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biography sources There are several ways to search for biographical information. If you are looking for a famous person, you can find book length biographies with a subject browse in MNCAT, the library catalog. Thesis? Browse Any Subject for franklin, benjamin Using General Encyclopedias. You can also check the health, index volume of one or more encyclopedias. Good general encyclopedias contain biographical material about well known people.
Examples are: Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Concise as well as scholarly articles on a wide range of thesis adviser letter subjects. Also includes links to related Internet resources, and the Britannica Book of the Year. Search tip: When combining words in search, capitalize AND. Essay? For example: revolution AND 1848 Encyclopaedia Britannica. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference AE5.E333. A comprehensive index to more than 12 million biographical sketches in more than 3,400 volumes and editions of current and retrospective reference books, covering over thesis letter, 4 million contemporary and tv influence on children historical figures throughout the world. Please note: BGMI allows only one U of M - TC user at a time. If you are denied access, please wait 15 minutes and try again. #149; Location(s): Also owned in print : Wilson Library General Collection Quarto CT 214 .B51x.
New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1947- Quarterly, with annual (formerly three-year cumulations). The best-known and most often used biographical index, it covers over 3,000 periodicals and numerous books. Letter? Search by smoking cigarette damages your, name or occupation. #149; Location(s): Wilson Library General Collection CT214 .B56x. Thesis Adviser? Biography Reference Bank combines the your health, complete content of Wilson Biographies Plus Illustrated with the thesis adviser letter, complete and enhanced content of Biography Index Plus. This is the online relative of Biography Index. For more scope information, go to H.W.Wilson's description of tv influence on children essays this database. [Resource no longer available] up! 1940- Essay-length biographies with emphasis on international personalities who influence the American scene. A quick and efficient one-stop source. Use the online version Biography Reference Bank for illustrations, including World Authors, Artists, Film Directors, Nobel Prize Winners. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference CT100.C8. List in alphabetical order names of persons who had an obituary appear in the New York Times between 1858 and 1978.
Some are of essay length. New York Times Obituaries Index, 1858-1968. #149; Location(s): Wilson Library General Collection CT213 .N47 1970. Thesis? #149; Location(s): Wilson Library General Collection CT213 .N532x 1980. #149; Location(s): Wilson Library General Collection CT104 .F34x 1976. 1970- Published each month in loose-leaf format, this service includes obituaries, people in the news, and feature stories from the drama, books, sports, and Sunday Magazine sections of the New York Times . Profiles may be brief or many pages long. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference CT120.N45. A bio-bibliographical guide to current writers in on children, fiction, general nonfiction, poetry, journalism, drama, motion pictures, television, and other fields. Thesis? Provides complete biographical and gcse titles bibliographical references for more than 100,000 authors in the U.S. and around the world. This database was cancelled with the subscription end date of November 9, 2016. This entry will be removed in 6-months. [Resource no longer available] up!
Who's Who -style sources include brief entries containing address, education, employment, history, achievements, etc. Some examples: Who's Who in America. Thesis Letter? #149; Location(s): Quarto E176 .W642. WILSON Reference and tv influence MAGRATH Reference Who's Who. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference DA28.W6. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference CT104.B56. Thesis? #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference CT120.I5. Updates the smoking damages essay, Dictionary of American Biography with 7,000 new entries and 10,000 revised entries. Has occupational index. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference CT213.A68 1999. 1928- Scholarly signed articles with bibliographies. More than 13,600 bibliographies in the basic set.
Does not include living persons. Includes noteworthy person of all periods who lived in the territory now known as the United States. #149; Location(s): WILSON Reference E176 .D563. The most important work for English biography; contains signed articles by specialists and thesis adviser excellent biographies. Important names from the British Isles and its colonies are treated at great length. Essay Titles? Does not include living persons. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference DA28 .D525 1996.
More comprehensive than the Dictionary of letter American Biography. Essay Titles? No bibliographies and not alphabetically arranged so must use the general indexes. This reference work provides 50,000 specially-written signed biographies of the men and women who shaped all aspects of the adviser letter, British past, from the earliest times to the end of the year 2000. Licensed for 1 user at smoking cigarette damages health essay, a time. up! Contains 30,000 names. Very brief sketches of deceased, important, celebrated, and notorious people of the last 5,000 years. #149; Location(s): WILSON Reference CT103 .M47 1995 Chambers Biographical Dictionary. Contains 17,500 names. Brief sketches, but some critical observations compared to Webster's. Thesis Letter? British emphasis. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference CT103.C4 2002. Biographical sketches of more than 1,350 women in three volumes. A scholarly work with bibliographies.
Serves as a valuable supplement to on children, the Dictionary of American Biography . Articles vary in length based on the person's importance and available material. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference CT3260.N57. Provides authoritative, in-depth biographical articles on thesis adviser deceased scientists from classical antiquity to modern times. Each article includes bibliographies of works by and about the scientist who is the subject of the smoking health essay, article. For biographical information on living scientists, check American Men and Women of Science or other sources. Provides information on thesis the history of science through articles on the professional lives of scientists. All periods of cigarette damages health science from classical antiquity to modern times are represented. Thesis Adviser? up! #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference N40.S78 1997. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference Quarto N6490.C6567 2002 Non-circulating. Excellent in-depth encyclopedia; highly recommended.
Index in volume 34. Smoking Cigarette Your Health? Also available online . #149; Location(s): Reference N31 .D5 1996 Non-circulating. The most comprehensive online reference resource for all aspects of the thesis adviser, visual arts worldwide from prehistory to the present day. Music Grove Dictionary of thesis Music and Musicians. Available in print and online versions. #149; Location(s): ML100 .N48. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference GV1785.A1 C58 1982 Who Was Who on Screen. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference PN1998.A2 T73 1983. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference Folio PN 1583 .V35. Adviser? Biographical reference providing information on individuals active in your health essay, the theatre, film, and television industries.
Covers not only performers, directors, writers, and thesis adviser letter producers, but also behind-the-scenes specialists such as designers, managers, choreographers, technicians, composers, executives, dancers, and critics from the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and the world. #149; Location(s): Online Access and TC Wilson Library Reference Quarto PN2285 .C58 Literature and thesis of tourism Authors American Authors 1600-1900. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference PS21.K8. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference PN451.W674. A uniquely valuable resource that provides biographical and extensive bibliographical background information on thesis important literary figures. Use the cigarette your, index in the latest volume. #149; Location(s): Wilson Reference Quarto PS21 .D55x Education Directory of American Scholars : A Biographical Directory. Thesis Adviser? 8th ed. 4 vols.
Vol. On Children Essays? 3 is Foreign Languages, Linguistics and Philology. #149; Location(s): WILSON Reference LA2311 .C32 2002 6 vol. ; WILSON Stacks Quarto LA2311 .C32 ; MAGRATH Stacks LA2311 .C32 ; WALTER Reference. Provides biographical sketches of major American educators, including background on the person's education, employment, professional activities, and comments on their contributions to education. #149; Location(s): WILSON Reference LA2311 .B54 Vol. 1-3.
Covers largely classroom teachers who have been nominated by their peers. #149; Location(s): Latest edition in WILSON Ref Quarto LA2311 .W46x Psychology Directory of the American Psychological Association. #149; Location(s): Latest edition in WILSON Reference BF11 .A67; Latest edition in BIO-MED Reference BF11 A51d. Also see earlier edition, Wilson Reference BF109.A1 Z85 1984. #149; Location(s): WILSON Reference BF109 .A1 B56 1997. Ancestry.com's interactive site. The database contains information provided by the Social Security Administration through the letter, end of September 2001 and thesis of tourism students contains 66,668,463 names. Thesis Adviser? Full access to the records requires a paid subscription to Ancestry.com. Dead People Server. This website is a directory of online death indexes listed by state and county. Included are death records, death certificate indexes, death notices registers, obituaries, probate indexes, and cemetery burial records. Also included is information about searching the Social Security Death Index online. Obituaries 101.
Online index of photo with resume Minnesota death certificates up! This is thesis adviser letter not a complete list of gcse essay subjects for which biographical material can be found. For books in other fields, do a subject browse in MnCAT under the occupation followed by BIOGRAPHY. Thesis? Example: Any Subject Heading begins: medicine--biography. Or, use Research QuickStart.
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rich claytor resume A Brief History. by William P. Meyers. President Andrew Jackson, party founder. formatted for thesis adviser the Web in HTML. Copyright 2004 by William Peter Meyers. Non-commercial use permission: This pamphlet or sections of it may be copied freely, in paper or electronic form, by individuals for personal use and by not-for-profit organizations wishing to make the history of the Democratic Party better known, provided the author is attributed and informed of the photo, use.
All for-profit and derivative rights are reserved by the author. For commercial reproduction rights contact: Gualala, Ca 95445. Thanks to Jan Edwards, Nat Stern, Alis Valencia, and Jane Ann Morris for feedback and thesis letter proofreading. Any remaining errors of fact, opinion, grammar, or spelling are the fault of the author.
This being a popular rather than a scholarly work, only unusual or controversial facts are documented in does a college essay look, footnotes (in the Web version, they are endnotes - they appear at the end of the entire document but can be accessed through links). Most facts in this pamphlet appear in letter, standard American history texts and biographies; if they seem unusual it is because you have forgotten them or never studied American History. Opinions, are of course, the author's. Basic facts were checked against: Bailey, Thomas A, The American Pageant: A History of the Republic , Third Edition (Boston: D.C. Heath and what does a college look Company, 1966)
Morison, Samuel Eliot, The Oxford History of the American People (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965) The Democratic Party has been the most important party in United States history. It dominated American politics at the national level between 1828 and 1860 and then again between 1932 and 2000. Yet few Americans can state the basic facts about its history, or how it fits into the pattern of American history. This pamphlet is designed to give its readers a solid overview of the Democratic Party's history. It is not intended to glorify the party, but rather to allow the facts themselves to put the party in a modern ethical perspective. The author hopes it will serve as an effective tool both for those who wish to argue with Democrats and those Democrats who wish to see their party improved upon. Genocide, Hickory and Slavery: The Origins of the adviser letter, Party.
After the U.S. Constitution came into effect the voters and elected officials, then consisting by law of property-owning white men in with, most states, divided largely into two parties. The Federalist Party favored a strong national government ruled by a wealthy elite (themselves). The Democratic-Republican Party favored dispersing power more broadly among white male property owners. Thesis Letter? By 1820 the cigarette your health, Federalists had run out of steam and the Democratic-Republican Party had moved towards the letter, center, so that the U.S. essentially had only one political party. Photo Resume? In 1824 all four major candidates for the Presidency were Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic Party, as a party distinct from the Democratic-Republican Party, began with the beliefs and letter ambitions of one man: Andrew Jackson. Essay In India? Nicknamed Old Hickory, he became the President of the United States from 1829 to 1837. However, had not Jackson's ideas and adviser letter ambitions appealed to many Americans in the 1820's and 30's, the Democratic Party would never have formed around him.
Andrew Jackson was born in North Carolina in 1767. He became a successful lawyer after working in as a clerk in a law office (he did not attend law school), and was a noted for his horse racing and gambling. Moving to Tennessee, he became wealthy from land speculation, worked slaves on his land, and continuing to practice law. Smoking Cigarette Damages Essay? He was elected as the state's first Representative to Congress in 1796. His real break came in 1812 when the adviser letter, United States declared war on the British, hoping to seize Canada, Florida, and gcse essay more sovereign American Indian land. Thesis? Jackson first commanded the Tennessee militia, then was made Major-General of American forces in the South. In the on children essays, War of adviser letter, 1812 many American Indian tribes sided with the does a college essay look, British, being tired of Americans, individually and as represented by both state and adviser letter national government, stealing their land. Some tribes tried to remain neutral; others fought on essay on wind energy the American side. Finding himself desperately short of fighters, Jackson enlisted Cherokee fighters, promising them protection against more land theft. Thesis? With them his army defeated the Creeks who were fighting on the British side at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. He then marched to New Orleans.
The war was already over, America having been defeated in titles, its attempts to grab Canada and Florida. The peace treaty had been signed in letter, Ghent two weeks before Jackson's famous victory at the Battle of New Orleans, January 8, 1815. General Jackson emerged as the what does like, leading war hero. In 1819 the U.S. government purchased Florida from Spain, thus strengthening the cause of the Slave states. Jackson had led U.S. Thesis Adviser? troops into Florida in 1818 in the First Seminole War. He became the first American governor of Florida in 1821. The Spanish system of freeing slaves who had escaped from U.S. Smoking Damages Your? plantations came to an end.(1) Jackson believed he would make a good President and ran for the office for the first time in 1824. The Democratic Party did not exist; it coalesced around the hope of obtaining office by associating with Jackson, and on three major points of agreement. Thesis Adviser? The first was the continued taking of American Indian land, with or without whatever degree of genocide was necessary to carry it off. This plank was popular with both land-speculators and less affluent European-American settlers because it made purchasing land cheap.
The second plank was the titles, continuation and extension of slavery, which made life easy and thesis profitable for Jackson and his followers. The third plank was what would now be called an expansionary monetary policy. This allowed white settlers to borrow money to buy stolen Indian land to work with slaves to raise tobacco, cotton, and other profitable crops for market. Andrew Jackson obtained both the largest number of of tourism students, popular votes in the 1824 election (153,544) and the largest number of electoral votes, but third and fourth placers (William Crawford and Henry Clay) threw their electoral college votes to the second place candidate, John Quincy Adams, who went on to become a quite unpopular president. In 1828 the two ran head-to-head. Jackson won easily. This split, between the Jackson camp of the Democratic-Republicans and the Adams camp, gave birth to the two new parties. Jackson and his followers became the Democratic Party and Adam's side became the Whig Party.
In simplistic versions of American history Jackson's victory is letter, usually presented as a triumph for what does a college essay democracy over elitism. If you overlook the very real issues of slavery and genocide, there is some truth to adviser this view. Jackson carried every state west of Washington, D.C., and ended a long line of Presidents chosen exclusively from Virginia and essay titles Massachusetts. Jackson was genuinely popular among white farmers, including those in the north who did not own slaves. Several states had by then adopted universal manhood suffrage which meant that adult European males could all vote, and Jackson did best in thesis letter, those states. Of Tourism? The Democrats favored extending the vote to all white males in all states, which was an expansion of democracy. Jackson promptly fired most federal civil servants and appointed his loyalists to their salaries, thus creating a machine that would reward partisans for their electoral efforts until the civil service was reformed and de-politicized in 1883. Jackson's main achievement in thesis adviser, office was the taking by smoking your essay, force of remaining Native America Indian lands east of the letter, Mississippi River. This included the lands of the Cherokee, who had played a large role in his victories at Horseshoe Bend and New Orleans. Jackson left the Presidency in smoking damages, March of 1837, to be replaced by Martin Van Buren, who defeated four Whig candidates. Thesis Letter? Not only had Old Hickory created the Democratic Party, but his opponents had, by 1836, coalesced into the Whig Party.
This new party had no uniting principles except thirst for office. Smoking Damages Your? Largely because of an economic depression starting in 1837, the Whigs obtained the presidential office for the first time in 1840, with their own general, William H. (Tippecanoe) Harrison. In an electoral system every elite needs non-elite votes if it is to control the government. The Democratic Party elite were mostly plantation owners who gained their needed votes mostly from thesis letter, family farmers, especially slave-state farmers. The Whig Party was controlled by the eastern elite, a combination of aristocratic southern plantation owners and smoking damages northern merchants. It sought votes from thesis adviser, urban workers, and both slave state and free-state farmers, but was never very successful at it.
From inception to finish the Whigs elected only two Presidents, William H. Harrison (1840) and Zachary Taylor (1848), though the party was quite successful in a number of states and on children localities. Though most of the Native American Indian tribes had been forcibly moved west of the letter, Mississippi River by the Jackson administration, European-Americans were greedy and powerful enough that their thefts would not stop until they reached the Pacific. Gcse? But a new problem had arisen as early as the letter, Missouri Compromise of smoking damages your health essay, 1820. Would new states carved out of the West be slave or free? The Abolitionists were never able to persuade a majority of thesis letter, people, even in essay on wind energy, the free (northern) states, to thesis attempt to with resume end slavery in the South prior to the Civil War. But their efforts led to a majority of northerners deciding that slavery was an evil that should be confined to where it already existed. The Whigs were for slavery in the South and against it in the North. The Democratic Party on thesis adviser letter the whole was pro-slavery, but in titles, the north it had its share of anti-slavery members. The slave owners threat of adviser, secession from the does look, U.S. made the abolition of slavery impractical.
By 1850 the idea that slavery would neither be abolished nor extended was a well-accepted feature of American political life. Both the thesis, Whigs and Democrats at the national level agreed to this position and campaigned on other issues like the smoking cigarette essay, Tariff (taxes on thesis letter imports). But Kansas had been expropriated from your health essay, Indian tribes and thesis letter was about to become a state. Stephen Douglas, a prominent northern Democrat, wanted to be President. The political problem he faced was the resume, fact that he was a northerner, and thesis adviser southern Democrats were in the position to essay energy pick the presidential nominee.
To ingratiate himself with the slave holders, Douglas proposed that each new state carved out of former American Indian territories would be allowed to vote on whether it would be free or slave. This in effect would throw out the Missouri Compromise.(2) Douglas calculated this tactic would gain him political points in adviser, the south, but lose him no support in the north because the remaining territories were not suitable for slavery. In a complicated series of events Douglas's re-opening of the slavery controversy caused the with resume, U.S. to spiral into a civil war. Northern Whigs opposed the change; northern Democrats were split on it. Thesis Letter? Two new parties emerged. The American Party was structured like a secret society; its main aim was to stop immigration from Ireland and other Catholic countries.
It took no position on slavery, favoring it in the south and opposing its extension in gcse, the north. Its adherents were mainly Whigs trying to rebuild their party under another name. Because of its rules of secrecy, its members would not comment publicly on its program, so it became known as the thesis, Know-Nothing Party. The newly formed Republican Party was explicitly opposed to tv influence on children the extension of slavery. It included Abolitionists, but on the whole the party favored allowing slavery where it already existed as preferable to the secession of the slave states.(3) At the thesis letter, same time the question of whether Kansas would be a free or a slave state had to photo resume be settled.
Both anti-slavery and thesis letter pro-slavery men rushed into the territory, hoping to be in the majority when statehood came. On Wind Energy? Both sides set up legislatures claiming be the legitimate government of Kansas, and a local civil war started.(4) The American Party reached a high-tide in 1855, with 117 members in Congress as opposed to 75 Democrats, 40 Republicans, and a few Whigs and independents.(5) But it fell apart almost immediately, its anti-slavery members merging with the Republicans and its pro-slavery members merging into the Democrats. In 1856, a pivotal year, the Democrat slavery advocate James Buchanan won the presidency with 1,838,169 votes over the Republican John Fremont with 1,342,264 votes. Thesis Adviser? The American Party and students Whig remnants nominated Millard Fillmore, who received 874,534 votes. The Supreme Court was dominated by Democrats, and in 1857 it issued the Dred Scott decision, which stated that a slave entering a state in which slavery was banned remained a slave. This was no change in the law, but it implied that states had no right to declare slavery illegal in their boundaries; slavery would be governed by federal law, and hence all states had become slave states.
In addition Democrats wanted to annex Cuba so that its slaves could be sold in the U.S., a move characterized by a Republican congressman as seeking niggers for thesis letter the niggerless.(6) By the time the election of 1860 rolled around there was only one major issue in the presidential election: slavery and its extension into new states. The Democrats split: Douglas was no longer pro-slavery enough for the southern Democrats, who nominated John Breckinridge. Smoking Damages Health? Combined Douglas and Breckinridge received considerably more votes than Abraham Lincoln, but the Electoral College system handed Lincoln a resounding victory. Jefferson Davis, passionate advocate of slavery and states-rights, was a leader of the Democrats in the U.S.
Senate; he had also been Secretary of War under President Pierce. Adviser Letter? When Mississippi withdrew from the U.S. in 1861 he left the Senate and was chosen President of the Confederacy by the Confederate Congress two weeks later. The Democratic Party was the party of the Confederacy. Gcse Titles? Yet it did not entirely disappear in the north: in the election of 1864 its candidate General McClellan received 45% of the popular vote (Confederate states did not vote). This may have been a more of adviser, a reflection of how unpopular the tv influence on children essays, Civil War was; George Brinton McClellan was the peace (with a continuation of slavery) candidate, and at the time a Northern victory looked unlikely. The triumph of the north in the Civil War changed many things, but it did not change the Democratic Party. With former Confederacy soldiers not allowed to hold office (as per the 14th Amendment), or even prohibited from voting (Reconstruction Acts of 1867) and newly enfranchised former slaves allowed to vote (15th Amendment), the South was briefly Republican. In fact former slaves had rights only in areas where they were protected by federal soldiers. In the north a few corrupt Democratic urban machines, dependent on the spoils of office, and pro-slavery northern Copperheads, survived; victory pushed many former northern Democrats into the Republican Party. The re-emergence of the Democratic Party in the South was engineered by thesis letter, the Ku Klux Klan and allied individuals.
By preventing former slaves (not surprisingly, they were all Republicans) from voting, and photo with the restoration of the right of thesis adviser letter, former Confederate soldiers to vote and hold office, by 1872 the Democratic Party was restored to power in the South.(7) The poor record of Ulysses S. Resume? Grant and other Republican politicians strengthened the Democrats in the North. In the disputed Presidential election of 1876, though the Republicans won, they agreed to cease protecting ex-slaves and to thesis letter withdraw the last federal troops enforcing Reconstruction laws in Louisiana and South Carolina. By 1884 the Democrats were able to regain the Presidency, led by New York governor Grover Cleveland, who ran as a reformer. The Business of Appearing Popular. The new leaders of the Democratic Party in the South were businessmen: plantation owners (whose slaves had been converted into sharecroppers), merchants, bankers and manufacturers. Keeping the smoking damages health essay, South solidly Democratic was relatively easy: one had only to remind the thesis letter, white voters, of whatever economic status, of the association of blacks with the evil Yankee Republicans. In that respect the Democratic party continued the tradition of Jacksonian democracy.
It talked about representing the people or average voters while making sure that all legislation carefully looked out for the interests of the upper class. In the north the smoking damages your, Democrats found ways to thesis adviser survive even though belonging to the Democratic Party was treated, for electioneering purposes, as the equivalent of treason by the Republican establishment. The Republican Party managed to alienate immigrant and Catholic voters who tended to be concentrated in gcse, cities. The Republicans as a radical reformist party quickly disappeared. The party became subject to adviser letter Big Business, thus alienating the less prosperous voters in the north. In addition the Democrats had perfected the urban political machine long before the cigarette your health essay, Civil War. By helping immigrants and others to obtain jobs and services, the Democrats insured a loyal vote.
This combination of islands of urban support in the north and the Solid South meant that the Democrats could sometimes win the presidency or control of Congress. This is most apparent in the presidential election of 1884, won by the Democrat Grover Cleveland. He carried the Solid South, the border states and even Indiana, New York, Connecticut and New Jersey. A pattern would emerge that remained true until the thesis letter, 1970's: overall control of the Democratic Party was held by southern Democrats, who also controlled Congress (if the Democrats controlled it). But to win the Presidency, usually a northern (or Western) Democrat had to run. Harry Truman and Lyndon Johnson, both southern Vice-Presidents of northern Presidents, were exceptions. It should be clear that the Democratic Party of the era between the Civil War and the Depression did not consistently stand for essays anything except the oppression of African-Americans.
But more important, it is critical to understand the role of big business, especially of its increasingly common form, the corporation, in politics. Adviser? Both parties represented Big Business. Thesis Of Tourism Students? Yet each party, in order to enjoy the power and spoils of office, needed the votes of farmers and laborers who were being hurt by the rise of big business. The two-party system was not one where every election was contested. In the South only Democrats could be elected to office. Thesis Letter? In much of the North only Republicans could be elected. Even in states that might swing back and forth from election to election, such as New York State, local areas were mostly solidly Democrat (New York City) or solidly Republican (upstate).
This brings us to the election of 1896, in with, which the Democratic Party nominated William Jennings Bryan, and seemed, briefly to stand for something. But in order to understand Bryan's role we need to backtrack and understand the rise of the adviser, Populist Movement. It had started in September 1877 in Lampasas County, Texas, as the Farmers Alliance. The problem the farmers confronted was the crop lien system, which amounted to slavery for most farmers in energy, the South, Euro and African-American alike. Under this system, whether a farmer owned his own land, rented, or share-cropped, he lost money every year. The merchants sold goods on credit to farmers, then set prices paid on crops to less than would cover expenses plus interest.
Family farmers who started solvent had to mortgage their land to keep farming. The Farmers Alliance sought to break the stranglehold of the furnishing merchants at two ends. They hoped to sell their crops in thesis, bulk at better prices, and to buy their goods cooperatively so as to thesis of tourism pay lower prices. Given the near-universal plight of the farmers, their Alliance spread first through Texas and then through other states. But their economic system had limited success. Banks refused to adviser letter grant them credit so that they could set up their cooperative buying and selling efforts. Merchants combined to crush their efforts.
When the Farmers Alliance organized black farmers they were accused of endangering the purity of the White race. In order to gain some leverage over the (Democratic) banks and merchants, they eventually formed the gcse titles, Populist Party. It won many local elections, and thesis letter threatened to sweep the South until the Democrats resorted to two classic tactics. The first tactic was simply cheating: stuffing ballot boxes, miscounting, or using force to turn voters away from polling places. On Children? It had worked to disenfranchise African-Americans, and it worked to prevent Populist victories. The second tactic was running Democrats who pretended to letter support Populist goals. These Democrats delivered only wind.(8) In 1892, running against Republican President Harrison and Democratic former President Cleveland, the Populist candidate General Weaver won in 6 states and received over a million votes.
Cleveland won, but the business establishment shuddered at the possibility of losing control of the government. By 1896 the of tourism students, Democrats were so disgusted with Cleveland that they nominated William Jennings Bryan, an extremely-watered down version of a Populist candidate. Still, had he won the election, it might have created a political sea-change as important as the New Deal. But the Republicans raised $16 million for their candidate, McKinley, to about $1 million of campaign money for the Democrats. Bryan carried the South and the West (except California and Oregon), but failed to carry the border state of Kentucky or a swing state like New York or New Jersey. The Democratic Party's experiment with economic justice, or Populism, was over with Bryan's second defeat, with similar margins, in 1900. In 1904 the Democratic Presidential nominee, Alton Parker was more conservative and pro-business than the Republican, Theodore Roosevelt. Until 1932 the voters would again have to choose between two parties trying their best to represent the interests of the business class. Woodrow Wilson would be relegated to adviser a footnote within Democratic Party history had his term of office (1913 - 1920) not coincided with the First World War.
No major changes in the Democratic Party took place during his presidency. On Wind In India? Wilson was elected in 1912 because the thesis adviser letter, Republicans were divided, the progressive Republicans backing Teddy Roosevelt, who used the pre-existing Progressive Party as his vehicle (popularly called the Bull Moose Party that year). Essay Energy In India? The conservative Republicans nominating William H. Taft. As usual for a Democrat, Wilson swept the south, where African-Americans were prohibited from thesis adviser letter, voting, and won enough other states to become President, despite receiving only 41% of the thesis of tourism students, popular vote. World War I (France, Russia, England, Italy and later the U.S. against Germany, Austria, and Turkey) was started as a war of aggression by France and czarist Russia. France wanted to annex Alsace-Lorraine and Russia hoped to gain the straits between the Black Sea and thesis the Mediterranean. It should be pointed out that Democracy was not a real issue in the war. All of the major powers in the war except Turkey had mixed forms of government that were mainly elected. If Germany had its Kaiser, England had its King. Germany, Austria, and Turkey were acting in self-defense; Russia was the first to mobilize its army, making negotiated peace impossible; France was first to declare war.(9) France and Russia started the war, but Germany was well prepared, and pushed the French armies back from Alsace-Lorraine.
England, the world's greatest empire and oppressor of non-white people, entered the war as had been planned, on the side of France, using Germany's military success to claim that she was joining a defensive league. The U.S. government maintained a neutral stance in the war at photo with resume first, but U.S. banks and businesses did not. British naval superiority made it easy to trade with Britain, France, and Russia, but hard to trade with Germany and Austria. In particular the Morgan bank and its allies loaned immense sums of thesis adviser, money to Britain, which was used by the British to buy war materials (U.S. exports to photo with resume Great Britain jumped from $594 million in thesis adviser, 1914 to $1.526 billion in 1916). In 1916 Woodrow Wilson, who in the meantime had invaded Mexico, ran for the presidency on the slogan He Kept Us Out of War. Wilson beat Republican Charles Evans Hughes only because Negroes were still not allowed to vote in the South.
Wilson asked, and Congress granted, a declaration of war in April 1917. Essay Energy? America looked more like a dictatorship than Germany, with African-Americans in bondage, anyone who spoke out against the war thrown in jail, and newspapers that wrote against the war suppressed. But with America's aid the war turned against thesis adviser, Germany. 49,000 dead American soldiers and tv influence on children essays $41 billion in taxpayer dollars made the world safe for the repayment of the loans to the Morgan banks. Thesis Adviser Letter? Congress later found that J.P. Morgan Company had lent the allies $6 billion, and acted as Great Britain's agents in the U.S. to purchase about $3 billion in materials.(10) Wilson died in office. In the Presidential election of 1920 Republican Warren G. Harding destroyed Democrat James M. Thesis Of Tourism Students? Cox. Thesis Letter? During the 1920's the Democratic Party appeared to with resume be sinking towards oblivion. Economic cycles marked American history with almost the same regularity as Presidential elections. The down cycle that lasted from 1929 until 1940, known as the Great Depression, was not without precedent.
However, the prior establishment of the thesis letter, Federal Reserve, the advances of modern technology, and the increased knowledge of economics were all supposed to have made it possible to minimize the your, cycle of recessions and booms. Adviser Letter? During the 1920's, as during the 1990's, many economists proclaimed that the economic cycle was over and a period of permanent growth had been inaugurated. The effects of the Depression on America's politics were profound. The Democratic Party was transformed (temporarily) from a corrupt political machine delivering power into the hands of with, businessmen into a more populist, at times even semi-socialist, if still white-supremacist, party. The change involved a sharp struggle within the party itself as New Deal men entered primaries against thesis, the traditional Democrat politicians. In 1928, with the stock market soaring, the a college essay look, economy booming, jazz playing, liquor illegal yet plentiful, and the Republican administration plagued by scandal, the reform-minded Herbert Hoover destroyed Democrat Al Smith in the Presidential contest. Even the Solid South fragmented, with only 6 states going for Smith (it is important to recall that the Democratic Party denied non-white citizens the right to adviser vote in the South). The Democratic Party looked like it was on its last legs.
The stock market crashed on October 29th, 1929. In fact this merely reflected what happens when the Federal Reserve allows speculation to go unchecked. Too much credit had been created; stock prices got out of proportion to photo resume profits; when smart men sold their over-priced stocks, prices slid and did not stop sliding until 1932. Thesis Adviser? No longer feeling rich, people stopped spending so much; falling consumption led to falling employment, and on into a downward spiral affecting everyone. Hoover was caught in the bear trap. He was the world's most famous humanitarian. Like most businessmen of both parties he expected the downturn to be followed by an upturn, as in the normal business cycles. In the Congressional elections of 1930 the energy in india, Democrats started recovering from the 1928 elections, but the coming shift in Democratic Party politics was only beginning to appear. The Democrats won control of the House, but many of those elected were still in a pre-New Deal mode. They strengthened their presence in the Senate, but the Republicans still had a majority there. Thesis Letter? Hoover introduced many bills to help alleviate the tv influence on children essays, Depression, but both conservative, business-is-boss Republicans and letter Democrats opposed his measures.
Congress did pass, and Hoover signed into law, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which would become a pillar of the New Deal. Hoover signed the Norris-La Guardia Act, which effectively legalized labor union organizing in a college look like, the United States for the first time (it had been opposed by anti-labor Democrats and Republicans alike). Nothing the government did between 1929 and 1932, however, stemmed the demonstration of how dysfunctional free markets can be in a modern, technological, corporate-dominated society. By the time Franklin D. Roosevelt was nominated by the Democrats, the public blamed the Republicans for the troubles, but were not ready to thesis adviser embrace the Socialist or Communist parties. Photo Resume? The coalition of southern racists and thesis northern city machine politicians known as the national Democratic Party was resurrected and placed in gcse essay titles, the presidency and both houses of Congress. But it was undergoing major changes, led by men who had been influenced by Socialist and Populist ideas. The New Deal program of Roosevelt brought America closer to thesis the advanced European countries in essay, socializing the consequences of an industrial economy. Social Security type programs had long been in place in Germany, France, and England.
National, universal health care was introduced in Germany in 1883 and Theodore Roosevelt made national health insurance a plank of the Progressive (Bull Moose) party in thesis adviser, 1912. New Deal Democrats did not pass such a plan, so the U.S. remains the only industrialized nation without a universal health care system. Social Security was passed by a bipartisan vote in both houses of Congress. In fact the Republican Party's progressive wing grew during the New Deal. But a number of cigarette health essay, other New Deal programs were rejected by a majority of Republicans in congress, for thesis adviser letter instance the Wages and Hours bill of 1938 and the Tennessee Valley Act of 1933.(11) Labor unions, finally legalized under Hoover, were encouraged under the New Deal. The Wagner Act of 1935 created the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) which allowed working people to organize as they had long sought. The C.I.O., created in 1935, enrolled millions of workers in photo with, new unions within a single year. There was a key difference between the adviser letter, old Farmers Alliance/Populist program and the New Deal.
The New Deal worked on the top-down paradigm: experts were to distribute benefits to the needy. The programs were funded by taxation. The Populists had sought instead to change the a college essay look like, economic system so that families and communities would own their farms and factories and receive fair prices for their products. The New Deal system left large corporations in control but alleviated the harm they did by giving economic support to their victims. While the Democratic Party as a whole did change in many ways during the New Deal, much remained the thesis, unchanged. It continued its strong support for tv influence essays racism. It continued its long-standing commitment to American nationalism and international aggression. The Democratic Party committed itself to a national welfare state and systems of thesis adviser, bureaucratic regulatory control on businesses. The party become dependent on unionized and other working class voters.
It also developed a core of true-believers in the New Deal, including some politicians who would continue careers in the House of Representative and U.S. Senate for decades. Also important to the party's dominance, much of corporate America mostly found that Big Government, by spending big money on corporate products and what does a college like subsidies, was not such a bad idea. World War II and the End of the thesis, New Deal. World War II cemented the Democratic Party's hold on American politics. People like to with win a war. More influential was the booming of the economy, including a return to full employment. Republicans claimed the letter, economy was just going through its normal business cycle, but few Americans bought that argument. On Wind Energy? Corporations made war profits; many Republican businessmen joined the thesis adviser letter, Democratic Party's gravy train. As soon as the war started to what essay look revive the economy the reforming impulse of the New Deal was over.
Congress and President Roosevelt left programs like Social Security in place, but concentrated on war. Thesis Adviser? The conduct and outcome of the war was to transform America. The U.S.A. emerged as the greatest economic and military power in the world. Well before Pearl Harbor acted as the resume, immediate cause of the U.S. entering the war Roosevelt had ordered the letter, production of 50,000 military aircraft a year and a major expansion of the U.S. military. Energy In India? Once the war began there was full employment in the military or in adviser letter, war industries. War against Nazi Germany and photo with Japan by the United States was ripe with irony. Japan in the 1800's had only asked to thesis be left alone.
Forced at gunpoint to trade with America, it responded by setting up a modern industrial economy, a democratic government modeled after western governments,(12) and a modern military. It continued to follow the model of America and damages essay European powers by exerting economic influence and sometimes military influence on neighboring states. To Americans while it was morally uplifting for the United States to grab the thesis letter, Philippines, Hawaii, or sections of China, it was a heinous crime when Japan made similar grabs, especially of territory already grabbed by the U.S. Some Republicans at the time (before Pearl Harbor when it became unpatriotic to be critical) liked to gcse titles point out the similarities between Roosevelt and the Democratic Party and Hitler and the Nazi Party. Both the Democratic Party and the Nazi Party were racist. Both greatly enlarged the powers of government over the economy and brought about thesis adviser letter full employment (except the tv influence on children, Nazis were considerably better at thesis letter it than the Democrats). Both re-armed their nations for the purpose of going to war. Both Roosevelt and Hitler used the radio as a primary means of communicating with their constituents. Tv Influence On Children Essays? Both died in office. In conducting the adviser letter, war the Democratic Party showed its usual lack of on wind, shame. Thesis? Despite the Geneva Convention making the targeting of civilians a war crime, targeting German and with Japanese civilians became a central war policy of the United States.
The fire bombings of Dresden, Tokyo, and adviser numerous other cities is well-documented. In addition the Democratic Party must be credited with the creation of atomic weapons and their only known use. Republicans of that era would not have been willing to spend so much taxpayer money on what does like such a massive government program. No other country was making progress developing atomic weapons. Democratic President Harry Truman used atomic weapons on the non-military targets of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during a period of letter, time when the Japanese were trying to negotiate a peace treaty.(13)
The Democratic Party As a World Power. The defeat of gcse essay, Germany and Japan still left the USA with a rival, however: communism, centered in the USSR. Since the Bolshevik coup in 1918, despite being invaded by Nazi Germany during the war, the Soviet economy had expanded, on average, faster than that of the U.S. Almost every nation in thesis, the world had a communist party, including the U.S. Thesis Of Tourism Students? With the exception of the Americas, much of the world lay in ruins from the adviser letter, war. The Democratic Party of the 1950s was large and complex. At the national level it depended on the racist Solid South for votes, with African Americans unable to smoking your vote or to work in any but menial jobs. It retained New Deal social programs and adviser letter the loyalty of most middle class and working class Americans. The labor unions that had grown during the New Deal were a major source of campaign funds, enabling Democrats to win elections in traditionally Republican states. The party was vehemently anti-communist and locked into the military-industrial complex.
It was the party of the essay energy in india, status quo. Republican war hero General Ike Eisenhower may have presided as President, but the country was Democratic. From 1960 until 1968 the thesis, Democrats controlled Congress and the Presidency. Lyndon Johnson involved the U.S. in on children essays, a hot war against communism in Vietnam. At the same time, after long years of agitation, ranging from thesis adviser letter, demonstrations to civil disobedience to armed rebellion, civil rights, including the right to vote, were extended to African-Americans in the southern, formerly slave, states. Until the 1960s southern African-Americans had been aligned with the Republican Party (the 1952 Mississippi delegation to the Republican National Convention, for instance, was all black(14)). Almost all newly registered black voters joined the Democratic Party during the titles, 1960s. Adviser? While there was roughly as much support for civil rights among Republicans as among Democrats (given that the Democratic Party was still dominated in the South by racists like George Wallace), it was President Lyndon Johnson who finally got a meaningful civil rights act enacted and essay enforced. More important, the Republican Party was so weak, especially in the South, that it had little to offer in the way of power and patronage. Finally, the thesis, Republican Party's policies were favorable to essay look those who were already wealthy or middle class; poor folk of any race seemed unwelcome.
Lyndon Johnson also led the last administration that fought for the extension of the New Deal. His War on Poverty included a number of landmark measures designed to break the letter, cycles of poverty in on children essays, the United States. Unfortunately the cost of these programs, combined with the costs of the Vietnam War, proved to be a severe burden on the U.S. economy, contributing to the stagnation and inflation (stagflation) of the 1970s. The critical strategic move was made by Richard Nixon, former vice-president under Eisenhower and successful Republican candidate for President in 1968. Nixon, though not wishing to exclude or disenfranchise African Americans, saw an opportunity for quickly growing the Republican Party. If it had not been for the legacy of slavery, the Civil War, and Jim Crow, the political parties might have long before divided the country on class lines or clearer liberal versus conservative lines. Adviser Letter? Nixon reasoned that middle class to upper class Southern white people no longer had to stay in the Democratic Party to essay titles retain a racist society. In fact, not only were their economic interests aligned with the Republicans, but they might not want to thesis letter sit in the same room with a bunch of black politicians or voters. Called simply the Southern Strategy, Nixon's approach created a viable Republican Party in the South for the first time since Reconstruction.
Over the photo with resume, course of the adviser, next 30 years this would lead to the creation of a Republican majority in the U.S. as a whole, which would in turn profoundly affect the Democratic Party. The Transition to Corporate Domination and Loss of Power. Corporate (that is cigarette damages essay, rich people's) dominance of the Democratic Party goes back to the time of thesis, Andrew Jackson, but in the post-New Deal era corporate interests had been balanced by the Party's need to gain votes from people whose Depression experiences had made them very cynical about the essay energy, corporate agenda. Thesis Adviser Letter? In the 1970's the Democratic Party would abandon these New Deal pretenses. Tv Influence? (Many individual Democrats, included elected ones, did not agree with this shift, but they did not control the party at the national level.) The Democratic Party in 1968 had two obvious strategic options. It could continue to be the adviser, servant of the Southern business elites and tv influence on children expand to thesis letter serve the business elites nationwide, or it could take the legacy of the essay, New Deal and Lyndon Johnson's Great Society and become the representative of working class and middle class Americans. For years it tried to continue to do both. Sometimes political parties act as unified wholes, but usually they contain factions with conflicting interests. The struggle for control of the party was obvious in the 1968 presidential nomination process, which resulted in thesis letter, Hubert Humphrey heading the national ticket. Hubert had been Vice-President under Johnson.
He did not deviate from the classic post-World War II formula: anti-communist, for big labor unions (as long as they caused big businesses little trouble), willing to maintain New Deal social programs, but unwilling to expand them, tied closely to the military and the corporations that supplied it. A revolt was brewing in the party by its left wing, reinforced by newly enrolled African-American voters in the south. The left wing wanted to move the country more towards a social model, withdraw from Vietnam, and does a college essay look like negotiate peacefully with the communist nations. But the left had no strong candidate inside the party to run against Humphrey, nor was it able to elect many of its members to lower office. Richard Nixon, former Republican Vice-President, defeated Humphrey and became the new President. In 1972 the anti-war, anti-elite faction seemed to gain ascendance as George McGovern won the nomination for President. But George Wallace, also a Democrat, continued to lead the segregationist, racist faction of the party. Meanwhile, the establishment, whose candidate Edmund Muskie had been defeated in primary elections by McGovern, ensured their later victory within the party by failing to rally behind McGovern. Richard Nixon crushed McGovern in the election despite his continuing the highly unpopular war in Vietnam.
The establishment won the contest for the direction of the party in the late 1970s. The party would try to maintain its representing-the-people image left over from the New Deal, but it would be funded increasingly by corporate contributors. Instead of maintaining a political machine that had actual people organizing voters, it would use its fundraising power to move to television dominated campaigns. Letter? The Democrats were used to holding power and extracting donations in the 1970's; it did not occur to them how this strategy might cripple their ambitions in later decades if the donations shifted to the Republicans. The problem with this strategy became apparent during the Reagan and Bush administrations (1981 to 1993).
The more right-wing, ideological faction of the damages health essay, business community was determined to push the country to the right. Thesis Letter? This would include dismantling the few remaining New Deal programs, drastically cutting welfare, and deregulating industries. The political center of gravity in the nation moved to the right, without any real fight or plan by the Democrats, and essay the Democratic Party moved to thesis the right in the electoral arena. This rightward move is best illustrated by three changes in national policy ushered in by the smoking damages, Democratic Clinton-Gore administration (1983 to 2000). On issues of War and Peace, while Republican strategists were driving the thesis letter, political direction of the country, it was Democratic politicians who did the dirty work. Clinton was the main culprit. He consciously sought opportunities to end the gcse, Vietnam Syndrome so that U.S. troops could be sent to fight for U.S. (corporate) interests. The ideal opportunity came in Yugoslavia. Americans knew little about thesis adviser Yugoslavia, which was a socialist nation that had maintained political independence from Russia. American business and intelligence operatives had stirred-up ethnic hatreds that had been dormant since World War II, resulting in a breakup of Yugoslavia into your, ethnic regions. Thesis Adviser Letter? To complete the process President Clinton found pretexts to bomb and then invade Yugoslavia.
This unprovoked act of war, which included war crimes like the purposeful bombing of civilian infrastructure, proved that the what a college essay, peace wing of the Democratic Party was dead, as long as it was a Democratic President waging war. As to adviser letter the war against Iraq and support for Israeli occupation of Palestine that Clinton inherited, he simply continued those policies. The second great change of the smoking cigarette essay, Clinton administration is often referred to as world trade, but it was much more than that. Adviser? It is true that historically the Democrats had favored low tariffs or free trade because they represented slave owners who wanted cheap manufactured imports and no impeding of their sales of damages essay, cotton to manufacturers in thesis adviser, Great Britain. But agreements like NAFTA (North American Free Trade Association) and the creation of the WTO (World Trade Organization) went far beyond the question of exactly how much would a foreign manufacturer have to pay in customs taxes to get a product into the United States. NAFTA and the WTO were explicitly designed by international corporations to put them, not the voters of a country, in charge of national legal systems. NAFTA and WTO create legal structures that can overrule city, county, and state laws, even laws passed by Congress and smoking damages your essay signed into law by thesis letter, the President.
This was done to destroy labor, environmental, health and safety regulations. The WTO has been slowly and gently placing this harness on the United States and other nations. There can be no doubt that the world and U.S. are being subjected to a new form of undemocratic governance. The third great change of the Clinton administration was the what a college look, dismantling of Lyndon Johnson's Great Society programs. In Orwellian fashion this was called welfare reform. The Democratic Party Today. The Democratic Party as an adviser letter institution is nothing if not flexible and primarily interested in its own survival. From the local candidate backed by development money telling the voters she's an environmentalist to essay in india the top of the party hierarchy, the goal is to win office and use it to thesis adviser letter promote the economic (or occasionally non-economic) interests of those that paid for it to be won. Essay Titles? Being out of letter, power at gcse essay titles the national level for 4 years (as is the thesis, case in does look like, 2004) has its advantages and disadvantages. Everything that goes wrong can be blamed on the party in adviser, power.
People whose gravy train has suffered have to smoking damages your decide whether to switch parties or dig deep into their shallowing pockets to get their friends back into power. Various strategies emerge in an attempt to regain power; these emerged most visibly in the race for the Democratic nomination for the Presidency. Should the party stand for New-Dealish type populism, or should it pose itself as merely culturally different from the Republicans and President Bush? Should Democrats be for peace, or would being more hawkish garner the adviser letter, most votes? For a while it looked like an anti-war or New Deal style candidate, either Howard Dean or John Edwards, might win enough Democratic primaries to become the nominee. But the corporate-owned media (almost all of the media in the U.S.) and the party bureaucracy pushed John Kerry, the Senator from Massachusetts, as the safe, corporate-friendly, defense-industry friendly, Man Who Could Beat Bush. Which would be a victory for smoking damages the Democratic Party gravy train, but not for the people of the United States. 1 . Landers, Jane, Black Society in Spanish Florida (Urbana: University of thesis letter, Illinois Press, 1999), pp.
235, 246-248. 2. Smith, Theodore Clarke, Parties and Slavery 1850-1859 , Vol. 18 of The American Nation, A History (New York: Harper Brothers, 1906), pp. Essay? 95-97. 3. Adviser Letter? Ibid., pp. 94-120.
4. Ibid., pp. Does Look Like? 149-160, 209-222. 7. Bailey, Thomas A, The American Pageant , 3rd. Ed., pp. 477-478.
8. Goodwyn, Lawrence, The Populist Moment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978), read the thesis adviser, whole book. 9. Hammerton, J.A., Ed., Universal World History (New York: Wise Co., 1939), pp. On Children Essays? 2731-2735. 10. Thesis Adviser Letter? Myers, Gustavus, History of the Great American Fortunes (New York: The Modern Library, 1936), p. 642. 11. A College Like? Rossiter, Clinton, Parties and Politics in America (Ithica: Cornell University Press, 1966), pp. 124-125. 12.
Storry, Richard, A History of thesis adviser letter, Modern Japan (Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1972), pp. 112-120.
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Essay USA: Thesis Adviser Request …
The 95 Theses of Martin Luther (1517) Dennis Bratcher, ed. Martin Luther was a German priest whose disillusionment with the abuses of the 16th century Roman Catholic Church sparked the Reformation. He was born in 1483. At the encouragement of his father, he was determined to become a lawyer. Thesis Adviser? However, in tv influence essays, 1507 after nearly being struck by thesis lightening, he decided to become a monk. He entered a monastery in 1505 and was ordained a priest in 1507.
Luther was assigned to teach at the University of Wittenberg in 1508, where he would spend his entire career. Always an avid student, he earned his doctorate in on wind, theology four years later. In 1510 he visited Rome and was appalled by the behavior of church officials and letter, the sale of indulgences. In Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission of the physical and temporal punishment for thesis sins that is endured in Purgatory after death, even though the legal guilt has been pardoned by absolution. Adviser Letter? In Luther’s era, indulgences were being sold by essay titles the Church to raise money for refurbishing the Basilica of St. Peter in Rome. Adviser? The slogan attributed to the Dominican friar Johann Tetzel epitomized the sale of indulgences: As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from thesis of tourism purgatory springs. Thesis Adviser Letter? (see Thesis 27).
In light of his discouragement with the Church, as Luther studied and lectured on of tourism students, Psalms, Hebrews, and adviser, Romans he came to photo with resume, new insights about repentance, salvation, and the role of faith. Thesis Letter? Especially from his study of Romans, he began to understand that salvation is a gift of God by tv influence on children essays grace through Christ received by thesis adviser letter faith alone ( sola fide ). On Children? He also came to believe that there should be a clear distinction between law, obedience and salvation by thesis obedience to the will of God by law, and gospel, forgiveness of sins and salvation based on photo with resume, the sacrificial death of letter, Jesus. In 1517 Luther, informed by his growing belief that salvation is by faith alone, presented his concerns to Church officials in the form of ninety-five theses, a series of statements that presented a logical argument against the sale of what does look, indulgences. An account arose later that he nailed the theses to the door of the castle church at Wittenberg as an act of defiance. However, as fiery and acerbic as Luther could sometimes be, most historians agree that the thesis adviser account is legendary. Historical research suggests that he sent a letter along with the 95 theses, which included an what does essay like invitation to discuss the thesis adviser issues openly, to Archbishop Albert of Mainz. Luther wrote the ninety-five thesis with deference to the leadership of the pope. However, he had challenged the authority of the pope to offer the sale of indulgences. Students? In a charged political climate, it was seen by some as an thesis adviser attack on the papacy and therefore on the Church.
Luther was summoned to Rome to photo resume, answer charges of heresy. Luther did not respond to thesis, the summons, which led to on wind energy, an escalating controversy between Luther and adviser, those who defended the photo resume absolute authority of the papacy. Luther continued writing about salvation by thesis adviser letter faith alone as well as other reforms that he saw needed to occur in the church. Gcse Essay? As a result, the rift between Luther and those who wanted to defend the authority of the papacy, as well as to protect the lucrative source of income from the sale of indulgences, fueled a growing controversy. Finally in 1520, the pope issued an ultimatum that Luther must recant some of his writings or face condemnation as a heretic. Thesis Letter? Luther responded with typical bluntness that the a college essay look die is thesis adviser, cast, that he sought no reconciliation with Rome, and called the decisions of the pope a swamp of heresies. In 1521 he was called before an Imperial Diet (an official assembly) at Worms, a city in southwest Germany, to defend his views and photo with, recant. Luther refused and thesis, as a result was excommunicated as a heretic and the Edict of Worms issued by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at essay the urging of Church officials banned his writings and in effect called for his execution. To escape arrest Luther took refuge in adviser letter, Wartburg castle under the protection of Frederick of Saxony, Luther's sovereign. There he translated the New Testament Bible into German and began working on translating the rest of the Bible, as well as writing numerous articles explaining his theology. Because of ongoing political and religious turmoil in Germany, the Edict of Worms was never enforced.
Over the cigarette damages essay next few years Luther gained in popularity and since the emperor was preoccupied with other concerns, Luther eventually returned to Wittenberg. Letter? He was instrumental in reforming church worship as well as laying the groundwork for the Reformation, which essentially rejected the damages your authority of the Pope and canon law, which is the adviser letter accumulated body of what a college look like, laws, rules, regulations, and traditional dogmas that governed the thesis letter practices of the Church. Martin Luther continued working for Church reform until his death on February 18, 1546, at age 63. -Dennis Bratcher. The English translation is adapted from smoking cigarette damages health essay Works of Martin Luther , ed. and trans. by Adolph Spaeth, et al. , A. J. Holman Company, 1915, Vol. 1, pp. 29-38. Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the power and efficacy of Indulgences. Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and duly appointed Lecturer on adviser, these subjects at that place.
He requests that those who are unable to of tourism students, be present and letter, debate orally with us, may do so by letter. In the Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Repent, willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance. 2. This word cannot be understood to tv influence on children essays, mean the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, which is administered by the priests. 3. Yet it does not mean inward repentance only; for there is no inward repentance that does not produce outwardly various mortifications of the flesh. 4. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of thesis adviser letter, self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and what does essay look like, continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven. 5. The pope has neither the will nor the adviser letter power to remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by essay look like his own authority or by that of canon law.
6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. 7. God remits guilt to adviser letter, no one whom He does not, at photo resume the same time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to His representative, the thesis letter priest. 8. The penitential canons apply only to a college, the living, and, according to thesis letter, them, none applies to the dead. 9. Therefore the Holy Spirit acting in gcse, the person of the pope manifests grace to us, because in thesis adviser letter, his [the pope’s] decrees he always excludes the dead and cases of hardship. 10. Ignorant and wicked are the actions of those priests who impose canonical penances on the dead in purgatory.
11. Tv Influence On Children Essays? This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the bishops slept. 12. In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. 13. Adviser Letter? The dying are freed by death from tv influence all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and adviser, have a right to smoking cigarette your, be released from them. 14. The imperfect piety and love of the thesis adviser letter dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and the smaller the a college essay love, the greater is the fear. 15.
This fear and horror is sufficient in itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to constitute the penalty of adviser, purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair. 16. There seems to be the same difference between hell, purgatory, and heaven as there are between despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety. 17. Thesis Of Tourism Students? The horror of souls in purgatory should grow less and love ought to increase. 18. It seems unproven, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of merit, that is to say, of increasing love. 19. Again, it seems unproven that they, or at adviser letter least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own salvation, though we may be quite certain of it. 20.
Therefore by full remission of all penalties the pope means not actually of all, but only of those imposed by himself. 21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty and saved are in error; 22. Smoking Cigarette Damages Health? Indeed he cannot pass on to souls in letter, purgatory any penalty which canon law declares should be paid in this life. 23.
If it is at all possible to grant to anyone the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission could be granted only to on children essays, the most perfect, that is, to very few. 24. Therefore it must be the case that the greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and adviser, highsounding promise of release from penalty. 25. The power which the pope has, in general, over purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in particular, within his own diocese or parish.
26. The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by essay on wind energy the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of intercession. 27. There is no divine authority for preaching that so soon as the thesis letter penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory]. 28.
It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the tv influence essays result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone. 29. Who knows whether all the letter souls in purgatory wish to photo with, be bought out of it, as in thesis adviser, the legend of Sts. Severinus and Paschal.* [*This legend tells of titles, two saints who were willing to thesis adviser, remain in torment in purgatory to suffer for others.] 30. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission.
31. The man who sincerely buys indulgences is as rare as the man that is truly penitent; that is, such men are most rare. 32. They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of pardon. 33. Men must be on their guard against in india those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by adviser which man is reconciled to Him;
34. For these graces of tv influence on children essays, pardon concern only the penalties of thesis, sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man. 35. It is not according to Christian doctrine to preach and teach that contrition is essay energy in india, not necessary for those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional licenses. 36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon. 37.
Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by adviser God, even without letters of essay on wind, pardon. 38. Nevertheless, the remission and letter, participation [in the blessings of the Church] which are granted by on children essays the pope are in no way to be despised, for as I have said, they are the declaration of divine remission. 39. It is most difficult, even for the very best theologians, to commend to the people the abundance of pardons while at the same time encouraging true contrition. 40. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but generous pardons only relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them].
41. Papal pardons should be preached with caution, lest people falsely think they are preferable to other good works of love. 42. Letter? Christians should be taught that the smoking cigarette health pope does not intend the purchase of thesis letter, pardons to be compared in any way to works of smoking damages your essay, mercy. 43. Christians should be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons;
44. Because love grows by works of love, and a man becomes a better man; but by pardons he does not grow better, only thesis escapes penalty. 45. Christians should be taught that he who sees a person in does essay look, need, and passes him by, and then purchases pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God. 46. Christians should be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep what is necessary for their own families, and letter, should by no means squander it on pardons. 47. A College Look Like? Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is thesis letter, a voluntary matter, and not a legal requirement.
48. Christians should be taught that in granting pardons the pope needs and gcse essay titles, desires their devout prayer for letter him more than the money they bring. 49. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful only if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if they lose their fear of God because of photo with, them. 50. Christians should be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the thesis adviser pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church be reduced to ashes than be built up with the skin, flesh and essay, bones of adviser letter, his sheep. 51.
Christians should be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to damages your health, give of his own money, even though the church of letter, St. Peter might have to be sold, to many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money. 52. The assurance of does essay, salvation by letters of letter, pardon is useless, even though the commissary, or indeed even though the pope himself, were to cigarette damages health essay, stake his soul upon it. 53.
They are enemies of thesis adviser, Christ and of the pope, who forbid the Word of God to be preached at all in a college look, some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others. 54. Injury is done the word of God when, in thesis adviser, the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is spent on essay like, pardons than on this word. 55. Adviser Letter? It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and tv influence on children essays, ceremonies, then the adviser Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56. The treasures of the Church, out of which the pope grants indulgences, are not sufficiently spoken of with, or known among the people of Christ.
57. That they are not temporal treasures is certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not grant such treasures freely, but only collect them. 58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even without the thesis pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man. 59. St. Lawrence said that the a college essay treasures of the Church were the Church's poor, but he used the term in accordance with the custom of adviser letter, his own time. 60.
Without rashness we say that the gcse titles keys of the Church are that treasure, given by Christ's merit; 61. For it is clear that the letter power of the what look pope is letter, of itself sufficient for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases, 62. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the cigarette damages health glory and thesis letter, the grace of God. 63.
But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to titles, be last. 64. On the other hand, the treasure of thesis adviser, indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for what does essay it makes the last to thesis adviser letter, be first. 65. Therefore the essay treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly desired to fish for men of letter, wealth. 66. Essay In India? Now, the treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they fish for the wealth of adviser letter, men. 67.
The indulgences which the preachers cry as the greatest graces are in fact truly such only when they promote financial gain. 68. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and photo with resume, the piety of the Cross. 69. Bishops and curates are bound to receive the commissaries of papal pardons, with all reverence. 70. But they are under greater obligation to watch closely and listen carefully lest these men preach their own imaginings instead of the commission of the pope. 71. He who speaks against the validity of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed! 72.
But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed! 73. Adviser? The pope justly thunders against those who, by any means, contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons. 74. Smoking Cigarette Your Health? But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of holy love and truth. 75.
It is folly to think that the papal pardons are so powerful that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and violated the Mother of God. 76. We say, on letter, the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is of tourism students, concerned. 77. It is thesis, said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St.
Peter and against the pope. 78. We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; specifically, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written in 1 Corinthians 12. 79. To say that the cross emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the cigarette your health essay preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy. 80.
The bishops, curates and theologians who permit such assertions to be spread among the people will be held accountable for it. 81. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it difficult even for learned men to defend the respect due the pope from false accusations, or even from the astute criticisms of the laity; 82. For example: -- Why does not the adviser letter pope empty purgatory, for the sake of thesis, holy love and of the thesis dire need of the souls that are there, if he can redeem an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the tv influence on children essays latter is thesis, most trivial. 83. Again: -- Why do funeral and anniversary masses for the dead continue to be said? Why does the pope not return or permit the repayment of the on children endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for those now redeemed?
84. Again: -- What is this new piety of God and the pope, that for money they allow an impious man who is their enemy to thesis letter, buy out of purgatory the devout soul of photo with resume, a friend of God, when they do not allow that pious and beloved soul to be redeemed without payment for thesis adviser letter pure love's sake or because of its need of redemption? 85. Again: -- Why are the penitential canon laws long, which in actual fact and practice are long obsolete and gcse titles, dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in effect? 86.
Again: -- Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealthiest of the wealthy, build just this one church of letter, St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of with resume, poor believers? 87. Again: -- What is it that the thesis adviser letter pope dispenses to people, and what participation does he grant, to those who have a right to full remission and participation because of their perfect repentance? 88. Again: -- What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to smoking damages health, do a hundred times a day what he now does only letter once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations? 89. Since the pope seeks the salvation of souls rather than money by his pardons, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted before now, since these have equal efficacy? 90.
To repress these arguments and scruples of the tv influence on children laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy. 91. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; indeed, they would cease to exist. 92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of thesis letter, Christ, Peace, peace, where there is no peace! 93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, the cross, the cross, where there is no cross! 94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in essay on wind, following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; 95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of peace.
Note: The Latin version is thesis, here numbered to correspond to the English translation. Disputatio pro does a college like Declaratione Virtutis Indulgentiarum. Amore et studio elucidande veritatis hec subscripta disputabuntur Wittenberge, Presidente R. Thesis Letter? P. Martino Lutther, Artium et S. Essay? Theologie Magistro eiusdemque ibidem lectore Ordinario. Quare petit, ut qui non possunt verbis presentes nobiscum disceptare agant id literis absentes. In nomine domini nostri Hiesu Christi. Amen. 1. Dominus et magister noster Iesus Christus dicendo `Penitentiam agite c.' omnem vitam fidelium penitentiam esse voluit.
2. Thesis Adviser Letter? Quod verbum de penitentia sacramentali (id est confessionis et satisfactionis, que sacerdotum ministerio celebratur) non potest intelligi. 3. Non tamen solam intendit interiorem, immo interior nulla est, nisi foris operetur varias carnis mortificationes. 4. Manet itaque pena, donec manet odium sui (id est penitentia vera intus), scilicet usque ad introitum regni celorum. 5. Papa non vult nec potest ullas penas remittere preter eas, quas arbitrio vel suo vel canonum imposuit. 6. Papa non potest remittere ullam culpam nisi declarando, et approbando remissam a deo Aut certe remittendo casus reservatos sibi, quibus contemptis culpa prorsus remaneret.
7. Gcse Essay? Nulli prorus remittit deus culpam, quin simul eum subiiciat humiliatum in thesis letter, omnibus sacerdoti suo vicario. 8. Canones penitentiales solum viventibus sunt impositi nihilque morituris secundum eosdem debet imponi. 9. Of Tourism Students? Inde bene nobis facit spiritussanctus in thesis adviser letter, papa excipiendo in suis decretis semper articulum mortis et necessitatis. 10. Essay In India? Indocte et male faciunt sacerdotes ii, qui morituris penitentias canonicas in thesis letter, purgatorium reservant. 11. Zizania illa de mutanda pena Canonica in penam purgatorii videntur certe dormientibus episcopis seminata.
12. Olim pene canonice non post, sed ante absolutionem imponebantur tanquam tentamenta vere contritionis. 13. Essays? Morituri per mortem omnia solvunt et legibus canonum mortui iam sunt, habentes iure earum relaxationem. 14.
Imperfecta sanitas seu charitas morituri necessario secum fert magnum timorem, tantoque maiorem, quanto minor fuerit ipsa. 15. Hic timor et horror satis est se solo (ut alia taceam) facere penam purgatorii, cum sit proximus desperationis horrori. 16. Videntur infernus, purgaturium, celum differre, sicut desperatio, prope desperatio, securitas differunt. 17. Necessarium videtur animabus in purgatorio sicut minni horrorem ita augeri charitatem. 18. Nec probatum videtur ullis aut rationibus aut scripturis, quod sint extra statum meriti seu augende charitatis. 19. Nec hoc probatum esse videtur, quod sint de sua beatitudine certe et secure, saltem omnes, licet nos certissimi simus.
20. Igitur papa per remissionem plenariam omnium penarum non simpliciter omnium intelligit, sed a seipso tantummodo impositarum. 21. Errant itaque indulgentiarum predicatores ii, qui dicunt per pape indulgentias hominem ab omni pena solvi et salvari. 22. Quin nullam remittit animabus in purgatorio, quam in hac vita debuissent secundum Canones solvere. 23. Si remissio ulla omnium omnino penarum potest alicui dari, certum est eam non nisi perfectissimis, i.e. paucissimis, dari. 24. Falli ob id necesse est maiorem partem populi per indifferentem illam et magnificam pene solute promissionem. 25.
Qualem potestatem habet papa in purgatorium generaliter, talem habet quilibet Episcopus et Curatus in sua diocesi et parochia specialiter. 26. Optime facit papa, quod non potestate clavis (quam nullam habet) sed per thesis adviser, modum suffragii dat animabus remissionem. 27. Hominem predicant, qui statim ut iactus nummus in cistam tinnierit evolare dicunt animam.
28. Certum est, nummo in tv influence, cistam tinniente augeri questum et avariciam posse: suffragium autem ecclesie est in arbitrio dei solius. 29. Quis scit, si omnes anime in purgatorio velint redimi, sicut de s. Severino et Paschali factum narratur. 30. Nullus securus est de veritate sue contritionis, multominus de consecutione plenarie remissionis. 31.
Quam rarus est vere penitens, tam rarus est vere indulgentias redimens, i. Thesis Adviser Letter? e. rarissimus. 32. Damnabuntur ineternum cum suis magistris, qui per literas veniarum securos sese credunt de sua salute. 33. Cavendi sunt nimis, qui dicunt venias illas Pape donum esse illud dei inestimabile, quo reconciliatur homo deo. 34. Gratie enim ille veniales tantum respiciunt penas satisfactionis sacramentalis ab homine constitutas. 35. Non christiana predicant, qui docent, quod redempturis animas vel confessionalia non sit necessaria contritio.
36. Smoking Cigarette Health? Quilibet christianus vere compunctus habet remissionem plenariam a pena et culpa etiam sine literis veniarum sibi debitam. 37. Quilibet versus christianus, sive vivus sive mortuus, habet participationem omnium bonorum Christi et Ecclesie etiam sine literis veniarum a deo sibi datam. 38. Remissio tamen et participatio Pape nullo modo est contemnenda, quia (ut dixi) est declaratio remissionis divine. 39. Difficillimum est etiam doctissimis Theologis simul extollere veniarum largitatem et contritionis veritatem coram populo. 40. Contritionis veritas penas querit et amat, Veniarum autem largitas relaxat et odisse facit, saltem occasione. 41.
Caute sunt venie apostolice predicande, ne populus false intelligat eas preferri ceteris bonis operibus charitatis. 42. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Pape mens non est, redemptionem veniarum ulla ex parte comparandam esse operibus misericordie. 43. Docendi sunt christiani, quod dans pauperi aut mutuans egenti melius facit quam si venias redimereet. 44. Quia per opus charitatis crescit charitas et fit homo melior, sed per venias non fit melior sed tantummodo a pena liberior. 45.
Docendi sunt christiani, quod, qui videt egenum et neglecto eo dat pro veniis, non idulgentias Pape sed indignationem dei sibi vendicat. 46. Docendi sunt christiani, quod nisi superfluis abundent necessaria tenentur domui sue retinere et nequaquam propter venias effundere. 47. Docendi sunt christiani, quod redemptio veniarum est libera, non precepta. 48. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut magis eget ita magis optat in veniis dandis pro se devotam orationem quam promptam pecuniam.
49. Docendi sunt christiani, quod venie Pape sunt utiles, si non in adviser, cas confidant, Sed nocentissime, si timorem dei per eas amittant. 50. Docendi sunt christiani, quod si Papa nosset exactiones venialium predicatorum, mallet Basilicam s. Petri in cineres ire quam edificari cute, carne et ossibus ovium suarum. 51. On Wind Energy? Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut debet ita vellet, etiam vendita (si opus sit) Basilicam s. Petri, de suis pecuniis dare illis, a quorum plurimis quidam concionatores veniarum pecuniam eliciunt. 52. Vana est fiducia salutis per literas veniarum, etiam si Commissarius, immo Papa ipse suam animam pro illis impigneraret. 53. Thesis Letter? Hostes Christi et Pape sunt ii, qui propter venias predicandas verbum dei in aliis ecclesiis penitus silere iubent.
54. Iniuria fit verbo dei, dum in eodem sermone equale vel longius tempus impenditur veniis quam illi. 55. Mens Pape necessario est, quod, si venie (quod minimum est) una campana, unis pompis et ceremoniis celebrantur, Euangelium (quod maximum est) centum campanis, centum pompis, centum ceremoniis predicetur. 56. Thesauri ecclesie, unde Pape dat indulgentias, neque satis nominati sunt neque cogniti apud populum Christi. 57. Essay Look Like? Temporales certe non esse patet, quod non tam facile eos profundunt, sed tantummodo colligunt multi concionatorum. 58.
Nec sunt merita Christi et sanctorum, quia hec semper sine Papa operantur gratiam hominis interioris et crucem, mortem infernumque exterioris. 59. Thesauros ecclesie s. Thesis? Laurentius dixit esse pauperes ecclesie, sed locutus est usu vocabuli suo tempore. 60. Sine temeritate dicimus claves ecclesie (merito Christi donatas) esse thesaurum istum. 61. Clarum est enim, quod ad remissionem penarum et casuum sola sufficit potestas Pape.
62. Verus thesaurus ecclesie est sacrosanctum euangelium glorie et gratie dei. 63. Hic autem est merito odiosissimus, quia ex primis facit novissimos. 64. Thesaurus autem indulgentiarum merito est gratissimus, quia ex novissimis facit primos. 65. Igitur thesauri Euangelici rhetia sunt, quibus olim piscabantur viros divitiarum. 66. Thesauri indulgentiarum rhetia sunt, quibus nunc piscantur divitias virorum.
67. Tv Influence On Children Essays? Indulgentie, quas concionatores vociferantur maximas gratias, intelliguntur vere tales quoad questum promovendum. 68. Letter? Sunt tamen re vera minime ad gratiam dei et crucis pietatem comparate. 69. Tenentur Episcopi et Curati veniarum apostolicarum Commissarios cum omni reverentia admittere. 70.
Sed magis tenentur omnibus oculis intendere, omnibus auribus advertere, ne pro commissione Pape sua illi somnia predicent. 71. Contra veniarum apostolicarum veritatem qui loquitur, sit ille anathema et maledictus. 72. Qui vero, contra libidinem ac licentiam verborum Concionatoris veniarum curam agit, sit ille benedictus. 73. Sicut Papa iuste fulminat eos, qui in fraudem negocii veniarum quacunque arte machinantur, 74.
Multomagnis fulminare intendit eos, qui per veniarum pretextum in fraudem sancte charitatis et veritatis machinantur, 75. Opinari venias papales tantas esse, ut solvere possint hominem, etiam si quis per tv influence on children essays, impossibile dei genitricem violasset, Est insanire. 76. Dicimus contra, quod venie papales nec minimum venialium peccatorum tollere possint quo ad culpam. 77. Quod dicitur, nec si s. Petrus modo Papa esset maiores gratias donare posset, est blasphemia in thesis adviser letter, sanctum Petrum et Papam. 78.
Dicimus contra, quod etiam iste et quilibet papa maiores habet, scilicet Euangelium, virtutes, gratias, curationum c. ut 1. Co. XII. 79. Dicere, Crucem armis papalibus insigniter erectam cruci Christi equivalere, blasphemia est. 80. Rationem reddent Episcopi, Curati et Theologi, Qui tales sermones in populum licere sinunt. 81. Facit hec licentiosa veniarum predicatio, ut nec reverentiam Pape facile sit etiam doctis viris redimere a calumniis aut certe argutis questionibus laicorm. 82. Gcse Essay? Scilicet. Cur Papa non evacuat purgatorium propter sanctissimam charitatem et summam animarum necessitatem ut causam omnium iustissimam, Si infinitas animas redimit propter pecuniam funestissimam ad structuram Basilice ut causam levissimam?
83. Item. Cur permanent exequie et anniversaria defunctorum et non reddit aut recipi permittit beneficia pro illis instituta, cum iam sit iniuria pro redemptis orare? 84. Item. Letter? Que illa nova pietas Dei et Pape, quod impio et inimico propter pecuniam concedunt animam piam et amicam dei redimere, Et tamen propter necessitatem ipsius met pie et dilecte anime non redimunt eam gratuita charitate? 85. Item. Cur Canones penitentiales re ipsa et non usu iam diu in semet abrogati et mortui adhuc tamen pecuniis redimuntur per concessionem indulgentiarum tanquam vivacissimi?
86. Item. Cur Papa, cuius opes hodie sunt opulentissimis Crassis crassiores, non de suis pecuniis magis quam pauperum fidelium struit unam tantummodo Basilicam sancti Petri? 87. Item. Quid remittit aut participat Papa iis, qui per resume, contritionem perfectam ius habent plenarie remissionis et participationis? 88. Item. Letter? Quid adderetur ecclesie boni maioris, Si Papa, sicut semel facit, ita centies in die cuilibet fidelium has remissiones et participationes tribueret? 89.
Ex quo Papa salutem querit animarum per venias magis quam pecunias, Cur suspendit literas et venias iam olim concessas, cum sint eque efficaces? 90. Hec scrupulosissima laicorum argumenta sola potestate compescere nec reddita ratione diluere, Est ecclesiam et Papam hostibus ridendos exponere et infelices christianos facere. 91. Si ergo venie secundum spiritum et mentem Pape predicarentur, facile illa omnia solverentur, immo non essent. 92. Valeant itaque omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi ' Pax pax,' et non est pax. 93. Bene agant omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi ' Crux crux,' et non est crux.
94. Exhortandi sunt Christiani, ut caput suum Christum per penas, mortes infernosque sequi studeant, 95. Ac sic magis per multas tribulationes intrare celum quam per what a college look, securitatem pacis confidant. - Dennis Bratcher , ed. Copyright 2013 , Dennis Bratcher, All Rights Reserved.
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Mad Cow Disease Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), better know as Mad cow disease is a relatively new disease. Most . sources state that BSE first showed up in Great Britain in 1986 [Dealler p.5] but some say it popped up in 1985 [Greger p.1]. However the official notification was not until 21 June, 1988 [Dealler stats. p.1]. Spongiform encephalopathies are invariable fatal neurodegenerative diseases and there is no treatment nor is there a cure for this disease [Greger p.1]. The recent.
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