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Introduction to Andre Bazin, Part 1: Theory of Film Style in its Historical Context. Andre Bazin, film critic, theorist, philosopher, and humanist wrote a series of essays between the years 1944 and 1958, before he died at the young age of 40. The majority of resume ru them were anthologized in their original language in the four volume set Qu’est- ce que le cinema? Selections from these four volumes were trans­lated by Hugh Gray and how to a research in middle school presented in two English volumes: What is Cinema? Other major works translated into English include Jean Renoir, Orson Welles: A Critical View, and French Cinema of the Occupation and the Resistance.

A recent collection of essays translated into English is Bazin At Work : Major Essays And Reviews From The Forties And Fifties , edited by Bert Cardullo. Other crucial non- anthologized articles are found in the journals Esprit, Cahiers du Cinema and Les Temps Modernes . Given the breadth of his work, I have limited myself in david thoreau this introduction to his theoretical work and omitted his critical work on genre/cycles (the Western, Neo-realism) and/or specific films. In my exposition of these writings I do not purport to be exhaustive, but rather to arrive at resume ru, an understanding of no exit Bazin’s cinematic beliefs. By expounding, commenting on, and agrores ru making necessary connections I will attempt to synthesize a complex man and his works into a manageable form. Any element of criticism is a residue of the rigorous thought process propelled by his writings. THE ESSENCE OF CINEMA. Bazin sees cinema as “an idealistic phenomenon” and only consequently technical. Ru? Being a humanist he believes that the idea precedes the invention and hence is no exit setting essays, superior to the technical means used to achieve it. Resume Agrores Ru? He categorizes the early pioneers (Muybridge, Niepce, Leroy, Demeny, Joy, Edison, Lumiere) as “ingenious industrialists” at best. Later, in resume agrores his now famous essay “The Evolution of the Language of Cinema” he would extrapolate this formula of “idea necessitating technical means” into complexity of subject matter necessitating a new form/style. To Bazin the cinema is inherently realistic ­because of the mechanical mediation of the camera.

This is not the same as saying that cinema is “objective” in any sense other than relative, and that cinema is untouched by ideological and cultural factors, as many of Bazin’s critics have said. Resume Agrores Ru? What Bazin does do with this fact is place cinema above painting – the camera vs. the brush- as a medium for duplicating reality. Further, cinema’s ability to record the event in time, making “an imprint of the duration of the object” elevates it above photography. Although the potential for human intervention is always present, even granting the mechanical intervention, Bazin believes that the filmmaker owes it to the complexity of reality to refrain from ru, false subjective manipulation and overwrought formalist mediation. The “myth” of total cinema Bazin speaks of is a reflection of humanity’s psychological and indeed ethical, obsession in the arts with depicting reality. ? 1 Possibly as a means of countering mortality, humanity has forever been attempting to preserve his/her likeness in one form or another. As Prakash Younger notes in agrores his involved argumentation in english his Offscreen essay, there is an ethical and moral link between the real world and the practice of artistic creation and spectatorial reception of art which informs the “aesthetic” practice and theory of snoring Bazin. This moral and ethical link does not circumvent the ideological, but stands as a way through the “impasse” of the ideological, or, to once again quote Prakash, “pseudorealism” to get at the “true realism.” As time evolved so did the means of artistically replicating reality, from cave drawings, to resume agrores ru mummification, to engraving, to painting, to photography, and to its (thus far) most convincing form, cinema. In the task of duplicating reality cinema has surpassed all other forms of representation. Bazin envisions each rung on cinema’s evolutionary ladder as a step toward a more realistic depiction of the world (sound, color, depth of field, 3- D,etc.).

Since Bazin believes that the origins of an art reveal its nature, cinema’s quest for realism supports his claim for an objective and pure cinema. This “myth” which grew out of cinema’s beginnings stands as the touchstone cinema has progressively evolved toward. Much of the confusion concerning Bazin’s writings – and indeed a major concern in the canon of film theory- is resume ru, traceable to essay the relationship between the filmed image and resume agrores ru its life counterpart. How does Bazin explain this relationship? He describes it in international language the following terms: 1) The photographic image is “a kind of decal or transfer”; 2) “The photographic image is the object itself, the object freed from the conditions of time and agrores ru space that govern it”; 3) Photography embalms time; 4) “The photograph as such and the object in itself share a common being, after the fashion of a fingerprint”; 5) “In no sense is it the image of an object or persons, more correctly it is its tracing”; 6) “The photograph proceeds … to the taking of a veritable luminous impression in light – to a mold. Clocking Cultures Carol Ezzell? As such it carries with it more than mere resemblance, namely a kind of identity …”; 7) “The cinema … makes an imprint of the duration of the object.” 2 The words Bazin uses are essentially synonyms: decal, transfer, fingerprint, tracing, mold, imprint. The reverberations suggest a quasi- mystical relationship between the subject and its photographic double. Given Bazin’s strong Catholic background it may or may not be begging credulity to mention at this point an underlying presence of religious reverberation in lines two and six.

Line two says that the photographic image is the object itself, only “freed” from time and space. By “freeing” the object Bazin is implying a form of salvation or transgression to a higher moral/spiritual plateau. Line seven emits a spiritual echo through the words “a veritable luminous impression in light.” Could the photographic reproduction be in a symbolic sense the soul of its real life counterpart? Even when, in his article “La Technique du Citizen Kane ,” 3 Bazin defends Welles against George Sadoul’s charges of unoriginality he concludes with the spiritualistic thought that Welles, the modern artist, has left behind (through his films) “a resonance the likes of which we have never known before” (my translation). Essay? I offer this as a possible interpretation for the consistently allegorical tone of Bazin’s writings concerning the relationship between the subject/object and its filmic double. THE EVOLUTION OF THE LANGUAGE OF CINEMA : an Exploration of cinema style.

In this section I will lay out Bazin’s seminal discussion of the historical evolution of film style. I should stress that my aim here is to explicate this trajectory rather than situate it within Bazin’s broader theoretical ideas. I admit that even the few criticisms I make with regard Bazin’s critical application of realist style can be smoothed over by relating Bazin’s analysis of cinematic language to his larger philosophical and english international language theoretical aims. With the championing of english international realism as the eventual goal, Bazin wrote a thoughtful historical overview of the evolution of film language. The major tenet coming from this overview is that the jump from resume, silent to cultures ezzell essay sound cinema was not the major evolutional point in film language. That breakthrough point would arrive several years later (1940-41).

Bazin’s starting point for resume agrores ru his historical overview is the silent period. Essay? Employing a stylistic and semi-auteur approach he groups all directors between the years 1920 to 1940 into two groups: one which base their integrity in agrores the image (the imagists) and another which base their integrity in reality (the realists). The imagists are broken down into two camps, those working with the plastics (lighting, decor, composition, acting) and clocking cultures essay those working with the editing (the montagists). Agrores Ru? The realists do not distort time (like the montagists) or space (like the expressionists) but attempt to agrores depict true reality. The major exponents of the realist camp are F.W.

Murnau, Eric Von Stroheim, Robert Flaherty, Carl Dreyer, and Jean Renoir. The montagists are also broken down into two camps, distinguished mainly by a time frame: 1920- 30 (Abel Gance, D.W. Griffith, Sergei Eisenstein) and essay english language language 1930- 40 (the American classical “invisible” style, influenced largely, I believe, by Vsevelod Pudovkin). The end of the silent period brought the two “image” camps to their apex in the form of German Expressionism (the plastics) and the Soviet Post-Revolution cinema (the montagists). The jump from the silent to sound cinema did not give evidence to any immediate effects on shooting or editing styles. By the late 30’s sound moved editing toward realism, switching the operative cutting style from symbolic/expressive to ru dramatic/analytic. Editing style became more or less standardized. Cinema reached a point of classical perfection where content fused with form. ? By now, 1939, cinema had reached the point where most technical innovations were established (color, track, dolly, crane, zoom, sound, panchromatic film stock) and the next evolutionary advancement, if there was to be one, would not be propelled by a technical matter but a thematic one: the subject matter and english language the effect it imposed on resume, technical/formal aspects. The result of this was, according to Bazin, the most important aesthetic revolution in film history, the arrival of the mise-en-scene style. In brief then, here is Bazin’s evolution of film language: a) Plastics (lighting, decor, composition, acting) b) Montagists (editing)

2) The Realists:(long take, on location shooting, objective approach) By 1928 the Imagists peak with a) expressionism and b) Soviet cinema. Early sound films do not show immediate advancement of resume ru either style. By the late 30’s sound technique leads montage toward realism. By the late 30’s we witness the perfect fusion of form/content, sound/image. Film reaches its “equilibrium- profile” ( Jezebel , Stagecoach , Le Jour se leve ). By 1939 all major technical advancements are established; the next step in evolution of style is comparison, spurred by resume agrores ru subject matter. a) Pure objective realism (Neo- Realism, Documentary) b) Spatial Realism (Jean Renoir, Orson Welles, William Wyler). The implication in Bazin’s historical evolution is that by the 1940’s the imagist style had been completely engulfed by the realist style. The imagists, having had their glory days in the silent period, were confronted by the realists and, after a realist maturation period in the 30’s, over­taken by them.

A graph would read: A new type of Realism evolves, splitting up into two camps, as did the Imagists during the silent period, and totally dominating 1940: a) Spatial realists; and b) Pure objective realists. This historical progress toward realism is in perfect accordance with Bazin’s notion of the cinema continually inching forward toward the pure “myth” of total cinema. The force of History does not always obey, and teaching write school this movement does not hold true for long. Resume Agrores Ru? There is some historical truth in david Bazin’s schema because, indeed, the imagists did dominate during the silent period, as did the realists during the later 30’s, but Bazin’s contention of the post 1940 period being dominated by the realist style is quickly but into question by resume agrores ru film-noir, a movement/style derivative of German Expressionism. Nowhere in What is Cinema Vol. 1 2 do we see even a passing remark at film noir or the expressionistic-like Universal horror films of the 30’s. This oversight is surprising, especially with the evidence already building around Bazin toward the evolutionary direction which the dialectics of realism/formalism would take: toward a harmonious existence where the two become more or less equal and interchangeable operative modes of a complex art form.

4. I would also add that Bazin underplays the importance of sound transition to emphasize his spatial-temporal ontological theory of realism. He realized how important a step sound was toward realism, eliminating the need for expressivity and write “denaturalization” that was a large part of agrores ru silent cinema. However, Bazin overlooks just how important a psychological role sound played in achieving the impression of reality, and the impression of space and depth that were so important to him. Sound added immensely to realism in write cinema but Bazin, perhaps so as not to interfere with his spatial/temporal claim, downplays it.

He clearly emphasizes the psychological role with regard to the visuals, so the omission may be a result of sound theory not yet entering into the general discourse of film analysis. Resume? This aural component is still excluded by many people today when discussing the claim to realism cinema has over other arts. I must mention a final slender point of disagreement. Resume Agrores Ru? By including Murnau and Dreyer as realists Bazin is falling into the same trap that Siegfried Kracauer does when he accepts certain fantastical/formalistic scenes when they are in the proper “realist” context, such as a dream or a specific point of english language view (Tudor 94). Bazin is on shaky ground when he removes Nosferatu and The Passion of resume agrores ru Joan of Arc from the expressionistic mode on the frail basis of Nosferatu ‘s on-location photography and Dreyer’s refrain from the use of make-up for his actors (Bazin, What is Cinema Vol.1 109-110). What then becomes of clocking carol essay Nosferatu ‘s sinister shadows, fast motion and resume ru negative photography, and no exit setting expressionistic acting, and The Passion of ru Joan of no exit Arc ‘s abstraction of space and resume agrores ru extreme reliance on how to, close-ups? In neither case do the slim realist tendencies compensate for resume the overwhelming artistic intervention, as does Welles’ spatial realism for example. Both films fail to how to snoring completely qualify for either of Bazin’s realistic camps –the documentary- like “pure” realism or the spatial realism.

Although one can argue that Nosferatu is ‘more realist’ than other expressionist films of the time, and that The Passion of Joan of Arc is so unique and iconoclastic in style, that the affect on the spectator is one of realism. Having pointed toward Bazin’s preference for the mise-en-scene style I will now discuss his reasons for that choice. Write? The depth of field/long take style, known as mise-en-scene, attracted itself to Bazin for two essential reasons: a) It maintained the unity of how to space and the relationship between the objects within that space. b) It gave the spectator, according to Bazin, the freedom to david direct his/her own control over the viewing process, including what to look at, in what order, for how long, and to make their own synthesis of that viewing process. Together they maintain the ambiguity – the existential ambiguity present all around us in resume agrores ru life- of setting essays that space. Mise-en-scene can incorporate two styles, one being a documentary­-like process where the camera “allows us to see” the event (Neo- Realism) and a second more aesthetic rendition of reality where the realism derives almost exclusively from the respect for spatial unity (Welles, Andrei Tarkovsky, and Theo Angelopoulos). An integral part of the mise-en-scene style is the presence of depth of field.

Bazin wrote entirely on ru, this aspect in the article “Pour en finir avec la profondeur de champ” (“My Final Words on Depth of Field”) ( Cahiers du Cinema . 17-23). This article begins by stating that depth of no exit setting essays field belongs only incidentally to the technical domain (my translation): If depth of field interests us it is only incidentally as a technical progress of a shooting style and, essentially, as a revolution of mise-en-scene or, more precisely, ‘decoupage’ (19). Here he sets down the kernel for resume agrores ru the balance of the article. Bazin examines a frame from the 1910 film Onesime (Louis Feuillade) and sees in its composition in teaching write paper in middle depth and soft focus the seeds for the later more refined depth of field style. The shot in questions has the title character framed in left, extreme close-up, with a secondary character visible in the right background of the frame (my translation): Something outside of resume Feuillade’s genius allowed him to spontaneously discover a prophetic frame, a rough outline of a Renoir or Wellesian shot. In this case, the discovery was not out of genius, but out of necessity – he did not have a choice (20).

Given the technical state of teaching how to write paper 1910 the shot succeeds partly; both planes are visible but the background is henry essays, soft. Again, giving the state of cinematography (to render a clear, legible image) and the state of audience awareness the softness of the background appears as a default. Agrores? With the ameliorization of the depth of field shooting style and the parallel advancement of audience awareness, soft focus becomes a technique (rack focus and softening of a part of the image for an effect) and takes on a different meaning, that of decoupage. Agrores Ru? 5 The soft focus effect is (my translation) … an constitution indirect means in which to agrores ru place value in the shot which is being focused; it transcribes in the frame the dramatic hierarchy which montage expresses in time. In this new complex perception the clarity of the background is no longer indispensable; soft focus is ru, no longer experienced like an im­probability: it becomes contrast and not contradiction ( Cahiers du Cinema 22). In a pre-montage context Feuillade foreshadows the true sense of depth of field – the ability to preclude montage through decoupage in depth. 6 According to Bazin decoupage in depth approaches a realism in an ontological sense, restoring to objects their existential density.

All elements, actor/object and foreground/background are fused into one perceptual pattern (Bazin, Orson Welles , 80). A final quote serves, perhaps more than any other, as a testament to Bazin’s burning stance as “realist” theorist (my translation): In classical style when a character becomes secondary he is usually eliminated from the scene. Welles maintains that his play not be so precise, but to keep the character “alive” so as to allow the spectators to continually dispense their attention. Ru? We must constantly be on david thoreau, the lookout for principal actions which can produce itself “behind our backs” so to speak. Resume? Here a part is taken from reality; a way of posing reality homogenous, of considering it indivisible and accruing equal weight to all coordinates of the screen. All the decor and all the actors in the total image are equally offered to the action and at the same time to our attention. If they remain outside it is nothing but a hazard as equally unpredictable as an isolated result of the numbers game (Bazin, Les Temps Modernes 947). Unlike Eisenstein, who wrote voluminously on montage and comparatively little on its antithesis, Bazin wrote substantially on montage. Bazin describes editing as a “series of either logical or subjective points of view of an event.” Dealing with sound films, he lists three motives for cutting: 1) As a purely logical descriptive analysis of the narrative 2) As a psychological analysis from a character’s point of view and resume agrores ru 3) As a psychological analysis from the audience’s point of view. (Strangely, he shortly thereafter refers to them as “arbitrary”) ( What is Cinema Vol.

1 , 92). Bazin opposes classical and expressive editing on the following counts. The simple geographically and psychologically logical (dramatic) cutting within a scene does not add anything to the intent of carol essay a scene, only adding emphasis. So why bother? If the scene has only one simple meaning why insult the audience’s intelligence with needless and obvious close-ups? Contrarily, if the scene is complex why presuppose only one meaning? Expressive editing invents meaning through juxtaposition of the images and not through the images themselves. This is trickery; it removes the freedom on the part of the spectator to select for him or herself and removes whatever existential ambiguity may be present in the scene. Therefore it is not faithful to reality, either spatially, temporally, or morally.

Bazin is not against editing which forms the basis of film structure, that is cutting necessary to join unconnected scenes/sequences, but is against optical illusions (superimpositions, dissolves, process shots), needless pedestrian editing within a single scene, and expressive editing that adds meaning through the juxtaposition rather than content of each image. Bazin employs a simple aesthetic criteria for deciding when to edit: anytime two or more objects/subjects are necessary to the construction of meaning in david a scene, depth of field is preferable over editing. Bazin opposes the contention that editing is a more realistic depiction of the physiological viewing process on several counts. Logical cutting according to drama, narrative, and ru anticipation constructs a sense of an integral space. The master shot establishes a location so that the cutting to points within is physically (spatially) understood; the dramatic action makes it psychologically understood. This cutting leads the audience along and is usually one step ahead of them. Bazin sees this as only one of two possible modes of realism. This mode appropriates the realism of the narrative process and the mental process following it. The second mode of realism appropriates the event itself. The implication is that there is a choice between one type of reality and another.

Here it is instructive to recall Younger’s distinction in agrores ru Bazin’s understanding of realism in teaching how to write a research paper school art between “pseudorealism” and “true realism” -the former being caught in the trappings of ideology or meaningless formal articulations. Agrores Ru? All arts share in this inability to completely capture reality, but there are differing ways of countering this problem. No Exit Essays? The true realist does not fight against this opposition but merely tries to accommodate it through sincerity and honesty. Resume? According to Bazin, within the historical conditions of the 1940s and 1950s, the best way to achieve this was by means of spatial integrity, depth of field, and the long take mise-en-scene. Cinema can never totally duplicate the viewing process – physiologically and psychologically. That would be impossible, and if possible it would be a visual quagmire.

Bazin realizes that the human eye does not perceive a scene in the same way as a camera recording a scene in depth of field and/or long take. This limitation becomes a virtue. By being faithful to the space and the event itself the spectator is able to perceive this hypothetical scene with greater insight and essay international clarity than if he/she were physically present at the scene. Ru? The reality of filmic space and the filmic event supercedes the human perception of it. The essay “The Virtues and Limitations of Montage” presents, in teaching write paper school the strongest possible sense, Bazin’s mistrust for ru montage and essay english international discloses the essence of his preference for the mise-en-scene style. Bazin denounces the “trickery” of montage, evident in the animal film by Jean Tourane.

Here montage becomes emblematic of its untruthfulness – by resume relating the human qualities of teaching a research paper in middle animals by virtue of off-screen guidance and resume agrores editing. Later in the essay he discusses the process shot, an equally deceiving effect, and says that the point is not whether or not the trickery is carol, noticeable, but whether or not it is used (a question of integrity). Thus far Bazin’s reasoning implies that the artist has a moral obligation to the audience and the faithful rendition of the event/space. He then uses an example from the film Where No Vultures Fly to demonstrate how much more effective depth of field is than parallel montage. (The scene has a wandering child playfully picking up a stray lion cub and then being pursued by the lioness.) The fact that the lion is tame is unimportant; this deceit is made “morally” correct because it occurs in a homogenous space. Bazin sees no deceit in resume agrores ru the proceedings behind a long take/depth of field shot (numerous takes, removal of walls, props, etc.) but instead wants us to neglect the causal events and consider only the final results. 7 (Contradictorily, Bazin supports his contention that photography is superior to painting by referring to their causal means – mechanical intervention vs. human intervention. Though ‘mechanical’ must be considered relatively, since all ‘tools’ (pen, brush, needle, etc) used in art are a form, lesser perhaps, of mechanical intervention.) Through these contradictions we can decipher Bazin’s true motives for constitution comparison essay his disliking montage and upholding mise-en-scene. Resume Agrores Ru? Montage is no exit, untruthful to resume agrores spatial integrity and also deceives the audience through its juxtapositioning; therefore montage is of secondary importance, morally and aesthetically, to the mise-en-scene style. The integrity of resume spatial unity is of the utmost importance and supercedes all else – deceit included. Bazin’s preference for henry david spatial unity can also be understood as a philosophical (Bergsonian) preference, as I will point out in Part 2 of this essay.

BAZIN THE THEORETICAL WORLD. In this section I will point to some overlooked parallels between Bazin and other classical film theorists. An interesting development/argument ensues when considering Bazin’s stance toward editing in relation to Vsevelod Pudovkin’s theory. In Pudovkin’s illuminating and influential film theory the natural way for a filmmaker to ru constitute a scene is to assume a hypothetical “perfect” observer, an imaginary, attentive, sensitive eye which captures the scene not the way everyone would see it but the way an agrores ru acutely intense, analytical, and probing observer would. This is an henry thoreau essays ideal approach, but realistically, most directors either do not place that much thought into the editing or do not have the aptitude to, and, consequently, fall back on the more traditional editing style, to what Noel Burch terms the “zero point of cinematic style” (11). Even given the ideal, Bazin would still reject Pudovkin’s theory because of its potential to reduce the possibility for multiple interpretations.

Deciding for or against one theory may ultimately hinge on the complexity of the particular scene. Given a simple, straightforward scene where the meaning is agrores, only at english international, the surface level, Bazin’s resistance to the theory is tenuous, but a complex scene with possible multiple interpretations gives more credence to Bazin’s opposition. Trying to select between Pudovkin’s ideal observer and Bazin’s democratic observer becomes more problematic if pursued further. Let’s take Bazin’s favorite example, the seal hunt scene from Nanook of the North . Bazin says that a traditional editing pattern would have ruined the impact of the single take scene. This may be true, but if that were indeed the best way to view that scene then Pudovkin’s ideal observer would also watch it from the same fixed viewpoint. The argument could go on and on. In principle, Bazin opposes the fragmentation of any scene which could be observed in its spatial unity. Bazin and Rudolf Arnheim, despite one being a realist and thoreau essays the other a formalist, begin their theories from the same starting point. Both theorists begin with the contention that cinema reproduces reality mechanically. Arnheim’s end goal is the equation film=art, while Bazin’s is film=reality. Bazin accepts the contention, and in fact posits it himself, but adds to how to write a research in middle school it by elevating the filmic double to a spiritual/moral/ethical level.

Arnheim refutes the contention by saying that regardless of the process, even on thoreau essays, the most elementary level the recording of an object/subject is answerable to many factors. (Example: The problem of reproducing three dimensional objects in agrores a two dimensional medium – positioning of object- and the intangible aspect of intuition – deciding whether a person is agrores ru, more him or herself in profile or full face or whether one angle of a mountain is more expressive than another) (Arnheim, 8- 11). These decisions can not be arrived at mathematically but through human sensibility. Arnheim begins with the contention and then attempts to accord to the filmmaker the same artistic intervention of the painter. Agrores? Bazin, in contrast, downplays the filmmakers intervention. In both cases the limitation – not being able to reproduce reality exactly- becomes the source for the respective ends. In Bazin’s case the film, in its faithfulness to the event, grants the spectator a privileged experience of that event; in Arnheim’s case the spectator experiences the event colored through the artist’s sensibility. Writers who try to reveal inconsistencies in how Bazin applied his own theory to criticism often focused on how to write snoring, his troubled affirmation of Welles as a realist. Andrew Tudor, in agrores Theories of Film , says that Bazin enters “deep water” in doing so because Welles is the great inheritor of German Expressionism.

Tudor, although noting the two types of realism Bazin formulated – the pure realism and the spatial realism- does not allow Bazin this benefit. How To Write? I can respect Tudor’s refusal to grant Bazin the benefit of two types of realism, but I disagree with his reason. Tudor believes that Welles’ baroque style – the chiaroscuro lighting, the excessive camera movements, the odd angles- is, along with montage and comparison essay decor, just “another – way of destroying the visual unity of space.” Bazin is well aware of Welles’ affinity for the baroque and resume agrores the manipulative potential mise-en-scene carries: Welles’ pictures are more difficult to analyze because of his over-fondness for teaching how to the baroque. Objects and characters are related in such a fashion that it is impossible for the spectator to miss the significance of the scene. To get the same results by way of montage would have necessitated a detailed succession of shots ( What is teaching write paper, Cinema Vol.1 34- 35). Bazin does not deny that the depth of field style can, in that sense, appropriate montage – for that is Bazin’s point- and the point missed by Tudor. Tudor’s accusation that Welles fragments space with his baroque style can be read as Bazin’s “decoupage in depth.” Hence, decoupage in depth is not anomalous to Bazin’s spatial realism but an essential part of it. Although Welles inherited many traits from German Expressionism Tudor can not deny that the context is different – within Wellesian mise-en-scene- ­and that there is a difference between cutting a space through montage and cutting a space “in depth” as does Welles.

It is resume, this distinction – manipulation via editing vs. manipulation via mise-en-scene- which makes the difference for Bazin. The last theorist I will consider is Brian Henderson. He serves as an comparison essay endpoint to ru this section because Henderson exemplifies the by-product which can result from the constant need to reevaluate and language international think through existing theories. In his essay “Two Types of Film Theory” Henderson discusses the choice representatives of the formalist and realist camps, Eisenstein and Bazin. One of the conclusions he arrives at is that both theories, albeit drastically different, are in the general sense, ‘incomplete’ theories of the sequence. Out of this evolves Henderson’s critique of both theories: neither considers the relation of the part (the sequence) to the whole. They do not envision a theory of the formal construction of the total film. Ru? At this point Henderson does not posit any answers, but only cultures carol ezzell essay raises the question of whether there can be a theory dictating the complete organization of a film. Does Bazin’s theory, in any sense, constitute a “complete” theory (disregarding his neglect of sound)? The frame/shot/scene/sequence are the principal building blocks of film, with the sequence being the largest “part.” Bazin’s mise-en-scene contains all these elements and his constant championing of mise-en-scene at the expense of montage dictates how these elements should be used; as such, this constitutes a theory of how a film should be constructed from beginning to end. Although Bazin expresses approval of simple editing to join homogenous spaces (connecting scenes/sequences which in themselves are shot in depth), he never felt the need to expand on the relationship between long take and editing.

Consequently, all that is missing to resume form a “complete theory,” in the very general sense, is a term designating this “carry- over” from sequence to sequence. Henderson himself would later supply this term. In the subsequent essay “The Long Take” Henderson examines the role of editing within the long take style vis- a- vis Welles, Ophuls, and resume ru Murnau. As an answer to his own query, he posits the inter and intra-sequence cuts, cuts occurring in between sequences (inter) or within sequences (intra) (See essay by David George Menard, “Toward a Syntheis of Cinema- a Theory of the Long Take Moving Camera.”). Regardless of the validity of Henderson’s theory, the point is that through a thought process predicated on Bazin’s theory and a need to resume ru “complete” it, Henderson constructed a theory of the sequence cut.

This interplay between contemporary and past theorist is a vital part of the theoretical world’s evolution and constitution comparison essay proves the validity of agrores past theories. As art evolves so must the theories. In making this contention Bazin is, of ru course, glossing over a long line of antithetical movements (Expressionism, Surrealism, etc.) revolting against this obsession with realism. Thoreau Essays? #8617; All of resume ru these quotes or paraphrases are taken from What is Cinema Vol. 1 pps. 14, 15, 96, 97. #8617; Andre Bazin, Les Temps- Modernes 17, (1947), 948. Although too long to quote in full, the latter part of this article explicitly reveals Bazin’s tendency to revert to a religious or mystical tone when supporting a claim he feels strongly for. ? #8617; There still are filmmakers who fall exclusively into one or the other camp, Miklos Jansco for example, but most directors utilize both styles according to their needs: Hitchcock, Godard, Kubrick, and Scorsese as prime examples #8617; There are two terms used by resume ru Bazin which either take on a different meaning in their English translation or don’t have an equivalent. Montage in English terminology implies a rigorous and expressive editing style. Most editing sequences juxtapose shots of varying space, time, and content combining to create an clocking essay over- all idea, meaning, or tone.

Editing implies the formal construction of the film from one shot to the next and is not nec­essarily expressive. Bazin uses the terms interchangeably. Resume? The second term, decoupage, has no English equivalent. The French definition is “to cut,” but applied to film the word is better described as construction. Noel Burch, in Theory of Film Practice, defines the three terms for which decoupage is inter­changeably used for as: 1) The final form of in middle school a script replete with the required technical information. 2) The practical breakdown of the film’s construction into separate shots/sequences prior to filming 3) The underlying structure of the finished film, which has probably deviated from the original “decoupage.” #8617; With the meaning of decoupage in mind, we must consider the other means by which depth of field appropriates montage: the moving camera, especially the reframe, the zoom, lighting, props, and the use of off- screen space. #8617; The phenomenological approach at no exit, understanding the essence of phenomena also foregoes the causal series of resume agrores events (Husserl’s “bracketing”). #8617; Donato Totaro has been the editor of the online film journal Offscreen since its inception in 1997. Resume Agrores? Totaro received his PhD in no exit Film Television from the University of Warwick (UK), is a part-time professor in Film Studies at agrores, Concordia University (Montreal, Canada) and a longstanding member of AQCC (Association quebecoise des critiques de cinema). Bazin and “The River” as a Problem in the History of Film Theory, Part 1.

Re-thinking Bazin Through Renoir’s The River, Part 2. Re-reading Bazin’s Ontological Argument. Introduction to Andre Bazin, Part 2: Style as a Philosophical Idea. Susan Sontag: Against Interpretation? The Ending(s) of Cinema: Notes on the Recurrent Demise of the Seventh Art, Part 2. The Ending(s) of Cinema: Notes on the Recurrent Demise of the Seventh Art, Part 1.

1997 2017 Offscreen, ISSN 1712-9559.

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catalog cover letter How To Write Catalog Copy That Sells. by Robert W. Ru? Bly. When Writing Your Catalog Copy, Keep in Mind These Six Reasons Why Business Customers Buy From Catalogs. Catalogs are sales tools, designed to generate either leads or direct sales. No Exit? But the copy in most business-to-business catalogs doesn’t sell.

It merely gives straightforward technical descriptions of the products - no advantages, no benefits, no motivation for the reader to call a sales rep, mail a reply card or place an ru, order. To write catalog copy that sells, you have to understand the reasons why business customers buy from catalogs. Surprisingly, business customers buy for many of the same reasons that consumers do. Below are six of the most powerful reasons managers, engineers, purchasing agents and executives turn to your business catalog: 1. Essay English International Language? To save money. Saving money is the number one motivation for a buyer to order your product instead of your competitor’s. Your catalog should stress cost savings - on the cover, on the order form, on every page.

In Radio Shack’s catalogs, every item is on resume ru, sale! Each item description lists three things: the price off (in dollars or percentage, the regular price and how to a research paper school the saleprice). A catalog from Boardroom Books shows a markdown on every book in the catalog; the original price is crossed out with an X and resume agrores ru the new price is printed next to it in red type. An office supply catalog from how to, Business Envelope Manufacturers, Inc. announces “Lowest Prices in the Industry” right on resume agrores ru, the front cover. 2. To be right. The business buyer wants to be sure he is english language buying the agrores ru right product from the clocking cultures carol ezzell essay right vendor. If he makes the right purchase decision, he is a hero; if he makes a wrong decision, he’s in the doghouse. How do you assure the buyer that he’s making the agrores ru right decision? Here are a few specific techniques: · List well-known firms that have done business with you.

· Use testimonials . Pepper your catalog with quotations from satisfied customers who praise your products. · Make a guarantee . Offer a quick refund, a rush replacement, or speedy service if your product should fail to perform as promised. Give facts that demonstrate the stability of your company: years in write snoring, the business, number of employees, number of locations, annual sales. 3. To make money . Business customers buy products for one of two end uses: to resell the products at a profit or to use them to resume operate their business more efficiently and language language profitably. Catalog copy should show the resume agrores ru reader how he can make money by doing business with you.

For example, “Telephone selling skills that increase sales” is a better headline than “Fundamentals of Telephone Sales.” The first headline promises wealth; the second is merely descriptive. 4. To get something for nothing. Everybody likes freebies - especially business executives, a group of buyers accustomed to perks. Your catalog could offer the buyer a free gift in exchange or his order. And it should be a personal gift for how to write snoring, the buyer, not a discount or gift of resume, merchandise to no exit the company. Popular gift items for agrores ru, business executives include pen and pencil sets, clocks, calculators, mugs, ties, golf balls, T-shirts and watches. Language? (A warning: certain industries, such as defense marketing, frown on resume, this practice.) 5. To fulfill a need. To the purchasing agent, whose job it is to buy things for his company, a good catalog is a valuable source-book of agrores, much-needed merchandise. The more the catalog and english its contents fulfill his needs, the more likely the purchasing agent is to order from it - again and again.

How do you create a catalog that fulfills the buyer’s needs? First, find out what those needs are and fill the catalog with products that satisfy them. Ru? Next, make sure your product list is broad enough. Otherwise, the buyer will be forced to turn to your competitor’s catalog for help. Be sure to include a wide variety of models, sizes, colors and styles. Also, feature your most popular or hard-to-get items near the front of the book. 6. To solve problems. Often, the business buyer isn’t looking for a specific product.

Rather, he’s looking for a solution to a problem. If your catalog shows how your product solves the problem, you’ll make the sale. For example, a shop steward might not be thinking of ultrafiltration. He might not even know what it is. But the headline, “The Smoothflow Ultrafilter Removes 99 of Dispersed Oil from Plant Wastewater” immediately alerts the steward that ultrafiltration can solve his oily wastewater problem. Other reasons why businesspeople buy from catalogs: to save time, for convenience, to feel important, to gratify curiosity, to take advantage of ru, opportunities, to avoid effort, to clocking carol ezzell make work easier, to avoid embarrassment, to be the first to try a new product or service, to be exclusive, to avoid salespeople. Keep these reasons in resume, mind and gear your catalog in their fulfillment. It’s a good way to david make sure the purchasing agent picks up your book instead of resume agrores ru, your competitor’s. A Good Catalog Tells and Sells With Copy Basics. But most business-to-business catalogs don’t do nearly enough selling.

Leaf through some industrial catalogs. Most are chockfull of product specifications: table after table listing weights, dimensions, model numbers, ratings, and ranges. They’re devoid of constitution essay, any descriptive, persuasive, reasons why you should buy copy. Ru? Of course the nuts-and-bolts data is important, but a good catalog does more than present fact. It shows the international business buyer how the products can solve his problem, why he should buy your product instead of another, and how it is to order the product from your catalog. These fundamentals of catalog copywriting can add to the pulling power of your next mailing: 1. Use colorful, descriptive language. Resume Agrores Ru? Product spec and tech talk don’t move buyers to action. Persuasive language does. It’s colorful and descriptive, painting a picture in the reader’s mind of what the product can do for him.

For example: Tech-talk : “The XYZ mixer is devoid of pinch-points or dead spots where viscous material might accumulate.” Persuasive language : “Our mixer is free of sharp edges, nooks and constitution crannies where gunk might get stuck and resume agrores ru clog up your pipeline.” 2. Use precise language. Beware of language that is overly colloquial or general. You want your writing to be conversational enough to win the reader over without becoming so vague that it doesn’t communicate your meaning. An ad for a microwave relay system began with the headline, “If you thought microwaves are too rich for no exit, your blood, look again.” At first glance, one might think the agrores ad has something to do with the danger of microwave radiation and english international blood poisoning. The writer meant to say, “Hey, I know you think microwave systems are expensive, but here’s one you can afford!” More precise language is ru needed here, something like, “At last. an affordable microwave system for cable TV operators.”

3. Use specific language. Recently, a Hollywood screenwriter spoke about the secret to snoring her success in writing major feature films. “Specifics sell. When you are abstract, no one pays attention.” And so it is agrores ru with the catalog writer, specifics sell. Generalities don’t. A lazy copywriter might write, “Key to a successful chemical plant is equipment that works - without problems or breakdowns. Setting? And our gear drive works and works and works - a long, long time.

Put it in place, turn it on, and forget about it. It’s that simple. Sounds nice, but empty. Resume Ru? Exactly how reliable is the gear drive? How long can it go without maintenance?

What proof do you offer for essay language, your claims of superior reliability? This is resume ru what the buyer wants to know. Agrores? So the skilled copywriter fills his catalog copy with specifics that give the answers: “Continuous internal lubricating sprays keep our gear drives well oiled and virtually friction free. Language Language? As a result, there’s no wear and tear, and service life is greatly increased. In laboratory tests, our system has operated 25,000 hours nonstop. In the field, we have more than 25,000 units installed and resume agrores not a single failure.” 4. How To Write A Research In Middle School? Descriptive heads and breakers. Resume Agrores? Don’t settle For headlines, subheads or breakers that are merely labels for the product (“Gear Drive,” “Series 2000 Hose Reels,” “Spiral Ultrafilter”). ? Instead, put some sell in your headlines.

State a benefit. Promise to solve a problem. Mention the industries that can use the product. Tell its applications. Describe the ru range of sizes, colors or models available. Give news about the product. Or stress the ease of product evaluation and selection in your catalog. Some examples: · A Quick and Easy Guide to henry david thoreau essays Hose Selection. · Widest Selection of Laboratory Stoppers from 1/4 to 1 foot in diameter - rubber, plastic, glass and cork.

· Tower packing for chemical plants, refineries, paper mills - dozens of other applications. · Color-coded Floppy diskettes Save Time And Make your Life Easy! Here’s the Full Story: 5. Make it easy to order. If your catalog is one of those monsters jammed with tables of resume agrores ru, product specs, be sure to explain these tables to your readers up front. Tell what’s in write a research paper school, the tables and how to resume use them to select the no exit setting essays product. Give simple procedures and formulas to aid in product selection. Illustrate with a few examples. Also, make sure your reader knows who to call for assistance or order placement. 6. Make it easy to read. Resume Ru? Use short, familiar words.

Short sentences. Short paragraphs with space between each. Stick in clocking ezzell, underlines, bullets, boldface type and breakers for emphasis. Resume Agrores? A catalog crammed with technical date and tiny type is a bore and constitution comparison a strain on the eyes. You can make your business catalog effective and yet fun and resume agrores ru easy to read. 7. Stress benefits, benefits, benefits. Constitution Essay? What the product does for the reader is ru more important than how it works, how you made it, who invented it, how long you’ve been making it, or how well it has sold. 10 Ways to Organize Your Catalog.

Business-to-business catalog marketers have more options to choose from when organizing their catalogs than they probably think. Here are 10 methods, along with the pros and thoreau essays cons of each. 1. By product demand. You can organize your catalog by ru the sales each product generate. Clocking Cultures? Put your best-seller up front and give them a full or half-page each. Slower-moving merchandise appears at the back of the book with a quarter-page or less.

Dead items are dropped altogether. This organizational technique takes advantage o a principle first articulated by David Ogilvy: “Back your winners, and abandon your losers.” It puts your promotional dollars where they’ll do the resume agrores ru most good; BUT in large or highly technical product catalogs, it may cause some confusion. 2. By application. The Faultless Division of Axia Incorporated organized its caster catalog by application. The catalog has casters for general duty, light duty, light-medium duty up to heavy duty, textiles, scaffolds, floor trucks and furniture.

Organizing according to application makes it easy for your customer to cultures ezzell find the product that solves his problem. The disadvantage of this scheme is redundancy: many products handle multiple applications and resume must be listed (or cross-referenced) in more than one section. 3. By function. A software catalog can be organized by the function each program performs: word processing, financial analysis, data base management accounting, inventory, graphics, communications. Obviously, this scheme won’t work in a catalog where all the equipment performs the clocking essay same task (e.g., a catalog of pollution-control equipment or safety valves).

4. By type of equipment. Radio Shack’s consumer electronics catalogs are organized by resume product group: stereos on one page, car radios on the next, followed by VCRs, computers, and clocking tape recorders. This scheme is a natural for companies that carry multiple product lines. 5. By “system hierarchy.” This technique organizes by resume agrores the level at which each component fits into the overall system. For example, if you manufacture computer hardware, your catalog can begin with the turnkey systems you offer. Next come the henry david thoreau essays major components: terminals, printers, plotters, disk drives, keyboards, processors. Then you get to the board level, showing the resume agrores various optional circuit boards you offer for memory expansion, interfaces, communications, instrument control, and other functions. Finally, you could even get down to the chip level - assuming you sell chips as separate items. Supplies: paper, printer ribbons, diskettes, instruction manuals, would go in a separate section at the end of the catalog. This unit/sub unit/sub-sub unit approach is ideal for manufacturers who sell both complete systems and component parts. 6. No Exit Setting Essays? By price.

If you sell similar products that vary mainly in agrores ru, quality and price, you can organize your catalog by selling price. I your customers are concerned with savings, start with the constitution comparison essay cheapest items and work up. If you’re selling to resume agrores an upscale group willing to pay a premium for english international language, the deluxe model, start with high-priced versions and work down. This technique is excellent for organizing a catalog of resume, premiums and essay language incentives. After all, an ad manager searching for a premium has a price range in mind, not necessarily a specific product. 7. By scarcity.

If your catalog features hard-to-get items, consider putting them up front, even on the cover. Ru? This makes your catalog more valuable by write a research paper school offering the buyer products he needs but can’t get anywhere else. Don’t worry that these hard-to-find items aren’t big sellers. When the customer knows your catalog has a stock of rare merchandise (and pulls your catalog to agrores ru order it), he’ll be more inclined to do his other business with you, too. 8. Henry David Essays? By size. If you make one product and the basic selection criterion is size, it’s natural to organize your catalog by size (dimensions, weight, horsepower, BTUs, or whatever). This is handy for catalogs with boilers, motors, shipping drums, envelopes, light bulbs, air conditioners, and ru other equipment selected mainly on a size basis. 9. By model number. If you’ve worked out a sensible numbering system for your product line, organize your catalog by model number. If there’s a simple meaning to your numbering system, explain it at the start of the catalog.

And don’t rely solely on teaching how to a research in middle school, the model numbers to describe your products; include headings and descriptive text, as well. 10. Alphabetically. If no other organization works for you, you can always organize alphabetically. A large tool catalog can start with adjustable strap clamps and angle plates and end with wing nuts and wrenches. Resume? Or a vitamin catalog can start with Vitamin A and end with Zinc. Tricks of the write Trade: 5 Ways to Make Your Catalog Pull. Sensible organization, crisp photography, bold graphics, and powerful copywriting are the keys to a successful catalog. But experienced catalog marketers also use dozens of sales-boosting gimmicks that have little to do with the basics of salesmanship or good copywriting. All we know is resume ru that these tricks of the trade work - and that’s reason enough to use them. Here are five that may be helpful to you:

1. Include a letter. To add a personal touch to your product catalog, write a “personal letter” to your customers from the president of your firm. How To? The letter can be printed inside the front cover or run off on resume ru, letterhead and bound into the catalog. How To Write? You can use this type of letter to introduce the catalog, explain your ordering system, state a company “philosophy,” stress your dedication to service and quality, or alert the reader to new, discounted, and other special offerings. Whatever your message, adding a letter to a catalog almost always increases sales. 2. Bursts. Often used by cereal-makers to alert children to the prize inside the box, the “burst” (a star-shaped graphic with a copy line inside) also can draw a reader to special items within a catalog. Burata highlight “price-off” deals, free trials, guarantees, and quantity discounts. Use bursts and other special graphic techniques (such as underlining, colored or boldface type, fake handwriting) sparingly. Overuse dilutes their effect.

3. Last-minute specials. Insert into your catalog a separate sheet featuring items added to your product line or discounted at the last minute. Tell the customer these bargains were included just in resume ru, time for mailing, but too late to print in the catalog. Write Snoring? This insert generates additional sales because people like to be “in” on the latest developments. 4. Give technical information and resume agrores tips of a general nature. The usefulness of this information will encourage buyers to keep your catalog. Setting? And the longer they have it, the more often they’ll order from it. For instance, a hardware catalog might include an article or table titled, “A Guide to Screw Selection.” A filtration catalog could include tips on “How to Clean and Care for Filters.” 5. Put your catalog in a three-ring binder. Expensive, but people won’t throw out a hardback binder as readily as they would an resume agrores, ordinary paperback catalog.

Your customer also is more likely to keep your binder on his shelf because it’s too bulky for the filing cabinet. Tricks of the Trade: 5 More Sales Boosters For Your Catalog. In addition to using good photography, clear copywriting and constitution sensible catalog organization, throw in a few sales-boosting gimmicks to pull in more orders. The prior issue of B/BCM gave you five of resume, them. Here are five more. 1. Include product samples.

You get two advantages. ? First, mailings which have three-dimensional objects inside are more likely to be opened than flat envelopes. Second, engineers and other technical buyers often like to play with product samples, keeping them handy on their desks or shelves. A fine example of this technique was used in a brochure for agrores, Gore-Tex, a sealant that prevents leaks in clocking essay, pipe sections when you bolt them together. The sample sealant was stuck to a photo of a pipe flange in the exact position it would be used in resume, real life. The copy told the reader to remove the sample and put it through a series of simple tests (accomplished in 5 minutes at his desk) to demonstrate its effectiveness. 2. David? List Your Customers.

Include a complete list of all the firms that have bought from you, whether you have 300 or 3,000 names. Seeing such a list in print makes a powerful impression on your customers. They’ll think, “How can I go wrong buying from these guys? Everybody in the world does business with them.” 3. Include an order form. Make it easy to fill out. Leave enough space for resume, customers to write in needed information. Bind it into the catalog so it won’t be lost/misplaced.

If your products can’t be ordered by mail, include a “spec sheet.” The spec sheet asks the prospect to provide key information on his applications (such as, size of plant, hours of operation, type of process, and so on). With this information in hand, you can specify the equipment the teaching how to write paper in middle school prospect needs and tell him what it will cost. 4. Include a business reply envelope (BRE). Resume Agrores Ru? The BRE is a self-addressed, postage-paid envelope the prospect can use to mail the order form or spec sheet back to resume agrores ru you. Practically every consumer catalog has a BRE. Most business catalogs don’t. Business-to-business marketers think, “My prospect works in an office; he has a supply of envelopes and language international a postage meter handy. Agrores? He doesn’t care about the david essays cost of postage, and agrores ru he can have his secretary take care of addressing the envelope.” This may be true, but a BRE still boosts the response rate in business catalogs.

Why? Not because they save the henry essays buyer 20 cents, but because they flag readers to notice you’d like them to respond to your catalog. In the ru same way, a coupon in an ad increases the teaching how to write a research paper in middle school number of people who phone or write letters. Resume Ru? The coupon says, “This is a direct-response ad. A response is the appropriate next step if you’re interested in the product.” 5. Make it an event. Industrial buyers get a lot of catalogs in the mail, so the essays boredom factor is high.

Anything you can do to resume agrores ru make your catalog mailing special, to stand out from the crowd, will boost sales and resume ru inquiries. One manufacturer sent a pound of chili powder with each catalog, along with a cover letter proclaiming, “The Hottest Catalog in the Office Supplies Industry.” With a little imagination, you’ll come up with an approach that fits your catalog and customers. How To Prepare To Write Your Catalog Copy. Most catalog marketers and many writers don’t know how to go about researching, writing or editing a catalog. Here is a simple four-step procedure for getting ready to have your catalog copy written. These techniques can be used by writers, advertising and marketing managers, and ad agencies alike. Step #1: Collect background information. Writing catalog copy seldom requires original research. Usually the products to be included in language language, the catalog have already been described in previous brochures, flyers, ads and data sheets.

Collecting and resume agrores ru organizing this printed material is the first and most crucial step in getting ready to write the catalog copy. The cataloger should send the writer all pertinent product literature received from the manufacturer. (And if the catalog house doesn’t have it, it must be solicited.) For an existing product, this info can include ad tear sheets, brochures, old catalogs, article reprints, technical papers, press kits, audio-visual scripts, direct mail promotions and clocking cultures carol spec sheets. If the product is new or manufactured by resume agrores ru the catalog company itself, these publications may not exist. But the birth of any new product is accompanied by comparison mounds of paperwork which can be sent to the writer, including internal memos, letters of technical information, product specifications, engineering drawings, photos of prototypes, business and resume ru marketing plans, reports and sales proposals. If the catalog house is setting essays supplying the copywriter with information on many products, file folders should be used to separate source material by product.

Include a brief note with each folder indicating whether the enclosed background material is complete and up-to-date and, if not, who the resume agrores ru writer can call to fill in the gaps. Be sure to constitution comparison mark the source material to indicate what information should be included in the catalog and what should not. Also, note any changes in size, color, accessories, weight or other product specifications. Step #2: Study the resume agrores ru previous catalogs, previous ads and promotional pieces, etc. The writer will have to study all promotional information disseminated over the past few years.

He will use ideas, formats and techniques that work; discarding those that don’t. Cultures Ezzell Essay? The cataloger should let the writer know about any “mandatory” format or stylistic requirements. For example, in IBMs computer catalog, “PC GUIDE,” all software write-ups include an “at-a-glance” table: a concise summary of product features and benefits. All writers are instructed by IBM’s ad agency to resume include this table with their copy. Step #3: Set a direction. If the no exit catalog house has instructions or suggestions it wants followed, they should be written down and shared with the writer. The cataloger might have definite ideas on how he wants his catalog arranged and organized.

Or, he may prefer one style of copy to another. But the copywriter can’t read his mind. He must tell the writer his preferences. Some writers might object, “But isn’t it up to the writer to set the tone, style, content and organization? Isn’t that what the marketer pays the resume ru writer for?” Experience shows that with catalogs, marketers have their preferred ways of doing things. And rarely is comparison a freelancer or agency going to make revolutionary changes from one year’s catalog to the next. A recent help-wanted ad placed by resume agrores ru a catalog marketer said a freelance copywriter was needed to write about garden tools and henry david products in resume agrores, a “homey” style. If a homey style is a research in middle school what they want, the company is not going to change to a “high tech” or corporate, formal style because a freelancer comes along and prefers to resume agrores ru write it that way.

Instead, they’ll get another freelancer. So the writer had better understand the constitution essay company’s style and the way they want their copy written. Step #4: The catalog marketer must be available. Once the writer has the agrores ru background information and a research in middle school knows what the marketer wants, he is ready to write the copy. At this point, he needs the marketer available to answer questions, gather additional information and review rough drafts, outlines or concepts. If the cataloger is resume agrores not available, the project will be held up until the writer gets the information, feedback or approval he needs.

All catalog marketer should make sure their people support the copywriter’s efforts. A good bet is to appoint one employee to act as liaison between catalog company and writer. It’s inefficient for a writer to have to track down the many people in a company who are involved with the catalog and its creation. How To Write Catalog Copy and Avoid “Writer’s Block” Copywriters who have no trouble dishing up a sales letter or ad suddenly “freeze” when faced with the task of producing 180 lines of 44 characters each for a catalog. They find catalog writing more difficult - perhaps because it’s more restrictive. In an ad or sales letter, the how to paper in middle school writer is pretty free to “let loose.” But in a catalog he is limited in space and resume agrores ru confined to following the catalog’s set tone, format and style. Here’s a simple three-step process to help you overcome “catalog copywriter’s block.” 1. In the first stage, you simply ignore the constraints of space, format, and henry style and just write . Resume Agrores? Let the essay language words flow.

Write whatever comes naturally. Don’t worry about resume agrores ru, whether what you’re writing is good or sensible or “right.” You’ll have a chance to go back and fix it later. ? Right now, just let the words pour out. Some writers like to keep two pads (or a typewriter and a pad) in front of them as they write. The first pad is used for resume agrores ru, composing the english language international copy. Any stray thoughts or phrases that come to mind, but don’t fit in with the copy, are jotted down on the second pad for future reference. 2. In the second phase, you edit your rough first draft to make it better. Editing consists of: · Deleting unnecessary words and phrases, · Adjusting the copy to the exact word length the agrores specs call for, · Rewriting awkward phrases, · Making sure all necessary facts are included, · Reordering copy points to make the organization more logical, · Making copy conform to catalog format and style (adding tables, call-outs, charts, or special sections, as needed), · Rewriting to fit the overall “tone” of the catalog. 3. The third step is polishing.

Polishing means proofreading, checking for henry thoreau, errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, capitalization, and abbreviation. It also involves checking such details as patent numbers, product numbers, product specifications, registration marks, trademarks and technical accuracy. Every writer has a “creative” side and an “analytical” or “editing” side. The creative side comes up with the resume agrores ideas; the editing side holds the ideas up to the cold light of teaching write school, day and resume judges their effectiveness. Both sides are needed in copywriting, but should be used in language international, separate and distinct phases of the writing process, as outlined above. Resume Agrores? When you try to how to be creative and analytical at resume ru, the same time, your editing facilities inhibit your creative facilities, and writer’s block result. This is especially true in catalog writing where guidelines can be more rigorous than in other forms. How To Write Effective Catalog Copy. Before you approve your catalog copy and send it to the typesetter, you want to be sure that it’s right . Getting it right involves more than the basics of spelling and punctuation. No Exit? It involves more than avoiding superlatives and generalities about your merchandise.

Here’s a handy checklist to help you review your present copy. As you put your copy to this test, look for ways to incorporate these “rules” into your specific copy style. 1. Resume Agrores? Is your copy in the right order? Is there a logical scheme to the presentation of copy points about teaching write a research paper in middle, your merchandise? And have you been faithful to this organizational principle throughout?

Is this the best way to organize your items in your catalog? Or would another method make more sense? 2. Is it persuasive? Does your copy begin with a strong selling message? Have you used copy to indicate your sales message on the catalog cover? Do individual headlines promise solutions to reader problems and draw the readers into the product descriptions? Does the body copy stress user benefits as well as technical features? 3. Is it complete?

If the catalog is designed to generate direct sales, does it include all the information the reader needs to make a buying decision? Does it make it easy for the customer to specify and order the product? If the catalog is resume agrores ru designed to generate leads, does it contain enough information to henry david thoreau interest qualified prospects? Does it encourage them to take the next step in the buying process? Have you described products fully? Have you included all important details such as size, operating efficiency, model numbers, equipment compatibility, materials of construction, accessories, and resume ru options? 4. Is it clear? Is the copy understandable and easy to read?

Are all technical terms defined, all abbreviations spelled out? Is it written at the reader’s level of technical understanding? 5. Is it consistent? Have you been consistent in your use of logos, trademarks, spellings, abbreviations, punctuation, grammar, capitalization, units of measure, table and chart formats, layouts, copy style, visuals? 6. Is it accurate? Is the copy technically accurate? Has an engineer checked all numbers, specifications, and calculations to make sure they are correct? Have you carefully proofread tables, lists, and other “fine print?” Do the photos show the current models or versions of your product? Have you matched the right photo to each item description? 7. Is it interesting? Is your catalog attractive to teaching how to a research in middle school look at, lively and informative to read?

Or is it boring? The typeface you choose for your copy, and the style of layout in which you print it, encourage the agrores viewer’s desire to read the copy. 8. Is it believable? Is the constitution comparison essay copy sincere or full of agrores, ballyhoo? Have you used graphs, charts, photos, test results, testimonials, and statistics to back up your product claims? 9. Have you included all necessary “boilerplate” copy?

This includes areas such as: effective and expiration dates of prices, “how-to-order” info, notification of possible price changes, payment terms and methods, shipping and handling information, returns policy, quantity discounts, credit terms, sales tax, trademark information, copyright line, disclaimers, guarantees, warranties, limits of vendor liability. 10. Is it easy to place an order? Does your copy explain how to how to snoring order? Is there an order form? Is the agrores order form easy to fill out? And is there enough space to david write in the required information? Is a business reply envelope enclosed or attached to the order form? For a lead-generating catalog, is a reply card, spec sheet, or other reply element included? Have you made clear to the reader what the next step is in resume agrores ru, the buying process? If you need information to design or specify a system, have you made it clear and thoreau easy for the reader to send you this information?

If you want the reader to request more literature, have you described the agrores ru literature and made it easy to send for these brochures? If you think the words “easy” and “clear” have been overused in this guidelines, you’re wrong. How To Write Snoring? Everything you can do to resume make your message clearer and try keep ordering a simple process will be reflected in your bottom line. In Catalog Copywriting, the Selling Starts on the Cover. Magazine and book publishers put a lot of time, money and thought into producing attractive, intriguing covers for their publications. Teaching Write In Middle School? They know that if a book or magazine has a dull or uninteresting cover, please won’t pick it up and resume agrores buy it. And so it is with your catalog. A bland, “technical-looking” cover promises a dull recitation of setting essays, specifications and ru turns readers off. A cover with an in middle, enticing illustration and a strong selling message arouses curiosity and prods readers to open the catalog. Here are three suggestions for spicing up your catalog cover: (1) Sell the Product line. A catalog is really a “store in a mailbox.” The more complete the store, the more likely the customer will return to do all his shopping - again and again.

A comprehensive product line is a big selling point. Why not stress it on resume agrores ru, the cover? Example : Let’s say you sell fasteners and have 3,200 product variations. Your catalog shows only 1,250 models. An ideal headline for your cover would be, “HERE ARE 1,950 FASTENERS YOU CAN’T FIND ANYWHERE ELSE.” Underneath would be a photo of the henry thoreau fasteners which you have and your competitors don’t. Agrores? Introductory copy on the first inside page would explain the advantages of your broader product line. (2) Sell solutions. Sometimes, buyers aren’t looking for constitution essay, specific products; they’re looking for solutions to problems.

You’ll win them over if you show how your product solves the resume agrores ru problem. Example: The records administrator at a busy hospital has a problem organizing paper files, finding space to essay english international language fit all the files, and being able to quickly pull a record when a doctor needs it. Agrores Ru? This administrator is swamped with paper, but doesn’t know what to do. Your microfilm storage systems are the essay international language ideal solution to this problem, but the ru records administrator isn’t thinking of essay english, microfilm. So, a cover with the ordinary headline “A Complete Line of Micrographic Equipment and Accessories” won’t sell him. A headline that will sell him is “How to Reduce a Mountain of Paper Files to a Neat Stack of Microfiche. and Find Any File in as Little as 15 Seconds.” This headline sells a solution , not a product. (3) Sell service. Product superiority is only one reason why folks do business with a company.

There are many others: price, convenience, toll-free number, credit extended, trust, reputation, fast delivery, friendly salespeople, guarantee, service and maintenance. You can generate interest in your catalog by selling these services and intangibles - rather than the agrores ru products - on the cover. Example : Stress service and maintenance when keeping the product running is as important as the teaching how to a research quality of the resume ru product itself. Millions of people have paid a premium for IBM personal computers because they know IBM will be there to fix the machine when something goes wrong. Stressing your guarantee is another way of selling service commitment.

Stress name, image, and reputation when selling expensive equipment and systems. Buyers want to know that you have the resources to support your system for language, years to come, and that you’ll be around at least as long as the product lasts. Start Selling On Your Catalog Cover: Three More Ways To Generate Sales. Consider that if your catalog cover doesn’t make the resume agrores ru viewer want to open the book, you’re wasting expensive pace. Here are a few ways to no exit setting essays ensure that reader will look through your catalog, before they reach for resume, your competitor’s. (4) Start the catalog on the cover.

Instead of using the cover as a mere “introduction,” or even a self-contained sales message, you can start your catalog copy right on the cover. This is an effective way to draw the essay english language international reader inside the book. Naturally this cover copy should feature your most popular or hard-to-get item. (5) Put a letter on the cover. Nothing builds personality into resume agrores a dry-as-dust catalog as effectively as a “personal” letter from the company president. If getting people to warm up to you is your problem - and it might be with new customers or with customers who have been “burned” by your products in the past - you can address the essay language reader directly with a letter right on the cover. The letter should be written in a warm, friendly, personal style. And it should be set in typewriter type, not phototype. (6) Add a wrapper. Wrappers are used to “shout” a sales message.

In supermarkets, four bars of soap are bundled with a yellow wrapper exclaiming, “Buy Three, Get One Free!” And this technique is even working its way into bookstores: Stephen Fox’s new book on the history of advertising ( The Mirror Makers ) was wrapped with a banner singing its praises from David Ogilvy and Rosser Reeves. The same technique can be applied to catalog covers. If you’ve got a great new product, a price-off deal, or a major improvement in resume agrores ru, service, delivery, reliability - announce it with a bright banner wrapped around the cover. How To Select the Right Writer for Your Catalog. Unless you’re a professional writer or have one on staff, you need to hire an ad agency or freelancer to write your catalog copy. The first step in henry david thoreau, hiring a writer is to find a writer. Resume? And one of the best ways is through referrals . Ask your vendor, client and colleague to recommend a good catalog writer. People likely to know the name of a writer include printers, graphic designers, list brokers, magazine space reps, ad agencies, PR firms, and constitution essay advertising or marketing managers of resume agrores ru, local firms. Ask them all. Other sources of , names are directories and trade journals.

One annual directory with a section listing freelance copywriters is the Adweek/Art Directors’ Index USA . Many freelancers also run ads in advertising journals, local newspapers and the Yellow Pages under “writer,” “copywriter,” or “advertising.” An alternative is to run your own “help-wanted” ad. A small classified ad is likely to yield dozens of replies. Once you’ve found writers, decide who’s right for resume ru, you. Qualifications to look for include: 1. Catalog experience. Look for a writer of descriptive product copy in catalogs, brochures, product data sheets and setting essays other long-copy areas. Someone whose experience is limited to radio commercials or image-building print ads may not be able to dig for product facts. They may not have the expertise to agrores ru write the no exit setting type of sustained selling copy that works so well in catalogs. 2. Experience in your industry. The kind of writer already familiar with your product understands your “jargon” and can communicate with your sales and product people.

Less time will be spent to educate the writer (he already knows your market, applications, and technology). You’re also more likely to ru get copy that’s on target the constitution first time written. Hiring a bra and lingerie writer to produce an electronics catalog may be a “learning experience” for ru, the writer, but it’s a risk for teaching how to a research in middle school, the marketer. 3. Check samples. Ask the writer to send you his two or three best writing samples. Read the copy carefully.

Are you excited to find exactly the kind of writing you want? Or are you wondering how you’ll get the resume agrores ru writer to write the way you think it should be done? Hire the writer whose idea of how to write copy is in “sync” with your own. Don’t hire the opposite and hope you’ll force him to change. It will be a disaster for both of clocking, you. 4. Check out the writer. Resume Agrores? Meet the writer or have a chat over the phone. Do you feel comfortable with the language writer’s attitude, personality, and method of doing business? Or do you think the agrores ru two of you would butt heads at every step?

Producing a catalog is how to snoring tough, so don’t add major personality conflicts to the job. Pick the writer with whom you feel most comfortable. And don’t spend too much time weighing pros and cons. Go with instinct, especially your first impression. 5. Resume? Discuss fees up front. All professional relationships should begin with an understanding of fee structure and billing methods. If this isn’t settled now, it may be later - in teaching how to write school, court. Ask what the writer charges, and resume agrores how. Catalog writers are compensated in many ways: by how to write snoring the item, by the page, by the project, by agrores the hour, by the day, by the week. Payment varies widely by writer, region, and type of how to write a research paper, product.

A page of agrores ru, copy can cost anywhere from $100 to $800 and up. 6. Put it in writing. The agreement between the two of write paper, you should be a written purchase order or letter of resume ru, agreement. You’ll help avoid misunderstandings later on teaching how to write a research paper school, by spelling out what you’re buying and what the writer’s selling. Cover all possibilities.

For example, what happens if you add extra items to the catalog or require extensive revision on the copy? First check for experience, then make sure there are no major area of conflict. Your copywriter will bear plenty of responsibility for the success of your catalog, so choose carefully. Where Will You Get Your Next Great Idea? It’s in Your Mailbox.

Catalog marketers pay thousands of dollars to consultants and ad agencies For marketing ideas. Resume Agrores? But you can get dozens of new ideas, FREE ideas, by studying catalogs produced by other firms. And getting these catalogs is easy. Before you know it, your mailbox can be crammed with all sorts of catalogs - each containing a storehouse of great concepts you can use in your own marketing. First, get hold of a stack of trade journals. Next, circle the reader service card numbers of ads and news items offering free catalogs. Here, for constitution comparison, example, is just a sampling of the kinds of ideas, techniques and resume agrores tips you can find in catalogs you could receive this month: 1. Use product photos that demonstrate the product. When people are skeptical, use your catalog to provide a product demonstration in print.

Take computer paper, for example. With cheap brands, it’s hard to setting tear off the perforated edges and sometimes the printed document rips in the process. In its computer supplies catalog, Moore pictures a pair of hands pulling the perforated strips off Moore’s paper easily and cleanly. Kudos to Moore - not many others have thought of a way to resume demonstrate a piece of paper in write paper, a photo. 2. Add value to agrores ru the product. Constitution Comparison Essay? Nixdorf Computer’s “Solutionware” software catalog offers many of the ru same programs as other catalogs. The difference? Nixdorf has created a powerful list of seven “extras” you get when ordering from the Solutionware catalog. These include toll-free phone support, free delivery and a free newsletter.

This list of goodies appears at the beginning of the clocking cultures carol book with a repeat on resume ru, the order form. The reader knows he gets more for his money when he buys his programs through Solutionware, instead of henry david essays, another catalog or a computer store. 3. Give the buyer free information. Resume Ru? Thomson’s 83-page catalog of ball bearings and shafts includes 17 pages on how to select, size and install the equipment. Engineers will keep the catalog on hand because it contains this useful information. By adding tips on maintenance, repair, troubleshooting, applications and operation, you can increase demand for - and readership of - your catalog. If your information is exceptionally helpful, it can elevate your catalog to the status of a reference work. Customers will keep it on their shelves for years.

4. Help the reader shop. Compatibility is resume a big problem when selling computers and computer-related equipment and supplies. A big question on the buyer’s mind is, “Will this product work with my equipment?” In an otherwise ordinary computer supply catalog, Transnet gives its readers a bonus with a two-page “diskette compatibility chart.” The chart lists the major brands and models of microcomputers alphabetically, along with the specific make of floppy disk designed for each machine. Uncertainty and confusion are eliminated. The buyer can place his order with confidence. 5. Show the Results of using the resume agrores product, not just the clocking carol ezzell product itself. Day-Timers recent catalog of calendars, pocket diaries and appointment book sis, as expected, illustrated with product photos. But instead of depicting blank books, the photos show calendars and diaries filled with handwritten appointments and notes. This adds realism and believability to the catalog. It also shows how the calendar or diary could help organize the reader’s life and schedule.

6. Turn your catalog into a “shopping system.” A catalog is more than a book of just product descriptions; it’s a one-stop shopping center for your complete product line. For this reason, ease of use should be a major consideration in the conceptual phase of catalog design. In the IBM Cabling System catalog, the first two sections of copy are “How to resume agrores Use This Catalog” and “How to a research Order.” No introduction, no letter from the president, no product description - just simple, straightforward instructions on how to shop with the catalog. Another nice touch is agrores ru that the price list is printed opposite teaching how to a research, the order form, so the buyer doesn’t have to ru search through the catalog to constitution find prices for resume agrores, the items being ordered. How To Determine Your Proper Copy “Tone.” “Catalog copy should be brisk, concise, stripped-down prose,” one expert told me. Cultures Essay? “Cram as many facts as you can. Use bullets, sentence fragments, word lists. Don’t waste time with fancy sales talk; just pile on the description.” “Catalog copy should talk to the reader, as one friend talking to another,” said another expert. “Use conversational copy to build sales arguments that compel the reader to resume agrores ru buy the product. The sales pitch - not a pile of technical specifications - is what counts.” Should catalog copy be in prose form or bullet form?

Should it be clipped and concise or leisurely and conversational? Crammed with facts or written to entertain as well as educate? Though no two experts agree, here are some factors to a research help you determine the tone and resume ru style of your catalog copy: 1. Space is obviously the teaching how to write paper greatest limitation. If you have only one column-inch per resume, item, you’ve got to write lean, bare-bones, telegraphic copy. Write the basic facts, and nothing more. If you have a full-page per item, you have the essays luxury of resume agrores, writing a conversational, ad-style sales pitch on each product. Keep in mind, however, that length alone does not make copy better. Waffling on and saying nothing is essay not good selling copy. Also remember that a catalog can have as many pages and agrores ru items as you want it to.

So, if the product can’t be adequately described in , the space available, you should consider adding more pages. 2. The product. The copy style varies according to the type of resume agrores ru, product being sold. A catalog selling laboratory equipment naturally contains some highly technical language, while a catalog of bridal accessories has a warm, friendly tone. Comparison Essay? The complexity of the product also affects the resume ru length of the copy; you can say more about a microprocessor than you can about a stick of chewing gum. 3. Purpose.

A catalog from how to write, which the customer can order directly must have complete product information and technical specifications. Copy has to be clear, comprehensive, and ru to-the-point. A catalog used as a sales aid can be more “salesy” and essay english language less all-encompassing than the direct-order catalog. A promotional catalog geared to whetting the customer’s appetite will contain benefit-oriented headlines and subheads, highly sales-oriented copy, and sophisticated graphics to engage the resume agrores ru reader’s attention. Remember, however, that no matter what the purpose of your catalog, not furnishing enough details can be a sales deterrent.

The promotional catalog minus enough information may never stimulate the customer’s inquiry. 4. The buyer. How sophisticated is the buyer? How much does he already know about the product and its uses? How much more does he want to know?

A paint catalog aimed at professional painters need only describe the color, composition, and other features of the various paints. A catalog selling paint to the consumer would have to provide more of an education in the basics: types of paints available, pros and cons of each, applications best suited to each kind of paint, plus tips on how to apply paint. 5. Buyer/seller relationship. If your buyers are already sold on your firm and have a tradition of doing business with you, your catalog can be a simple, straightforward description of henry thoreau essays, your latest offerings. On the agrores other hand, prospects who don’t know you and your firm will have to be convinced that they should do their business with you instead of your competitor. Comparison? So a catalog aimed at this type of buyer will have to do a lot more selling and company image-building. The type of relationship you wish to have with your customers will also affect the ru tone you use (warm and friendly, formal and highly professional, etc). 6. Past experience. Measure catalog results to your best ability and agrores ru try to teaching how to a research learn from past experience. Ru? If cutting copy from henry thoreau essays, a full-page of hard-selling prose to a terse quarter-page entry doesn’t reduce sales, cut the copy and resume agrores ru get more items per how to write snoring, page. If increasing each item from a quarter-page to agrores ru a full-page boosts sales 500 percent, consider expanding all entries to a full-page and increasing the size of the catalog.

Remember, every situation is different. In the final analysis, the best way to set the tone and length of your copy is to know what works with your market and clocking cultures essay your customer. Should Catalog Copy Tell the Truth? The public is skeptical of the claims made in consumer ads and TV commercials. But business-to-business copy often has been more honest, less subject to puffery. The reason is that the resume business buyer is considered more sophisticated.

If repeat business is wanted, it doesn’t pay to lie to make one quick sale. But no one pretends that catalog copy (or any other promotional copy) is as objective as a newspaper story. Agrores Ru? Everyone knows copy is written to get people to buy the product. Clocking Cultures? The copywriter is resume expected to say only nice things, even things that may stretch the clocking carol truth a bit. But how far should one go in order to make the sale? Here are some guidelines:

1. Resume? Stress the Positive. ? You don’t need to ru lie to sell. Every product has its good features. Henry? Dig to find them and highlight these points in copy. Resume Agrores? If you can’t find enough positives, re-evaluate carrying the product. 2. Omit negatives. Never bad-mouth your own product in catalog copy.

Stress the cultures positive features; leave out the negatives. Don’t feel compelled to discuss your product’s problems. Resume Agrores Ru? The competition will be glad to a research paper in middle do that for you. If you were to criticize your product, you’d be unable to compete because none of your competitors would follow your practice. Buyers would hear the negatives of your product, but not of others. Resume? So they’d buy the other product. There are three exceptions to this rule . The first is when everybody knows about a problem.

In this case, since you can’t avoid talking about it, you may as well bring it out in the open and deal with it there. Second is when you’ve eliminated a problem. Talk about it, followed immediately with remarks on how you ended the problem or improved it. This tactic turns a negative into a positive. Third is when the negative aspect is offset by comparison an even greater positive. For example, a negative of your outdoor tool shed is resume agrores ru that it’s made of a cheap- looking aluminum instead of the attractive redwood used by the competition. But the positive is that the henry david thoreau aluminum is lightweight, easy to install, never needs painting or other maintenance, won’t rot and lasts a lifetime - unlike the agrores ru wood. 3. ? Be specific. Many catalog marketers describe their product as “the fastest,” “the lowest cost,” “the most efficient,” or “the best performer” when they don’t really know how their product compares to others on the market.

Don’t make general statements you can’t prove because you may be caught in a lie. Ru? Even if you aren’t, buyers distrust general statements. ? Be specific. Say “loads the program in 2.5 seconds” or “price reduced to $495.95 or “detects moisture down to resume ru 3 parts per million.” Make specific, true claims, and people will believe you. 4. Essay? Be honest, but err on the side of optimism. Let’s say you tested the resume reliability of your product.

In 85 out of 100 tests, the product lasted 16 months before breaking down. In five tests it lasted longer (up to 17 months); in nine tests it broke down sooner (in 14 or 15 months); and one tested sample lasted only 10 months. You can feel comfortable claiming “lasts up to how to write snoring 16 months.” Product performance, test results, and other data can be interpreted in many ways. A catalog marketer should interpret data honestly, but in the best light possible. 5. If you must weasel, be straightforward. Your goal is to ship all orders within 48 hours, and usually you do.

But perhaps a third of the orders miss the resume agrores deadline by a half-day or so because of a heavy work schedule or special custom requirements. The statement, “All orders shipped within 48 hours” is a lie, because one-third of orders are not shipped within this deadline. Teaching Write School? The statement, “All orders shipped as soon as possible” is truthful, but weak. The solution is to promise your best and be honest about your limitations. For example: “We do our best to ship your order within 48 hours. But occasionally, it takes an extra day if our backlog is heavy or your order requires special customized work. In the past three years, no order has been shipped later than 72 hours after we’ve received it.” 6. Make promises you can keep. Then keep them. One function of promotional copy is to motivate the company to live up to its advertising.

In your copy it’s okay to make promises you intend to keep. For example, if you promise courteous service, train your customer representatives to be courteous. Agrores Ru? But don’t promise the most powerful computer chip on the market, if you don’t have the resources to teaching write in middle school produce it. 7. Never lie. Resume Ru? If you make a claim that is clearly a lie, you’ll be caught. The people you lied to will long remember, and your reputation in the industry will be tarnished. 8. Check the agrores truth of your statements. Does your catalog copy claim, “Ordering is as easy as picking up the phone?” Then try picking up the phone and ordering from no exit setting essays, your catalog. If the grandiose promises and proclamations you make in resume agrores ru, your catalog copy don’t reflect reality, either change the copy or, preferably, improve your way of doing business. It Pays to Become a Student of Marketing. Whether you write your own catalog copy or approve the work of others who do, it pays to add to your knowledge of the craft.

Not even the old pros know everything about constitution comparison, copywriting, advertising or marketing. Resume Agrores Ru? That’s what makes the business so exciting. It’s a life-long process of absorbing new information, developing new thinking and new ideas. And a week or month of study can pay for itself dozens of david, times if it yields even one profitable new idea or technique. It pays to become a student of catalog marketing and copywriting. Here are a few ways to do it: 1. Study catalogs. Resume Agrores Ru? Subscribe to trade journals in your field. Peruse newspapers, magazines, card decks. Keep the reader-service cards handy and cultures circle the number for every ad offering a catalog. Clip coupons; write for catalogs.

A steady stream will come pouring into your mailbox. Read these catalogs both for competitive information on agrores, your rivals’ products and to pick up new techniques in catalog writing and design. Keep an henry david thoreau essays, organized file of resume, catalogs that catch your fancy. Dip into how to write a research in middle this file for inspiration or a new idea. And just by reading, you’ll get a feel for resume agrores ru, what works (and what doesn’t) in catalog copy.

2. Books. Dozens of constitution comparison essay, books, maybe hundreds, have been written on effective advertising. Many of the best hold treasures for resume ru, the catalog marketer. Here are some classics: anything by David Ogilvy ( Confessions of an Advertising Man is the most widely read). Anything by John Caples (his best might be How to Make Your Advertising Make Money ). Claude Hopkins’ Scientific Advertising . Ed McLean’s monograph The Basics of Copy . Essay? Howard G. Sawyer’s book Business-to-Business Advertising. And the agrores ru hot-off-the-presses How to Create Successful Catalogs , a Maxwell Sroge publication. Also, go to the library or bookstore and read any advertising book that looks interesting to you. 3. Trade Magazines. The advertising journals print many helpful articles both on advertising in general and catalog marketing in carol essay, particular. Adweek had a recent article on agrores, improving your order form.

Advertising Age ran an article on catalog marketing some time ago. How To Write Snoring? DM News , Direct Marketing , and Business Marketing (and, of resume agrores, course, this newsletter ) are also recommended. Clip all relevant articles and save them in a file organized by subject. 4. Booklets. To promote themselves as experts, many ad agencies, marketing firms, list brokers, consultants and other vendors publish and distribute informational booklets on marketing and related subjects. Best of all, the booklets are usually free. Some in my file include “Direct Marketing: A User’s Guide” (Fala Direct Marketing), “A Handbook of Direct Marketing Terms” (Susan K. Jones Associates), “Seven Checklists for Successful Business Slide Presentations” (Cinegraph Slides, Inc.), “Workbook for Estimating Your Advertising Budget” (Cahners Publishing). 5. Professional Societies offer many sources of information: meetings, guest speakers, seminars, newsletters, booklets, monographs, courses. You also have the thoreau opportunity to meet people from whom you can learn, including your competition, other catalog marketers, ad agency people, consultants, freelancers, printers and resume agrores other vendors. The contacts you make and information you glean can quickly pay for the membership fee and time investment it takes to participate. 6. Seminars.

Each year, many public seminars are offered in all facets of clocking ezzell essay, advertising and promotion. The expense of these seminars ($295 to $895 for a three-day course) is more than compensated for by the valuable tips and ru expert advice they provide. Henry David? Getting such information from a seminar often is much less costly than hiring the seminar lecturer to consult on a private basis. 7. Ru? Classes. An inexpensive alternative to seminars is instruction given at local universities, community colleges and adult education centers. In New York City, for example, courses range from a one-evening lecture priced at $35 to eight and 10-week courses costing in the neighborhood of $150 to $225. Surprisingly, the paper in middle school caliber of the teachers and quality of information in these courses is often as good as or better than the resume ru more expensive public seminars.

8. Clocking Carol Essay? Brain picking. The quickest, best way to learn lots about ru, advertising is to find an expert and thoreau essays pick his brains. Many expert designers, copywriters and resume agrores consultants charge $500 to $2,000 a day for a formal consultation. If you meet one of these experts informally, at a party, a luncheon or a local advertising club, you might be able to how to snoring get some advice over cocktails or a game of golf. Experts love to talk shop, and agrores ru if they’re relaxed and at leisure, the ezzell essay talk is free. Use “Different Guidelines” For Insert Copy. Here’s why: When we say “catalog,” most of us think of the kind you distribute or mail to customers and prospects. But another important type of catalog is the industrial directory: books such as Thomas Register, Chemical Engineering Catalog, Pollution Equipment, News Buyers Guide , and others. Many companies find that inserting multi-page ads (ranging from two to 16 pages and more) in these directories, is the most productive catalog promotion they can do.

But writing these “inserts” (as they are referred to in these directories) is different than writing “free-standing” catalog copy. These tips will help you produce effective inserts. 1. Space is at a premium. You pay for your insert as you would for space advertising: each additional page increases the cost of the space by the directory’s page rate. To run your regular catalog might take your entire ad budget For the years. So you’ve got to ru condense your catalog to an affordable number of pages.

Rarely is there space to solicit direct order by mail. Instead, you concentrate on stressing product benefits and superior service so your insert will generate leads by phone. Also, you don’t have the room to describe every model and every variation in your line. Instead, you highlight your best products in abbreviated fashion . 2. Generate leads. This type of “insert,” like a yellow-pages ad, is essays primarily designed to get the prospect to respond with a phone call and say, “This looks like it might meet my needs. Agrores Ru? Tell me more.” Make it easy for the prospect to respond. Highlight your toll-free number throughout the copy, at least once on clocking carol, every page.

List regional offices and sales reps and their phone numbers (many people prefer to resume call locally). Also include addresses for people who prefer to make written inquiries. Give more than one phone extension so the reader won’t get a busy signal. Clocking Carol? Label products clearly so the reader knows what to ask for. If you offer a more detailed brochure on your products, give the brochure number or title so the reader can ask for it by name. 3. Skip the “cover.” Though brochures and resume agrores other kinds of inserts use the front cover as a graphic and image-building device (and sometimes leave the essay language international language back cover bare except for resume agrores, a logo), such a design tactic is a waste of money in a bound-in directory insert. You pay for each page, so run product descriptions on ALL pages , including the front and back “covers.” Don’t waste a single inch of no exit setting essays, costly space. You’ll have plenty o competition in these directories. More details and tips on how your “insert” can get the jump on them in resume, the next issue.

Guidelines For “Insert” Copy: How to Handle the comparison Competition. You have to play by different rules when you run an “insert” in resume agrores ru, industrial directories such as Thomas Register, Chemical Engineering Catalog, Pollution Equipment, News Buyers Guide, and no exit setting others. An “insert” in ru, this context is a multi-page ad ranging from two to 16 pages and essay more. While these inserts may be the most productive catalog promotion you can do, writing them is resume agrores different than writing for write snoring, your regular catalog. In the last issue, we discussed several differences: space is at a premium; the “lead” is what you go after (not the direct sale); and an introductory page (cover) to your insert is wasted space.

Here we continue with more tips to resume agrores ru help you produce effective inserts. 4. Consider the competition. Constitution Comparison? Your insert competes with all other inserts in the directory (or at least with inserts selling similar products). So it pays to make yours stand out. The best way to do this is with headlines and subheads that speak directly of the benefits of the products, what those products can do for the reader. Most directory inserts are poorly written: they consist of agrores ru, dry recitations of technical specifications and grainy black-and-white photos of the products against drop-cloth backgrounds. Make yours exciting . Show how the reader will come out ahead by setting doing business with you. Instead of resume ru, labeling an item, “Motionless Mixer,” write: “In-line motionless mixer cuts energy consumption 10 percent and never needs maintenance.”

5. Clocking Cultures Carol Ezzell Essay? Grab their eyes. Ru? The layout should be simple but also bold, crisp, and attractive. Use photos showing the product in operation or being installed in constitution, the field. Resume? Big headlines and subheads help tell the setting essays story and move the reader’s eye along the page. Short paragraphs and a clean typeface make the copy more readable. Resume? Make your page a pleasure to look at no exit setting essays, and to read. 6. Write in “directory” style.

A “Yellow-page” or other directory ad is different than a magazine ad. The magazine ad must rely on a clever headline and visual to stop a reader who may not be thinking of the product. In a directory, the reader is actively looking for resume ru, what your ad is selling. The effective directory ad is one that gives the reader what he is looking for. So it is with the insert. When the reader picks up the industrial directory, he has a specific need in henry thoreau essays, mind. A successful insert is one that addresses this need in a bold, direct fashion. For example, your steam trap may have many important features that help sell the product. But experience has taught you that when someone is ready to buy, their main concern is fast delivery.

Your insert headline should read, “High-performance steam traps-24-hour delivery guaranteed.” 7. Focus on product features, not catalog utility. Other columns have stressed the benefits of ru, making your catalog more valuable by including useful technical information in it. This turns your catalog into a technical reference work that the reader is inclined to keep around. But this doesn’t apply to resume agrores ru the directory insert. The insert is bound into a directory that the reader has paid for; he has every intention of keeping it until next year’s edition is available. Thoreau Essays? So including general advice and information is a waste of space. Instead, concentrate on resume agrores, describing and selling your products.

8. The insert on its own. You might be able to do “double duty” with your insert by using it as a free-standing piece as well as an insert. If you plan on doing this, think about how this affects design and copy. Can the insert stand on its own as is? Will you need to add a cover, additional copy or an order form?

How expensive will these changes be? Does a piece that works well as an insert have enough “sell” to function as a stand-alone brochure? By keeping all of these special issues in mind, you’ll be able to get maximum effect from your insert ad in any directory. Advertising In Industrial Directories Pays Off. In the last two issues we talked about english language language, multi-page ads in industrial directories and the special requirements of resume ru, writing them.

But if you can’t afford a multi-page ad, you can still advertise profitably in these directories with a space ad that’s only a fraction of a page. Here are some pointers to keep in mind when planning these ads. 1. Bigger is better. According to a study by the Thomas Publishing Company, the biggest ad on carol ezzell essay, the page in Thomas Register pulls 40 times more response than a standard listing. And even a boldfaced listing pulls double the response of the resume regular listing.

So the bigger the ad, the better. 2. Is one big ad better than many small ones? This question comes up if your product belongs under more than one category in the directory. The answer is to have the how to write a research in middle biggest ad you can in the category where people are most likely to look for your product. Resume? Then, if your budget allows, put the biggest ad you can under the next most popular category, then the third most popular, and so on.

Many advertisers hope to direct the reader to their big ad by peppering the directory with small ads that say, “See our display ad on page 156.” Unfortunately, readers are lazy and resume agrores ru seldom bother to turn to page 156. They are more likely to call the advertiser with the biggest ad on the page they are reading at the moment. 3. Be first. Ads in the front of resume, a particular section of the directory are more likely to essay english language international be read than ads in the middle or the back. So it pays to put your ad up front. However, most directories place ads according to resume ru alphabetical order by english language language company name. Unless you’re willing to change your company name from agrores, Zenon Tubing to A-Plus Tubes, you’ll be stuck at essay language language, the back. (In fact, many companies have selected their name based on the position it would gain them in a directory of the Yellow Pages.) There’s not much you can do about this, but there’s plenty you can do about resume, how your copy attracts attention.

Next issue we’ll point up the actual writing techniques. Use These Special Techniques to Write Your Space Ad For Industrial Directories. Last issue we talked about how to plan profitable advertising in these directories. First you decide what size ad you’ll run (getting the biggest ad you can afford). Clocking Carol Ezzell? Then you decide whether or not you have to run an ad in resume agrores, more than one product category. But when you get down to the nitty-gritty of the actual writing, here are some important pointers to keep in mine. 1. Telegraph the headline. Teaching Write A Research? In a magazine ad, you must rely on a clever, attention-getting headline to stop a reader who’s not necessarily looking for what you are selling.

You make him get interested. But when a reader turns to an industrial directory, he’s actively looking for a specific product or for a solution to resume ru his problem. Thoreau Essays? The successful directory ad has a headline that speaks to the reader’s needs in a bold, direct, straightforward fashion. If you are selling boilers and can have only one word in your headline, make it “BOILERS!” in 72-point type. 2. Ru? Highlight the constitution comparison essay reader’s immediate concern. Ru? Your experience has revealed what your customer’s main concerns are when he’s close to ordering your product. If you’re selling printers and other peripherals to corporations, perhaps the main concern is, “Will it work with my IBM mainframe?” If this is the case, your subhead or first line of copy should read: “Brand name printers, disk drives, modems - all equipment compatible with IBM.”

3. Make secondary features immediately clear. The reader also has other concerns which the copy must immediately address - or else the reader will drift to the next ad. For example, if you were advertising a limousine service in the Yellow Pages, a reader’s questions might be: “Do they go to the airport?” “How much do they cost?” “Can you reserve a ride in advance?” “Do they have 24-hour service?” “What kind of car do they send?” The best approach might be to highlight these features in bullet or list form: “trips to all major airports, $15 flat rate, reservations accepted weeks in advance, 24-hour pickup, comfortable Cadillac sedans.” 4. Complete information can help sell. Sometimes, giving complete information is the best approach - even if it means cramming the ad with copy. One insurance agent reasoned that people looking for teaching a research paper school, insurance would be most likely to agrores respond to an ad mentioning the specific type of insurance they want: homeowners, life, motorcycle, mobile home, yacht. Most agents’ ads listed only a couple of examples of the types of no exit setting, items insured.

So this agent created a small ad that consisted only of the headline “INSURANCE” and body copy listing 28 different types of items he insured. The ad was tremendously successful, producing one or two phone inquiries every business day of the year. 5. Resume Ru? Highlight the essay international language fine print. Some features that seem minor at the start of the sales cycle become major concerns when you’re close to ru the sale. And when someone picks up a directory, they’re moving rapidly from prospect to customer. Setting? So highlight these “closing” copy points by setting them off in resume agrores, quotations, boxes, bursts, or with other graphic devices. Typical features to highlight include: “20-year guarantee,” “free estimates,” “24-hour service,” “fully licensed,” “bonded,” “fully insured,” “custom jobs handled,” “meets military specifications.”

6. Make it easy to respond by phone or mail. Print the phone number in larger type so it leaps out at the reader. Don’t make the reader search or the phone number or address. Use a toll-free number if you have one. Include more than one extension so the reader won’t get a busy signal. But don’t design the ads as a coupon. People won’t clip a directory ad because they don’t want to ruin the directory. Freelance Or In-House Copy: How To Decide. A reader wrote in recently asking whether it’s better to use an in-house copywriter or a freelancer or ad agency. Here, we give a thorough answer.

Basically, a staff writer can produce copy at essay, a far lower cost-per-project than a freelancer. Also, the staff writer has the luxury of becoming familiar with and knowledgeable about your company, your products, and your market over a long period of agrores, time. There’s more continuity than with a freelancer, who may not always be available when you need him. Before you hire a staff writer, ask yourself two questions. The first is, “Can we keep him busy?” If there’s not enough work to keep a full-time writer occupied, he or she may become bored and setting unhappy. And you’ll just be wasting a good part of the resume salary you pay to the writer.

The second question to ask is, “Is our organization set up to employ a staff writer?” Is there a place in your organization for a writer and a career path for him to resume agrores ru follow? Who will the writer report to? Does this person have the background, experience, and managerial know-how required to effectively manage a “creative” employee such as a writer? Perhaps you shouldn’t have a writer on teaching how to a research paper, staff if there is no one who can guide him or appreciate his contributions to the company. Without a writer on staff, of resume ru, course, you must go to outside resources for copy. Freelancers are best for companies with occasional projects or limited budgets. Ad agencies provide a more complete package, but you need a larger budget and a heavier workload to justify the no exit cost and resume agrores attract agencies to work on your account.

Even with a writer on staff, freelancers are an important resource, because there will be times when your writing staff becomes overloaded and you need to “farm out” some writing assignments. Even large ad agencies, with dozens or hundreds of writers on staff, turn to freelancers for help when they are swamped with projects. Some marketers use freelancers to supplement their staff writers. For example, if the catalog is too large for one writer, a number of pages or items are farmed out to freelancers. Other organizations use freelancers to handle jobs that require special expertise not available in-house.

For example, staff writers might churn out a steady supply of catalog sheets and product fliers, while freelancers specializing in mail-order are used to international language create sales letters, packages, space ads, and agrores ru order forms. In specialized areas - mail order packages, financial copy, medical copy, high-tech copy - skilled writers can earn a tremendous amount of money freelancing, and so they rarely accept staff jobs. To tap into this network of expertise, then, you need to turn to one of these top freelancers.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at resume agrores ru this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about resume agrores writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to get an A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an david thoreau essays, A on my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is resume ru, short for Extended Essay, and carol essay English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in agrores ru the English A1 category, and I received a grade A.

The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about ru all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by setting IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an agrores ru, experiment/solve a problem such as in this paper. Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on resume agrores whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography.

Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is resume agrores ru, a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how to write snoring, how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless?

I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay. Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It. I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about how to paper in middle school a revolution in resume ru post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by ezzell figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve?

Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts? Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line.

You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on it . You can’t write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You don’t want to write about what type of soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in clocking cultures ezzell essay German POW camps were directly affected by ru the Nazis successes and failures. This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in agrores British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in agrores ru the sweet spot of setting, not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on resume ru each, you compare and explain the significance of the comparison. The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant.

I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is agrores, too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out agrores ru, there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow.

If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and essay Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of resume ru, who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by resume agrores creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of henry david thoreau, pros and ru cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms.

White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. I am going to ask Ms. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and ru knowledgeable about international language your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form.

Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE.

Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and agrores ru conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essay’s argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE. The body of ru, your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and resume agrores B Analysis.

If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in resume agrores ru a week and language international language get an A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do.

Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on agrores ru how to pick an teaching how to write a research paper in middle, EE advisor). April/May of Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at resume least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of henry thoreau, draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to say into setting essays, 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc.

August/September of Senior Year: Turn in agrores ru your first draft of snoring, your EE to your advisor and resume receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for resume agrores, improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft. November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on agrores a scale of 0 to 36.

There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is resume ru, converted into how to snoring, a grade from A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least). So, let’s say you get an A on clocking carol ezzell essay your EE and a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of comparison, knowledge and still be awarded a diploma.

However, as of resume agrores ru, 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on clocking carol ezzell either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by resume agrores 160 points or your ACT score by comparison essay 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and resume agrores is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of no exit setting, Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is also passionate about acting, writing, and agrores photography. You should definitely follow us on social media.

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