis house, he fell foolishly in school, love with her. He became ashamed of himself, ashamed of his family and ashamed of his work. Because of the effects smoking has on you and others should it be banned . They have not totally blocked out smokers but have catered for them in write a thesis question, a way of essay contest high, putting benches and a heater outside every bar and restaurant, and a thesis as a, they have proven that passive smoking has dropped dramatically. a case study on smoking and it's effects. Tobacco was so popular that as part of the war effort, tobacco was made a protected crop in America and cigarettes were included in soldiers rations. Tobacco companies sent millions of free cigarettes to troops.
With soldiers being conscripted and world war 1 essay, everyone having to do national service, a large majority of young men smoked. Another regard is having to go to write as a school for another long minimum of 8 years. Most students get a 4-year bachelor's degree, and then go to a medical school for another 4 years to be a Medical Doctor. Doctor Green says, When you are young, your brain is phd thesis health like a sponge, and you can soak up lots of information. When you get older, your brain gets harder and harder and less like a sponge, which means it is much harder to learn and remember information. of can you as a, student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and phd thesis in community, feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the a thesis question rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone.
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The Best Way to Write a Thesis
Master Thesis opportunity: Water + Food Security Nexus. Topic : Analyzing and quantifying the linkage between water and food security. State of can you a thesis as a, art on quantification of the nexus between the water and contest high school, food security nexus (literature review) Assessment of a selected river basin in can you a thesis question, terms of water availability and services, demand, flood and drought risk, food production and demand Quantification of can you write question, water and food security considering spatial and phd thesis in community nursing, temporal variability Analysis of tradeoffs considering basic development scenarios for write a thesis as a question the selected basin. Options to do this research: Chile (Limari, Aconcagua), Ethiiopia/Sudan/Egypt: Eastern Nile Basin, or sub-basins), Vietnam (Vu Gia Thu bon river basin, Brazil (Macacu River Basin. Partners : All above mentioned river basins form part of the current research of ITT, partners exist. Supervision: Lars Ribbe, PhD students. Support: Support for mobility and on pay, accommodation is usually available. Remarks and Opportunities: Master Thesis opportunity: Water + Energy Security Nexus.
Topic : Analyzing and quantifying the can you as a question, linkage between water and energy security. State of art on quantification of the customer services, nexus between the water and energy security nexus (literature review) Assessment of a selected river basin in terms of water availability and demand, energy production, potential and demand (focus on hydropower) Quantification of water and energy security considering spatial and temporal variabilities Analysis of tradeoffs considering basic development scenarios for question the selected basin. Options to do this research: Chile (Limari, Aconcagua), Ethiiopia/Sudan/Egypt: Eastern Nile Basin, or sub-basins), Vietnam (Vu Gia Thu bon river basin) Partners : All above mentioned river basins form part of the current research of ITT, partners exist. Supervision: Lars Ribbe, Ramchandra Bhandari. Support: Support for mobility and accommodation is usually available. Remarks and Opportunities: Exact objectives depend on the choosen research area and will be adapted to the research interests of the research on pay for performance, student. Master Thesis opportunity: River Basin Management, Brazil. Topic : Developing Water Monitoring strategies to support water resources management in rural Rio de Janeiro.
Approaches to community based water resources monitoring (literature review) Data requirements for rural water resources management considering the decision making process Option a) Selection of Technologies to support community based water resources monitoring (measurement, data transmission, data analysis and visualization); developing adequate concepts for water monitoring in rural areas Option b) assessing the a thesis, level of awareness of rural population and institutions regarding water resources issues; deriving adequate concepts for involving the writer, rural population in monitoring programs. Partners : Several options: Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) Supervision: Lars Ribbe, Juan Ramirez. Support: Support in accommodation near Niteroi can be offered, integration in research project INTECRAL. Remarks and Opportunities: Exact objectives will be developed with student. Can You Write. Basic knowledge of Portuguese is recommended, especially for option b. Topic : Developing Water Governance strategies for Rural River Basin in Rio de Janeiro state. Local water governance approaches at Micro basin level (literature review) Current framework of river basin management in Brazil and Rio de Janeiro Analyze the services essay, existing structures of can you write question, water related governance in the selected basin of the Intecral project Stakeholder analysis Defining water management targets Develop strategies for local organization of key management functions Suggest strategies to finance water management measures at the micro basin level. Partners : Several options: Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) Supervision: Lars Ribbe, Juan Ramirez.
Support: Support in accommodation near Niteroi can be offered, integration in research project INTECRAL. Remarks and Opportunities: Exact objectives will be developed with student. Basic knowledge of Portuguese is recommended, Topic : Analysis of Water Related Ecosystem Services at Micro-Basin level. Water Related Ecosystem Services concepts and classification (literature review) Identifying water related ecosystem services in the selected basin of the and effect war 1 essay, Intecral project Selection of can you as a, one ecosystem service (eg provision of clean water, flood mitigation, water storage ) and quantification + mapping of this service Suggesting a way to manage the selected ecosystem service. Partners : Several options: Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF)
Supervision: Lars Ribbe, Udo Nehren. Support: Support in essay contest high school, accommodation near Niteroi can be offered, integration in research project INTECRAL. Remarks and Opportunities: Exact objectives will be developed with student. Basic knowledge of Portuguese is write as a recommended. Master Thesis opportunity: River Ecology, Brazil. Topic : Ecomorphological typology of rivers in the Mata Atlanica Fluminense.
River classification approaches worldwide (Literature review) River classification for tropical rivers (Literature review) Defining the river classification approach for the project region (Methodology development) Investigating reference sites in the project region (Field work) Statistical analysis of classification parameters to derive river types (e. g. Research Papers On Pay. cluster analysis) Presenting existing river types in the project region (River type characterization sheets) Partners : Several options: Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) Supervision: Lars Ribbe, Georg Meier. Support: Support in accommodation near Niteroi can be offered, integration in research project INTECRAL. Remarks and Opportunities: We recommend a scientific paper based thesis. Master Thesis opportunity: River Ecology, Brazil. Topic : Ecomorphological assessment of rivers in the Mata Atlanica Fluminense. Getting knowledge about the EMU-method ( E comorphological M anagement U nits) developed at the ITT Applying the EMU-method in the project region Applying classic ecomorphological assessment methods in can you write as a, the project region Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the world essay, EMU-method with classic methods Evaluation of the capabilities of the EMU-method. Partners : to be defined, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) Supervision: Lars Ribbe, Georg Meier.
Support: Support in can you a thesis question, accommodation near Niteroi can be offered, integration in french paper, research project INTECRAL. Remarks and Opportunities: We recommend a scientific paper based thesis. Master Thesis opportunity: Hydrogeological assessment in can you as a, the high elevation Andean cordillera, Central Chile. Topic : Semiarid Northern Central Chile with mean annual precipitation rates of 140 mm is extremely vulnerable to climate variability and change. Although at an elevation above 3000m in the Andean Cordillera precipitation rates are estimated to be around 500 mm, only few rainfall events are occurring throughout the in community nursing, year and baseflow in the dry season relies on groundwater. The study area, the can you write as a, Limari river basin, with its intensive agriculture relies on the mountainous hydrology and the dynamics of the cryosphere in the high Andes Cordillera. Geochemical analyses of groundwater springs can provide valuable information to improve the understanding of ground water aquifers in the high Central Chilean Andes and hence the baseflow and hydrograph. Based on the results, water availability projections can be simulated for research papers different climate scenarios. Improve understanding of geology and write a thesis, high elevation aquifers: fossil or renewable? Estimate recharge rates considering past meteorological time series and runoff Geo-chemical tracer analysis of groundwater springs.
Partners : ITT, University of La Serena, Mining and geology department, Centre for Research in Arid Regions (CEAZA), La Serena. Supervision: Lars Ribbe, Alexandra Nauditt, Prof Schuth (TU Darmstadt) Support: Costs required for obtaining primary and secondary data as well as travel +accommodation costs will be covered. Remarks and high school, Opportunities: Work in can you a thesis as a, the scope of BMBF funded projects on of an writer, water use efficiency and join research team of hydrologists and water managers. Basic knowledge of can you a thesis as a, Spanish is essay writer recommended. Master Thesis opportunity: (Transboundary) Water Governance, Eastern Nile Basin. Topic : Impact of Stakeholder Relationships and Institutional Reforms on Performance of the Irrigation Management System in the Gezira Scheme. Analyze the recent legislative and policy reforms in the Gezira irrigation scheme Define the can you a thesis, different roles, relationships and responsibilities of stakeholders in the Gezira irrigation scheme Investigate the attitudes, interests, issues and potential conflicts among stakeholders using qualitative survey methods Investigate the effects of reforms on the overall performance of the phd thesis health nursing, scheme Recommend future reforms and policy amendments. Partners : Khartoum University, Gezira University, Agricultural Research Center, etc. Supervision: Lars Ribbe, Mohammad Al-Saidi.
Support: Costs required for a thesis question obtaining primary and secondary data as well as travel +accommodation costs will be covered. Remarks and essay high school, Opportunities: Join the Nile Basin research team at ITT and develop a network with leading research institutions in Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt. Master Thesis opportunity: (Transboundary) Water Governance, Eastern Nile Basin. Topic : Complexity-based approaches in Conflict Analysis of Transboundary Water Management. Elaborate on the potential of complexity-based approaches (multi-agent decision support systems) in research on transboudary water management conflicts Compare different multi-agents models of conflict analysis and negotiations using the example of the Easter Nile basin (e.g. Question. Graph Model) Investigate the essay contest high school, conflict states, history and write a thesis as a, future evolvement Develop recommendations for the use of customer, complexity-based modeling tools for write a thesis conflict understanding and resolution. Partners : Khartoum University, Addis Ababa University, Gezira University, etc. Supervision: Lars Ribbe, Mohammad Al-Saidi. Support: Costs required for obtaining primary and secondary data as well as travel +accommodation costs will be covered. Remarks and Opportunities: Join the Nile Basin research team at ITT and develop a network with leading research institutions in Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt. Master Thesis opportunity: (Transboundary) Water Governance, Eastern Nile Basin.
Topic : Local Governance Assessment of Agricultural Land Use Management in the Upper Nile Basin. Study the legislative framework governing agricultural land use in Ethiopia as well as measures to ensure food security Define the different stakeholders with their roles and responsibility in the case study region (Gondar region) Conduct a governance assessment in essay high, regard to can you land use management using an adequate methods (e.g. local governance barometer) Compare findings on the governance performance in the case study region to findings from high, secondary literature Recommend reforms, improvements and opportunities for future reforms. Partners : Khartoum University, Addis Ababa University, International Water Management Institute, etc. Supervision: Lars Ribbe, Mohammad Al-Saidi. Support: Costs required for obtaining primary and secondary data as well as travel +accommodation costs will be covered. Remarks and Opportunities: Join the Nile Basin research team at ITT and develop a network with leading research institutions in Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt. Master Thesis opportunity: (Transboundary) Water Governance, Eastern Nile Basin. Topic : Comparison of Local Adaptation Methods to can you write question Climate Change and watermarks, Variability in Different Agricultural Land Use Systems. Collect basic information on land use characteristics and climatic data Investigate existent local (farm or scheme level) adaptation levels to climate variability in can you write a thesis as a, rain-fed (e.g. upper Ethiopia or Gadaref region in Sudan) and irrigation agriculture (e.g. Gezira Scheme) Compare the different adaptation measures across land use system and to essay commendations in literature or international experiences Examine the can you, effects of adaptation measures in one agricultural land use system on the other Outline critical issues and provide recommendations for increasing resilience of the different systems. Partners : Khartoum University, Addis Ababa University, International Water Management Institute.
Supervision: Lars Ribbe, Mohammad Al-Saidi. Support: Costs required for obtaining primary and secondary data as well as travel +accommodation costs will be covered, etc. Remarks and Opportunities: Join the Nile Basin research team at ITT and cause and effect world essay, develop a network with leading research institutions in Ethiopia, Sudan and write question, Egypt. Master Thesis opportunity: (Transboundary) Water Governance, Eastern Nile Basin. Topic : Comparative Analysis of in community health, Sectoral Integration and Policy Coherence for can you write question Land, Water and Energy Management in the Eastern Nile Basin. Analyze policies in Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt to integrate different issues of land, water and energy management Investigate cross-sectoral coordination and policy integration in papers on pay for performance, the different countries Assess policy fit and coherence in the three case study countries (using qualitative research and assessment grids) Elaborate on the different paths for natural resources governance in the three countries and their relationships to resource use, geography, hydrology, and write question, issues like historical path dependencies Recommend policy reforms in case study countries and up-scale recommendations for the overall basin governance or cooperation under the Nile Basin Initiative.
Partners : Khartoum University, Addis Ababa University, International Water Management Institute, Ain Shams University etc. Supervision: Lars Ribbe, Mohammad Al-Saidi. Support: Costs required for essay obtaining primary and secondary data as well as travel +accommodation costs will be covered. Remarks and Opportunities: Join the a thesis question, Nile Basin research team at research papers ITT and develop a network with leading research institutions in Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt. Master Thesis opportunity: Project related master thesis topics.
Topic : Development of Community Based Monitoring for Early warning system (Vietnam or Bangladesh) Identify the existing early warning system at the community level. Write A Thesis. Determine the of an essay writer, information requirements at different institutional levels regarding early warning Incorporating technological interface (i.e., application of smartphone, mobile sms or other system) to enhance the existing EWS Explore the drawbacks and advantages of the system and write a thesis as a, recommend future concepts. Partners : ICCCAD, IIED, IUB (Bangladesh) and CTIC, VAWR (Vietnam) Supervision: Lars Ribbe, A.B.M Firoz.
Support: Costs required for obtaining primary and secondary data as well as travel +accommodation costs will be covered. Remarks and Opportunities: This is a project that will be started in the next year and therefore a very good demonstration will give the advantage to join the next research team for Bangladesh Project. Customer Services Essay. Additionally, you will have the opportunity to meet with other research institute for e.g., IIED an UK based leading climate research group and also facilitate to develop your own network of write as a question, collaboration and customer services, cooperation. Topic : Development of write a thesis as a, Community Resilience Index (CRI) / Coastal Zone (Bangladesh) Explore the risk and services, resilience to natural hazard at the community level Developing an appropriate community resilience index (CRI) Applying the can you as a, index through the completion and french paper, repetitive use of self-assessment tool to determine risk and preparedness to can you a thesis question future disaster event at the community (this index will serve as a baseline assessment to monitor change over time) To provide status quo information and future scenario to the Disaster Risk Reduction authority for war 1 essay guidance. Partners : ICCCAD, IIED, IUB. Supervision: Lars Ribbe, A.B.M Firoz. Support: Costs required for obtaining primary and secondary data as well as travel +accommodation costs will be covered. Remarks and Opportunities: Topic : Water Demand Analysis of the Lower VGTB (Vietnam)
Characterizing the existing water uses/demand in the Lower Vu Gia Thu Bon River basin (agricultural, industrial, domestic, aquatic and livestock) Using Mike Basin model to calculate the water balance in the lower VGTB Developing Scenario for future water demand at the river basin. Supervision: Lars Ribbe, A.B.M Firoz. Support: Costs required for write a thesis as a obtaining primary and secondary data as well as travel +accommodation costs will be covered. Remarks and services, Opportunities: You will learn a lot about data analysis and can you write as a, modeling while being integrated in an active research team at of an writer ITT. Topic : Multiple Reservoir Optimization/ Reservoir Operation Management at write as a the VGTB river basin / Vietnam. Analysis the existing reservoir operation rules in essay high, the study area Model the existing multiple reservoir operation using Hec-ResSim model Using Genetic Algorithm to optimize the reservoir operation using Hec-ResSim Model Proposed operation rules for the reservoirs. Supervision: Lars Ribbe, A.B.M Firoz. Support: Costs required for obtaining primary and secondary data as well as travel +accommodation costs will be covered. Remarks and Opportunities: You will have a chance to be integrated into as a an active research team at services ITT and the research project LUCCi. Topic : Design of Environmental Monitoring Network at Vu Gia Thu Bon River Basin.
Analysis of exiting observation network (rainfall, climate, water level and write as a, discharge) at the VGTB Basin Identify the potential location for installation of further monitoring stations (based on various optimization techniques) Proposed a monitoring network framework of VGTB. Supervision: Lars Ribbe, A.B.M Firoz. Support: Costs required for customer services essay obtaining primary and secondary data as well as travel +accommodation costs will be covered. Remarks and Opportunities: You will have a chance to be integrated into can you a thesis an active research team at ITT and papers on pay, the research project LUCCi. Topic : Water management strategies under regional development scenarios in Lower VGTB/Vietnam. Any of the four issues can be chosen. Governance and Management: This component will describes all aspects of the water strategies which are related to policy and management decisions in a wide sense. In particular a management model to integrate disaster risk management at the river basin level should be analyzed Water supply, new water sources and write, infrastructure: In view of the increasing water demand and decreasing precipitation an augmentation of water resources is french paper among the can you a thesis as a, main measures to mitigate both, water scarcity and decreasing water reliability Agriculture and phd thesis in community health, environment: Agriculture is the biggest consumer of water and land resources and, because much of can you a thesis question, it is irrigated, one of the most vulnerable sectors with respect to climate changes. On the other hand, it offers opportunities to essay writer contribute to the conservation of both kinds of resources.
Adaptation to climate extremes : Coping with extreme fluctuations in precipitation is write a thesis question one of the phd thesis in community health, key issues of as a, future water management. The exact objectives will be developed jointly with the MSc student according to the above mentioned topics. Regarding the scenario development the following steps are foreseen: In a first step sub-regional water strategies will be developed (particularly interesting for the lower VGTB region) based on the socio-economic conditions prescribed by research papers on pay the regional development scenarios. The second step involves finalizing the can you write as a, strategies and in community, develop the can you write a thesis question, management strategies on the regional level using back-casting procedures by qualities setting a target for the year 2020 and write as a question, then going backward in time defining measures necessary to nursing achieve this target. The final step will be to verify the write a thesis question, regional water strategies with respect to the overall regional water balance, their ability to cope with climate extremes and their environmental impacts and how to deal with them. Supervision: Lars Ribbe, Alexandra Nauditt, Rui Pedroso, A.B.M Firoz.
Support: Costs required for obtaining primary and secondary data as well as travel +accommodation costs will be covered. Remarks and Opportunities: You will have a chance to phd thesis in community health be integrated into an active research team at ITT and the research project LUCCi. Recent events, such as flooding in South Asia and Texas in can you write as a question, the United States have read more . On October 4th 2017, ITT welcomes the new students of the master programs Renewable Energy read more . The Joint Student Project continues lecturers and students of three universities meet in Morocco read more .
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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Can You A Thesis Question. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is and effect world called a speculating about causes essay.
To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for can you question your answer with reasons and french watermarks, evidence. Why do people do that? Why does this happen? Why is this a trend? Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the can you write a thesis as a question chemical causes of falling in essay contest school, love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older?
Why do people need to as a, sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to contest high school, fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)?
Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is write a thesis as a question methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers?
Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting?
Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)?
Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity?
What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to and effect world war 1, be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in boxes and can you question, other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt?
Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and phd thesis health, bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow?
What causes tides? Or the write as a wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an nursing, advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic?
Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on write a thesis as a question, earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against research papers on pay for performance, the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in can you write question, Africa than elsewhere?
Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of 2008?
Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to research papers, target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of a thesis question 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to phd thesis health nursing, the rest of the world? Or why is can you write a thesis as a question it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics?
Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in cause war 1 essay, Germany? Why is China going to a thesis as a question, ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by services gunmen recently in can you question, the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to of an writer, use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to write a thesis as a, successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump?
What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of high school Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin?
Why is English the main language used around the world in business and question, science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of papers for performance atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in can you a thesis as a question, the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to french watermarks, stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is a thesis as a question different from the European system used by most of the contest rest of the can you write a thesis as a question world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S.
Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at of an essay 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to can you a thesis as a, end the war? Why is it important to essay writer, study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a thesis as a question, a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. French. Title: The causal question makes a great title for write a thesis your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. War 1 Essay. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. See the chart for easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and can you write a thesis question, thesis.
Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and papers, then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to write the reasons in parallel format. Can You Write A Thesis As A Question. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in watching and talking with other people about the essay experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the write forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of in community health that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay.
Gather evidence from your own observations and can you write as a, from research. Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the phd thesis in community health reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. As A. See ideas in the chart below. Cause. Easy Introductions and Conclusions. A Thesis As A. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. by Virginia Kearney 1. by Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 123. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. Essay High. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. Write A Thesis As A. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from cause world war 1 essay United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you.
I have many more articles about can you write a thesis as a question writing. Please look at health nursing my How to write a thesis as a, Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics. And Effect War 1. Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for can you as a posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to cause and effect world, create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the write as a body like the introductory and concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and cause essay, lot of others.
Hoping to have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. Can You Write A Thesis Question. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on world essay, which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on can you write question, an Island. French Paper. Very helpful. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago.
Another great post for teachers and write, students! I always learn to contest, much from your sharing. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of can you write a thesis college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions.
That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Phd Thesis Health Nursing. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
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EGAL - Essay Grading and Analysis Logic. The Project can be accessed online at http://egal.sourceforge.net. Developers : Ajit Datar, Nagendra Doddapaneni, Sudip Khanna, Varsha Kodali and Archna Yadav. INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATIC ESSAY GRADING. As it is said, the three R's of education are Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic. As a part of the same, writing has always formed an important part of education, either while being imparted or being evaluated. As automation has become the order of the day, with most of the jobs being automated, evaluating essays has been an issue for long time. Since late 1960s, systems have been developed to can you a thesis as a question, evaluate essays automatically. One of the early systems developed to address the issue at cause and effect essay, hand was Project Essay Grader(PEG).
This system was not accepted widely, because of the a thesis, fact that most of the factors that this system considered were indirect, like number of commas, number of prepositions and number of uncommon words. The idea behind using such measures was intrinsic and and effect essay hence was not widely accepted. After PEG, in the 1980s there was an can you a thesis question essay evaluation system called Writer's Work Bench tool(WWB) which helped giving feedback for writers about various aspects such as spelling, diction and readability. Papers On Pay. The system had functionalities to support spell check and to point out often misused words. But because WWB did not take care of semantic analysis, it was limited in scope - in terms of can you a thesis question, evaluation. World War 1 Essay. During the same period Tom Landauer and his associates came up with an approach called Latent Semantic Analysis. This Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) based techniques use a ``bag of words'' approach, wherein the word order is not considered important, but similarity between words is and is measured using a co-occurrence matrix and singular value decomposition. Tom Landuer and his associates furthered research into the approach and developed the Intelligent Essay Assessor(IEA) system. Now there was another system that followed PEG, namely E-RATER, a system developed at ETS.
It used more direct measures and has been used to grade essays written in the GMAT exam. The measures used by write a thesis question E-RATER are more comprehensive and include the document structure. Thus the students' response can be measured for similarity with a training set of essays and based on this similarity value, given a score on a point scale from 1-6, Later, in 1999 Christie architectured a new essay grading system SEAR (Schema Extract Analyse and Report) which was based on a new parameter, the of an writer, style of the essay rather than content. It required an initial training and calibration on a set of essays.
Also it had a reference content called the content schema which was represented as a data structure and can be flexibly revised as and when required. SEAR had inspired others to consider the style of the can you write, essay, though it had its pros and cons. In the following year, three students Ming, Mikhailov and Kuan at essay contest, NGEE ANN polytechnic came up with an essay grading system called Intelligent Essay Marking Systems (IEMS), which was based on the Pattern Indexing Neural Network(Indextron), a clustering algorithm that can be implemented over a neural network. IEMS was accoladed for can you write question its instant feedback to research papers on pay, the student in a way by which students can learn where they had performed well and also the specifics of their mistakes. After three years of research and development, Mitchell, Russel, Broomhead, and Aldridge in 2002 came up with a software called Automark intended for marking answers to open-ended questions. It is based on the NLP methods and incorporates methods for spell checking, semantic checking and support for punctuation checking. It looks for specific content in a thesis question the free-text answers. Content is in the form of templates which indicate correct or incorrect answers. Another step in the direction of automatic text assessment. In our system, there are four areas we are considering for the evaluation of an essay.
They are Gibberish Detection, Irrelevance Measure, Identifying Statements of Fact and watermarks Checking statements of fact for their accuracy. Let us discuss each of a thesis question, these modules one after the other. To start off, there can be two types of gibberish sentences. Syntactic gibberish sentences and semantic gibberish sentences. A sentence is considered to be syntactic gibberish if it is so ungrammatical that it does not make any sense. So a syntactically gibberish sentence is just not ungrammatical, it is so highly ungrammatical that the it is equivocal.
Let us consider the following sentence ``I go the market.'' It is ungrammatical, since the preposition ``to'' is missing in the sentence. Phd Thesis Health Nursing. Even though this sentence is ungrammatical, we can still understand whats is being said. Now consider the write question, sentence ``At flying no market ran.'' This too is ungrammatical but it does not make any sense. Hence, it is considered to be syntactic gibberish. Now let us consider what semantic gibberish sentences are. A sentence like ``Colorless green ideas sleep furiously'' is considered semantically gibberish. Such sentences are grammatical but do not have any meaning. The more the number of gibberish sentences the less the student demonstrates command over written English, especially when writing in response to a prompt/topic.
Moving over to the next measure, we use an irrelevance measure to say if a sentence is relevant to the given topic or not. Given a topic/prompt for the essay, a sentence from the student's response is considered to be irrelevant if the sentence does not relate to the topic. Now to say automatically that a sentence does or does not relate to the topic, we compute the semantic similarity of the sentence with topic text. We use WordNet to find this similarity. This means that the student can use a completely different set of words to talk about the topic and still be considered relevant. Cause World. For example say the prompt asks the student to write about the ``Importance of class room teaching versus learning from home'' and the student writes ``Education is very important for write one to qualities essay writer, succeed in life.'' This is considered to be relevant, because the words 'education', 'teaching' and 'learning' are semantically close to each other. Can You Write A Thesis As A. Now if the student responds by writing ``The sun is the biggest star in the universe'', then the sentence is contest high school, irrelevant, because it does not talk about the topic. The more the number of irrelevant sentences the less the student shows an understanding of the topic. The next measure is to identify statements of fact from a student's response to an essay topic. A sentence is considered to be a fact against an opinion, if the following four properties hold good (i) Information presented Unique and One of as a, a kind (ii) Information presented Concrete (iii) Information presented a Statement or Proposition and (iv) Information presented an association between more than one concept So if the sentence contains such information, we can identify the statement to be a fact.
Now if on the other hand, one considers personal statements then they are not concrete and hence cannot be facts. Such personal statements would be opinions. Thus the research papers, statements of fact would be identified against can you write a thesis as a, statements of customer essay, opinion. Question. Also questions and imperative statements form a category apart from qualities of an essay writer, statements of fact. If a sentence contains comparative adjectives like 'smarter' or superlative adjectives like 'smartest', or if the a thesis question, sentence contains comparative adverbs like 'faster' or superlative adverbs like 'fastest' then the sentence is not a statement of fact, because such a sentence would not be concrete. Also, sentences about future are not a proposition, as there is an contest school element of uncertainty related with future, and hence such sentences cannot be statements of fact. Let us consider an example. If the a thesis question, topic was the same as given in the previous section about teaching, and if the student response was ``Learning from home started in USA from 1965'' is considered to be a statement of french watermarks, fact, irrespective of whether the statement is relevant or not. The statement contains information which is unique(1965), concrete ('something starting'), and has no words that can be interpreted in more than one way in different contexts. Now if there was a sentence like ``Learning in class rooms is good'', it is not a statement of fact, but a statement of opinion, because what seems to be 'good' to one person, might not be the same for another.
Thus personal statements cannot be considered as statements of fact. Thus the more such facts are stated, the can you write, better we evaluate what the student envisions about the topic at research on pay for performance, hand, by can you write a thesis as a question relating the and effect war 1 essay, topic with concrete statements i.e. facts. The final measure to be used for evaluating essays is evaluating statements of fact for accuracy. Now that we have identified the statements of fact, we check to see if those facts are accurate and if they are, they contribute to a boost in the score. Let us consider the topic from the last measure about learning. Can You Write. If the essay contest high school, student writes ``Class room teaching started in 1965 in write a thesis as a question the USA'' and say in fact that it started in 2000. Then although the statement is writer, a fact, it is not accurate. Thus inaccurate facts contribute inversely to write a thesis as a, the score, while accurate facts contribute positively to the score.
IMPLEMENTATION OF BASELINE APPROACH. The four measures implemented are Gibberish Detection, Irrelevance Measurement, Identifying statements of fact and checking for world war 1 essay Accuracy of Statements of Fact. The best results would be when we run each of the modules in the above order, so that for can you write a thesis as a question each phase we get sentences that are more appropriate to check i.e. if a sentence is in community health nursing, gibberish, then there is no point in checking to see if it is relevant or not, and if a sentence is irrelevant then there is no point in checking to write a thesis as a question, see if it is a statement of fact or not. Let us look at the implementation of each of the four modules - The EGAL::Gibberish module implements Gibberish Detection. The method implemented is.
isGibberish() - This method determines if a given sentence is gibberish or not. It first checks to see if a sentence is semantic gibberish or not as follows - The module first strips off the stop words from the sentence. The remaining content-bearing words are stemmed using the research papers on pay, stemmer provided along with Lingua::EN::Tagger. Stop words refer to a list of function words, that contribute to the grammar alone and not to the meaning of the sentence. If there are at least three content-bearing words in the sentence, then for as a all such words, using similarity metrics described later, we compute how similar each word is to every other word. Thus if we have N words in the sentence, we end up with a NxN matrix. Then we compute the average of all the entries in essay the matrix to determine the semantic coherence of the sentence, a value between 0 and 1. The compliment of this value scaled between 0 and write question 100 is the percentage gibberishness of the sentence. If the scaled score is above an empirically decided threshold of 90%, then the high school, sentence is flagged as semantic gibberish. Let us consider the write a thesis question, sentence ``There is on the list fish and meat that are eating each other''. The only customer, content-bearing words in this sentence are 'eating', 'meat' and 'list'.
The semantic similarities between these words are eating-meat - 0.1581 eating-list - 0 meat-list - 0. This gives us a value of 0.0527 for the semantic coherence of this sentence. Percentage gibberishness is calculated as (1-0.0527)*100, i.e. As A. 95.73% which is above the threshold of 90% and hence we flag this sentence as semantic gibberish.The threshold we have used has been experimentally derived. After working on customer essay a list of sentences which were assessed by humans as gibberish/non-gibberish, the system was tuned to be consistent with the aforementioned judgments, by setting the threshold accordingly. To compute the similarity between words, we used WordNet::Similarity::wup. The measure has been used for words found in WordNet. For those words not found in can you a thesis as a question the knowledge base, a similarity value of 0 is of an writer, used, which results in write a thesis a reduction of semantic coherence and therefore an increase in essay writer gibberishness, which is can you a thesis question, complimentary to semantic coherence. We POS tagged the sentence using Lingua::EN::Tagger to identify the part of speech of every word in the sentence. While computing the similarity between sentences, we considered all the senses of a word, given the part of speech that was used in the sentence. Now as we know the part of essay high school, speech of a word, we would be able to distinguish the sense of the write as a question, word ``I'' as used in the sentence ``I am going there.'', where ``I'' would be a pronoun and as in a sentence like ``The element I is found in the periodic table'', where ``I'' would be a noun, as in Iodine.
This would enable us to essay high school, handle some of the can you write a thesis question, surprising words found in services essay WordNet, based on the part of speech of that word in the sentence. If the sentence is below the threshold (not semantic gibberish) then we check to see if it is syntactic gibberish. To determine if a sentence is syntactic gibberish, we do the can you write question, following - If the percentage of unknown words and unused links (score) in the sentence is more than an empirical threshold then we say that this sentence is syntactic gibberish. Cause And Effect War 1 Essay. The threshold has been experimentally found to work best at as a question, a value of 50%. A syntactic gibberish sentence would have lot of unused links according to Lingua::LinkParser, a grammar parser used to contest, parse sentences. Based on this, if the score is 0 then the sentence is grammatical. If it is a relatively small value it is write, ungrammatical but not gibberish and if it is high, then the sentence is considered to phd thesis health, be syntactic gibberish. This method takes in a sentence from the a thesis as a question, students response for a topic as input and returns an array, with the essay high school, zero index contains a 1 if the sentence is gibberish and a 0 otherwise. At index 1, the array contains the gibberish score associated with the sentence and at index 2, the array contains detailed trace of execution. The alpha version for the module started with identifying only syntactically gibberish sentences.
To flag a sentence as syntactic gibberish, we considered an can you write a thesis as a absolute value of the number of unknown words and unused links. If that value was greater than 3 then we termed the sentence as gibberish. But this value of 3 remained as threshold be it a sentence of length 5 or length 25. For the beta version, the module was able to identify semantically gibberish sentences as described above. An improvement over beta version, has been achieved in the final version, with modification of the absolute threshold for nursing syntactic gibberish sentences. Can You As A Question. The threshold has now been converted to a percentage of unknown words/unused links. Thus if such words/links are 3 out of 5, then as this percentage is high school, 60%, we flag the sentence as syntactic gibberish. If such words/links are 3 out of 25, then as this percentage is 12%, we do not flag this sentence as syntactic gibberish, even if there were 3 such words/links.
isIrrelevant() - This method takes in a sentence from the students' response as input. It then computes the relevance of the can you write a thesis as a question, sentence with the topic/prompt. We consider the content-bearing words to contribute to the relevance of a sentence. Cause War 1. Now we consider each of the content-bearing words from the input sentence and write question we compare each such word with every word in the topic. So for customer every word in can you write the topic, we find the maximum similarity that such a word has with any word in the input sentence, using WordNet::Similarity::wup. We then compute the average over essay, all such maximum similarities for each word in the topic. The compliment of this value scaled between 0 and 100 is the percentage irrelevance of the sentence. If this score is above an empirically decided threshold then the sentence is considered to be irrelevant. After experimenting with sample responses for topics/prompts, we have decided on a threshold of 70%.
With such a threshold most of the sentences that a human assessor would evaluate as irrelevant are being detected as irrelevant. This method returns an can you a thesis array with its zero index returning a 2 if the sentence is watermarks, irrelevant and a 0 otherwise. The array index 1 contains the irrelevant score between 0 and 100. The array index 2 contains the detailed execution trace. The alpha version for the module started with comparing words from the student's response to words in the topic and can you as a ``gold standard essay''. This list of ``gold standard essays'' have been written by an expert in the field, for war 1 every possible essay topic that the system would handle.
This word match also considered synonymous words by using Thesaurus.com, but the module was still looking for can you write a thesis word match, which is not necessarily a semantic match. Thus for the beta version, the module found the semantic similarity between a sentence from student's essay and the topic, by using WordNet::Similarity::wup. Phd Thesis Health. Thus the problem of maintaining ``Gold Standard Essay''s has also been eliminated. The performance of the module has been found to be satisfactory and hence has been retained for the final version. The EGAL::FactIdent module implements the Identification of Statements of Fact.
The methods implemented are. fill_stop_hash - this method fills a hash with value words that say that a sentence containing such words is an opinion, not a fact. fill_fact_hash - this method fills a hash with fact words that say that a sentence containing such words is a fact. which are called as a part of the constructor. isFact - this method takes in a sentence from the question, students response for a topic/prompt. It first checks to see if the phd thesis health nursing, sentence contains a comparative adjective like 'smarter' or a superlative adjective like 'smartest' or a comparative adverb like 'higher' or a superlative adverb like 'highest'. Can You Write Question. If the sentence contains such a word, then it is identified not to be a statement of fact. Next it is checked to qualities writer, see if the sentence is in can you write a thesis as a question any form of future tense. If it is, then the health nursing, sentence is identified not to can you a thesis, be a statement of fact. Essay Contest. Then it is checked to see if the sentence is a question and can you if it is french paper, then it is not a statement, let alone a statement of fact. Then it is can you question, checked to see if this sentence contains value words or fact words.
If it contains such words, then the sentence is identified to be a statement of customer essay, opinion or statement of fact respectively. Now, that if a sentence contains value words, it makes it a statement of opinion, was given by John Langan in question a discussion about distinguishing facts from opinions. Now we obtained a list of high school, such value words from can you as a, a project that worked on phd thesis health identifying such value words. The list of value words and fact words have been put up on links  and  respectively. Also if the statement contains statistics then it is identified to be a statement of fact.
Finally as we identify statements of fact using elimination, all others sentences which do not qualify for any of the can you write question, other conditions would be treated as statements of fact. This module also returns an array with index zero returning a 4 if the contest, sentence is a statement of fact and a 0 otherwise. At index 1, the array returns always returns a 0 as there is no concept of a score associated with identifying statements of a thesis, fact and at for performance, index 2 the array returns a message indicating if the sentence is a statement of fact or not. If not, the reason as to why the sentence is not a statement of fact is sent here. The alpha version for the module started with identifying value words in sentences. Such sentences with value words are identified to be statements of opinion.
If sentences contained fact words then the sentence has been identified as statement of fact. Write As A Question. Also if a sentence contained statistics then again the qualities writer, sentence has been identified as statement of fact. For the beta version, we have identified sentences with comparative/superlative adjectives/adverbs not to be statements of fact. Also sentences in future tense have been identified not to be statements of fact. The module has been found to work satisfactorily and hence has been retained for final version. The EGAL::FactCheck module checks the statements of can you question, facts for contest high accuracy. The method implemented is. check_fact() - This method takes in a sentence from the students response to a prompt/topic. A linkParser tree for the above sentence is built. Using regular expressions the subjects for all the verbs is identified.
A Google query is then constructed to search en.wikipedia.org  using the can you as a question, subjects and research any proper nouns in the sentence. If there are no proper nouns, all noun phrases are used. The first Google result is taken and can you a thesis as a question full text associated with this Wikipedia entry is retrieved. We then calculate the frequencies of all the n-grams in essay school the sentence as observed in the full text. We have considered n-grams of at most length 3. and applied Witten-Bell smoothing to the obtained frequency list. A confidence measure is calculated for each sentence. The measure takes in some arguments that we shall now see. 'n' refers to the number of words in the n-gram. 'count' refers to the number of times the n-gram has occurred in write as a question the wikitext/sentence. 'N' refers to cause and effect war 1 essay, the maximum n-gram length considered which is in our case is 3. Thus based on whether the count is a thesis, positive or negative, we add or subtract n*(log(count) + N) respectively to the 'measure'. This is phd thesis nursing, done for can you as a question each of the n-grams in the sentence. Also if count is positive an accumulated score of n*(log(count) + N) is made to 'max' and to 'min' otherwise. We compute the final 'score' as score = (measure - min) * 100 / (max - min) This score represents the french watermarks, confidence, expressed as a percentage, with which we say that a particular statement of fact is can you as a question, accurate. The module started with the beta version for the project.
The module has been found to work satisfactorily, except for return status of facts. The verbosity of the return message has been enhanced to display more information in the log files. With this modification, the module was ready for the final version. Following is a list of tasks and group member who worked on the same - Gibberish Detection - Sudip Khanna and Ajit Datar. Irrelevance Measure - Sudip Khanna. Identifying Statements of Fact - Nagendra Doddapaneni.
Checking Accuracy of Statements of Fact - Ajit Datar and Sudip Khanna. Web-Interface - Archana Yadav and Ajit Datar. Installation and Administration - Ajit Datar. Documentation - Nagendra Doddapaneni and Varsha Kodali. Literary Review - Nagendra Doddapaneni and Varsha Kodali. Irrelevance Measure - EGAL::Relevance identifies sentences to be relevant based on similarity score calculated using WordNet::Similarity::wup. French Watermarks Paper. If the percentage irrelevance is More than a threshold then the sentence is considered to be irrelevant and relevant otherwise. Identifying Statements of Fact - EGAL::FactIdent identifies sentences to a thesis question, be statements of fact or not based on the occurrence of qualities of an, fact words and stop words respectively.
If value words occur in a sentence from the student's response, then the can you write a thesis question, sentence is considered to phd thesis in community health nursing, be an opinion, because value words are mostly used to express personal view. If fact words such as ``first'' occur in the student's response or a number occurs in the sentence which is not gibberish and is relevant, then the sentence is question, considered to be a statement of fact. Also questions are not statements themselves and hence are not statements of fact. Even sentences with comparative/superlative adjectives/adverbs are not considered be statements of for performance, fact as they are not concrete. Also if the sentence is in any form of future tense then again the can you write, sentence is not a statement of phd thesis in community nursing, fact as it not a proposition. Checking Statement of can you write, Fact for Accuracy - EGAL::FactCheck determines the accuracy of the paper, statements of can you write a thesis as a question, facts. As mentioned before this module first constructs a LinkParser tree for the sentence from the student response to a prompt and identifies the subject using regular expressions. Then a Google query is french watermarks, constructed and fired to en.wikipedia.org using the subject and proper nouns/noun phrases. Write A Thesis Question. Using the first Google result, fulltext for this Wikipedia record is retrieved.
Now to check the accuracy of the customer essay, statement, we develop a score based on write a thesis as a the statistics obtained from considering all n-grams from the sentence and applying Witten-Bell smoothing to the frequency of such n-grams as observed in school the wikitext. Presently n-grams of length upto 3 are being considered. Thus using this score, we can say that the given statement is a statement of can you write a thesis as a, fact with score% confidence. The four modules that we have implemented, give us details of the percentage of gibberish sentences, irrelevant sentences and statements of qualities of an essay, fact, along with their accuracy. With this information in hand, to can you write, develop a scoring mechanism consistent with as scored by essay a humam grader, would be difficult. Thus we came up with a measure with uses maximum information that can be derived from what statistics the modules offer. The scoring mechanism that we are using, is a two-phase scoring mechanism. During the initial phase, we consider two bins of sentences. A bin of good sentences which contain statements of fact and ordinary sentences. A Thesis Question. A bin of high school, bad sentences which contain gibberish sentences and irrelevant sentences.
We compute the total percentage of sentences from the can you write, essay, that go into each of the two bins. For example, if the essay had 10% sentences which are gibberish, 20% sentences are irrelevant, 30% sentences are statements of fact and the remaining 40% sentences are ordinary sentences. French Paper. Then the total percentage of sentences in the good bin is 70%, while the total percentage of sentences in the bad bin is can you a thesis question, 30%. Then if the good bin has higher percentage sentences than the phd thesis nursing, bad bin, as is the case, then we consider the score of the essay to be either 3, 4, 5 or 6. The higher the percentage of sentences in the good bin, the higher would be the write, score. Papers On Pay For Performance. For the given example, a score of say 4 is question, assigned. Now, if there were higher percentage sentences in the bad bin, then a score of either 0, 1, 2 or 3 would be assigned. Thus the initial phase scoring mechanism assigns an and effect war 1 integral score to the essay. Now, the final phase scoring mechanism, considers all the statements of fact. It computes the can you a thesis question, mean of the confidence levels associated with each of the statements of fact.
If the mean is greater than 50, then the score assigned by the intial phase scoring mechanism, is qualities of an essay writer, incremented by a fraction. If the mean is a thesis as a question, less than 50, then instead of a score boost, the score would be penalised. By how much, is dependent on the confidence level of phd thesis, facts. For example, there were two statements of fact in the essay. One was verified with 62% confidence level and the other was verified with 78% confidence level. Then the mean of the confidence levels would be (62+78)/2 which is can you, 70%.
Now, since this value is greater than the threshold of 50%, the score of 4, assigned by war 1 the initial phase scoring mechanism, is incremented by the final phase scoring mechanism. So say, a score boost of 0.6 is given. Then the final score would be the sum of the scores assigned by intial phase scoring mechanism and the boost given by the final phase scoring mechanism. Can You Write A Thesis Question. So for high the example that we considered, the final score would be 4.0 + 0.6 = 4.6 . Now this final value is rounded off to the nearest half number. So 4.6 is can you write a thesis question, rounded off to 4.5 . In the final phase mechanism, the phd thesis in community nursing, value for score boost has been identified to be following an exponential i.e. for write a mean of 60%, the boost to french watermarks paper, be given is less, while for a mean of can you write question, 95%, the boost to be given is much more. On Pay For Performance. Thus an exponential function [((mean-50)*1.26)/50]^3 has been experimentally found to work well, for scoring the essays. As a part of a thesis, evaluation, we have in place modules which check to see if a given sentence is gibberish, if not if its irrelevant and if not if its a statement of fact and if it is then we check for its accuracy. For Performance. Thus on can you a thesis as a question running the system over french, the following input - The following are the sentences that have been successfully identified as gibberish by the EGAL::Gibberish module - Thus keeping the scores, assigned by each of the modules ,in view and can you write a thesis their identification of sentences, in the respective categories, rightfully, the system has been able to achieve expected results. Following is a detailed run of the system, with details about health, some sample essays that the user has given for can you as a question some prompts used in the system.
Details about what sentences in health nursing each of the following essays have been identified as gibberish, irrelevant and statements of fact can be seen in the following text. The following is a response which was graded to write a thesis, be a 3 point essay. Our EGAL system graded the essay to a 3.49 score. This was for the prompt: The user response is : The next essay was evaluated to be a 4 pointer, and it was evaluated to be a 2.61. The essay topic was.
For a third essay, the EGAL system has graded the system to contest, be a 4.0 pointer, where the essay was graded to be a 5.0 pointer. The topic of the essay was : The user response was : The fourth essay is a combination of two 3-point essays written by our co-students for a prompt given commonly in can you write question class. The EGAL system graded this grouped essay to be a 3.62. The student response was. -------------------------------------------------- DETAILED DIAGNOSTICS OF THE ESSAY: -------------------------------------------------- Type of Sentences Identified Percentage Gibberish 17.39 Irrelevance 17.39 Facts 26.09 Ordinary 39.13 Percentage of Gibberish Sentences were: 17.39 Percentage of Irrelevant Sentences were: 17.39 Percentage of Fact Sentences were: 26.09 Percentage of Ordinary Sentences were: 39.13 No. of Gibberish Sentences were: 4 No. of Irrelvant Sentences were: 4 No. of Facts Sentences were: 6 No. of Ordinary Sentences were: 9 gibberish sentences were as follows Sentence Many students write essays for exam, some write good, some bad, some worst. Points 91.51% Semantic gibberish Sentence The compter cannot get this idea of good, bad, and worst. Points 63.64% Syntactic gibberish Sentence In this case the computer would just be too good to score and give good score to someone who cant even write a creative sentence nor can write grammatical correct sentece.
Points 92.21 Semantic gibberish Sentence Using computers makes work faster. Customer Essay. Points 94.44% Semantic gibberish irrelevant sentences were as follows: Sentence Last but not least, computer scoring ethically is not good. Points 75.51% Sentence Automated essay scoring is used in GMAT and GRE. Points 72.83% Sentence If a good computer is used this difference can be reduced. Points 70.31% Sentence It just has some difference but not to a greater extent and as a such deviations can be ignored as even humans make mistakes. Points 75.00% fact sentences were as follows: Sentence It just tries to find information the ways it is supposed to and scores that way. Points 40.23% I can say this is a fact with 40.23 percent confidence Sentence It uses computers to grade student essays. Watermarks. Points 0.00% I can say this is a fact with 0.00 percent confidence Sentence First of all, the difference between human graded essay and computer graded essay is not very significant. Points 22.31% I can say this is a fact with 22.31 percent confidence Sentence Both tend to write a thesis question, be the same.
Points 14.48% I can say this is a fact with 14.48 percent confidence Sentence Even though each student has his own views the computer is intelligent enough to catch the differences and grade accordingly. Points 37.05% I can say this is a fact with 37.05 percent confidence Sentence Thus, the computer does not grade an essay harshly than humans. Essay Contest High. Points 13.05% I can say this is a fact with 13.05 percent confidence ordinary sentences were as follows: Sentence Thts why automated essay scoring is unfair to students. Message This sentence is can you a thesis as a question, a statement of fact Nouns: ``thts'' Subjects: ``scoring '' Google query: ``scoring '' ``thts'' site:en.wikipedia.org System cannot verify this using the existing knowledge source. Sentence For examples, many student know that the computer checks the cause and effect essay, essays, therefore they learn how to ebat the machine rather then being creative to write their essays and learn something. Message This sentence is a statement of fact Nouns: ``checks'' ``ebat'' ``essays'' ``student'' ``computer'' ``machine'' ``examples'' ``something'' Subjects: ``''``examples '' Google query: ``''``examples '' ``checks'' ``ebat'' ``essays'' ``student'' ``computer'' ``machine'' ``examples'' ``something'' site:en.wikipedia.org System cannot verify this using the existing knowledge source. Sentence Another point here we can see is that the can you write a thesis as a question, computer learns from essays written by students, now if the on pay for performance, sample essays are not that creative then if someone writes creative essay it will just get confused and give some random score, if not then it will give the best possible score which is still not correct. Message This sentence has comparitive/superlative adverbs/adjectives Sentence So is a thesis as a, it fair to get garbage or grate score from qualities essay writer, machine?
Message This sentence is a statement of fact Nouns: ``score'' ``grate'' ``garbage'' ``machine'' Subjects: Google query: ``score'' ``grate'' ``garbage'' ``machine'' site:en.wikipedia.org System cannot verify this using the existing knowledge source. Sentence To conclude I would say stop this computer scoring, it doesnt make sense when you write an can you essay thinking hard and someobody who is essay high, not real grades it for you and gives you something that you dont confidence about. Message This sentence is in future tense Sentence It also reduces the work load on can you write a thesis as a human graders. Message This sentence contains the value word work Sentence As a student writes an essay the computer can understand how the student writes and this will help it in grading. Message This sentence is in essay high future tense Sentence Finally, I feel that the usage of automated essay scoring is good and should be followed by can you write a thesis question all including schools and universities.
Message This sentence is in future tense Sentence It will help students and teachers a lot. Essay Contest High School. Message This sentence is in future tense. The fifth essay sample that we are looking at is the topic/prompt given as the response for can you write a topic/prompt. The EGAL system has evaluated such a tricky response to a score of 1.96. The topic/prompt was. The response was entered to be. This would usually trick a system, as the response seems to be pseudo-relevant. But here is the analysis of how EGAL handles the phd thesis in community health nursing, same- Now for the sixth essay, we considered a 6 point esssay which was graded as 4.99 on our EGAL system. The essay topic was : The user response was: Now for a thesis the seventh essay, we considered the research on pay, same 6-point essay for the trvious topic, and can you write a thesis question evaluated it for french a different topic.
The EGAL system graded the essay to be a 2.99 score essay. The response was the can you write a thesis as a, same as the one for the last one. There are some systems that we would like to acknowledge, since we used them as a part of our system. For Gibberish Detection, we used Link Grammar, a grammar parser. This parser enables us to find unused links and nursing unknown words in write a thesis a sentence. With the help of this parser, we were able to identify syntactic gibberish. We have used WordNet::Similarity package, built on WordNet2.0 for finding the semantic similarity between two words. This is phd thesis health, used in identifying semantic gibberish as well as relevance of a sentence to the topic. For identifying statements of fact, we used ideas from online resources , ,  and . Each of these references have helped us decide the basis on which to distinguish facts from opinions and can you write as a question also to french watermarks, identify the properties of a thesis as a question, a statement of fact.
To check for the accuracy of these statements of facts, we use the idea of a fact repository from Static Knowledge Sources, which would be wikipedia.org in our case. We access this online encyclopedia by constructing a Google query using Google API and fire the query to retrieve wikitext for the first match found by Google in en.wikipedia.org.  Page, E.B. Cause And Effect World War 1 Essay. , 1994, New Computer grading of student prose, using modern concepts and a thesis question software, Journal of Experimental Education.  Peter W. Phd Thesis In Community Health Nursing. Foltz, Darrell Laham, Thomas K. Landauer, The Intelligent Essay Assessor: Applications to Educational Technology, http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/index.asp.  Human Value Project, http://www.uia.org/values/vztab12.htm, Union of International Associations 1997 - 2004.  The Static Knowledge Sources: Ontology, Fact Repository and Lexicons, http://ilit.umbc.edu/Book/sks.htm.  WordNet 2.0, ``A lexical database for the English language'', http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/  Valentini, Salvatore, Francesca Neri, and Alessandro Cucchiarelli. 2003. An Overview of Current Research on write a thesis question Automated Essay Grading.
In JITE, Vol-2,2003.  Deerwester, S.C., Dumais, S.T., Landauer, T.K., Furnas, G.W., and Harshman R.A. , 1990, Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science.  Hearst, M., 2000, The debate on automated essay grading. IEEE Intelligent Systems.  Burstein, J., Kukich, K., Wolff, S., Chi, L., and world essay Chodorow M., 1998, Enriching automated essay scoring using discourse marking.
Proceedings of the Workshop on Discourse Relations and Discourse Marking, Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics, Montreal, Canada.  Burstein, J., Leacock, C., and write as a Swartz, R. Papers. , 2001, Automated evaluation of essay and short answers. Proceedings of the Sixth International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.  Christie, J.R., 1999, Automated essay marking-for both style and content. Proceedings of the Third Annual Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
 Ming, P.Y., Mikhailov, A.A., and can you write a thesis Kuan, T.L., 2000, Intelligent essay marking system. Learners Togeather, Feb 2000, NgccANN Polytechnic, Singapore http://ipdweb.np.edu.sg/lt/feb00/intelligent_essay_marking.pdf IEMS.  Mitchell, T., Russel, T., Broomhead, P., and Aldridge N.(2002) . Towards robust computerized marking of free-text responses. Proceedings of the Sixth International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
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How to Write a PhD Thesis - University
Current research projects in the Discipline of Orthodontics. The high quality of research produced by the Discipline of Orthodontics at Otago is internationally regarded. Areas of research strength include: craniofacial biomechanics, mechanobiology of the can you a thesis question periodontal ligament, randomized controlled trials for growth modification treatments, biomechanics of closing loops, sleep studies, obstructive apnea, and clinical oral physiology, including the function of the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Important emerging lines of essay, research include craniofacial genetics, carried out in conjunction with Genetics Otago (A/Prof. T. A Thesis As A Question? Merriman), and craniofacial imaging in conjunction with the Department of Computer Sciences (A/Prof. Watermarks Paper? B. McCane). Research projects are generally carried out in collaboration with internal and external research groups with multiple supervisors, who provide differing areas of expertise.
Examples of local collaboration include the Sir John Walsh Research Institute (Prof. J.Kieser, Dr. W.Duncan), Department of Psychology (Prof. R. Knight), Department of Medicine (Prof. T. Can You A Thesis Question? Doyle), Department of Economics (A/Prof. P.Hansen), and the School of Physiotherapy (A/Prof. S. Milosavljevic). International collaborations involve the french paper Department of Orthodontics and Clinical Gnathology, University of Naples Federico II (Prof. R. Martina, A/Prof. A. Michelotti), the Department of Odontology, University of Copenhagen (A/Prof. M. Can You? Bakke), Laboratory for customer services, Biomechanics, University of a thesis, Zurich (Emeritus Prof.
S.Palla, Prof. Research Papers On Pay For Performance? L.M. Gallo), and the Institute of Surgical Technology and Biomechanics, University of Bern (PhD candidate M.E. De Oliveira). Orthodontic students are involved in research projects under the supervision of can you write, senior researchers. French Paper? Examples of current research projects performed by undergraduate or postgraduate students are given below. Identifying the as a question genes that cause the long face. Postgraduate research project by Joseph Antoun et al.
Predicting factors of orthodontic pain. Postgraduate research project by Victoria Beck et al. Under pressure: generic and individual intra-oral pressure profiles in liquid swallows. Postgraduate research project by Guy Farland et al. Salivary pH variation over a 24-hour period.
Postgraduate research project by Jennifer Lee et al. The effect of lip displacement on intra-oral pressures. Postgraduate research project by Hannah Jack et al. Activity pattern of neck and trunk muscles during orthodontic clinical work. Postgraduate research project by contest high Cameron McNee et al. Aspects of growth and development in can you as a, New Zealand Polynesian children and adolescents. Postgraduate research project by Joe Petelo et al. Impact of care-seeking behaviour on personality traits in orthodontic patients. Postgraduate research project by Ali Ukra et al.
Effect of examiner expectation on cephalometric measurements in of an essay, skeletal class II malocclusions. Undergraduate research projects by write question Mickey Zhou, John Jo et al. Exploring tooth movements with four dimensions. Undergraduate research project by James Au, Austin Kang, Kevin Oh. Finite Element Model to evaluate the qualities essay effect of masticatory forces on the human nasal septum. Undergraduate research project by Nadeem Hamadani et al. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial growth in a Rabbit Model. Undergraduate research project by Inah Kim et al.
Grey analysis of the lateral pterygoid muscle in patients with temporomandibular disc displacement. Undergraduate research project by Phil McClea, Karan Taneja, et al. Neck and shoulder muscle activity during work-related postural tasks. Undergraduate research project by Doreen Ng et al. Chewing activity and sleep bruxism: an insight into the rhythmic contraction of the masticatory muscles in the natural environment. Undergraduate research projects by Jessica Po et al. Identifying the genes that cause the long face.
The orthodontic treatment of long face patients with open bite malocclusions can often be very challenging, with poor aesthetic and can you a thesis functional outcomes. Customer Essay? The purpose of this multicenter study is to investigate the relationship between genes and long face patterns (increased facial height). We are interested in finding out which genes play a role in the development of long faces and how external or environmental agents may affect this process. The ability to identify genetic markers that predispose individuals to excessively long faces can provide us with a clinically important window of opportunity to predict facial growth at a very early age, and possibly, to provide personalized orthodontic treatments. Data for this project is being collected internationally by web site.
Postgraduate research project by Joe Antoun Joe Antoun. [email protected] et al. Predicting factors of orthodontic pain. Up to 95% of can you question, orthodontic patients report pain at some stage during their treatment. Cause World? This is an important, yet unpredictable factor, with some patients reporting mild discomfort, whereas others experience such pain that they choose to discontinue orthodontic treatment.
This research aims to identify high pain responders and low pain responders, who will be further screened for anxiety levels, dental fear, sensitivity of their teeth, and several pain thresholds. A cheek swab will also be collected to can you as a test for genetic differences that can affect dental pain sensitivity. It is expected that some of these factors can be used in the future to predict factors contributing to orthodontic pain. Postgraduate research project by Victoria Beck Victoria Beck. becvi843[email protected] et al. Under pressure: generic and individual. intra-oral pressure profiles in liquid swallows. A fundamental tenet of tongue function is that, during the oral phase of paper, swallowing, the tongue transports the bolus from the front of the mouth to the entrance of the oropharynx by an orderly sequential contact of its dorsal surface against the palate. But what, exactly, is the pattern and can you write question extent of lingual pressure applied to the palate? Despite considerable progress in research for performance, understanding how food consistency, jaw posture and movements, sex and age can significantly affect how humans swallow their food, the answer to write a thesis as a this fundamental question remains unknown.
This project is looking at the effect of bolus viscosity on tongue pressures generated during swallowing. Postgraduate research project by Guy Farland Guy Farland et al. Salivary pH variation over a 24-hour period. Dental erosion is a major and and effect world essay common dental problem caused by exposure to a variety of can you as a, acids. Further, the consumption of acidic beverages and phd thesis in community the incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux are on the increase. Write As A? To date, little is known about salivary acidity variation as related to dietary habits in the natural environment. Cause World? This research aims to can you a thesis question collect normative values for intra-oral pH using miniaturized in-vivo equipment and will provide an insight to understanding the cause and effect world aetiology of tooth erosion due to pH variation. Postgraduate research project by Jennifer Lee Jennifer Lee. [email protected] et al.
The effect of lip displacement on can you a thesis question intra-oral pressures. Orthodontic relapse is a major issue in orthodontics. The causes are still unknown, however it is thought to be related to an imbalance of forces between lip and tongue. Using custom-made intra-oral pressure-recording devices we aim to compare the immediate and customer services essay delayed responses of lip musculature to stretch between participants who have retrusive and protrusive profiles. Postgraduate research project by Hannah Jack Hannah Jack. [email protected] et al. Activity pattern of neck and trunk muscles during orthodontic clinical work. Previous epidemiological research indicates that dental vocational activities, including orthodontics, represent risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders, especially of the neck and trunk. The aim of this research is to describe the contraction pattern of the can you write question sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles by means of portable electromyographic recorders (KFS-ZZM) during day-today clinical orthodontic work. The contraction episodes will be compared with those collected during a day of unrestricted non-vocational activities and under partially restrained conditions with video-surveillance.
Postgraduate research project by Cameron McNee Cameron McNee. [email protected] et al. Aspects of growth and development in New Zealand Polynesian children and adolescents. Knowledge of growth and development of children and adolescents is an important aspect that is relevant to the entire dental profession. With particular reference to Orthodontics, assessment of chronological age alone has been shown not to cause and effect world war 1 essay be an accurate predictor of ones physiological development. Growth velocity, dental development and skeletal maturation, in particular cervical vertebral maturation, are methods used that influence treatment decisions. Current literature supports variability in timing of maturation between different ethnic groups. This project is looking at New Zealand Polynesian children and adolescents dental development and skeletal maturation. Postgraduate research project by Joe Petelo Joe Petelo et al. Effect of examiner expectation on cephalometric measurements in skeletal class II malocclusions.
After more than a century of craniofacial research, the overall findings on the effects of growth modification appliances in skeletal class II patients remain debatable. The uncertainty on the ability of functional treatment to modify mandibular growth is largely due to inconsistencies in results, which may be attributable to poor methodology of the studies rather than to can you a thesis treatment effectiveness. Major flaws of most studies include: the phd thesis health lack of can you write a thesis as a question, randomization, the essay writer use of small sample size, and the lack of blinded measurements. We hypothesized that the outcome of write a thesis, cephalometric analysis is influenced by subconscious expectations of the treatment results. Research For Performance? A repeated measures study design was used to determine the measurement biases occurring in orthodontists evaluating the cephalometric features of skeletal Class II patients. Impact of care-seeking behaviour on personality traits in orthodontic patients. The request of patients for orthodontic treatment is write question, not always commensurate with the severity of qualities essay writer, malocclusion. In some cases the patient may over-emphasize minor orthodontic problems, thus indicating possible alterations in the self-perception of body image and smile.
The aim of can you write a thesis as a question, this research is to compare the personality traits and the occlusal features of care-seeking adolescents, who are the core of the orthodontic patient base, with those adolescents in the community with similar malocclusions who do not seek any treatment. Essay? Hence this research will shed light on the controversial association between malocclusion and can you as a temporomandibular disorders by identifying the possible confounding effects of somatization and propensity towards body dysmorphic disorders in clinic cases versus community cases. Postgraduate research project by Ali Ukra Ali Ukra. [email protected] et al. Exploring tooth movements with four dimensions. Orthodontic movements are generally described in two dimensions using a single center of rotation. Writer? However, in reality this is an over-simplification as during the can you as a application of contest, forces, movements occur in 3D along an axis of rotation constantly changing over write a thesis as a question time. The finite helical axis (FHE) can be used to describe complex tooth movements allowing a deeper understanding of the biomechanics of orthodontic appliances. The aim of this project is to explore the relevance of the fourth dimension (time) in orthodontic biomechanics using advanced CAD software (Autodesk 3ds Max) under controlled clinical simulations. Finite Element Model to evaluate the effect of french paper, masticatory forces on the human nasal septum. Previous theories have emphasized the role of the can you write a thesis question nasal septum as a primary centre for craniofacial growth.
Recent evidence suggests that the septum does not act as a vertical strut, and instead may rather act by on pay for performance absorbing loads generated during oral function. The resulting stress and strain pattern may also be implicated in the regulation of craniofacial growth. Can You As A? The Finite Element Modelling (FEM) technique makes use of computers to solve large numbers of equations, which simulate the physical properties of the structure being analysed. The non-invasive nature of french, FEM allows the modelling of forces, stress, and strains in a manner that is suitable for evaluating the effect of masticatory forces on can you write as a question an appropriate human model. To date little is known about how the nasal septal cartilage responds to everyday forces, such as those experienced during mastication, clenching, swallowing and rest. It is the aim of this study to describe these stress and strain patterns through the use of a Finite Element Model. It is hypothesised that a significant extent of watermarks, these functional forces will be transmitted to the nasal septum. Undergraduate research project by Nadeem Hamadani Nadeem Hamadani et al. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial growth in a Rabbit Model.
Predicting and modifying mandibular growth is an important aspect of orthodontics. Our current knowledge of the extent to can you write which the mandible changes and rotates during growth is derived from classical longitudinal radiographic studies with metallic markers. While the information obtained from these landmark studies is substantial, there are limitations associated with a two-dimensional image. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is becoming widely available and is a diagnostic tool in dentistry. It is hypothesized that the in community health nursing implant method of analysis combined with CBCT three-dimensional (3D) imaging will provide more information with respect to write a thesis question mandibular growth over time, than previous studies that used conventional radiographs.
The purpose of our study is to describe mandibular remodelling in a growing rabbit model using metallic bone markers and three-dimensional colour growth maps. This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of the proposed method, in order to plan future treatment intervention studies. Undergraduate research project by Inah Kim Inah Kim et al. Grey analysis of the lateral pterygoid muscle in patients with temporomandibular disc displacement. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an french watermarks paper ideal tool for soft tissue imaging including the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc and as a masticatory muscles. The purpose of our research was to compare the grey scales of the upper and lower heads of the lateral pterygoid muscles between TMJs with internal disc derangement and healthy joints. Three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the lateral pterygoid muscles (LPM) were obtained by manual and french watermarks semi-automatic segmentation techniques, and rendered in 3D. Regions of interest for the upper and lower lateral pterygoid muscles were defined and the grey histograms were calculated. The mean and median values of the resulting scales were used as outcome measures.
Significant changes of the histograms were found between the affected and unaffected joints, thus indicating the possible occurrence of disuse atrophy of LPM as well as fatty infiltration. The grey analysis may have interesting applications in craniofacial imaging that need to be fully explored in future studies. Neck and shoulder muscle activity during work-related postural tasks. The aim of this study is to describe the pattern of a thesis question, neck and shoulder muscle contractions during a series of work-related postural tasks and qualities of an essay writer secondly, to explore whether the question contraction levels differed between sexes. Cause World War 1? Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded using specifically designed software unilaterally from the sternocleidomastoid and can you write a thesis as a upper trapezius muscle in 17 participants, who were instructed to perform 44 different postural tasks. EMG amplitude was measured by the root mean square values of the raw signals and normalized to peak maximum contractile values for each muscle (EMG%MVC). Customer Essay? Muscle co-activation was assessed by can you write a co-activity index of services essay, both investigated muscles. During most tasks the two muscles contracted lightly to moderately and can you write were mildly co-active. And Effect? Tasks such as head leaning and shoulder shrugging, which are commonly performed during dental work, activated both muscles considerably.
The sternocleidomastoid muscle produced substantial activity during tasks involving head movements whilst the write trapezius muscle yielded greater muscle activity during arm tasks. Essay Contest? Muscle activity did not differ significantly between male and female participants. Undergraduate research project by Doreen Ng Doreen Ng et al. Chewing activity and sleep bruxism: an insight into the rhythmic contraction of the masticatory muscles in the natural environment. Chewing is the result of write, a complex interaction between neural pathways, a central pattern generator, which generates an intrinsic rhythm, and modulation from peripheral feedback.
Sleep bruxism is qualities writer, highly prevalent in the general population and its consequences include tooth wear, orofacial pain, and destruction of dental work. The aetiology of sleep bruxism is still unknown but it is nowadays accepted to can you write question have a central origin unrelated to dental occlusion. Given the available information in phd thesis, the existing literature, the question arises as to whether there could be a relationship between chewing and can you sleep bruxism activities. However, little information currently exists regarding the features and variability of human chewing activity and the features and mechanism of sleep bruxism as they occur in of an essay, the natural environment, resulting in an inability to compare the two. In recent years, portable EMG recorders have been developed and used to gather data on rhythmic masticatory muscle activity, and an algorithm for the automated detection of this activity from EMG signals was developed and validated. Can You A Thesis As A? These recent developments allow for accurate time-frequency analysis of rhythmic episodes as they occur in research papers for performance, the natural environment thus enabling us to a thesis question investigate the question posed above.
The objectives of two research projects were firstly to investigate the variability of the human chewing pace, both between and within individuals as assessed in their natural environment, and secondly to then compare human rhythmic masticatory muscle activity in the natural environment, including sleep bruxism and chewing, in a separate cohort. Undergraduate research project by Jessica Po Jessica Po et al.