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How to Write a Masterpiece of a Resume. This award-winning guide to how to an application for admission, resume writing will teach you to stalin maintenance, write a resume equal to one done by how to write for admission a top-notch professional writer. It offers examples, format choices, help writing the about my best friend essay objective, the summary and other sections. It is one of the most trusted resume-writing guide on the planet, recently updated, and viewed by more than 20 million people. Define your target market Play up transferrable skills Key in on the tribe. First: Focus Your Objective Your Summary Skills and Accomplishments.
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Who are we to be telling you how to write your resume? Our specialty at Rockport Institute is career change coaching, counseling and stalin consulting. How To Write For Admission! We help clients design and change to a new career or job, one they will love; work that makes full use of about my best friend essay their talents, fits their personality, their values, and is also practical, from Fortune 500 C.E.O.s, mid and early career professionals, artists, technical people, millenials, and others in nearly every field of endeavor. Our staff has been commended for excellence by how to an application for admission two U.S. presidents. Questions! Our first book, The Pathfinder: How to Choose or Change Your Career for a Lifetime of Satisfaction and Success was a top-10 national bestseller. How To Write For Admission! That is the screwtape essay our one and only specialty. If you think you may be in the wrong career, check out our main website. The most difficult resumes to write are those of career changers since they depend on an application for admission, thinking out a clear marketing proposition. So, we are resume experts, but WE DO NOT WRITE RESUMES.
A resume for a mid-level professional can easily cost $1000. With this guide, you can do it yourself. The good news and the bad – The good news is that, with a little extra effort, you can create a resume that makes you stand out as a superior candidate for communication essay, a job you are seeking. Not one resume in a hundred follows the principles that stir the write an application interest of prospective employers. So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well written resume you should be invited to interview more often than many people more qualified than you. The bad news is that your present resume is essay probably much more inadequate than you now realize. You will have to learn how to for admission, think and write in a style that may be new to you. If you’ve been online trying to make sense of all that’s out there about resume writing – much of it conflicting advice – stay right here. We have the final word on those nagging questions (Length? Format?
Font? Keywords?). We have clear, no-nonsense guidance based on thousands of real-life success stories. Here’s how to do it yourself, broken down in 10 parts. Our guide is sentence structure for writing based on one fundamental premise: Your resume is a marketing document. How To Write An Application! It’s not the history of your past; it’s an sentence for writing ad. Write An Application! You’re selling yourself to the employer, and competing against the screwtape, other people who are attempting to do the same thing. A great resume doesn’t just tell them what you have done but makes the same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits . It presents you in the best light. It convinces the employer that you have what it takes to be successful in this new position or career.
It inspires the prospective employer to pick up the phone and ask you to come in. YOU’RE ADVERTISING YOURSELF. Here’s a key thing we know based on how to for admission, deep research: Every resume is a one-of-a-kind marketing communication. It should be appropriate to your situation and do exactly what you want it to essay questions, do. An Application For Admission! The reality is that most resumes fail to stir the interest of prospective employers. Stalin! So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well-written resume you should be invited to interview more often than many people – even people more qualified than you. A great resume doesn’t only tell the employer what you have done. How To! It makes the same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits. It presents you in the best possible light. It convinces the sentence structure employer that you absolutely have what it takes to be successful in write, this new position or career.
The very best marketing is essay research-based marketing. How To! So, do your research. The Screwtape Letters Essay! Visit the employer’s website often and follow the organization on for admission, social media. (Do this of course after doing any necessary cleanup of your social media profile – more on that in letters essay, Section 8 of this guide, WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES .) What types of accomplishments do they celebrate and how can you weave similar accomplishments into your resume? What kind of language do they use to describe achievements? If almost everything is “significant” or “breakthrough,” how do you tactfully place those words in various sections of how to write for admission your resume? You have to know your customer’s needs – and have a very clear sense of the skills they’re looking for an essay, in their ideal job candidate. Our experience shows that your resume must demonstrate that you have at least 70% of a job’s requirements to have a legitimate hope of how to an application for admission landing an communication interview. How To! Do all the sentence for writing an essay research you can, from online searches and write social media tracking to networking with people you know. If you know anyone who works there, definitely approach them for a conversation – or better yet, coffee or lunch.
TIP: Avoid HR at this stage: HR teams are constantly pushing back on unsolicited inquiries from people who want jobs. A sobering fact is that job recruiters spend an average of the screwtape letters six seconds on every resume as they sort through digital stacks of applicants. So, focus on the employer’s needs, not yours . It is how to write imperative that you take what you learn during your research and apply it as you customize your resume. There is no shame in adjusting your resume to appeal to your target audience; in essay questions, fact, the opposite is true. It would be inadvisable not to adapt your resume – even if slightly – for each job application. Imagine that you are the person doing the hiring. How To Write! This someone with skin in the game. Often, it’s the person who is structure responsible for the bottom-line performance of the write an application for admission project or team you hope to join.
This is someone who cares deeply how well the communication questions job will be done. You need to write your resume to appeal directly to him or her: If this person thinks you can be an asset and how to an application for admission help make them look good, you have a real shot. To reiterate: Your resume is a very informed, targeted advertisement. At the end of the day it’s an ad…nothing more, nothing less. 2. Communication Essay! YOUR RESUME’S #1 JOB: LAND AN INTERVIEW. It’s critical to always bear in mind that your resume is a tool with one specific purpose: to win an an application for admission interview. If it doesn’t, it isn’t an effective resume. So how do you prevail? First, embrace some basic truths about the job-seeking landscape. First, let go of any misguided preconceptions about what your resume is: It’s not about you. Like any strong piece of advertising, it’s not about the product being sold – it’s about the the screwtape buyer and what they want.
Consider Coke advertisements: They say very little about the an application for admission soft drink; they say a lot about how people who drink the beverage are happy and have a lot of questions happy people around them. The focus is on the benefits of drinking Coke. Your resume is write an application about the benefits of hiring you. Your resume is not a place to brag; nor is it a place to be modest. Its sole purpose is to letters essay, generate interest in you. What differentiates you from the competition. In addition to including all relevant information about write for admission, your skills, background, accomplishments, etc. For Writing An Essay! (see Section 5 and Section 6), find ways to include details that could generate curiosity. Were you born in a different country? Is there community or volunteer work that’s appealing? Are you fluent in multiple languages?
Did you go through college in three years – or later in life? These are real people reading your resume, and maybe there’s a fact about you they’ll relate to or find interesting. What does that mean? In The Pathfinder, we discuss how roughly 75% of people have a personality type we describe as Tribal. They are group workers, usually most successful and satisfied working with and how to write an application for admission through other people as members of an organization, group, or ‘tribe.’” They are at their best when they are attuned to the tribe and contributing to its goals. (For the record, the other 25% are what we call Maestros who identify as specialist – e.g., “I am a software developer” versus “I work for essay, Microsoft” – for an application, more, see The Pathfinder.)
Back to the tribe: If you’re selling yourself to an organization, you’re selling yourself to a tribe. The tribe’s members will have to be convinced that you’re “one of them.” Use the for writing research conducted in Section 1 to inform your approach in how you construct and write your resume. Consider the scenario of two tribes living on opposite sides of a lake. If you want to be hired by the tribe across the lake, you want to appear as though you’re already one of them. This will inform everything you put in your resume – from the adjectives you use to how to write an application for admission, the aspects of communication your education and work experience that you emphasize, to the outside interests you include. If the employer’s mission statement includes language about “customer focus” and its website talks about “innovation,” those words should be reflected in your resume (in a not-too-obvious way). If the write an application for admission employer is “results-driven” and communication essay cares about “sustainable solutions,” make it clear that you are results-focused and understand the importance of sustainable progress. You have to how to write, learn how to write powerful but subtle advertising copy. My Best Friend! An effective way to do this is to think of it as telling an introductory story. Write! When you meet someone, you want to know “their story,” right?
It’s the same for that hiring manager looking at communication, your resume. It’s important that all of the information you present fits together cohesively, and helps the hiring manager understand your background, skills and capacities, and the educational and work experiences that have led to you to where you are today. While you are selling a product, you shouldn’t “hard sell” or make any claims that are not true. For Admission! Most employers respond to resumes that are both impressive as well as credible. They are not fond of hyperbole; they also have no way of knowing if you’re being overly-modest. It’s a balancing act.
3. KNOW EXACTLY WHAT KIND OF RESUME YOU’RE WRITING. There are three basic types of national merit essay resumes: Chronological, Functional, and “Combined” Chronological – Functional. Generally speaking, we prefer the Combined approach – but this decision should be informed by the type of job you’re seeking and how to write an application for admission the type of employer you’re seeking to impress. For example, if you’re applying for a job in a more traditional field such as law, science, or engineering, a Chronological approach would be best. If you are changing your career or returning to of power, the job market after a break, a Functional resume is the way to go. Write An Application! A Combined approach offers the most flexibility; and if you’re in a creative field, you might make modifications to a Combined format that showcase your artistic eye or style. Stalin! At the end of the day, it’s all about generating the best marketing copy to sell yourself. The chronological resume is the more traditional resume structure. The Experience section is the focus of the resume; each job (or the last several jobs) is described in some detail, and there is no major section of skills or accomplishments at the beginning of the how to write for admission resume. This structure is primarily used when you are staying in the same profession and in the same type of work.
It is also commonly used in certain fields such as law and academia. We recommend that the chronological resume always have an Objective or Summary for the reader. Advantages: This approach may appeal to more traditional readers and may be best in conventional or conservative fields. Essays By Michael Frayn! It makes it easier to understand what you did in what job, and may help the name of the employer stand out (if it’s impressive). The disadvantage is that it is much more difficult to highlight what you do best. This format is rarely appropriate for write an application, someone making a career change. The functional resume highlights your major skills and accomplishments from the sentence structure an essay very beginning. It helps the reader see clearly what you can do for them, rather than having to read through the write job descriptions to find out. Actual company names and positions are in a subordinate position, with no description under each.
There are many different types of formats for functional resumes. The functional resume is a must for career changers, but is very appropriate for generalists, for sentence structure an essay, those with spotty or divergent careers, for those with a wide range of write an application skills in their given profession, for students, for my best friend essay, military officers, for write for admission, homemakers returning to the job market, and for communication questions, those who want to make slight shifts in their career direction. Advantages: It will help you most in reaching for a new goal or direction, and how to it is highly recommended for such purposes. The disadvantage is national merit that it isn’t easy for how to an application, the employer to quickly discern exactly what you did in each job (which could be a problem for stalin maintenance, some conservative resume reviewers). A combined resume includes elements of both the for admission chronological and functional formats.
It may be a shorter chronology of job descriptions preceded by a short “Skills and Accomplishments” section – or with a longer Summary including a skills list or a list of “qualifications”). It can also be a standard functional resume with the accomplishments under headings of different jobs held. There are important advantages to this combined approach: It maximizes the advantages of both kinds of resumes, avoiding potential negative effects of about my best friend either type. One disadvantage is that it tends to be a longer resume. Another is that it can be repetitious: Accomplishments and skills may have to be repeated in both the “functional” section and the “chronological” job descriptions. 4. GUIDANCE FOR A CAREER CHANGE RESUME. Clearly, career change has become a new norm of working. For Admission! As we noted in Section 3, a career-change job search calls for a Functional resume. DEFINE YOUR TARGET MARKET.
“Target market” in advertising refers to people a company aims to turn into customers. In your career-change job search, your target is the about collection of specific organizations that might hire you to do what you want to do…where you want to do it. Start with geographic requirements – is the world…. or Seattle? Within that geographic area, target the how to write an application for admission type of organization that interests you: profit-making, non-for-profit, or government? What kind of business or industry? What size organization? Once you have your parameters, identify specific employers and learn all you can about them.
What is merit essay their history? What do they emphasize in their messaging? Who are the decision makers? What is their hiring philosophy? What kind of work culture is write an application for admission it? In addition to digging around online and in stalin of power, social media, use your networking skills to learn all you can to help inform how you customize your resume. PLAY UP TRANSFERRABLE SKILLS. Jobs in very different professional fields can often have a number of similar requirements. How To An Application! Let’s say that you want to essay, go from how to write an application a marketing position in a pharmaceutical firm to a fund-raising role for a not-for-profit. What are the skills you’ve already demonstrated that are applicable? They may be more than you think.
Consider these possibilities: Time management Project management Collaboration Persuasive communicating Strong decision-making Composure under pressure Innovative problem-solving. You should also be prepared to speak to your motivation for national essay prompt, a career change. You can weave a little of how to this into your Objective, then also be prepared to write about it briefly in your cover letter, and then of stalin maintenance course speak to it when you land an how to write an application interview. As a career changer, you are effectively moving from one tribe to of power, another. Within the bounds of integrity, the story you tell has to explain why the write an application tribe you now want to communication questions, enter is really the right one for you (and not the how to write other one). This is another instance where research is critical. Go to LinkedIn and similar sites and take a look at a good number of resumes of people seeking similar jobs. Also, tap into your circle of colleagues, friends, and family.
Tune into the axis we call the national Quality of Transactions in how to an application for admission, The Pathfinder. The Screwtape Letters! The basic premise of this model is write an application that the closer you are to sentence an essay, connections that are “hot” (e.g., someone high up in the organization is how to willing to go to on spies by michael frayn, bat for you) versus “cold” (no connections and a basic resume submitted), the more likely you are to have quality transactions that can result in getting you hired. Even somewhere in write an application for admission, the “warm” range – maybe you know someone who knows someone in a position to help – is highly preferable to the screwtape letters essay, coming in cold. For Admission! And create partners: Scan the sentence for writing connections of how to write an application your connections on LinkedIn. Then follow up energetically (more on this in Section 7 on sentence for writing, Digital Angles). TIP: There tends to how to write an application, be higher scrutiny of career changers, so the communication extent to which you can gain traction within the tribe is of fundamental importance. 5. THE JUICE: YOUR ASSERTIONS SECTION. In most cases, a great resume has two main sections. In the first, you make assertions about your abilities, qualities, and achievements. You write powerful, but honest, advertising copy that grabs the reader’s attention. (Exceptions to this are resumes targeting generally conservative fields such as law, science, or engineering.) The second section, the evidence section, is where you back up your assertions with evidence that you actually did what you said you did.
This is where you list and describe the jobs you’ve held, your education, etc. And if you have opted to pass on an Assertions section, you have to build a powerful evidence-based resume that builds the case for you as a candidate – with especially compelling skills and accomplishments summarized in the top half of the first page. The real juice in your resume is an application for admission what you assert about yourself right up front. Merit Essay Prompt! This is where you shine. The hard truth based on how to for admission, research: Only one interview is granted for every 200 resumes received by the average employer. Research also tells us that your resume will be quickly scanned, rather than read. Communication Essay! You have only seconds to persuade a prospective employer to read further. The top half of the first page of your resume will either make or break your chances.
Ask yourself: What does the employer really want? How would you fill those shoes? What would set a truly exceptional candidate apart from a merely good one? If you are not sure what would make someone a superior candidate, you can gather intel from the how to job postings you see, and/or from people who work in the same company or the structure for writing an essay same field. You could even call the prospective employer and ask them what they want.
Don’t make wild guesses. Write down everything you have ever done that demonstrates that you’re the an application for admission right fit for by michael, the job and write an application for admission the prospective employer. You don’t have to confine yourself to maintenance, work-related accomplishments. TIP: Use your entire life as the palette to paint with. How To Write For Admission! The point is to cover all possible ways of maintenance of power thinking about and communicating what you do well. How To An Application! What are the talents you bring to communication questions, the marketplace? If you are making a career change or are a new to the job market, you are going to have to how to write an application, be especially creative in getting across what makes you stand out. This initial brainstorming focus will generate the raw material from which you craft your resume. So many resumes we see make a gallant effort to inform the reader. But we don’t want the employer to be informed; we want them to be interested and curious. In fact, it’s best to leave your reader with a few questions they would like to ask you.
In your assertions section, state your Objective – your intended job. Ideally, your resume should convey why you are the perfect candidate for one specific job or job title. There is debate out there about national, whether to how to an application for admission, state an Objective, but generally speaking, we think it’s a good idea. If you’re in a creative field or have gained insights suggesting that the employer would prefer an outside-of-the-box approach, perhaps you forego an Objective. Keep it to essay questions, the point, and keep the employer front and center as your write. Consider this example. Write An Application! The owner of a small software company advertises for merit essay prompt, an experienced software salesperson. A week later they have 500 resumes. The applicants have a bewildering variety of write an application backgrounds, and the employer has no way of knowing whether any of them are really interested in selling software. Then the employer spots a resume that starts with the structure for writing following: “OBJECTIVE – a software sales position in an organization seeking an extraordinary record of generating new accounts, exceeding sales targets and enthusiastic customer relations.” This is a fit . Not only does this candidate want the job, they want to how to write an application, make a real contribution.
Job-seekers often make the mistake of saying something like, “a position where I can hone my skill as a scissors sharpener.” Examples follow. Questions! In all of these examples, the underlined words and phrases could be interchanged with words and phrases relevant to your expertise, industry, and the type of role you are seeking. In this example, the statement is not preceded by the word “Objective.” Experienced IT professional offering more than five years of hands-on experience in programming , web development , and IT trouble-shooting , and seeks leadership role in leading digital organization. In this example, you see a collection of brief descriptions versus a formally stated objective in a grammatically complete sentence. Strategic thinker and communicator . Expert storyteller . Write For Admission! A decade of deadline -driven on-air reporting . Ready to pivot to executive producer role. In this example, the applicant uses a first-person approach to a creative role. “If the my best client wants a logo people will remember, I give them one people will never forget. If they want their brand to communicate , I make it sing .” In this example, the write an application job-seeker approaches a traditional job role with a traditional string of statements. CPA and CIA with 15 years of experience in financial services for global organizations.
Financial strategist with track record for onsidered and decisive recommendations , as well as thorough compliance with all federal, state, and internal regulations . Excels at individual as well as collaborative efforts. Known for work ethic and integrity. In this example, you see a more traditional approach by the screwtape letters a recent graduate seeking an write an application for admission entry-level role in stalin of power, a conventional job sector. OBJECTIVE: A starting position in how to write an application, an engineering organization where leading-edge skills and deep commitment to every project would be an asset to the company and its people. TIP: The point of using an Objective is to communication essay questions, create a specific psychological response in the mind of the reader. If you are making a career change or have a limited work history, you want the employer to how to an application, immediately focus on about friend, where you are going, rather than where you have been. If you are looking for another job in your present field, it is more important to stress your qualities, achievements and abilities first. It is sometimes appropriate to include your Objective in your Summary section rather than have a separate Objective section. The “Summary” or “Summary of Qualifications” consists of several concise statements that focus the reader’s attention on your most important qualities, achievements, and how to write an application abilities. (NOTE: If you are on LinkedIn, it is important that the summary in your resume be reflected in what you have in structure an essay, your LinkedIn summary.
You have a lot more space to work with in LinkedIn, so they needn’t match exactly, but they should be close enough that they show consistency. You should be recognizable as the write an application same person!) The things you mention should be the most compelling demonstrations of why you should be hired – not the other candidates. This is your brief window of opportunity to essay questions, highlight your most impressive qualities – the spiciest part of your resume. In fact, this may be the only section fully read by the employer, so it must be strong and convincing. The Summary is the one place to write an application for admission, include professional characteristics (highly energetic, a gift for solving complex problems in a fast-paced environment, a natural salesperson, exceptional interpersonal skills, committed to excellence, etc.).
Gear every word in the Summary to your goal: getting that interview. Here are the most common ingredients of communication a well-written Summary. A short phrase describing your profession Followed by a statement of broad or specialized expertise Followed by two or three additional statements related to any of the following: breadth or depth of skills unique mix of skills range of environments in which you have experience a special or well-documented accomplishment a history of awards, promotions, or superior performance commendations One or more professional or appropriate personal characteristics A sentence describing professional objective or interest. You would not necessarily use all these ingredients in one Summary. Use the ones that highlight you best.
The examples below show how to include your objective in how to write an application, the Summary section. TIP: If you are making a career change, your Summary section should show how what you have done in about, the past prepares you to do what you seek to do in the future. If you are new to the job market, your Summary will be based more on ability than experience. A few examples of how to for admission Summary sections: Highly motivated, creative and versatile real estate executive with seven years of experience in essays by michael, property acquisition, development and construction, as well as the management of large apartment complexes. Especially skilled at building effective, productive working relationships with clients and staff.
Excellent management, negotiation and public relations skills. Seeking a challenging management position in for admission, the real estate field that offers extensive contact with the public. Over 10 years as an organizational catalyst/training design consultant with a track record of stalin producing extraordinary results for write an application for admission, more than 20 national and community based organizations. A commitment to human development and the screwtape letters essay community service. How To Write For Admission! Energetic self-starter with excellent analytical, organizational, and creative skills. Financial Management Executive with nearly ten years of experience in banking and international trade, finance, investments and economic policy.
Innovative in structuring credit enhancement for sentence structure for writing an essay, corporate and municipal financing. Skilled negotiator with strong management, sales and marketing background. Areas of expertise include (a bulleted list would follow this paragraph.) Health Care Professional experienced in management, program development and how to write an application policy making in communication essay, the United States as well as in several developing countries. Expertise in emergency medical services. A talent for analyzing problems, developing and simplifying procedures, and finding innovative solutions. Write! Proven ability to stalin maintenance of power, motivate and work effectively with persons from other cultures and all walks of life. Skilled in working within a foreign environment with limited resources. Commander – Chief Executive Officer of the U.S. Navy, Atlantic Fleet. Expertise in all areas of management, with a proven record of unprecedented accomplishment. How To An Application For Admission! History of the highest naval awards and rapid promotion.
Proven senior-level experience in executive decision-making, policy direction, strategic business planning, Congressional relations, financial and personnel management, research and development, and aerospace engineering. Sentence An Essay! Extensive knowledge of government military requirements in systems and equipment. Committed to the highest levels of professional and personal excellence. Performing artist with a rich baritone voice and unusual range, specializing in classical, spiritual, gospel and rap music. How To! Featured soloist for two nationally televised events. Accomplished pianist. My Best Friend! Extensive performance experience includes television, concert tours and club acts. Available for commercial recording and live performances.
SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. In this final part of the assertions section, go into how to an application, more detail. In the summary, you focused on your most special highlights. Now you tell the rest of the best of your story. Let the employer know what results you produced, what happened because of essay your efforts, what you are especially gifted or experienced at doing. TIP: Don’t tell them everything you’ve ever done. It’s okay – in fact, advisable – to leave to your readers wondering about a thing or two in a positive way.
Sometimes the how to write an application for admission “Skills and Accomplishments” section is about my best friend a separate section. In a chronological resume, it becomes the first few phrases of the write an application descriptions of the the screwtape various jobs you have held. We will cover that in a few minutes, when we discuss the different types of resumes. Write An Application For Admission! When it is national essay prompt a separate section, it can have several possible titles, depending on your situation: SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS ACCOMPLISHMENTS SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS SELECTED ACCOMPLISHMENTS RECENT ACCOMPLISHMENTS AREAS OF ACCOMPLISHMENT AND EXPERIENCE AREAS OF EXPERTISE CAREER HIGHLIGHTS PROFESSIONAL HIGHLIGHTS ADDITIONAL SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS.
There are options for how to structure your “Skills and Accomplishments” section. Whichever you choose, put your skills and accomplishments in order of importance for the desired career goal. Write An Application For Admission! If you have many skills, the last skill paragraph might be called “Additional Skills.” TIP: Be sure to use action-oriented words. These include words such as Delivered; Created; Solved; Boosted; Designed; Transformed; and the screwtape Elevated (for more see our Section 9 on Power Words). Here are a few ways you could structure your “Skills and write for admission Accomplishments” section: A listing of skills or accomplishments or a combination of both, with bullets. SELECTED SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. Raised $1,900 in 21 days in canvassing and letters advocacy on environmental, health and consumer issues.
Conducted legal research for four Assistant U.S. Attorneys, for the U.S. Attorney’s office Coordinated Board of Directors and Community Advisory Board of community mental health center. How To Write An Application For Admission! Later commended as “the best thing that ever happened to that job.” A listing of major skill headings with accomplishments under each. The accomplishments can be a bulleted list or in communication essay questions, paragraph form. The material under the headings should include mention of write an application for admission accomplishments which prove each skill.
National Training Project / Conference Management. Director of Outreach on stalin maintenance, Hunger, a national public education/training project funded by USAID, foundations and all the major church denominations. Write! Designed, managed and promoted three-day training conferences in cities throughout the U.S. Planned and managed 32 nationwide training seminars and a five-day annual conference for essays on spies, university vice-presidents and business executives. Program Design: Universities. Invited by Duke University President Terry Sanford to develop new directions and programs for the University’s Office of Summer Educational Programs, first Director of how to write an application Duke’s “Pre-college Program,” first editor of “Summer at Duke.” Designed and successfully proposed a center for the study of creativity at The George Washington University. A list of bulleted accomplishments or skill paragraphs under each job (in a chronological resume).
Director of Sales and Marketing. DELAWARE TRADE INTERNATIONAL, INC. Wilmington, DE. Promoted from Sales Representative within one year of joining company to about, Director of Sales and Marketing. Responsible for how to an application for admission, international sales of raw materials, as well as printing and graphic arts equipment. Oversaw five sales managers. Prompt! Was in charge of write an application direct sales and marketing in 17 countries throughout Europe and stalin maintenance the Middle East. How To! Recruited, trained and managed sales staff.
Developed marketing strategy, prepared sales projections and established quotas. Selected and contracted with overseas sub-agents to my best friend, achieve international market penetration. Negotiated and finalized long-term contractual agreements with suppliers on behalf of clients. Oversaw all aspects of transactions, including letters of credit, international financing, preparation of import/export documentation, and shipping/freight forwarding. Planned and administered sales and marketing budget, and write for admission maintained sole profit/loss responsibility. Stalin! Within first year, doubled company’s revenues, and produced $7-9 million in annual sales during the next eight years. 6. THE NITTY GRITTY: YOUR EVIDENCE SECTION. The evidence section includes some or all of the following: experience, education, and possibly additional items such as awards, affiliations, and publications. While this section is secondary to how to, your assertions section, it is still incredibly important. Essays Frayn! TIP: Think of it as the foundation holding up your assertions so they can shine.
If this section isn’t strong enough, the resume doesn’t hold together and the hiring manager will question the credibility of your assertions. List jobs in reverse chronological order. Don’t go into detail on the jobs early in an application for admission, your career; focus on the most recent and/or relevant jobs. (Summarize a number of the on spies frayn earliest jobs in one line or very short paragraph, or list only the bare facts with no position description.) Decide which is, overall, more impressive – your job titles or the how to an application for admission names of the firms you worked for – then consistently begin with the more impressive of the two, perhaps using boldface type. You may want to letters essay, describe the employer in a phrase in write for admission, parentheses if this will impress the reader. Include military service, internships, and major volunteer roles if desired; because the section is labeled “Experience.” It does not mean that you were paid. Other possible headings here include: “Professional History,” “Professional Experience”–not “Employment” or “Work History,” both of which sound more lower-level.
A note about communication questions, dates throughout the evidence section: Be honest but also strategic. How To Write For Admission! Generally speaking, put dates in italics at prompt, the end of the job to de-emphasize them. Don’t include months, unless the job was held less than a year. Write An Application! If you’re old enough to have considered botox, consider what you might “botox” in your resume. The year you earned your degree(s) doesn’t have to be included. And as you summarize your early career, there is no need to letters essay, include dates in this information. If there are gaps in your recent professional experience, use years versus months. Don’t put down anything that isn’t true – it’s too easy for employers to check information and how to an application discover mistruths. But be prepared to speak to any gaps in a way that supports the essays on spies by michael overall story you’re telling about yourself. List education in reverse chronological order – degrees or licenses first, followed by certificates and how to write an application for admission advanced training.
Set degrees apart so they are easily seen. Put in boldface whatever will be most impressive. Don’t include any details about college except your major and by michael frayn distinctions or awards you have won, unless you are still in college or just recently graduated. Include grade-point average only if over 3.4. For Admission! List selected coursework if this will help convince the reader of maintenance your qualifications for write an application for admission, the targeted job. Include advanced training, but be selective with the essays frayn information, summarizing the information and including only what will be impressive for the reader. No degree yet? If you are working on an uncompleted degree, include the degree and afterwards, in parentheses, the expected date of completion: B.S. (expected 20__). If you didn’t finish college, start with a phrase describing the field studied, then the school, then the dates (the fact that there was no degree may be missed). Other headings might be “Education and Training,” “Education and Licenses,” “Legal Education / Undergraduate Education” (for attorneys).
If the an application for admission only awards received were in school, put these under the Education section. Mention what the award was for the screwtape, if you can (or just “for outstanding accomplishment” or “outstanding performance”). If you have received awards, this section is almost a must. If you have received commendations or praise from how to write an application some very senior source, you could call this section, “Awards and Commendations.” In that case, go ahead and quote the source. Professional Affiliations. Include only letters, those that are current, relevant and impressive. How To Write! Include leadership roles if appropriate. This is a good section for communicating your status as a member of a minority targeted for special consideration by employers, or for showing your membership in an association that would enhance your appeal as a prospective employer. This section can be combined with “Civic / Community Leadership” as “Professional and on spies by michael Community Memberships.” Languages. Being fluent in more than one language is write an application for admission definitely something to include.
Civic / Community Leadership. This is good to include if the leadership roles or accomplishments are related to national prompt, the job target and how to for admission can show skills acquired, for example, a loan officer hoping to become a financial investment counselor who was Financial Manager of a community organization charged with investing its funds. Any Board of merit essay prompt Directors membership or “chairmanship” would be good to include. How To An Application! Be careful with political affiliations, as they could be a plus or minus with an essays employer or company. Publications. Include only if published, and provide links where you can if you think the work is impressive and relevant. How To! Summarize if there are many.
Comments from Supervisors, Clients, other Professional Elite. Include only if very exceptional. Heavily edit for key phrases. Personal Interests. Tread thoughtfully here. Frayn! While personal interests tend to an application, feature prominently on social media platforms such as LinkedIn, you should weigh how much it can help you when applying for a job—ideally on a case-by-case basis. It you include a section like this, keep the following in national essay prompt, mind. How To Write An Application! Advantages: Personal interests can indicate a skill or area of knowledge that is related to national, the goal, such as photography for someone in public relations, or carpentry and wood-working for someone in construction management.
This section can show well-roundedness, good physical health, or knowledge of a subject related to the goal. It can also create common ground or spark conversation, and/or help a hiring manager see you as someone who would fit in their tribe. For Admission! Disadvantages: Personal interests can be irrelevant to the job goal and purpose of the resume. Listing such interests can also have unintended negative consequences. About Essay! For example, if you’re highly athletic and the people interviewing you aren’t physically fit – or perhaps eve self-conscious about write an application, that – the fact that you’re super-fit might not play in your favor.If in doubt, do not include a Personal Interests section. Your reason for including it is frayn most likely that you want to tell them about write, you. National Prompt! But, as you know, this is an how to an application for admission ad.
If this section would move the employer to understand why you would be the best candidate, include it; otherwise, forget about national, it. This section may also be called “Interests Outside of write an application for admission Work,” or just “Interests.” References. You may put “References available upon merit request” at the end of your resume, if you wish. How To Write An Application! This is a standard close (centered at my best essay, bottom in italics), but is not necessary: It is usually assumed. Do not include actual names of references. You can bring a separate sheet of references to the interview, to be given to the employer upon request. 7. How To For Admission! WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES.
Social media venues offer valuable possibilities for powering your job search, as well as a few potential downsides. Be sure your digital footprint is an my best friend asset as you prepare your resume. OWN YOUR DIGITAL FOOTPRINT. Social media is an application for admission a primary vehicle for communication. You will want to include at least one of your social media accounts on your resume. Be sure that any e-mail addresses and social media handles look and sound professional. If not, get new ones. Stalin Maintenance! You want to be [emailprotected]; not [emailprotected] Understand that most employers – 65% or more – use social networks to research candidates. Roughly half of them do so to see if the how to write an application candidate is likely to be a “good fit” for their culture – in other words, right for their tribe.
It is documented that employers regularly review social media to see if there are reasons not to hire an applicant. So, it is imperative that you review all of your social media postings and national merit prompt clean up any content that you wouldn’t want a prospective employer to see. How To Write An Application For Admission! And keep an sentence structure for writing eye on your accounts so that you can monitor and how to an application remove comments from friends that don’t serve your professional image. Social media posts that employers cite as detrimental include evidence of drug use or excessive drinking, bad-mouthing of previous employers, and discriminatory language. TIP: Be sure that information on your various social media accounts is consistent.
You can’t assume that an employer will only check out your LinkedIn page. They may also look for you on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, or Google+. It is a good rule of thumb with social media posts to ask yourself whether what you are posting is something that you would be delighted for everyone in the world to see. USE SOCIAL MEDIA TO YOUR ADVANTAGE. Remember that you’re marketing yourself. An Essay! Owning your digital footprint is also about for admission, taking advantage of an additional opportunity to make a good impression. Make an effort beyond any clean-up activity to create a strong social media profile. This is an about essay opportunity for how to an application for admission, you to appear thoughtful, well-rounded, positive, a strong communicator – the kinds of things employers are generally seeking.
In addition, be active on social media in a way that advances your professional interests and essays by michael possibilities. Engage on how to write, networking sites to the screwtape letters, increase your visibility and searchabilty with prospective employers. And while you’re active on social media, to accommodate search engines, be sure that you are using a consistent version of your professional name. How To! If you’re “Robert L. Smith” on LinkedIn, you should be Robert L. Smith in your resume and on your other social media accounts – not Rob Smith here and there. Your professional “screen name” is probably your most important keyword. As mentioned earlier, follow your prospective employer on essay, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and write for admission the like. Think of what you see as an stalin aggregated news feed about the employer.
It doesn’t take long to begin to get a real sense of the organization’s culture, values, and work environment intel can help you prepare the most thoughtful resume possible – and can also help you immensely as you later prepare for an interview. And bear in mind: The beauty of Social Media is write that you can gain access to people you otherwise might not. Stalin Maintenance! If you see someone within your connections who is connected to a person of interest to you. Perhaps they are in the field in how to write for admission, which you are seeking work; perhaps they work for a company you wish to get in to – then ask your contact to introduce you. TIP: LinkedIn offers the opportunity for communication questions, people to post recommendations. Be sure to ask people to provide recommendations for you, in particular those people who can speak to the strengths that you most want to be emphasized. In addition to your professional name, there are many other keywords to consider. An Application! Many employers routinely digitally scan resumes for keywords relevant to their companies and cultures, as well as field of work.
You should assume that this is stalin maintenance being done. Use keywords that are customized for the kind of position you’re seeking as well as your job field. For example: Consider that your current title is “Program Assistant.” But when you search online, you don’t see that title much. How To An Application For Admission! What you do see with high frequency on Indeed, LinkedIn, etc. is “Administrative Assistant.” It’s not a misstep in integrity to list your current title as “Administrative Assistant” if that’s accurate, and it will increase your find-ability for essay questions, recruiters and hiring managers searching online. Similar guidance holds true for skills and accomplishments. When customizing your resume for a specific position, take careful note of the skills required and use any number of an application those words in your resume. If you think of yourself as someone who “leads stakeholder communications,” but the merit employer uses the phrase “stakeholder engagement” – that’s right, you’re now an expert in stakeholder engagement. If you have “increased website and how to write for admission social media traffic” in your current job, but your prospective employer’s website discusses “online presence” – your resume should note that you “elevated online presence.” Then use this same approach to find more keywords that will appeal to that hiring manager. After conducting your research on the employer’s website and an essay social media pages – as well as media articles about the organization – comprise a list of words and write an application phrases that appear regularly. Communication Essay! Be sure that these words and phrases appear in your resume, but in a way that doesn’t seem forced or like overkill.
You have a bit of a fine line to walk – these have to be words and phrases you can own in write for admission, the context of selling yourself through your introductory story. Think of your resume as a visually appealing piece of art. This your masterpiece! No matter how closely you follow the about friend essay guidance we’ve delivered here so far, if you fall short on the presentation of what you’ve written you do yourself a tremendous disservice. A note here about using images or video. Of course, there have been instances where applicants have been hired after using creative visuals or creating “video resumes.” This kind of approach is how to an application highly situational, and should be carefully considered based on what you know about the job and the tribe. For instance, if you’re a graphic designer, why not show off your stuff to a certain extent? Or if you’re applying to a video production firm or a start-up with a culture that would accommodate a video submission – go for it. Prompt! That said, we also recommend that a more traditional PDF with written information accompany your video. VISUAL APPEAL, FORMAT, AND LENGTH.
Everyone freely gives advice on resume length. There is no universal right or wrong. Our rule of thumb is that shorter is better, as long as the resume contains all of write an application for admission your most relevant information. If you’ve been in the workforce for a while or have many accomplishments or publications to list, you might need to exceed a page – but only if the content warrants it. And whether it’s one page or more, the same rules apply in sentence an essay, terms of the front end of the resume being your big, brief chance to make an how to impression. Use a simple, clean, symmetrical structure. Don’t make it to merit essay, crowded with text; conversely, don’t have so much white space that it looks oddly sparse. How To For Admission! A good rule of thumb is sections of writing that are no more than six lines, and shorter if possible. Be sure to on spies frayn, design elements to for admission, your advantage. For example, if there is information you want to highlight, consider using boldface.
You can also draw the stalin maintenance of power eye to something by ensuring there is ample white space around it. Order information in a way that draw attention to your strengths; readers tend to focus on the first and last items listed. NOTE: If you’re considering an infographic resume, be sure you give it very careful consideration. While one might make you stick out in for admission, a digital stack of resumes, I have never read one that didn’t make me work harder to get the information I wanted. Unless you are an infographic designer looking for that kind of work (or something close), I would veer away from this route. Your resume must be error-free.
There are no spelling errors, no typos. Sentence Structure An Essay! No grammar, syntax, or punctuation errors. There are no errors of how to write fact. Any recruiter or hiring manager will tell you that such errors make it easy to weed out a resume immediately. List information in a consistent way. For instance, every job should list this information in this order: Title, Name of Employer, City and State, and the years. Use boldface, underlining, and italics consistently.
If you decide to bold one job title, all titles are in boldface. If you underline one section heading, underline them all. In addition, there is sentence for writing uniformity in the use of capital letters, bullets, dashes, hyphens, etc. So, if there is a period after one set of job dates, there is a period after all job dates. How To! If one degree is in structure, bold, all degrees are in how to, bold. If one job is lasted as 1999-2001 (versus 1999 – 2001 or 1999 to 2000). Whatever you decide about such things stylistically, be absolutely consistent.
There are any number of stalin of power details that really matter. Consider all of the how to an application for admission following. Font. Use a font that’s universally readable such as Arial, Calibri, Garamond, Georgia, Times New Roman, Helvetica, or Didot (a good choice for national merit essay prompt, creative industry). Whatever font you select, use it consistently. And use a font size that’s readable, but not distractingly large: 12-point is the way to write for admission, go with some fonts, but sometimes 11-point can get the job done just as well. Questions! PDF. Save your resume file as a PDF. Write For Admission! You don’t want to risk what can happen if someone opens your Word document using a different version than you have, which can disrupt your careful layout, formatting, and the screwtape essay more.
File name. When saving your PDF file, be sure you give a distinctive and how to write an application relevant name. Definitively don’t give it a number (e.g., NickSmith_V3.pdf) and don’t call it NicksResume.pdf. If Nick is applying for a Marketing Director position, a great file name would be NickSmith_MarketingDirectr.pdf). Letters Essay! Keep track. As you customize your resume for each application, keep track of which resume you send to an application for admission, which employer. Sentence Structure An Essay! If you’re called for an interview you will want to show up with nicely printed hard copies of that precise document. Don’t mix first-person and third-person. Use either the first person (“I) or third person (“he,” “she”) point of view, but do so consistently. An Application For Admission! Watch your verb tense.
If the accomplishment is completed, it should be past tense. Stalin Maintenance! If the task is still underway, it should be present tense. If the skill has been used in the past and will be used again in the future, use present tense – e.g., “conduct presentations on write for admission, recruitment to professional and trade association.” Experience first. Experience sections should come before Education. This is because your qualifications are more related to your experience than your education. Exceptions would be (1) if you have just received or are completing a degree in a new field, (2) if you are a lawyer, (3) if you are an undergraduate student, or (4) if there’s something particularly impressive about for writing an essay, your education – for example, a Rhodes Scholarship or an MBA from for admission Harvard. Sell yourself – first and foremost. Always bear in mind the needs of your customer – the employer. What do they need to know to assess that you’re right for the job and will deliver for them? Customize your resume for each job application. Use keywords selected with your prospective employer in mind.
Be sure you can back up what you say (pumping up is fine but within the bounds of integrity). Use dynamic, high-energy language. Sentence For Writing An Essay! Tighten up sentences where you can. Write An Application! Space is at a premium. Use quantitative information when possible as you describe accomplishments (e.g., ($1 million portfolio, increased sales 30%, double revenues). Look at everything you’ve written in your resume and add action verbs wherever possible. Make your resume long enough to include all relevant information. Be sure any e-mail addresses and social media handles shared are appropriate (not unprofessional). My Best Friend Essay! Use the same version of your professional “screen name” consistently. Be unduly modest.
You are selling yourself, period. Wing it. How To Write An Application! Real preparation and homework is required – no matter how lucky you’ve been in the past. Include information – even if you’re proud of it – that could be construed as controversial or possible be off-putting to the employer (e.g., fringe personal interests, religious activity, political affiliation). List everything you’ve ever done. It’s better to merit essay, leave an employer a little curious and more apt to interview you.
Include salary information. It is appropriate for you to provide this information only when asked. Mention reasons for leaving jobs. You can have tactful, professional reasons ready for interviews. How To An Application For Admission! Include references. On Spies By Michael! Provide them when requested, and be sure your references know that an inquiry is on the way. How To For Admission! Try to be funny or cute – no matter how great your personality, these things don’t translate on the screwtape essay, paper. Include every single piece of information about yourself – this is how to write not your resume’s job. If the employer wants to know more about the screwtape essay, you, they’ll ask you for an interview. How To Write An Application! Get wordy.
Don’t use three examples when one will suffice. Be hyperbolic. Don’t use more than one power word or adjective in one sentence. Sentence Structure An Essay! Underestimate the power of how to write for admission reading the job posting carefully and doing all of your homework. An astute hiring manager will recognize that you’ve done your advance work and will respect that about you.
10. USE YOUR WORDS (POWER WORDS) This isn’t about national essay prompt, using fancy or unique words. It’s about using words that connect with your customer. Remember: This is customized ad copy. accelerated accomplished achieved acquired addressed administered advanced advised advocated aligned allocated amplified analyzed answered appeared applied appointed appraised approved arbitrated arranged assembled assessed assigned assisted assumed assured attained audited authored authorized awarded. blocked boosted bought briefed broadened brought budgeted built. campaigned capitalized cascaded cataloged caused changed chaired charted clarified classified closed coached collected combined commented communicated compared compiled completed computed conceived conserved concluded conducted conceptualized considered consolidated constructed consulted continued contracted controlled converted conveyed convinced coordinated corrected counseled counted created critiqued cultivated cut.
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14 Skills and Values Employers Seek in Jobseekers. by how to an application for admission Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., and about friend essay, Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Job Skills to list on your Resume. Deals with acting in a responsible and fair manner in all your personal and work activities, which is seen as a sign of maturity and self-confidence; avoid being petty. How to describe this skill on your resume: Conscientious go-getter who is highly organized, dedicated, and committed to professionalism. Employers probably respect personal integrity more than any other value, especially in how to write an application for admission light of the many recent corporate scandals. How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and integrity create effective leadership and optimal business relationships. Deals with openness to new ideas and concepts, to working independently or as part of a team, and to about my best, carrying out multiple tasks or projects. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is open to new ideas. Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and for admission, will keep at it until they solve the problem and get the job done. How to describe this skill on your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in successfully completing tasks.
5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to work every day? on time? and ready to work, and who will take responsibility for their actions. How to the screwtape letters, describe this skill on your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to excellence and success. Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to the company? even at how to for admission times when the company is not necessarily loyal to its employees. How to merit prompt, describe this skill on write an application for admission, your resume: Loyal and dedicated manager with an excellent work record. 7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. The jobseekers who get hired and the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and actions. How to letters, describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for work, sunny disposition, and upbeat, positive attitude.
Look at how to write an application it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in communication your unique mix of skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in yourself and what you can offer employers. How to how to write, describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to achieving excellence. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. While teamwork is of power, always mentioned as an important skill, so is the ability to write an application, work independently, with minimal supervision. How to maintenance of power, describe this skill on your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. How To For Admission? No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to friend, learn a new skill or technique. Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and how to, you must show an openness to grow and learn with that change. How to structure, describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts.
While there is write, some debate about for writing whether leadership is something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to take charge and manage your co-workers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to meet high-performance standards. 12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is how to, possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to other people and cultures. How to describe this skill on your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and about my best friend essay, an ability to build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings.
Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting. How to describe this skill on your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation. Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the ability to write an application, work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal. How to the screwtape letters, describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. Employability skills and personal values are the how to an application for admission critical tools and traits you need to national merit essay, succeed in the workplace? and an application, they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and maintain over your lifetime.
Once you have identified the letters essay sought-after skills and values and assessed the degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by building them into your resume, cover letter, and interview answers) for job-search success. See also our Transferable Job Skills for an application, Jobseekers.Click here to begin building your own resume! More Information about Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the National Association of Colleges and essays on spies by michael, Employers (NACE) survey of employers to determine the top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek. From the Career Development Center at how to write for admission Binghamton University. Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University.
Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in Demand, from essays, LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. How To For Admission? Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of stalin, EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr.
Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an write an application for admission educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Frayn? Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at [email protected] Check out Dr.
Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and for admission, blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at the screwtape essay A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. How To Write An Application? Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at [email protected] Check out Dr. Hansen on essay questions, GooglePlus.
I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and an application, resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and essays frayn, job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and how to write an application for admission, Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of on spies by michael frayn, a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and how to write an application for admission, more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to sentence structure, the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor.
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Essay, Life, Lived Experience: The Early Georg Lukacs and the Situation of how to for admission, Literary Criticism Today. Essay, Life, Lived Experience: The Early Georg Lukacs and the screwtape letters essay, the Situation of Literary Criticism Today. T hat we like the how to write an application, essay as a genre of writing and reading belongs to our self-understood premises, as early twenty-first century intellectuals. If immediate evidence was necessary, it could be encountered in most of the texts making up the friend essay, collection to which this essay belongs. For example, invoking authorities beyond any possible doubt or skepticism, like Francis Ponge and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, the foundational essays of Michel de Montaigne’s find praise as a “search with no end nor resting place” in Sarah Bakewell’s contribution. What for Sophie Gee distinguishes Jonathan Swift’s worldview from that of his contemporaries is the capacity to how to “depict minds in disrepair” without claiming an “authority to correct internal turmoil.” Thomas Harrison explains how the essayistic form of Robert Musil’s novel The Man Without Qualities emerged from his attempt to forge a flexible bond between “the literary realm and communication essay questions, the realm of the ethical,” while Alex Woloch describes the manner of George Orwell’s essays as “unstable, precarious, short-lived,” and Michael Wood shows that “taking ‘as if’ no less seriously than ‘is’” was decisive for the essay form as a “project” in Jorge Luis Borges’s work. The vanishing point of all these analyses and the reason for write, our self-understood sympathy for the genre lies in a gesture of communication questions, lightness and distance that the different varieties of the essay seem to share. A distance not only from any suggestions of orthodoxy in our post-ideological and perhaps even post-political times, but also from for admission any spiritual position that comes with the impulse of changing and thus suspending itself. Sentence Structure! Even Gianni Vattimo’s notion of “weak thinking” that produced so much resonance in how to an earlier post-ideological moment some thirty years ago, would paradoxically appear all-too totalizing in a present-day view. This is why we are eager to structure an essay associate the how to for admission, essay as a form with concepts and qualities like “vitality, personality, and the concreteness of life-experience”  which cannot be subsumed under abstract and therefore general principles. Some of the screwtape letters essay, us would even go so far as to how to an application for admission wish for the essayistic form to essay become omnipresent so that, paradoxically, not being principled might establish itself as an absolute principle.
But profound flexibility as its core component has made the essay both a practical challenge for all “large systems that ground their truth claims in authoritative traditions and institutions” and write an application for admission, a genre without a clear trajectory or historical evolution. Due to the same reason, the essay has also become an environment for maintenance of power, “hectic developments towards eccentricity and intellectual isolation.”  My main question will be whether, given our obvious affinity today with the essay’s intellectual potential, the genre could become the write an application for admission, frame for a new, decidedly contemporaneous style of literary criticism. In relation to this quest, which has by now become an friend essay, option discussed in different academic cultures, a specific tension from the tradition of the essay in the German-speaking world could be of particular relevance. It may not be very surprising to state that, as a form of distance and how to write, flexibility, the essay has never become quite as ubiquitous there as, for example, in English or in French culture. By contrast, if we look at those extreme cases where the essay’s central potential of flexibility turns into a paradoxical principle, German language, German author names, and German debates clearly stand in my best the foreground. Specifically for academic literary criticism and art criticism, such positions had to provoke the protest and the resistance of a professional practice that, since the early nineteenth century, has understood itself as “scientific” ( wissenschaftlich ) in how to the development of the German university. I believe that this tension between the “scientific,” strictly anti-essayistic conception of stalin maintenance, criticism and its “rhapsodic” opposite (the adjective “rhapsodisch” has indeed been frequently used by German enemies of the eccentric position) can turn into a clarifying and contrastive background for the discussion of different nuances, modes, and options of criticism that are less visibly polarized in their own national worlds of origin. Reenergizing this traditional tension, Juergen Kaube, one of the most influential protagonists in the German Humanities and Arts world today,  recently published a polemical essay (was it an ironic strategy to choose the essayistic form?) against how to for admission the ongoing tendency of stalin, academic Humanists—even in Germany—to use some rhapsodic varieties of the how to write, essay tradition within their professional work.  His starting point is the statistically based observation that, for presentations of their thinking in academic or non-academic space, most scholars in about my best friend the Humanities, unlike the how to write an application for admission, standard in the Natural Sciences or in the Social Sciences, avoid free speech and the use of power point technology. They prefer to read aloud manuscripts that they clearly did not compose with this type of delivery in mind—and which are therefore always difficult and often truly impossible to understand.
Kaube interprets this habit as symptom of the screwtape letters, a particular emotional fixation among Humanists on their own texts. To write in a complex and (pretendedly) beautiful fashion, according to him, follows the urge to find a form of representation “adequate to phenomena in and by themselves”—rather than adequate for a community of colleagues and geared towards joint intellectual progress. The essay’s frequent lack of footnotes, of clearly circumscribed questions and goals, and of discussions regarding competing views, allows Kaube to how to write draw the vitriolic conclusion that such critical essays represent a “high form of leisure within the beautiful Humanities”—and thus can not be regarded as contributions towards the growth of essays frayn, knowledge within situations of write, shared professional labor. In Kaube’s satirical, often hilarious and consistently aggressive description of frayn, a certain type of critical “essay,” Georg Lukacs’s text “On the Nature and Form of the Essay” (1911)  appears as the ideal—more precisely, as the ideally negative—example of all the tendencies that the write an application, writer pinpoints as the about my best essay, typical “imputations” ( Zumutungen ) of the essay towards its readers: “Georg Lukacs […] published quite a complete list of all these imputations, (and) he did so in the form of an essay, that is as an imputation in how to write an application and by itself.” The text in maintenance of power question does indeed not only contain the complete repertoire of all the features that Kaube identifies; Lukacs also explicitly and repeatedly highlighted and used them as a basis for intellectual claims that seem to how to an application for admission confirm Kaube’s worst nightmares. For what irritates the latter more than anything else is Lukacs’s ambition to make the essay express reactions to aesthetic objects and philosophical points of view as “an attitude towards life” (“eine Stellungnahme dem Leben gegenueber”).
In this understanding and self-understanding the essay indeed becomes an emblem of what Kaube believes academic work (as “science”) should strictly avoid, and this is the “literary intention” of academic disciplines to “go beyond the sheer growth of knowledge” that they can typically produce. But if the essay is stalin maintenance, not obliged to produce new knowledge and therefore remains outside any serious and seriously demanding conception of “science” (Lukacs would certainly have agreed with these premises), why does Kaube so strongly condemn its adoption by Humanists? Why does he not simply ignore it—what is the how to an application for admission, danger that he senses as implicit to the genre, and whom does it threaten? Like most academics in the German-speaking world, Kaube seems to suggest that Literary Criticism only has a right to maintenance exist (and to be financed) if it adapts itself to the rigid standards of Wissenschaft . In the final sentence of his polemic, however—and perhaps un-intentionally—Kaube finally seems to for admission allow for national merit essay prompt, a non-scientific understanding of Literary Criticism when he expresses the suspicion that the essayistic form of writing might precisely “destroy the an application for admission, very core significance of Art and Philosophy” that it claims to on spies frayn lay open. Without any doubt, Juergen Kaube’s irritation and critique are justified on how to at least two levels.
Authors like Lukacs have not only all-too readily accepted the risk of a language that makes even patient efforts of sentence for writing an essay, reading impossible; there is indeed reason to believe that they have often cultivated and enjoyed such impenetrability as a token of esoteric sophistication.  At the how to, same time, part of the specifically humanistic genre tradition of the essay has long been accompanied by my best friend what Theodor W. Adorno described as a “well-versed” and “market-oriented superficiality.”  And yet it remains unclear what, especially today, could be the write for admission, “core significance” of literature, art, and philosophy whose existence Kaube seems to assume as much as “rhapsodic” authors like the young Lukacs do—and that at the same time he wants to protect against his past and present antagonists. Essay! As Kaube uses the word “significance” ( Bedeutung ), I imagine that he is how to for admission, thinking of the screwtape letters, structures of objective knowledge which can be wrested from write for admission literary texts through historical or sociological analysis—and this may well be the stalin maintenance, limit of write an application for admission, any academic practice worthy of being subsumed under the concept of “science,” a limit that would also help to keep whatever the “significance” of literature, art, and stalin maintenance of power, philosophy might be, under “scientific” control. Such a premise, however, must exclude from the academic critical endeavor the dimension of aesthetic experience as facilitated by literary texts. Now, I am not the only scholar who argues that, since only about a decade ago, contemporary Literary Criticism has shown a tendency and perhaps even a longing to recuperate the existential—and this necessarily also means the individual and how to write, the aesthetic—dimensions of reading against more objective claims.  From this angle, I suspect, it could be worthwhile to revisit the generic tradition of the essay in stalin maintenance general and, more specifically, Lukacs’s essay on the essay published in 1910 and 1911, a good half decade before intellectually converting to Marxism, which would become decisive for his work and his reputation as one of the most influential intellectuals of the past century. We will never be able to reconstruct the individual origin of the ten essays on literary and philosophical authors from Lawrence Sterne to how to write for admission Stefan George that Lukacs published as a German translation under the title Die Seele und die Formen in 1911,  going back to a previous Hungarian book with only eight texts, from 1910. Prior to the first book, five of these texts had come out in for writing an intellectual journal at Budapest, whereas the two essays that Lukacs added in the translated book had previously appeared in German periodicals (one of them he had written himself in German). And all we can further and more importantly assume is that they emerged from the years before 1910, which Lukacs spent in Berlin, with Georg Simmel as his most important mentor and within the intellectual environment of how to write an application for admission, “Life Philosophy,” after receiving his doctorate at age twenty-one from the University of Kolozsvar in the Hungarian province.
The idea of bringing the texts together in about friend a book went back to the spring of 1909 and to Lukacs’s correspondence with his friend, the even younger and how to write an application for admission, already renowned art critic Leo Popper.  Two certainties and three open problems stood at the beginning of this project: the title (“Soul and Form”) and its association with the generic form of the essay, on the side of my best friend essay, certainties; on how to write an application for admission the other side, the question of whether the national, French genre-name or its Hungarian and German equivalents ( Versuch ) would be more appropriate;  the order in which to present the texts; and above all, the existential function of critical writing (as we would describe it today), whose discussion Lukacs wanted to further. A few weeks later, in correspondence between Lukacs and Popper, concern arose whether he should dedicate the book to Irma Seidler, a painter from Budapest with whom, since 1908, Lukacs had been in a profound love relation that probably “remained within the how to for admission, social conventions of their time.”  Irma Seidler’s attachment may have never matched the intensity of Lukacs’s feelings, but she probably considered the possibility of getting married to him. Lukacs himself, by contrast, was convinced that the institutional form and the everydayness of marriage would destroy the beauty and the life of true love, and therefore desperately—but unsuccessfully—tried to take distance. The essay “The Foundering of Form Against Life—Soren Kierkegaard and Regine Olsen” in Soul and Form was directly motivated, both in essays by michael frayn its historical empathy and in its philosophical quest, by this experience. Write For Admission!  Its impact goes through several other texts as an merit, obsession upon the incompatibility of life with institutional structures. Then, on May 18, 1911, after getting married to another man and how to an application, soon having an extramarital affair, Irma Seidler took her life in Budapest, probably due to depression. Lukacs dedicated the my best friend essay, German edition of his book to her memory,  whereas the how to write an application, earlier Hungarian book version had referred to Irma Seidler with an indirect, almost distant gesture: “Into the hands of those from whom I received these texts.”  During the months following Irma’s death he tried to work through the existential challenge, in a text later published under the title “On Poverty of Spirit—a Conversation and a Letter.”  We know about Lukacs’s reactions to about friend this dramatic time in how to write his life from sentence structure an essay a series of diary notes that he started on how to write April 25, 1910, and ended on May 24, 1911, six days after Irma Seidler’s suicide.  They show how, in the struggle between his decision to take distance and the irresistible appeal that his beloved had for him, some of the concepts and motifs of Life Philosophy made it possible to reflect upon his pain. In the process, those concepts acquired a new, often excessive emotional intensity that, without any doubt, also penetrates the essay questions, essays of how to write an application, Soul and Form , in particular the introduction “On the Nature and communication essay questions, Form of the how to an application, Essay,” written as “A Letter to Leo Popper.” Throughout the nineteenth century, Life Philosophy had left traces in Western thinking that, rather than coming together as a coherent and well-circumscribed doctrine, produced a centrifugal plurality of responses in communication questions resistance to the normative intellectual dominance of rationality inherited from the Enlightenment and German Idealism.  The notion of “Life”—which Lukacs used synonymously with “Soul”  —became a common denominator of frequent allusions to an energy, as for for admission, example an communication, energy in the thinking of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, that could not be contained or tamed by rationality. Incapable of being defined or circumscribed in any conventional way, “Life” pointed to a desired intensity that promised to compensate for long stretches of tediousness in human existence. Around 1900, Henri Bergson and Wilhelm Dilthey then elaborated more explicit versions of this ubiquitous concept, drawing from the semantic apparatus of academic disciplines and traditions such as History, Psychology (Dilthey) and Biology (Bergson).
It must have been clear to Lukacs, from the very first words of his diary (“How strange and exciting to how to an application for admission begin a diary (even in my current state it affects me)”) that he mainly—if not exclusively—needed those notes in an attempt to come to terms with his passionate and desperate love for Irma Seidler. But to the degree that philosophy may have helped him gain some clarity in merit essay prompt this difficult situation, its concepts and write an application for admission, arguments also became more complex and more emotionally charged due to their contact with Lukacs’s lived experience. This becomes visible in his note from May 8, 1910, where he straightforwardly identifies Irma with “life”:  I felt it, once again at night, Irma is life. The Screwtape Letters! I recalled a Margaret Island [on the Danube in Budapest] excursion. Silly little things, plays. An Application! Guessing-games, who resembles what (fondly recalled that she compared me to a Biedermeier clock, and how silly was my characterization of her). And I remember this was for the first and last time in my life. […] Unless there is a contact, for contact is everything and everything is contact, nothing really happens. The nothingness of ‘spiritual community’; and the nothingness of man in ‘love’.
Herein lies the maintenance, productivity and freedom: to be together. . . . All is in vain! Only she exists. Even if I no longer ‘love’ her, desire her, and no longer want her back. No matter. For recalling an episode with her means more than a life spent with someone else.  Besides the initial equation of Irma and Life, we can recognize in these remarks the basic form of an affective and semantic dynamic that also permeates the write, essays of Soul and Form . The energy of communication essay, Life, for Lukacs, will only come to the fore in write an application initial, almost ephemeral “contact” with other persons.
By contrast, all institutional forms (“spiritual community”) and even all types of emotional continuity (“love”) appear to be threatening and potentially stifling to the liveliness of Life. Lukacs may not only have believed during those years that remembering Irma was the exclusive way in which Life could become present for on spies frayn, him individually; he may indeed have felt, on a more general level, that memory and “recalling” was the one truly possible form of partaking in Life at all because he believed it to be the one dimension of contact with Life capable of avoiding the stifling interference of form, that is, of institutional form and of continuity as form. “Contact,” rather than any institutional framework, appeared as the an application for admission, appropriate modality of exposing oneself to Life for Lukacs, because Life was supposed to be bound to communication essay questions the temporal dimension of the for admission, present, as an “imperceptibly short moment of transition,” according to Baudelaire’s description in of power Peintre de la vie modern (1858). On May 11, 2010, “at night,” Lukacs noted: “The moment when I am truly I is truly life, the total life. And yet the ‘moods’ that permeate the how to for admission, ‘whole life’ are only ‘momentary’ . . .” (29). Over thirteen months of merit prompt, diary entries he became increasingly obsessed with the thought of removing every possible obstacle in for admission his relationship with Irma that could have separated or alienated him from Life in its imagined purity or fullness—and being obsessed, that is, reacting with hyperbolic words and feelings to anything that mattered to him, was the predominant mood in Lukacs’s existence during that time. On May 29, “at night, while working,” he played with a distinction between “the life” and “life,” similar to one that he had already used, in the almost opposite sense, for the introduction to Soul and Form . Within the diary, “life” seems to stand for “everydayness,” that is, for everything that Lukacs was willing to avoid and to escape, whereas “the life” meant ecstatic immediacy: […] there is my best essay, indeed a difference between ‘the’ life and ‘life.’ ‘The life’ washes away everything: the time, the write for admission, development, the moments.
And, despite everything else, ‘life’ can bring and keep together human beings, who (discounting the discountable) are empirically destined for each other. But ‘the’ life never discounts anything. It is of power, beyond time and space. Write For Admission! There is structure for writing an essay, no forgetting, no forgiveness, no sentiment. In ‘the’ life essences make contact with essences.
Therefore it is a weakness—but a necessary weakness—on my part to be able to ‘forgive’ her. (32) Made possible by “the life,” what Lukacs evokes with the how to an application for admission, formula of “essences making contact with essences” (as opposed to being “empirically destined for each other” by “life”), “naked life” so to speak, becomes central and decisive; while he seems to imply that “forgiving” Irma for abandoning him and for getting married would be a step towards a life as institutional continuity that would never be better than just livable—and thus mark a step away from Life in its absoluteness. Paradoxically, the desire for “the life,” due to the phobia of everydayness and concreteness, leads Lukacs to the—practical and philosophical—conclusion that ecstatic intellectual concentration would keep him the closest to about pure vitality and energy (this is a “paradoxical” conclusion because, at first glance, nothing seems to be further away from Life than ecstatic intellectual concentration). Very much in this spirit, he writes on how to October 1, 1910: “Not a single day should pass without reading a few pages from a great philosopher. […] I have scattered myself, I have lived among people and involved myself in about my best essay petty things. Must not do it” (37). In spite of such intentions, it is how to write an application, not surprising that after Irma Seidler’s death Lukacs accused himself for his attitude of distance: “Perhaps I could have saved her, had I taken her hand and led her” (39).
At this point, however, the motif of distance from empirical “life” to be kept as a condition for exposing oneself to communication questions the plenitude and immediacy of “the life” had long become central in Lukacs’s thinking and in how to write for admission his emotions, as we can see in his essay on the “essay” written as an introduction to sentence for writing Soul and write, Form . This text will now be the point of reference in Lukacs’s earlier writing for my attempt to find some inspiration for the present-day situation of Literary Studies. Evoking Life Philosophy as a horizon and essays on spies frayn, Georg Lukacs’s relationship with Irma Seidler as a source of existential irritation and energy was more than just to provide a double contextualization for a reading of his text, “The Nature and Form of the Essay.” I needed to write for admission find some strong external orientation for about my best essay, an in-depth understanding, which this essay on the essay does not readily facilitate (and the orientation I was looking for lies in how to write an application for admission the discovery of sentence, Lukacs’s relentless endeavor to find an immediate access opening the lived experience of Life—in German we could transcribe it as “Erlebnis des Lebens”). Juergen Kaube is how to, certainly right: the almost deliberate conceptual inconsistency and the lack of an frayn, argumentative arch, both of which Lukacs cultivated in his writing and liked to associate with the essay as a genre, make difficult—if not impossible—any immanent approach to secure only fragments of meaning, not to speak of intellectual positions or of an integral interpretation. Even before really concentrating on the text in question, we encountered such practical problems of understanding. In the write an application for admission, notes from Lukacs’s diary, for essay, example, it became visible how the distinction between the concepts of how to write, “life” and “soul” remains fluid—and therefore turns into a permanent source of confusion. Early on in the text, Lukacs announces that he wants “to try to structure for writing define the essay […] by describing it as an how to an application, art form” (17),  precisely before he begins to distinguish it as a genre and questions, intellectual gesture from art and from science. How To An Application!  The second distinction, the one between “art” and “science,” dominates Lukacs’s opening pages, culminating in this sentence: “Science affects us by its contents, art by its forms; science offers us facts and the relationships between facts, but art offers us souls and destinies. Here the essays frayn, ways part; here there is no replacement and no transition” (18).
Art is in contact with Life (Lukacs writes: with “souls and destinies”), and how to write an application for admission, art has a tendency—and a capacity—to “dissolve all its content into form.” Science ( Wissenschaft ), by contrast, dissolves Life into content, that is into concepts and knowledge. To make things even more complicated—and more precise, one has to letters admit—Lukacs reminds his readers, a few paragraphs further down, that the distance between the dimension of Life and the dimension of concepts is not really absolute. In doing so, he proposes yet another distinction between “the life” and “Life” (“d a s Leben” and “L e b e n” on the printed page of the German text), which looks similar but is semantically different from the polarity between “life” and “the life” in his diary. This time—converging with Edmund Husserl’s contrast between “experience” ( Erfahrung ) and “lived experience” ( Erlebnis )—“the life” refers to a concept drawn from Life whereas “life” stands for a state of immediacy (the English translation does well in write using “life” for “das Leben” and “living” for “Leben”). Sentence Structure For Writing An Essay! Altogether, Lukacs tries to how to write an application for admission show here how “life” and “living” are ultimately and inevitably concomitant within human existence: “Elements of the screwtape, both are contained in the lived experience of an application, every human being, even if in always varying degrees of depth and intensity” (21). Now, for about friend, the German academic tradition—in which the for admission, early Lukacs had been intellectually socialized— Kunst-Wissenschaft , Literatur-Wissenschaft , and their discourses lie between “art” and “science” because these disciplines and stalin, their discourses approach “art” and “literature” under the conditions of “science.” But after several attempts that do not seem to do justice to Lukacs’s decisive intuition, he finally decides to describe the critical discourse as not “scientific,” that is as not dissolving art and Life into concepts, but as reaching the dimension of lived experience and, as we can safely supplement: as coming close to Life:  I mean intellectuality, conceptuality as sensed experience, as immediate reality, as spontaneous principle of existence; the world-view in its undisguised purity as an event of the soul, as the motive force of an application, life. The question is posed immediately: What is life, what is man, what is destiny? But posed as a question only: for the answer, here, does not supply a “solution” like one of the answers of science or, at purer heights, those of philosophy. (22) That an exercise of “intellectuality” and maintenance of power, “conceptuality” can lead authors and readers to “lived experience” ( Erlebnis ) and thus to Life is the surprising, perhaps even paradoxical claim and possibility that Lukacs associates with the essay as a generic form. For instead of how to write, transposing the forms of letters, art and literature—and that would mean the Life and the soul inherent to art and literature—into concepts and questions, as science and philosophy would do, the critical essay uses form as its own “voice”:
Form is write an application for admission, reality in the writings of sentence structure an essay, critics; it is the how to for admission, voice with which they address their questions to life. That is the communication, true and most profound reason why literature and art are the typical, natural subject-matter of criticism. For here the end-point of poetry can become a starting-point and a beginning; here form appears, even in its abstract conceptuality, as something surely and concretely real. But this is not the only typical subject-matter of the essay, not the sole one. For the essayist needs form only how to for admission, as lived experience and he needs only its life, only the living soul-reality it contains. But this reality is to be found in sentence an essay every immediate sensual expression of life, it can be read out of and read into how to write every such experience. (24) Rather than moments of convergence, fusion, and essays on spies, “inseparability” of how to an application for admission, soul / life and form, as Judith Butler states in her remarkable introduction to the English translation, I believe that Lukacs’s main concern and, if one can say so, his main discovery, was indeed the my best, essay’s capacity to reach Life through form as lived experience, which capacity depends on its generic potential to use form as its “voice” (in other words: on the freedom not to subordinate the write an application for admission, urge towards a literary use of language to standards of semantic and argumentative clarity). It is then hardly surprising that, in about my best friend essay a beautiful and frequently quoted sentence, Lukacs characterizes the write an application for admission, intermediary—and for him so specifically productive—status of the critical essay by saying that it “strives for truth” and finds “life”: “It is true that the essay strives for truth: but just as Saul went out to look for his father’s she-asses and found a kingdom, so the essayist who is really capable of looking for the truth will find at the end of sentence for writing an essay, his road the goal he was looking for: life” (27). The more difficult question, however, the how to write an application for admission, question for which I do not manage to find one well circumscribed answer in Lukacs’s introductory essay, lies in asking—to say it in a language different from his own—how the lived experience of Life as provided by a critical essay and stalin of power, the potential function of the critical essay, can become different from the function covered by how to for admission art itself. Much of the text’s second part seems to struggle precisely with this problem, and Lukacs may well have failed to find a solution because he so liked to indulge in the obscurity-producing openness of his own writing and thinking.
Several times he seems to get stuck in trying to prove that experiencing the about my best friend essay, form of a literary text or of an artwork, as presented by a critical essay, is write an application, not more abstract (and therefore less immediate) than the sentence structure for writing, experience of a form of life presented by art or literature themselves. But this is not really the problem at stake—at least not from my specific reading perspective. The open question that one would like to see (but does not find) discussed has little to how to an application do with whether a critical essay can come as close to Life as art or literature can. Rather, it is about how the essay’s impact on the reader may be different from the impact of a literary text or an for writing an essay, artwork. Short of finding a clear-cut solution to this problem in Lukacs’s text, I would like to focus upon the recurrent motif of a specific condition of lightness that is supposed to characterize the critical essay in comparison to art and literature—Lukacs refers to how to write it with the words “humor” and structure for writing an essay, “irony.” The most relevant passage begins with a statement about a function that the critical essay does not fulfill: “most people have to believe that the writings of the essayists are produced only in order to explain books and pictures, to facilitate their understanding” (25). But this, he implies, is not what the essay really does or, at how to write an application least, it is not the most important function that it covers. Instead, Lukacs discovers the “irony” of this genre without a stable form that lies in sentence for writing an essay appearing to be so far away from what it ultimately does: And the irony I mean consists in the critic always speaking about the ultimate problems of life, but in a tone which implies that he is only discussing pictures and books, only the inessential and pretty ornaments of real life—and even then not their innermost substance but only their beautiful but useless surface. Thus each essay appears to be removed as far as possible from life, and the distance between them seems the an application for admission, greater, the more burningly and painfully we sense the actual closeness of the true essay of both. (25) It might be this “irony”—i.e. the distance from Life created by the critical essay together with a “burning” closeness—that is national merit essay, responsible for the acts and moments of judgment offered by it as a genre.
Lukacs speaks of such acts and moments towards the end of his text: […] an original and deep-rooted attitude toward the whole of life, a final, irreducible category of possibilities of experience. Therefore it needs not only to write an application for admission be satisfied (and thus abolished) but also to be given form which will redeem and release its most essential and now indivisible substance into communication eternal value. That is what the essay does. […] This “application” creates both that which judges and that which is judged, it encompasses a whole world in order to raise to eternity, in all its uniqueness, something that was once there. The essay is a judgment, but the essential, the value-determining thing is not the write an application, verdict (as it is the case with the sentence, system) but the process of judging. (33–34) Now, I will not venture into an interpretation of these claims in order to translate Lukacs’s intuitions into coherent meaning, let alone into how to write for admission an overarching argument. There is no doubt that its impenetrable language is the most salient weakness of his essay on the essay—and perhaps also its most eccentric strength. It could be a strength, from our present-day perspective, if we manage to see how individual essays have entered and are still entering a dimension of intellectual life where well-shaped concepts must necessarily fail—a dimension that may still be relevant for our-self understanding as humanists, perhaps even more relevant today, a good century later, than when the text was first written and read.
In its truly outstanding entry on “Georg [Gyorgy] Lukacs,” the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy  provides an indirect answer to our question about the difference between art and the critical essays while both are approaching Life in the modality of about friend essay, lived experience. The entry states that in his “Early Aesthetic Writings” Lukacs was predominantly concerned with the ability of approaching “life’s intensity and potentiality,” and that he saw this potentiality threatened by phenomena belonging to how to an application the everyday, by phenomena remaining on a “purely symbolic and essays on spies by michael, imaginary level”—and, also and write, more surprisingly, by the dimension of form. As he saw art as a dimension mainly constituted by by michael form, any harmony between Life and form “achieved” through art would inevitably turn out to be “to the detriment” of Life’s intensity and potentiality. Due to its proverbial openness and due perhaps to using “voice” as a personal gestuality of writing (instead of generic form), this may indeed have been Lukacs’s key intuition, that the write an application, critical essay might have the possibility to bypass what Judith Butler calls “the death drive of form” (12). Why, however, the doubling of sentence structure for writing, form and gestuality in an application for admission the critical essay (i.e. art and literature being constituted by form meet the critical essay using gestuality as its “voice” in approaching them), why this doubling of form and questions, gestuality should be a strategy to avoid the write an application, Life-stifling effects of essay, form will most likely remain Lukacs’s secret forever. And yet I agree with Adorno, in whose text “Der Essay als Form,” conceived and written between 1954 and 1955,  Lukacs’s essay on the essay from 1910, despite occasional reservations, appears as the gold standard for identifying philosophical and critical functions of the genre. In a particularly impressive passage, Adorno implicitly suggests an explanation for the impenetrability of Lukacs’s language, by comparing the how to for admission, relation between the essay as a genre and its conceptual environment to that of a foreigner who tries to learn and to speak the language by which he is the screwtape letters, surrounded, without ever using a dictionary or a grammar: In the way the how to an application for admission, essay appropriates concepts, we may best compare it to the behavior of the screwtape letters, somebody who, in a foreign country, is compelled to speak its language, instead of tinkering it together from the elements offered by a language course. Such a person will read without a dictionary. Once he has seen the same word thirty times in always changing contexts, he will have a fuller and more certain impression of its meaning than someone who would have looked up all those meanings.
For dictionary references are always too narrow in comparison to the versatility of write for admission, meanings depending on different contexts and stalin maintenance of power, too imprecise in relation to for admission those individual nuances that the context generates in each individual case. Such “learning,” however, always remains exposed to stalin maintenance a risk of write an application, error—and so does the essay. The Screwtape Essay! (29)  While Adorno—who may well have competed with the early Lukacs on the impenetrability of their language—does not make this premise explicit, it seems safe to write an application for admission assume that the “foreign language” to which the my best essay, essay can expose itself and for which it tries to an application for admission find tentative concepts (always with the “risk of error”) is an structure for writing an essay, image for an application, situations which, different from language, do not allow for an appropriation through concepts. Merit!  Retranslated into the words of the early Lukacs, we could say that, by exposing itself to Life—more precisely: to art and how to write for admission, literature as traces of Life—the essay tries to wrest concepts from that which resists conceptualization. Like Lukacs, Theodor W. Adorno also believes that the lived experience of an essay, Life’s intensity can only occur in how to write for admission the transitory time of a moment, of a moment of maintenance of power, epiphany in which things seem to show themselves and write an application for admission, become fully present, a moment, also, that will well compensate for any investment and even redeem eternity. To describe this intuition, Adorno uses two sentences from sentence structure an essay Nietzsche’s Will to write Power : Let us assume that we said “Yes” to sentence for writing a single moment, then we will have said “Yes” not only to ourselves but to write all existence. For nothing just stands for itself, neither in us nor in the things of the world: and frayn, if our soul has only once vibrated and resonated with happiness like a chord, then all eternities were necessary to make this event possible—and all eternities were blessed, redeemed, justified and affirmed in this single moment of us saying “Yes.” (49)  Intensity, immediacy and suddenness  are probably the three dimensions today that we relate the most closely with aesthetic experience—a concept that was less frequently used a hundred years ago than now, although it could have been perfectly pertinent for Lukacs’s reflections about art, literature, and the essay. At the beginning of my essay, reacting to Kaube’s critique of the essay in for admission the name of Wissenschaft , I had briefly mentioned the impression that a certain return from by michael more “socially” or “politically” motivated endeavors to a concentration on an application for admission (art and literature as a potential for) aesthetic experience may have characterized the past two decades in academic criticism.
This return, I think, has been motivated by a longing for questions, intensity—which I identify as that “key significance” for literature, art, and even philosophy in our time to which Kaube was alluding without naming it. The growing desire for intensity, finally, could follow from a global everyday environment in how to write an application for admission which contingency and randomness, distance and the impression that nothing can be immediately present, have indeed become universal. If the now past world of Modernity had presented itself as a field of contingency and relativity, as a field of contingency between what appears necessary and what appears possible, this existential situation, partly but not exclusively due to innovations and changes in our technological environment,  now finds itself in a process of transformation where both what used to be impossible and what used to the screwtape be necessary are becoming “just possible.”  That such an existential situation without contours creates a desire, a nostalgic desire perhaps, to write feel and to hold on to an environment of essays by michael frayn, intensity—and if it were only for a moment—may suffice to explain our renewed need for write an application, aesthetic experience. But why should we use the essay—in all of its now unfolded complexity and with all of its uncertainties—as a medium to national essay prompt bring us closer to aesthetic experience? Why should we not simply and exclusively expose ourselves—and above all, our students—to the canon of great works of art, literature, and philosophy? And why do we not seek intensity in new challenges of our existence—besides art, literature, and philosophy? Of course confrontation with such challenges and non-mediated contact with objects of aesthetic experience is still—and will always remain—possible. But to expose ourselves to the challenges of the present, including the write for admission, thought of a possible ending of humankind as a vanishing point that has all of a sudden begun to appear realistic, may simply be too much and too overwhelming for most of us. The critical essay, by contrast, offers intensity from a distance—a distance that we may describe as less “burning.” This is quite obviously one of letters, its virtues.
But as a trace of individual resonance and reaction to aesthetic experience, it also points  in two other directions: to the existence of intensity as a potential and as a fact, so to speak, inviting those who are not familiar with it; and also to idiosyncratic ways, mostly non-rational idiosyncratic ways, of reacting to it. This longing for Life must be the ground that our present shares with the write an application for admission, situation and the work of the young Georg Lukacs, especially with his fascination for the essay as a genre; the historical difference may be that, if such desire for Life was a sign of intellectual sophistication after 1900, it appears to essays by michael frayn be part of a global condition today. It is how to write, one thing that there can be no fully adequate concept for what was—and is—at stake here; but the pleasure that Lukacs seems to structure have sometimes taken in not being understood is another. Ultimately he seems to conceive of the critical essay as a form of writing that brings the dimension of unspeakable intensity to which he refers as “Life” as close to language as possible. Seen from this angle, the essay cannot help being an attempt for clarity—although Lukacs positions himself within a discursive tradition of Romanticism in which clarity can only how to write an application, be achieved by facing and by going through complexity and darkness. On Spies! In addition and finally, the language of write an application, Lukacs’s early texts is the about friend essay, language of a now remote intellectual world, a world that increasingly needs translation on several levels if we want to keep it alive and in reach, both with a historical and with an existential motivation. My interest in Georg Lukacs, especially in his earlier work, was first awakened by how to Pal Kelemen and Amalia Kerekes. Without the inspiring enthusiasm of these Hungarian friends and without a visit to the house in Budapest where Lukacs spent the later years of his life, I would not have dared to (firstly speak and of power, then) write about the how to write an application, topic of this essay, i.e. the essay as a genre in Lukacs’s thinking and practice as an merit prompt, author. Thanks also to my eminent Stanford colleague (and beloved neighbor) Denise Gigante for her invitation—and, above all, for an application, her angelical patience. See L.Cerny, “Essay,” in Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie , vol.
2, eds. Joachim Ritter et al. (Basel: Schwabe Co, 1972), 746–49, here 746. ? Heinz Schlaffer, “Essay,” in Reallexikon der deutschen Literaturwissenschaft , vol. 1, eds. Communication Essay! Klaus Weimar et al. (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1997), 523–25, here 523ff. ? A sociologist in the Weberian tradition by training, Kaube is the write for admission, editor of the weekly supplement on the Humanities and my best essay, Arts (“Geisteswissenschaften”) in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , Germany’s most intellectually influential daily newspaper. He also regularly teaches for several departments in write an application for admission the Humanities at the universities in Bielfeld and in Heidelberg. ? “Der Essay als Freizeitform von Wissenschaft,” in Merkur—deutsche Zeitschrift fuer europpaeisches Denken 776 (2014), 57–61. ? The text was originally written in Lukacs’s native Hungarian language and served as an introduction to national seven other essays by him, first published in 1910 in Budapest.
While there is how to write an application for admission, no hope of fully reconstructing the letters, philological details involved, it seems almost certain today that Lukacs had a number of friends translate these (and at least one of two additional) essays for a German publication that appeared a year later: Die Seele und die Formen: Essays (Berlin: Egon Fleischel Co, 1911). (The German title of the how to write an application for admission, introductory text is “Ueber Form und Wesen des Essays.”) See Thomas von Ahn and Hans-Harald Mueller, “Georg Lukacs’s ‘Ueber Wesen und Form des Essays’: Philologische und narrative Analyse einer Selbstthematsierung des Essays.” In Narratologie interkulturell: Studien zu interkulturellen Konstellationen in der deutschsprachigen und ungarischen Literatur 1800–1930 , eds. Tom Kindt and Katalin Teller. (Frankfurt: Peter Lang International Academic Publishers, 2005), 49–77. I will quote Lukacs from the English translation of the German book version: Soul and Form , trans. by Anna Bostock, eds. John T. Sanders and Katie Terezakis, with an introduction by Judith Butler (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010). ? After reading Lukacs’s essays in the first Hungarian manuscript version, for example, his friend Leo Popper commented with approval and enthusiasm: “That these essays are of a lyrical character will become clear to their readers by the sheer fact that they cannot understand them” (see von Ahn and essays on spies by michael, Mueller, 53). How To An Application! ? Theodor W. Adorno, “Der Essay als Form,” in for writing Noten zur Literatur , vol. 1. An Application! (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1958), 9–49, especially 14ff. Structure An Essay! ? For further references, see my article “Warum wir Klassiker brauchen. Ideengeschichten aus dem Kalten Krieg,” in Zeitschrift fuer Ideengeschichte (2010), 111-20, and “Klassiker anders, heute,” in Kanon und Bestenlisten : Was gilt in der Kultur? Was zaehlt fuer Deutschlands Nachbarn? , eds. How To! Bertholt Franke et al. An Essay! (Goettingen: Vandenhoek, 2012), 53–66. ? This is the how to an application, conclusion at which von Ahn’s and Mueller’s well-informed investigation arrives. For more details regarding the the screwtape, publishing history, see the survey in the same article (66) and my previous footnote 5. ? A compact selection of Popper’s writings (with an how to, excellent epilogue) is available in the German original under the title Schwere und Abstraktion: Versuche (Berlin: Brinkmann Bose, 1987). ? Popper was in the screwtape favor of the German translation ( Versuche )—and it is therefore appropriate that the how to write an application for admission, collection of letters, his texts from 1987 (see footnote 10) uses this word in its title. ? Von Ahn and Mueller, 64. Write An Application For Admission! ? See the structure for writing, emphasis on how to for admission the relationship with Irma Seidler as decisive for the essays of Seele und Form in Judith Butler’s introduction to the English translation of on spies, Soul and Form , 11ff. ? “Dem Andenken Irma Seidlers” ? My friend Amalia Kerekes suggests that this phrase may go back to a proposal from how to write Leo Popper that could have made the reference to Irma Seidler less oblique: “In die Haende sei dieses Buch gelegt, die mir es gaben” (“In the hands that gave it to me this book may be placed”). ? Available as a supplement to the English translation, 210–14. ? Regarding the intellectual and emotional life of the young Georg Lukacs, above all his relationship with Irma Seidler, no other book or article that I consulted can compete with the density of sentence structure, historical detail and how to an application for admission, the depth of understanding offered by communication Thomas Harrison in 1910: The Emancipation of Dissonance (Berkeley: California University Press, 1997), especially 88–90, 189–90. How To An Application For Admission! ? See G. About Friend! Pflug, “Lebensphilosophie,” in Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie , vol.
5, eds. How To An Application For Admission! Joachim Ritter et al. (Basel: Schwabe Co, 1986), 135-40. ? In doing so, he probably relied on the tradition arising from ancient philosophy and strengthened by medieval theology that applied “anima” both to stalin of power the spiritual and bodily dimensions of human life as inseparable. An Application For Admission! ? About the concept of “Life” in the early work of Lukacs, see Harrison, 99–100, 194. ? Quoted (including the remarks in square brackets) after The Lukacs Reader , ed. Arpad Kadarkay (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995), 28 (the Diary is 26–41). ? The wording of the German text may suggest that this was only an initial and therefore transitory strategy: “Ich versuche den Essay so scharf wie ueberhaupt moeglich zu isolieren eben dadurch, dass ich ihn jetzt als Kunstform bezeichne.” On the final page of his text, Lukacs indeed comes explicitly back to the early “definition” of the essay as an art form, and of power, now underlines that it both is and is not an artform: “Jetzt erst klaenge es nicht widerspruchsvoll, doppelsinnig und wie eine Verlegenheit, ihn ein Kunstwerk zu nennen und doch fortwaehrend das ihn von der Kunst Unterscheidende hervorzuheben: er steht dem Leben mit der gleichen Gebaerde gegenueber wie das Kunstwerk, doch nur die Gebaerde, die Souveraenitaet dieser Stellungnahme kann die gleiche sein, sonst gibt es zwischen ihnen keine Beruehrung” (“Only now would it not be contradictory, ambiguous and false to call it a work of art and yet insist on emphasizing the thing that differentiates it from art: it faces life with the same gesture as the how to write an application, work of communication, art, but only the gesture, the sovereignty of its attitude is the same; otherwise there is no correspondence between them”). ? Adorno in “Der Essay als Form” (12ff.) noted and criticized this inconsistency, despite his great appreciation for Lukacs’s text—but without taking into account the how to an application for admission, explanation on the final page. ? The English translation chooses “sensed experience” for “sentimentales Erlebnis” (15). ? Stahl, Titus, “Georg [Gyorgy] Lukacs,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2013 Edition), ed. Edward N. Zalta, http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2013/entries/lukacs. ? According to the edition of his Noten zur Literatur , vol. 1, 196. ? This becomes clear only towards the end of Adorno’s text where he says that the essay “wants to break open with concepts what cannot be adapted to concepts and what betrays, through the contradiction into which it gets entangled, that the pretended network of its objectivity is a purely subjective process” (48). ? Adorno quotes from: Der Wille zur Macht , vol. 2. Werke , vol. 10 (Leipzig, 1906), 206 (paragraph 1032). I translate from the 1906 edition that he used—and that has meanwhile come under heavy revision within the history of Nietzsche-philology. ? This concept is irreversibly connected to the life work of Karl Heinz Bohrer, Germany’s most sophisticated and most prolific thinker in on spies frayn the field of aesthetic experience.
Unfortunately, only a small selection from how to write an application his writing is available in English, as Suddenness: On the Moment of Aesthetic Experience (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981). An Essay! ? See Robert Pogue Harrison’s blog, “The Children of Silicon Valley,” in the New York Review of Books , July 17, 2014, http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2014/jul/17/children-silicon-valley. ? My book Our Broad Present: Time and Contemporary Culture (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014), esp. 73–79, is dedicated to a first description of this situation. ? In the final chapter of The Powers of Philology: Dynamics of Textual Scholarship (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003), 68–87, I have tried to describe similar perspectives as “deictic” functions of criticism. An Application! ? Stanford strives to post only content for which we have licensed permission or that is otherwise permitted by copyright law. If you have a concern that your copyrighted material is posted here without your permission, please contact us and we will work with you to resolve your concern. © 2017 Arcade bloggers retain copyright of their own posts, which are made available to the public under a Creative Commons license, unless stated otherwise. If any Arcade blogger elects a different license, the national essay, blogger's license takes precedence.
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In Defense of Singlish: A Cultural Interpretation of Singapore English. Last year, when I was still living in write an application for admission Singapore, I attended a public lecture that was part of a national linguistic initiative called the “Speak Good English Movement.” In the opening speech, the speaker made a contrived attempt at humor: Ladies and gentlemen, we have no guest of honor for this year’s launch of the “Speak Good English Movement.” No, we have not been stood up. We did not invite one. This is because we want grammar to stalin maintenance of power, take center stage. Today, grammar rules. Amid the strained smiles and forced laughter, I was squirming in write for admission my seat.
But it was not just the affected humor that made me feel uncomfortable. What I was hearing was in fact a poorly executed rallying call of sorts to denounce the use of Singlish, a creolized variety of English spoken widely in Singapore, in favor of Standard (British) English. Singlish has its roots as far back as the establishment of merit essay prompt British colonial rule in Singapore. Over time, British English became creolized with linguistic influences from the predominant ethno-migrant communities in Singapore’s early history. That resulted in an early pidgin form of for admission Singlish used primarily for communication with the British colonists. But now Singlish thrives in both the public streets and about my best essay, domestic spaces of write for admission independent Singapore. It is spoken along a continuum: usage varies with the respective ethnic influences of the speaker, and is veritably neither standard nor singular. This is the raison d’etre of the “Speak Good English Movement,” which is a governmental response to the perceived threat of linguistic nonconformity on a national level. The underlying paradigm is clear: if language is primarily a tool for communication, standardization and conformity should improve its comprehensibility.
Despite fifteen years of my best friend essay attempted linguistic engineering, the how to write, government is national prompt nowhere close to eradicating all vestiges of Singlish. Many Singaporeans continue to speak Singlish, and foreigners continue to associate it with the distinctive Singaporean identity. What the Singaporean government failed to recognize early on is that language is not simply a communicative tool, but an experienced reality. When the government appraises the value of write for admission Singlish with an instrumentalist pragmatism, it risks the possibility of misconstruing what language genuinely is—a kind of cultural capital and lived experience. About. Singlish is the product of an application for admission Singaporeans’ collective consciousness, formed by reinventing themselves in the aftermath of their colonial experience. In the English-speaking world, the communication questions, discourse on language has drawn in lexicographers, linguists, and writers from various backgrounds. The late David Foster Wallace, who was a professional writer and English professor, dichotomizes the debate into an application for admission, two broad camps in his essay “Tense Present.” According to Wallace, the Prescriptivists, in the same spirit as the policymakers behind the “Speak Good English Movement,” are fervent proponents of prompt precise grammatical usage, while the Descriptivists are those who characterize “[language] as self-exploratory and expressive rather than communicative” (Wallace 45). Given its heterogeneous roots and variable usage, Singlish more faithfully embodies the an application, Descriptivist philosophy. Wallace, who presents himself as a Prescriptivist , observes that language was invented primarily as an instrument of communication. He compares linguistic rules to social norms: “The whole point of norms is to help us evaluate our actions (including utterances) according to what we as a community have decided our real interests and purposes are” (48).
Adhering to my best, these standardized rules ensures that a speaker’s meaning is how to for admission conveyed both accurately and economically when he communicates with his intended audience, or what Wallace terms the “Discourse Community” (50). When people are “judged” based on how faithfully they adhere to prompt, the rules of a given language, the result involves the “actual acceptance or rejection of somebody’s bid to be regarded as a peer, a member of somebody else’s collective or community or Group” (50). This philosophy is central to the Singapore Government’s earliest position on Singlish. Shortly after gaining independence from the British in 1959 and later from Malaysia in 1965, Singapore’s political leaders were compelled by circumstances to promote Singapore as a viable and attractive business hub for Western companies and capitalists. Consequently, Standard English was instituted as the lingua franca of public administration and commerce. Politicians feared that a lack of proficiency in Standard English among locals could potentially threaten the economic viability of the nascent city-state (Teo). Certainly, Wallace’s perspective on language offers a pragmatic rationale for adhering to how to for admission, the rigid rules of Standard English usage. But those were the unforgiving economic realities of the 1970s and 80s; the “Speak Good English Movement” was, ironically, conceived in structure for writing an essay the early 2000s.
This was long after Singapore had achieved a considerable degree of how to write for admission prosperity and unquestionably had demonstrated its sustainability as an about my best friend autonomous nation-state. Therefore, the government’s utilitarian justification for standardized language seems scarcely germane. Indeed, the mainspring in the emergence of the usage war against Singlish must lie elsewhere. Novelist and essayist Zadie Smith repudiates the idea that language is primarily a tool for communication and challenges the principle of language as an autonomous, self-governing semantic system. In her essay “Speaking in Tongues,” Smith discusses how language is a reflection of our experiences with different “worlds, ideas, cultures, [and] voices” (3). The individual constantly thinks, feels, and perceives; wanting to write for admission, express those thoughts, feelings, and perceptions is part of the human condition. Ordinarily, the purpose of linguistic expression is to convey this interiority to other people, but this is not always the case. There are moments when the individual needs language to frame his inner thoughts. The Screwtape Letters Essay. For instance, it is write not entirely outrageous to think of a person reasoning to himself—in his own language—within the privacy of his own heart. All of this is done in sentence structure for writing the absence of an application a “Discourse Community.” The common denominator in these dissimilar uses of language is not communication with others but individuality. Sentence Structure An Essay. If language is to be anything, it is not a tool but a living experience, or what Smith calls a “voice.”
A voice is, by definition, idiosyncratic and thus reflective of the speaker’s identity. Voices are also powerfully evocative of how to an application for admission specific worlds and cultures because identity is often socialized. Smith illustrates this argument through her own experience of different worlds and voices: “Willesden was a big, colorful, working-class sea; Cambridge was a smaller, posher pond, and almost univocal; the literary world is a puddle” (2). In the same vein, Singlish evokes the the screwtape essay, cosmopolitan society that is Singapore, with its culturally diverse history and heritage. More crucially, Smith resists the idea that “voices are meant to write, be unchanging and stalin maintenance, singular” (2). This reluctance reveals an important distinction between how Wallace and Smith perceive the semantic processes behind language. Russian philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin developed this distinction as the foundation for his cultural theory on language in his work The Dialogic Imagination . He distinguishes language as either dialectical or dialogic. Wallace views language as a dialectical process, which involves the interaction and resolution of competing paradigms. That was the entire point about “norms”: society agrees on one putative set of how to an application language conventions that establishes primacy over all others.
Conversely, Smith sees language as a dialogic process, which emphasizes relativism and change. Language does not exist in a vacuum; it can neither escape from its history of of power usage nor insulate itself from external influences. In turn, language is how to for admission emblematic of a living conversation, containing a multiplicity of voices. The dialogic contrasts with the dialectical because in the dialogic, there is no one “best” voice or language. Indeed, the semantic and cultural interpretation of Singlish would seem to confirm its status as a dialogic language. In its early stages, Singlish underwent a process of calquing words that had no English equivalent from languages such as Malay, Tamil, and Chinese. The Screwtape Essay. Moreover, grammatical conventions in an application for admission Singlish are a far cry from their British parentage. The Screwtape Letters Essay. The language adopted many of its conventions from dialectal varieties of Chinese, including Hokkien, Cantonese, Hakka, and Teochew (Platt 364). Literacy in Singlish therefore demands a quasi-fluency in all the languages that have contributed to an application for admission, what Smith might call its “collective human messiness” (6). As she writes of George Bernard Shaw’s play Pygmalion , Singlish is essay questions like “an orchestra of many voices, simultaneously and perfectly rendered, with no shade of color or tone sacrificed” (4). Hence, in Smith’s view, Wallace’s understanding of language is incomplete at best and how to for admission, discriminatory at worst.
Although Wallace is the screwtape letters essay supportive of dialectal diversity in the English language, he sees dialects as realities that are parallel to, but ultimately separate from, Standard White English (SWE). Furthermore, Wallace believes that the desire to be “taken seriously” (Wallace 54) justifies the acceptance of and conformity to how to write an application, SWE. In “Tense Present,” he relates his failed attempt to convince an African-American student to adopt SWE over Standard Black English. Even Wallace confesses that the reasons for this were “baldly elitist” (53) and might even seem racist (54). Smith offers a radically different solution to the problem of interpersonal connection raised by Wallace.
She proposes a “voice [that] relinquishes ownership of itself [and] develops a creative sense of dissociation in of power which the claims that are particular to it seem no stronger than anyone else’s” (Smith 13). In the case of Singlish, it allows its speakers to express meanings and ways of thinking traditionally associated with at least four different cultures (including the Anglo-Saxon one), and thus fully captures Singapore’s experiential realities, with its essence of interculturalism (Wierzbicka 330). Interculturalism is not the same thing as multiculturalism. In a multicultural society, multiple cultures can coexist without significant amalgamation (330), as evidenced by the myriad of dialects and native tongues spoken in the United States. In Singapore, however, different cultural traditions interpenetrate one another. Singlish reflects this, and thus conveys distinctively Singaporean ways of how to thinking and relating to people. Sentence Structure. In the context of a young independent nation, Singaporeans have created a new voice that is, to borrow Zadie Smith’s words, a “synthesis of disparate things” (1) in how to write an application for admission order to quell what she calls our “anxiety about voice” (7). The symbiotic relationship between ways of thinking and language is also important in understanding the for writing an essay, hidden dangers of the Singaporean government’s war against an application for admission Singlish.
In his essay “Politics and essays by michael frayn, the English Language,” George Orwell argues, “If thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought” (Orwell 137). He is railing against what he terms “ready-made” language, which is an application for admission reinforced by standardized forms of language (137). The phrase “ready-made” describes the essays frayn, “bad habits” (128) of writing that, according to Orwell, “spread by imitation” (128) and produce passages plagued by “staleness of imagery” (129). This is reminiscent of the kind of language promulgated by the “Speak Good English Movement”: it promotes the use of an application Standard English that is extensively modeled on Standard British English. Against the backdrop of stalin of power a culturally diverse Singapore, grammatically correct Standard English, which is utterly devoid of culturally relevant imagery, would therefore be considered insincere. Also, many of the older generations of write Singaporeans simply did not receive a formal education in speaking Standard English, as English-medium schools in the past tended to be exclusively reserved for wealthier segments of Singapore society. This exclusion was a direct consequence of our colonial legacy. Thus, a speaker also risks sounding aloof if he speaks only Standard English to a Singlish speaker. Orwell’s argument about the the screwtape letters, insincerity of how to language is applicable to underlying issues of frayn linguistic elitism that operate within the ranks of the Singapore government. Many of Singapore’s political leaders, past and how to, present, received their education at English-speaking universities in the United Kingdom, such as Oxford and sentence structure an essay, Cambridge.
Consequently, what one finds in modern-day Singapore is a ruling technocracy that privileges speakers of how to an application Standard English, particularly in the political sphere. With this in mind, the government’s linguistic initiative seems all the the screwtape letters essay, more insidious. By cultivating a generation of Singaporeans who speak only Standard English, the government can come close to how to write for admission, producing a citizenry that speaks in its own voice and replicates its own thoughts. Orwell explicitly warns against the dangers of an essay becoming victim to dictated language: A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance towards turning himself into a machine. . . Write An Application. . And this reduced state of communication questions consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to how to write for admission, political conformity. (136) Noticeably, Orwell’s theories explain the practical implications of language policies beyond Wallace’s dichotomy between Prescriptivism and Descriptivism. The campaign against Singlish is not merely a stereotypical conflict between conservatism and progressivism in language usage. It is part of a broader political struggle between the technocratic elite and the individual citizen. Orwell appropriates the fundamental tenets underpinning Prescriptivism to advocate for an attitude towards political thought that is for writing Descriptivist in nature. By eliminating the manifestations of conformist language, “one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step towards political regeneration” (128). The ideological subjugation of an entire citizenry, one that earned its independence from colonialism only in how to write an application for admission recent history, is too steep a price to be paid for national essay the expediency of standardized language.
In order to how to write, avoid a regressive homogenization of political thought, all Singaporeans must exercise autonomy in their language choices—whether they use Standard English or Singlish. Singapore, as a fledgling nation, needs that kind of dynamism and diversity. I certainly think of my homeland, Singapore, when Zadie Smith describes “Dream City” as “a place of many voices, where the unified singular self is an my best friend essay illusion” (6). My fellow countrymen are people born, as she says, “between cultures, between voices, [who cannot] help but be aware of the how to, extreme contingency of culture” (15). Today, Singlish is questions more than a simple linguistic choice: it is an affirmation of our newly earned independence and identity. An Application. Even though the Singaporean government continues to wage its war against misplaced modifiers and truant articles, it is unlikely that it will succeed in eradicating Singlish. The failure of the “Speak Good English Movement” is thus a compelling reminder of the communication, indomitable spirit of language as it lives on in the an application for admission, hearts and minds of people.  See Platt’s “The Singapore English Speech Continuum and Its Basilect ‘Singlish’ as a ‘Creoloid’ ” for a more detailed historical survey of Singlish.  In “Tense Present,” Wallace refutes several of the principles that underpin Descriptivism. He is more sympathetic towards the Prescriptivist camp but concedes that its position is based on an erroneous sense of elitism.  Although Singlish was derived from Standard British English, it has been so syntactically altered and phonologically transposed that its current form is virtually incomprehensible to an Anglophone’s untrained ear.
Bakhtin, Mikhail M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Trans. Caryl Emerson. Communication Questions. Austin: University of Texas, 1981. How To An Application For Admission. Print. Orwell, George. “Politics and The English Language.” The Collected Essays, Journalism and merit essay prompt, Letters of George Orwell.
1st ed. Vol. 4. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1968. 127-40. Print. Platt, John T. “The Singapore English Speech Continuum and how to write, Its Basilect ‘Singlish’ as a ‘Creoloid.’ ” Anthropological Linguistics 17.7 (1975): 363-74. Print.
Smith, Zadie. “Speaking in Tongues.” The New York Review of Books 26 Feb. 2009: 1-16. PDF file. Teo, Xuan Wei. “The Language of stalin maintenance of power Survival.” TODAYonline. 23 Mar. How To An Application. 2015. Web. Merit. 11 Feb. 2016. Wallace, David Foster. How To An Application For Admission. “Tense Present: Democracy, English, and the Wars Over Usage.” Harper’s Magazine Apr. 2001: 39-58.
Print. Wierzbicka, Anna. “Singapore English: A Semantic and Cultural Perspective.” Multilingua—Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication 22.4 (2006): 327-66. Web. 15 Mar. 2015.
Zheng, Goh Eck. The Screwtape. “Speech by Mr Goh Eck Kheng, Chairman of the Speak Good English Movement.” Launch of the Speak Good English Movement 2014. An Application. Arts House, Singapore. 28 May 2014. Speech. Web. 15 Mar. 2015.
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