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Research paper on sweat

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annotate an essay Once upon a time there was a hard-working student who paid close attention to lectures, studied hard, and learned how to cite properly in both MLA and APA format. The sun shone brightly. Research Paper. Then one day a dark cloud overshadowed the world. A professor asked the if you then what am i, student to write an research on sweat annotated bibliography. The student grew pale.

She thought she had mastered all things related to citation. She didn’t want to learn how to write anything so terrible sounding as an annotated bibliography . She closed her eyes tightly and wished her fairy godmother would magically write the are what you eat what essay, annotated bibliography for her. POOF! Her fairy godmother appeared! “I will grant your wish….well, sorta,” said the fairy godmother. Research Paper. “I will not write the annotated bibliography for and contrast essay you, but I will teach you how to write one, thus enabling you to research paper on sweat use the skill in your future courses.” She wrote this blog post to teach all students how to write an annotated bibliography that works. Thesis Centre Camden. What Is an Annotated Bibliography? An annotated bibliography is simply a bibliography with annotations. Paper On Sweat. Okay, that doesn’t help much, does it?

Really, though, that’s all it is. You know how to write a Works Cited or Reference page, right? If you’ve mastered this, the next step is to simply add the you eat essay, annotations. Annotations include a summary of the work, a critique of the research paper on sweat, author or credibility of the source, and a discussion of whether or not the source will be useful to your research. Why Write an Annotated Bibliography? I’m sure you’re saying, “Give me one good reason why I should write an annotated bibliography.” I’ll do better than that. I’ll give you three!

1. It’s a course assignment. If you want to do well in the course, you need to national merit essay do it. Enough said. 2 . An annotated bibliography helps you become a better researcher. On Sweat. In order to write an annotated bibliography, you need to be able to summarize the source.

This means you’ll need to application essay take the time to read it carefully. You can’t just find a source and research paper on sweat, add it to thesis camden the list without reading it. You also need to evaluate the source and decide whether or not it’s credible and whether or not it’s useful. Research On Sweat. Doing so means you’ll choose sources more carefully and actually search for useful information. No more picking the romeo on love, first few websites that show up on a Google search and trying to research paper make them fit. Thesis Proposal. 3. An annotated bibliography saves you time.

If you’re writing a research paper with three sources, it’s pretty easy to research paper on sweat remember what you read in essay, each source. If, on the other hand, you’re writing a longer research paper and using 10 or more sources, it’s not that easy. Imagine you’re on page 5 of your research essay, and you remember reading the perfect quote about binge drinking in…um…well, you read it in one of your sources, somewhere . Unless you have some magic fairy dust to help remember everything you’ve read, you’ll likely spend 25 minutes looking for that perfect quote. Trust me, writing an research paper on sweat annotated bibliography may seem like a major pain now, but once you see how much time it will save you, and once you see a good grade on your paper, you’ll be happy you wrote it. And Juliet Essay At First. Do your research! You can’t exactly write an annotated bibliography without sources, so start researching! RESEARCH TIP: Save, bookmark, or print more sources than you think you’ll need. Research. Sometimes even the seemingly best sources just don’t quite work for your paper. Read and take notes.

You don’t have to spend hours taking notes on every little detail, but you should mark the following, as you’ll need them to write your annotations: The main ideas of the source Questions or comments about the argument’s or author’s credibility Key points or quotes that you might include in your paper Whether or not the source will be useful in your research paper. Now that you’ve found your sources and taken notes, we can get down to camden the business of writing. Remember, there will be no waiving of fairy godmother wands to research paper magically produce a completed annotated bibliography. You will need to write your own. So let’s get started. How to Write an Annotated Bibliography that Works.

Not all annotated bibliographies are written in the same way. Some include primarily summary and informative annotations. Others include a critique of sources. Most annotated bibliographies contain some combination of elements and can vary in word count. Don’t assume you know which type you should be writing. Ask your professor about the exact requirements for your assignment. Follow these 3 steps to learn about the basics of how to write an annotated bibliography. Step 1: Cite your source in proper APA, MLA, or other required citation style. Each of your entries will begin with a full bibliographic entry. Thesis Centre Street. This entry looks just like the entry you’d include on a regular Works Cited or Reference page. Entries are even alphabetized by author’s last name, just like a Works Cited or Reference page.

Here’s an example I created to show you what the citation will look like. Robertson, A. (2012). Why fairy tales are important. Research On Sweat. Psychology Today. Essay. (13) 2, 210-222. MLA format – 7th edition. Roberston, Ann. “Why Fairy Tales are Important.” Psychology Today. 13.2 (2012): 210-222. Print. MLA format – 8th edition. Roberston, Ann. “Why Fairy Tales Are Important.” Psychology Today, vol.

13, no. 2, 2012, pp. 210-222. Step 2: Summarize the source. A summary explains the main ideas of the on sweat, source.

Someone else should be able to read your summary and know exactly what the source is merit application, about. This isn’t the time to research on sweat tell readers whether or not you like the source. Online Thesis Proposal. Be objective. Just state what the source is about. No more, no less. Here’s an example of what a summary of an article might look like. Robertson’s article argues that fairy tales are important because they teach children moral tales of right and wrong and provide children an research outlet for their emotions. Fairy tales also allow children to develop their imagination and critical thinking as they journey with characters to magical lands.

Step 3: Evaluate the for a and contrast, source. Here’s your chance to write a brief paragraph or two to tell readers what you think of the source and how it fits into your own research. I’ve color coded the questions you should ask, so that you can clearly see what’s going on in my example below. Ask yourself these questions : Is the author credible? What did I like or not like about the source? Are the arguments effective? Does the author support her arguments? What are the paper on sweat, strengths and thesis proposal, weaknesses?

How might I incorporate this source into my paper? Answering these types of questions will help you formulate an effective critique and evaluation of each source. Here’s an example of what your evaluation might look like. Dr. Robertson is a well-known children’s psychologist who also has elementary education experience. Her articles are published in paper, a number of national, peer-reviewed journals, and research, her work is considered credible . The article will be an excellent source for my paper because it includes recent studies about children’s appreciation for dbq essay prompts fairy tales and paper on sweat, features a detailed discussion of why fairy tales are beneficial to children . Robertson even includes interviews with children that I may be able to online use in my introduction . Paper. That wasn’t as bad as you thought, was it?

Just three quick steps and you have an annotated bibliography! If you need a quick way to remember the steps in writing an annotated bibliography, just remember CSE : Cite, Summarize, Evaluate. Merit Application. Writing your annotated bibliography in small steps can make a large task seem far less intimidating. Now that you know how to write each part of an annotated bibliography, the final step is to put it all together and make sure it’s in proper format. Paper. Follow these links to see a completed annotated bibliography. Online Thesis. At the end of the day, the student learned how to write an annotated bibliography.

She knew she needed to write an appropriate MLA or APA citation followed by a summary and research paper, evaluation of the source. The student worked diligently to romeo essay on love sight write an annotated bibliography then had a Kibin editor review her work. Both the fairy godmother and the student were delighted when the student received her final grade. Research Paper On Sweat. And they all lived happily ever after. Useful Resources to Help Write an Annotated Bibliography. Writing an Annotated Bibliography: This source includes a list of verbs to help you write about and summarize sources. Annotated Bibliography: Tips for Writing: This source includes an overview of how to write an romeo and juliet on love at first annotated bibliography and paper on sweat, a template to help you write annotations. Finally, this short video provides a basic overview of an annotated bibliography. Psst.

98% of online thesis, Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Susan M. Inez is a professor of English and research, writing goddess based out of the Northeast. I am a freshman in college and I found this very helpful. National Merit Essay. Thank you for posting this for us students who need the information! This will also help me on my future Biology Lab Reports #128578; Sweet! We love to research paper hear this.

Thanks for online thesis your kind comment. I#8217;d definitely recommend that you check out the research on sweat, resources at the end of the blog post #8212; there#8217;s lots of helpful information there, plus sample annotated bibliographies in MLA and APA styles. Let me know if you have a specific question that isn#8217;t answered! It is really helpful for me doing my resarch paper.

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MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is asking you to format the page and present the content in research, a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. National? This document will show you how to on sweat format an if you what am i essay essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about what to research on sweat write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and street, using quotations in the body of your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of research paper on sweat inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by online proposal the order the quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of research paper on sweat Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to romeo and juliet at first format the Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment.

For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the on sweat, whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to centre street MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to research 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text)

Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac) My copy of Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the left and right margins are too big.

To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Online Thesis Proposal? Change it to 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. Research Paper On Sweat? If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) In the top right of if you are what you eat what every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an automatic page number and your surname. 2.1 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Windows)

Insert - Page Number - Top of paper Page - (choose the right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for if you you eat what you to t ype your surname . Paper On Sweat? Click anywhere in the body of the paper to exit the header area. 2.2 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the are what you eat, top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of Page (header)” and paper on sweat, “Alignment” to “Right”) Click just to the left of the new page number, and prompts, type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to paper the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and national essay, drag it a notch to the right . In the paper, upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the compare, course number and section, and today’s date. Centered on the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and Macbeth”). Like all the research, other text in prompts, an MLA style paper, the research paper on sweat, title block is double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the rest of the paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged.

There is no extra space above or below the title. Romeo And Juliet Essay On Love Sight? A truly informative title will include the general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. Paper On Sweat? (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the for a, unique point you want to make about Hamlet and Macbeth. Research Paper On Sweat? Reuse part of your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on romeo and juliet sight, how you format the research on sweat, page. (For a resource to help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on a separate page at the end of dbq essay prompts your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to look like filler. Research? Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the whole passage. (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the romeo essay at first sight, text and on sweat, click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right). Proposal? Place the research paper, parenthetical citation (the author’s name and proposal, the page number) after the period . (This is different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the author’s name and the page number. If the quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21).

Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in research paper, 2010, the dbq essay, noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of research citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an Inline Quotation. When the thesis camden, passage you want to quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is different from research paper, block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into our own sentence.

To let the reader know what we changed, we put [] around it. Again, note the absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the body of the paper. Let’s imagine we want to reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about if you what, citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to include any of the technical details. We can save space, and make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase:

Use paraphrasing for variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. If we use an author’s idea, rephrased in on sweat, our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited. This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it. Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page.

MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Essay On Love At First? Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the on sweat, page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to Create an rubric for a Individual Works Cited Entry.

Exactly what goes into each item in research paper, your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. The following pages give you some questions to camden street answer, then let you push a button to research paper get an individual works-cited entry. If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for how to dbq essay prompts create a bibliography entry for paper on sweat a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an if you what am i electronic source (such as an research paper on sweat email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. How to thesis Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by the author ‘s last name. If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to on sweat the name of the centre camden, organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely. Research Paper? Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in compare essay, a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in research paper on sweat, the order that they appeared in romeo on love sight, your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item. Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of research paper on sweat Word, I select the text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. (In my copy of word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.)

29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999. 06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on thesis street, organizing the on sweat, Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to rubric more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and paper, avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz.

MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an explanation about page numbers. That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to put page numbers in the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in citations. How do you in text cite a website?

I didnt really see much about are what then what essay, that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. It has such thorough details and paper, that make it so much easier to application understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the research paper, page number the online thesis, text appears on within the paper, authors works? That means the quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information. Before my college year in America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for useful information about how to rubric compare and contrast write MLA format essay.

Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of paper on sweat essay. Centre Camden? When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again. I’m glad to know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to research paper help if you stop by thesis proposal during their office hours, and if your prof is too busy for on sweat that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at prompts any stage of any assignment involving writing.

With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the research, text appears on within the essay, authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on page 20 of the text by paper on sweat Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of national Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google. Im in paper, middle school and I have to do this. I have never heard of MLA Format and application essay, this helped ALOT. Thanks so much! Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper!

I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is research on sweat supposed to be in centre street, each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the question. I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paper, paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful.

I am writing to request permission to national merit application link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to our website. Lansdale School of Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to paper on sweat include a link and a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper?

Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. (They aren’t for documenting sources — use an in-text citation and a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about whether you really do need to use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above. This page is about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example. I followed everything to the “t” and my professor says that my header is indented and dbq essay prompts, my paragraphs are double indented and the page numbers are in wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from paper on sweat, thiis handout for thesis proposal years, and when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision.

But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and research paper, who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions. I agree. Thesis Street? .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from paper on sweat, a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the street, instructions that are on the page. Research Paper On Sweat? But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an assigned textbook, which is proposal why I encourage you to paper have this conversation with your instructor. Thesis Centre Camden? Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and evaluates it according to his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about what “format” the college application essay should be in. Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e.

seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in the APA system? And what lends itself to the Humanities with the MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to research be shorter, and divided up into prompts sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the date is paper on sweat prominent in APA citations, and page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and romeo and juliet essay on love sight, “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly.

Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and books, re-interpreting and paper, quoting passages from them. MLA style makes the thesis street, page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and further the work of paper scholarship as it is conducted in if you are what you eat then am i, the humanities. Thanks for the reply. What do you mean by paper on sweat ” MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into dbq essay standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by “procedure” and “conclusions”?

I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of research paper sections, with separate subheadings. Romeo Essay At First Sight? But it’s best for you to talk to your teacher about the specifics of any asisgnment. Ok, thanks. Research On Sweat? I just wanted to ask and clarify it. Also, doesn’t the online proposal, word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and is often used for atheists, for example… or am I wrong? I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the research paper on sweat, culture of humans,” without intending the merit, more specific meaning you mention. Research Paper On Sweat? At my school, the humanities division includes theologians.

this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at rubric compare and contrast all. Shavez, what were you looking for?

This page is paper on sweat about formatting a paper you have already written. The first section includes links to pages about how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. As a freshman in and juliet sight, highschool, my biology teacher asked for paper on sweat me to write an essay in mLA format about evolution. I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. In middle school I never wrote an essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to thesis centre type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and the name of an research paper on sweat author is not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the camden street, reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and identifies what position the research on sweat, paper is going to take on centre camden street, the topic. Paper? But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the book title in italics.

Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course. Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on “Citing” at the top of the page. One of the options on the other end of that link is dbq essay prompts how to cite a web page.

This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder. Thank you! cool it was helpful. is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in the page or to paper the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in for a and contrast essay, a book that someone scanned and posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model?

There is paper on sweat no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph. Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. In general, though, the 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.” Photograph. The Daily Planet . Dbq Essay? July 22, 1956. If you found the picture on a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly. If you found the image as the result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the research on sweat, one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to advise you on thesis proposal, what to do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on.

Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help. There is no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on. Research? It depends on what grade you want to you eat then what am i earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to paper on sweat meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to revise your work, and online, many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder.

Thank you!

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The Genotype/Phenotype Distinction. The predominant current-day meaning of genotype is some relevant part of the DNA passed to the organism by its parents. The phenotype is the physical and behavioral traits of the paper on sweat organism, for example, size and shape, metabolic activities, and patterns of thesis proposal movement. Research. The distinction between them is national especially important in evolutionary theory, where the survival and mating of organisms depends on their traits, but it is the DNA, held to research on sweat be unaffected by the development of the you eat am i traits over the life course, that is transmitted to the next generation. Philosophical discussion mostly now takes the paper predominant meanings as given, focusing instead on questions about the genotype-phenotype relationship . For example: How can DNA be construed as information for national application the processes of development of an organism’s traits? What is the causal status of research on sweat DNA versus other influences in the organism’s development? (see entries on inheritance systems and biological information and also Griffiths Stotz 2013). Without dismissing the importance of such questions, the focus of prompts this entry remains on the genotype-phenotype distinction . Given that discussion by philosophers of this issue has been minimal, this entry cannot take the standard form of a review of published debates.

In order to help frame and orient readers’ conceptual inquiries, another approach is paper on sweat needed. The entry builds from the observations that the original meanings of genotype and phenotype and the distinction between them as given by Wilhelm Johannsen (1911) were quite different from the romeo on love sight now predominant meaning (given above) and research paper, that different kinds of meanings coexist in Johannsen and up to the present. To make sense of rubric compare and contrast those observations, Johannsen’s paper is recounted with special reference to paper on sweat practices or assumptions regarding control of biological materials and conditions. Subsequent developments are then described in relation to problems introduced by romeo essay at first conceptualizing heredity on the basis of research paper breeding experiments. For A. This framing brings into play many areas of philosophical discussions, including the “New Experimentalism” in philosophy of biology (see entry on experiment in research on sweat biology), abstraction (see entry on abstract objects), confirmation, ambiguity, Scientific Realism, descriptive versus normative approaches, and The Social Dimensions of thesis camden street Scientific Knowledge. Paper On Sweat. At the same time, the framing helps open up questions that have not been well addressed in those discussions and has implications for issues that might seem settled to proposal many who, when they invoke the genotype-phenotype distinction, are simply thinking DNA versus trait. 1. Setting the Scene: Different Kinds of Meanings of Genotype and Phenotype.

The meaning of the terms given at the start of the introduction may at on sweat, first seem clear, but conceptual questions have accompanied or been implied by the use of the terms since their introduction to English-language readers by thesis camden Johannsen’s (1911) “The Genotype Conception of Heredity” and up until the present. How does an individual organism’s DNA influence the processes of development of its traits over on sweat, its lifetimeprocesses that also involve other influences? How can an individual organism’s traits be used to identify its DNA sequence? Why are the terms genotype and phenotype still used if they simply refer to the individual’s DNA and traits? One answer to this last question is application that what counts is research paper less the meaning of the terms than what their use has come to signify , in particular, that certain issues have been resolved: the barrier between the organism’s life course and DNA transmitted to and juliet on love at first sight the next generation; evolution is change in frequencies of genes or DNA sequences in research paper on sweat populations over if you you eat then am i, time; development of traits will eventually be understood in research paper terms of rubric and contrast essay a composite of the effects of DNA on the organism; what counts is what is underneath or inside the observable surface; and findings about heredity derived using one meaning of terms affirm findings derived using a different meaning. Research. How firmly resolved are these issues? If one wants to open them up for further scrutiny, it could be helpful to question the meaning of genotype, phenotype, and the distinction between them.

Another response to why the terms continue to be used is that the predominant meanings are not the dbq essay prompts only ones. Type connotes a class . This sense of the terms leads to further questions: What makes organisms similar enough to be grouped in a genotype as a class? or in a phenotype as a class? How is the membership of organisms in a genotype manifest in their membership in a phenotypeor phenotypes? How can the membership of research organisms in a phenotype be used to identify their membership in a genotype? Type also connotes an abstraction away from the full set of observed characteristics. What then is to be accentuated and what de-emphasized about a genotype and thesis proposal, phenotype, as DNA and traits or as classesespecially when asking any of the previous questions?

And howby what concepts, methods, and modelsis what has been de-emphasized to be brought back and re-integrated into the scientific account? To make sense of the original meanings of the terms and on sweat, the distinction between them as well as the coexistence of different kinds of meanings since then, a specific kind of abstraction (see entry on online thesis abstract objects) is research paper on sweat pertinent, namely, the material practices of control over biological materials and conditions advanced in modern experimental biology and agricultural breeding or entailed in for a compare the allied use of models in research analysis of data . Reliable methods more than endorsable theories are the touchstone of this kind of abstraction. It is within a framing of camden street controland the consequent challenge of on sweat reintegrationthat this entry discusses the other senses already mentioned of the terms genotype and phenotype: in the context of the relationship between an individual’s DNA and traits; what the use of the terms signifies; and grouping into classes. (Given the continuing coexistence of the different kinds of compare and contrast essay meaning of the terms, qualifiers are used when there might be ambiguity.) Although there may be grounds to research paper revise various positions and inquiries about the genotype-phenotype relationship in are what am i light of paper on sweat assumptions made about control and eventual reintegration, such discussion lies beyond the scope of this entry. (If the genotype-phenotype relationship were the entry’s focus, more attention would need to be given to philosophical arguments about causality and about abstraction as it relates to causal claims; see Winther 2014 for an entry point and you eat then what am i essay, section 7.) The entry also cannot do justice to the rich social and economic history of heredity, where concrete cases abound concerning the control of on sweat biological materials for production and breedingdating from well before the genotype-phenotype distinction through to present-day biotechnology. (Readers wanting to reintegrate the history and national, context might usefully start with the essays collected in Müller-Wille et al. 2008b, Deichmann et al. Research Paper. 2014, and Müller-Wille Brandt 2016, and references cited therein. Müller-Wille 2008 and are what what am i, Bonneuil 2016, in particular, describe Johannsen’s professional and modernizing aspirations and place them in their economic context. Rolls-Hansen 2014 places Johannsen’s 1911 contribution in the context of on sweat shifts in his views over his career.) 2. The Goals and Open Questions of Johannsen (1911) Marcel Weber (2014) notes that, because many areas of dbq essay prompts modern biology “are profoundly experimental disciplines, an increased attention [in philosophy of biology] to the experiment in biology was inevitable” (see also entry on gene). Research Paper On Sweat. Yet, how an area of biology becomes experimental in the first place as well as the implications of that shift also warrant attention.

A recounting of Johannsen (1911) in this vein serves not only to essay introduce his original genotype-phenotype distinction, but also to point to research paper various conceptual and methodological complexities that are associated with redefining heredity on the basis of breeding experiments. The detail in centre camden this section and the next is important not as a matter of doing history, but to insert distance from the predominant current-day meanings and establish a space in which modern users of his terms can consider issues that had been left behind. 2.1 Goals: Establish Repeatable Outcomes and Expose Hidden Processes. The overarching project for Johannsen (1911) was to promote a shift from “morphological-descriptive” natural history (1911: 134), in which appearances could mislead or be spun into speculative theories, to an “exact science” (1911: 131) using the experimental control of biological materials and conditions needed to establish repeatable outcomes and paper on sweat, expose hidden processes. 2.1.1 Alternative to centre “Transmission-Conception” of research on sweat Heredity. A specific variant of street Johannsen’s overarching project was to articulate an alternative to traditional accounts of research heredity, which, in his words, tried to conceive or “explain” the for a presumed transmission of general or peculiar characters and qualities “inherited” from parents or more remote ancestors. (1911: 129) In rejecting such a “transmission-conception” of heredity (his term), Johannsen sought specifically to depart from two approaches: a) the analysis by biometricians of continuous variation (such as the spread of heights in a given population), which showed traits of offspring to be numerically correlated with those of their parents, grandparents, and so onsuch analysis preserved the research paper on sweat possibility of romeo essay on love at first “ancestral influences” (1911: 138); and b) particulate theories, such as those of August Weismann and Darwinians that could be seen as consistent with transmission of research parental traits to the zygote (the initial cell resulting from a fusion of gametes or germ cells , i.e., egg and sperm). Johannsen saw no evidence for the idea that the “elements responsible for inheritance involve the different organs or tissue-groups of the individual developing from the zygote” (1911: 131). Johannsen’s alternative involved four steps of concept and method:

“[T]he objects for scientific research” are “‘types’ of organisms distinguishable by direct inspection or by finer methods of measuring or description, [which] may be characterized as ‘ phenotypes. ’ Certainly phenotypes are real things” (1911: 134); There are germ cells that form a basis for development of an organism of the you eat then what am i essay next generation; Denote as a genotype the class of organisms that share the paper same basis for development in the germ cells; Use experimentally manufactured subsets of possible phenotypes, namely, inbred lines of beans, to online thesis demonstrate the research paper significance of the essay on love at first sight preceding items. (An inbred line is produced by mating or “crossing” plants with themselvesthat is, “self-pollinating”many times.) In Johannsen’s experiments, the plants in any line showed variation in a given trait under differing conditions, but selection among the plants for that trait did not result in improvement from one generation to the next. Research Paper. Whatever the nature of the germ cells that seeds from a line shared, and in whatever ways it “reacted” during the plant’s development thus “interfering with the totality of prompts all incident factors, may it be external or internal” (1911: 133), seeds of the next generation did not result in plants that matched their parent any more than plants from any other seed from the same line (a theory summarized in paper on sweat Figure 1). Plants from the inbred line were instances of national merit application a genotype; variation in the traits grown from the seeds was, borrowing from Richard Woltereck, the norm of reaction (Reaktionsnorm) of that genotype; a plant’s relative position in research on sweat the norm of reaction was not transmitted to its offspring; and (with the emphasis Johannsen’s) “ selection is not able to shift the dbq essay prompts nature of genotypes ” (1911: 137). Because the nature or constituents of a genotype were stable , the “genotype-conception” of heredity was “ahistoric” (1911: 139). Research On Sweat. (Note: Johannsen did not adopt Weismann’s term germplasm to denote the romeo and juliet on love at first material basis for animal development sequestered from the somatoplasm early each generation [Churchill 1974: 19]. Yet, whatever the material basis of development was for paper plant genotypes, it was similarly shielded from most of the interactions that occur during the organism’s lifetime within the dbq essay organism and with the environment.) Figure 1: Johannsen’s view of heredity: Germ cells that form a basis for development of an research organism get reproduced for the next generation unaffected by rubric and contrast the development of the traits over on sweat, the life course. 2.1.2 Unambiguous Use of Phenotypes to Distinguish Genotypes. Phenotypes might, Johannsen noted, be a mix of several genotypes (as illustrated by online thesis the sole figure in the 1911 article; Churchill 1974). To remove the ambiguity of on sweat appearanceto be able to use phenotypes to national merit application distinguish genotypeshe relied on research that was flourishing after the rediscovery in paper on sweat 1900 of then essay Gregor Mendel’s experiments on peas. Those experiments can be summarized as follows:

Conditions in which the peas were grown were kept as uniform as possible from paper, one plant to the next. Inbred lines were established that differed one from the other in ways that Mendel dichotomized, e.g., round or wrinkly peas; tall or dwarf plants. By preventing self-pollination, different inbred lines could be crossed to if you are what am i essay produce what are called hybrids (F1) and then self-pollinated to produce the next generation (F2). The F1 hybrids all showed one of any pair of dichotomous traits. Around ¾ of the F2 generation showed that trait; ¼ showed the other trait. (For example, when a pure breeding purple-flowered variety was crossed to a pure breeding white-flowered form, all the F1 offspring were purple-flowered. On Sweat. When, however, these purple-flowered hybrids were crossed with each other, both purple-flowered and white-flowered plants appeared in the progeny.) From the rubric compare essay F1 and F2 ratios Mendel concluded that two “factors” influenced each trait of the pea plant, one from the pollen and one from the ovary of the parent plants. Research Paper On Sweat. In turn, only one of the two factors went to each pollen and ovary (Law of Segregation), each unaffected by the nature of the other factor it had previously been paired with. When the two factors were of different kinds, the trait that resulted from development was not intermediate. Instead, it looked the same as the F1 hybrid and the more-frequent F2 offspring, that is, like one of the originally crossed lines (Law of Dominance).

In other words, although the F1 hybrids appeared the rubric compare and contrast same as one of the inbred parents, the hybrids could be shown, through the ratios of the research on sweat two traits in the F2 generation, to thesis belong, using Johannsen’s terms, to a different genotypea heterozygote (i.e., paired factors different from each other), not a homozygote (i.e., paired factors the same). 2.2 Advances, Ambiguities and Open Questions. The experiments of Johannsen and Mendel (summarized in research paper on sweat Figure 2) can be seen as having achieved the goals given above (section 2.1). Figure 2: Mendel-Johannsen method: Inbreeding, controlled crosses, and control of experimental conditions allows unambiguous use of phenotypes to national merit essay distinguish genotypes. Johannsen’s experiments on inbred lines produced repeatable outcomes and illuminated hidden processes: traits acquired during development in certain conditions were not transmitted to offspring, that is, the nature or constituents of the genotype were shielded from most of the research interactions within the organism and dbq essay, with the environment that occur during the organism’s lifetime. Even if the reactions of different genotypes under various conditions resulted in “differences between the phenotype-curves [that] may vary considerably or may even vanish entirely” (Johannsen 1911: 145), a specific “genotypical constitution always reacts in the same manner under identical conditions” (1911: 146). Mendelian experiments crossing inbred lines extended this genotype-conception of heredity. Hidden processes were exposed in on sweat the sense that sexual reproduction involves joining together of pairs of factorsfor which Johannsen coined the term genes. That meant the reappearance in F2 of traits not visible in F1 could be explained without any ancestral influence. The rest of for a compare his goals were also fulfilled: The dichotomous nature of Mendel’s traits afforded Johannsen the distance he desired from the analysts of continuous variation who had entertained ancestral influences.

Mendelian researchers had a method to remove the ambiguity of appearance so genotypes could be distinguished from each other (and their constituents shown to be stable). In sum, these experimental approaches rendered irrelevant past speculations about the “elements responsible for inheritance” (1911: 131; Churchill 1974). At the same time, Johannsen (1911) introduced many ambiguities and questions about the import of his new terms. At first sight, the sense of classes is predominant. The phenotype, consisting of research organisms “distinguishable by direct inspection or by finer methods of measuring or description” (1911: 134), is used to identify the genotype as a class of organisms that shares constituents stable from generation to generation. Yet, no method is discussed to divide a natural varying population into phenotypes, let alone identify a genotype-as-class in such populations. It is in merit application the restricted realm of inbred lines that identifying genotypes from phenotypes is possible, albeit not reliably if a phenotype includes a mix of inbred lines. Notice, however, if an inbred line is bred true (i.e., not crossed with any other lines), it is a genotype-as-class. There is no need to divide up the lines into paper on sweat, phenotypes in order to identify genotypes, and it matters not that the traits of individuals in camden street an inbred line vary with the conditions in which the research on sweat individuals are raised.

Indeed, the norm of reaction of the online thesis inbred line is one way to think of the genotype as an abstracted type. Moreover, there is no need to identify the material basis of the genotypic constituents shared by paper the inbred line. Nevertheless, Mendel’s experiments had begun to expose the for a and contrast essay constituents’ nature. When inbred lines were crossed then self-pollinated, the traits of individuals raised under uniform conditions could be analyzed statistically by employingand thereby demonstratinga model of genotypic constituents as pairs of segregating factors. In these experiments, phenotypes and genotypes as classes still play a role, with the F2 phenotypes being used to identify whether apparently identical F1 phenotypes are heterozygote or homozygote genotypes. It might be asked whether Johannsen’s reference to paper the “finer methods of measuring or description” could be construed to include the national disambiguating analysis of ratios after inbreeding, crossing, and self-pollination? If the answer is yes, the inbred parent could be classified as a different phenotype from the on sweat F1 hybrid. Online Proposal. In that case, the Johannsenian study of heredity would amount to generating phenotypesclasses of on sweat organisms distinguished by “finer methods of measuring or description” of traitsthat are isomorphic with genotypesclasses of organisms that share identical stable constituents. Yet, the dbq essay experimental control of biological material and on sweat, conditions that make such a mapping possible also provided the Mendelian researchers of the early twentieth century a means to investigate the genotype-as-material-constituents (see section 3). Rubric Compare Essay. Indeed, Johannsen’s conception of the genotype as a class of organisms sharing stable genotypic constituents already pointed that way.

However, in taking up that direction of research what was left unaddressed was the relevance for understanding heredity in naturally varying populations of phenotype-to-genotype mapping and investigations of the constituents of genotype using Mendelian methods. Johannsen (1911) does not address those issues (which are returned to in section 5), but he does point to several other concerns about the concepts, methods, and implications of the genotype conception of heredity. These follow. The continuous variation common in regular populations did not, for Johannsen, contradict the discontinuity of genotypes: The well-known displacement of research paper a population proceeding from generation to generation in the direction indicated by national merit application the selectionis due to the existence a priori of genotypical differences in such populations. (1911: 137) Such selection changed the paper on sweat relative proportion of genotypes in the population, not any genotype itself.

There could have been room here for reconciliation with the biometrical view of variation in non-experimental populations, but that avenue was not pursued by centre Johannsen. Instead, like many other exponents of research paper Mendel’s rediscovered work, he chose to dispute the idea that different types of organism could be “evolved from each other by extremely small steps in genotypical change”. Instead, “the mutations really observed in nature have all shown themselves as considerable, discontinuous saltations” (1911: 158; i.e., jumps). Mendelian experiments fostered a particulate view of heredity in the way that two factors influence a given trait. (In that sense, the old transmission conception had not been fully banished.) Yet Johannsen wanted the genotype to be seen as a whole : “[C]haracters may be determined by several different genes, and one sort of gene may have influence upon several different reactions” (1911: 153). He advised that “the talk of ‘genes for any particular character’ ought to be omitted” (1911: 147).

If this view was to be made into exact science, some method for analyzing the genotypical constitution or genotype as a whole was needed. Johannsen did not provide one. Johannsen raised another concern about genes as particulate factors when he asserted that the traits “of the organism in toto are the results of the reactions of the genotypical constitution” (1911: 147; his emphasis); there was no “suggestive value” in the idea that “discrete particles of the merit application essay chromosomes are ‘bearers’ of special parts of the whole inheritance in question” (1911: 1312). Yet Mendel’s original experiments could be seen to support that very idea: the traits of the peas were not only dichotomous, but there was no pattern of co-occurrence of variants of the different traits, as would be the case if, say, crinkly peas occurred more often on dwarf plants. On Sweat. Given such independent assortment of you eat then essay traits, it would make sense, contra Johannsen, to talk of a pair of research paper factors or genes for crinkly peas. A new transmission conception of heredity was plausible. Johannsen also noted that. there may be very narrow limits for [Mendelian] analysis: the entire organization may never be “segregated” into genes. (1911: 153)

To put that in another way, the influence of factors that are identical for all members of a species cannot be studied through Mendelian crosses. The genotype-conception of heredity, by centering on genotypic differences associated with phenotypic differences, shifted attention away from the species-typical aspects of the thesis camden street germ cells and subsequent development. Mendelian analysis focused on differences over similarity , even though both aspects were included in then prevailing conceptions of research paper heredity (Sapp 1987). (Similarity was part of heredity in the sense that, for the eye color of some flies to romeo and juliet on love at first differ from the rest of the research population, the initial cell or zygote of the fly has to be able to develop into an organism that has eyes with color.) Morphological-descriptive natural history is, as Johannsen (1911) desired, downplayed in the pursuit of experimentally generated and repeatable outcomes, yet his writing did not acknowledge that the thesis same pursuit characterized a well-established field of zoological research, “developmental mechanics” ( Entwicklungsmechanik ). This experimental field had a morphological focus on how cells become arranged into tissues, organs, and the organism’s overall form, and how such organization is regenerated after disturbance or through the paper on sweat formation of germ cells (see entry on developmental biology). Thesis Centre Camden Street. Important contemporaries of Johannsen grappled with the research paper on sweat tensions between Mendelism and development (Deichmann 2014), but he merely evoked development in broad strokesas the genotypes reacting or “interfering with the totality of all incident factors” (1911: 133)and left the mechanics or dynamics as a secondary concern. For the new genotype-conception of heredity, stability of the thesis centre camden street genotype across generations was the primary fact. In putting mechanics to the side, the descriptive side of studies of paper on sweat heredity that Johannsen decried can be seen persisting, to some degree, in his original definitions of dbq essay phenotype and genotype as classes of organisms. 2.2.5 Shared Nature of the research paper on sweat Germ Cells. Johannsen placed not only the developmental processes, but also the material make-up of the dbq essay germ cells or the genes outside the scope of his genotype-conception of heredity: “[T]he nature of the research paper on sweat ‘genes’ is as yet of and juliet essay on love sight no value to propose any hypothesis” (1911: 133).

Yet, the shift (mentioned earlier), where the focus in research studies of heredity moved on to the material make-up, was prefigured by his referring to the genotypical constitution and noting that “a ‘genotype’ is the sum total of all the ‘genes’ in a gamete or in are what you eat essay a zygote” (1911: 1323). A further shift towards exposing the dynamics of development that build on those constituents was prefigured when Johannsen referred to on sweat “phenotypes i.e., the reactions of the genotypical constituents” (1911: 145). Figure 3: Extensions of Mendel-Johannsen method: Identification of genotypes as parts of germ cells corresponding to differences in phenotypes as specific traits → Location of genotypes on chromosomes → Further control and and juliet at first sight, reproducibility of genotypes and research paper on sweat, phenotypes → Heredity as transmission of online thesis genes (pairs of on sweat which make up genotypes) → DNA as material basis of genes. 3. From Mendelian Research and if you you eat am i essay, Models to the Present: Advances, Ambiguities and Persisting Questions. The conservatism expressed in Johannsen (1911) about identifying the material basis of genes, as the nature of the germ cells shared by a genotype, was not so evident among the Mendelian researchers who quickly came to adopt the on sweat new terms gene, genotype, and phenotype during that decade. The focus moved beyond refuting what Johannsen called the “transmission-conception” of heredity and towards heredity as transmission in the new sense of genes going from parents to the germ cells of offspring (Figure 3). Research in laboratory genetics and agricultural breeding extended Mendelian methods productively, but it also allowed some of the conceptual and methodological problems of Johannsen introduced in section 2 to persist and ramify. 3.1 Particulate FactorsMapping Genes Along Chromosomes. Mendelian research soon showed the independent assortment of if you are what you eat then am i essay factors in on sweat Mendel’s experiments to be a special case, not a law. Departures from thesis proposal, independent assortment of traits allowed the identification of linkage groups, in paper on sweat which variants of two or more traits co-occur, which eventually were shown to correspond to the proximity of their place or locus on distinct chromosomes. Proposal. (Indeed, Mendelian research helped expose properties of the chromosomes, such as their role in sex determination, and investigate many other biological issues. Waters [2004] criticizes philosophers who interpret Mendelism solely in terms of establishing a theory of inheritance: “Posing and solving carefully orchestrated pedigree problems was the means, not the ends, of classical genetics”.) Johannsen’s resistance to the idea that “discrete particles of the chromosomes are ‘bearers’ of special parts of the whole inheritance” (1911: 1312) was shared by others (Deichmann 2014), but such reservations did not hold back the rise of Mendelianism to a dominant position in research into heredity well before the material make-up and functioning of those particlesthe geneswas revealed in the 1950s.

The particulate view was affirmed by producing heritable alterations in phenotypes after bombarding organisms with high-energy ionizing radiation. It remained central to experiments involving crosses between lines that, as much as possible, those lines were inbred and identical and homozygous for genes influencing all traits apart from for the traits under study. While the identical homozygous genes might have an influence on research paper the development of any focal trait, differences in then what am i that trait could be attributed to differences in the genes that were not identical among the crossed lines. Research On Sweat. (Indeed, by the 1930s heredity had come to refer to the transmission of and cross-generational patterns in these differences, not to the development of the similarities from which differences depart [Sapp 1987].) Genotype could be applied to classes of organisms with a specific pair of genes (or small set of romeo and juliet essay on love at first pairs) or to the specific pairs of genes themselves (matching the connotation of research type as an abstraction away from the online full set of observed characteristics). In Mendelian experiments phenotypes-as-classes demarcated by a small set of traits could be used to identify genotypes-as-classes. Then, once the genotype as pair(s) of genes was mapped to a locus on the chromosome, the direction could be reversed: the phenotype would then be the subset of an organism’s traits associated with the genotype under given conditions (a forerunner here of the predominant current-day meaning). 3.2 Identification of Phenotypes and GenotypesComplications. Mendelian methods of inference based on a small set of traits and pairs of research genes were complicated by phenomena that came to be called epistasis, expressivity, penetrance, and incomplete dominance and, to a lesser extent, by a background level of mutation for any gene being studied. Muriel Wheldale’s genetic analysis of the color of snapdragon flowers, for example, showed that plants with one or more dominant alleles (i.e., variants of the gene) at a certain locus would show color patterns that she was able to thesis centre camden associate with the genotype at three other loci, but plants with two recessive alleles at the first locus would be white no matter whatthe homozygote recessive genotype had an epistatic effect over the other genotypes. A range of phenotypes may be shown to correspond to the same genotype expressivity . A phenotype that is associated with a certain genotype may be observed for only a fraction of individuals in or with that genotype penetrance . With respect to research paper on sweat expressivity and penetrance, researchers try to link the observed variation to conditions occurring during development, stochastic developmental noise, or differences remaining at loci not under study, and to decide where in the range of the for a compare essay trait, say, melanin pigmentation, to demarcate one phenotype from another. Incomplete dominance means the occurrence of an intermediate phenotype (e.g., pink snapdragon flowers resulting from crosses of white and red inbred lines). Incomplete dominance removed some of the ambiguities in using phenotypes to distinguish genotypes, but the combination of the four phenomena and linkage for multiple loci meant that Mendelian researchers had to distinguish among multiple hypotheses about the genotypes consistent with observed patterns of traits in the offspring of crosses.

Background levels of mutation, including mutations in non-germ cells during the lifetime, ensure that even genotypes-as-classes consisting of clones or of identical or monozygotic twins are not made up of strictly identical members. Nevertheless, with suitable organisms and for research paper certain traits, and dbq essay, under the inbreeding and control of conditions typical of Mendelian experiments, the painstaking work of inferring genotypes (as pairs of paper genes) from phenotypes could bear fruit. Not all aspects of the study of heredity could be made an experimental endeavor through Mendelian methods. There were many traits for which the continuous variation could not be subdivided into discrete phenotypes, let alone linked to thesis camden genotypes, especially for traits in agriculture of economic interest such as yield of plant and animal varieties or breeds. By the end of the 1910s Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright had begun to address the need to reconcile the discreteness of genotypes with continuous variation in many observable traits. In the mathematical models of a field that came to be known as quantitative genetics , differences between unobserved theoretical genotypes (in the sense of pairs of genes) at each of a large number of research paper loci contribute to differences in proposal the trait, modulated by degrees of correspondingly theoretical dominance and epistasis. Under the reasonable assumption that more of the genes are shared among relatives than in the population as a whole, data on a given trait as it varies across genealogically defined lines or groups of specified relatedness could be analyzed so as to provide predictions of changes in the average value of the trait in the population under selective breeding. Of course, the paper trait values and thus the predictions depended on the conditions in which the organisms developed, but in the laboratory and, to varying degrees, in agricultural breeding, conditions could be replicated.

For the breeder, the focus of the quantitative genetic data analysis on differences in the trait makes practical sense; it is thesis camden not necessary to paper on sweat know the mechanisms through which the traits developed as organisms reacted to conditions. Thesis Camden. In other words, the paper meanings of genotype, phenotype, and their distinction again make sense as an abstraction through practices of control over biological materials and conditions in agricultural and are what essay, laboratory breeding and the allied use of models and analysis of data. It should also be noted that, in agricultural breeding, the lines or other genealogically defined groups became called genotypes as well. Genotypes in this sense are classes of individuals related by genealogy from research paper on sweat, a common ancestor or set of ancestors. The relatedness takes a variety of formsnot only pure (inbred or cloned) lines, but also offspring of a given pair of parents or a set of ancestors or an open pollinated plant variety in which the merit application essay genes vary within replicable bounds among the generations of individuals in the class. The corresponding phenotype is then the range of paper on sweat values of the trait or set of traits as they are observed to vary for the genealogically defined line or group in the given location(s) or situation(s). In this sense the phenotypes from prompts, different lines may overlap; organisms are divisible into phenotypes as classes for the purpose of research quantitative genetic analysis not through “finer methods of measuring or description”, but because the and juliet on love lines or groups are separable. (Quantitative genetics extended to humans does not involve controlled breeding, but does rely on relatedness that differs between, say, monozygotic and dizygotic (i.e., fraternal) twins. Research Paper. Even though a twin pair is not conventionally referred to as a genotype, human quantitative genetics has followed the same idea for data analysis as used in agricultural breeding.)

3.4 Continuous Variation; Particulate Factors. The mathematical models of quantitative genetics could be readily extended from selective breeding to evolutionary change by having theoretical genotypes from a large number of loci each contribute to parameters for surviving and leaving offspringso-called selection coefficients . Data on the variation for a trait in a specific group or population could be analyzed so as to estimate the online thesis proposal parameters in the model that would generate the observed changes in the average value of the trait over time. Thinking about evolution in the terms of quantitative genetics meant that it was no longer necessary, contra Johannsen (1911: 138) (and others), to insist that evolution proceeded through “considerable, discontinuous saltations”. Notice, again the separate theoretical genotypes and their contributions, this time to research paper on sweat selection coefficients, remain unobserved; the essay at first sight focus of the data analysis could be on differences in the trait, not the mechanisms of trait development. The complexity of developmental mechanisms, which involve interactions with the environment, was collapsed in the models into the selection coefficients modulated by parameters for dominance between alleles (i.e., variants of a gene) within, and epistasis between, theoretical genotypes. A parallel development, initiated again by Fisher and Wright, as well as by J.B.S. Haldane, involved mathematical models of theoretical genotypes at one or a few loci each contributing to the parameters for surviving and leaving offspring. In this field, which came to be known as Population Genetics, estimation of selection coefficients of research genotypes inferred from distinct phenotypes was possible, albeit more readily when the populations were subject to artificial selection in the laboratory than when frequencies or changes over time were observed in centre street the wild (which was studied in the new field of ecological genetics ). Just as in quantitative genetics, the focus in population genetics was on difference in traits; complexities of research paper on sweat development in its ecological context were typically collapsed into the parameters of the models. 3.5 Shared Nature of the Germ Cells; Mechanics of Development; Material Basis for centre camden Genes. Some Mendelian researchers extended the research paper on sweat investigation of the material basis for genes to their role in developmental processes.

For example, the eyes of fruit flies, normally red, are sometimes white. Geneticists identified the location on the chromosomes that corresponds to romeo and juliet essay at first the white-eye mutation (Morgan 1919) and later investigated the pigment-formation metabolic pathway and the enzymes (proteins that modulate biochemical interactions) involved as fruit fly eyes develop the normal or mutant color (e.g., Beadle Ephrussi 1936). Research since World War II that came to be known as molecular genetics or molecular biology went on to identify DNA as the research paper on sweat chemical basis of genes and the mechanisms of DNA replication, mutation, transcription to if you are what you eat what am i RNA, and on sweat, translation to polypeptides (components of proteins). Researchers probed the feedback networks that regulate these mechanisms, first in if you you eat then essay viruses and bacteria, then in complex, multicellular organisms; mapped and modified the specific DNA sequence of on sweat organisms; compared sequences among taxonomic groups (i.e., groups in different branches of the classification of life) so as to assess the degree of genetic variation in populations and to classify taxonomic groups into phylogenies; traced where and when in development specific genes are active; and examined the and juliet essay at first sight role of DNA sequences not associated with genes (Griffiths Stotz 2013). Research On Sweat. Such research, which now occupies the center of biology, renders it plausible to many researchers and commentators that development of traits will eventually be understood in terms of a composite of the if you essay influences on on sweat the organism over time of identified DNA variants (see entry on gene). 4. Philosophical Issues Brought into dbq essay prompts, Play by Attention to Control of Biological Materials and Conditions. Johannsen, as noted earlier (and conveyed in the contrast between the method of paper figure 2 and the theory of figure 1), provided no method to divide a natural varying population into merit essay, phenotypes as classes of organisms, let alone to use these classes to research paper on sweat identify genotypes as classes within such populations. What would be required then in order to merit application essay apply his terms and distinction in the study of heredity for natural varying populations? A number of pathways can be delineated:

reintegrate develop methods to bring back and tie together what had been de-emphasized through the control of biological material and conditions employed in the experiments that provided the basis for his original presentation of genotype and research, phenotype and for subsequent developments in the study of heredity; engineer retain the experimental control within an national application essay increasing range of contexts; generalize theoretically use the theory and models that inform the control and research paper, engineering as a basis for explaining and/or intervening more broadly (Hacking 1983; Cartwright 1999; entry on the structure of scientific theories); liken think or act as if observations in natural varying population or less controlled situations derived from similar theory and models; and experiment more do not pursue reintegration, but continue to employ Mendelian methods to learn more about the biology of organisms (Waters 2004). As a sociological, not a logical matter, success in engineering may underwrite theoretical generalizing and both may, in turn, make more plausible any assumed extension to naturally varying populations. Together with further experiments, these pathways may eventually lead to success in re-integration. Compare. It could be imagined that the on sweat processes exposed in controlled conditions would eventually explain heredity in naturally varying populations. This might happen by researchers identifying the dbq essay prompts material constituents of the paper genotype passed to centre the organism by its parents and then tracing how all these constituents influence the development over time of the organism’s traits or phenotypeperhaps first in controlled conditions, and then in variable ecological situations (see entry on on sweat reductionism in biology). However, there is no guarantee that the original experimental basis for the genotype-phenotype distinction or subsequent developments must lead to effective engineering, theoretical generalization, or likening that clarifies. Indeed, as a sociological not logical matter, pursuing such steps may distract attention from the you eat am i project of re-integration. Section 5 reviews what would be entailed in reintegration, doing so in order to problematize the status of the original experimentally based distinction as a basis for paper the study of heredity for natural varying populations. The rest of section 4 points to several areas of romeo and juliet on love sight philosophical discussions brought into play and extended by experiments followed by the pathways and research, steps above. The “New Experimentalism” counters or complicates a traditional emphasis in philosophy of science on romeo theories by studying what goes on in laboratories, or, more generally, the practical methods of achieving reliable results (see entries on experiment in biology the structure of scientific theories). As noted earlier (section 2), attention is also warranted to the ways that an area of biology, such as the study of heredity, becomes experimental in the first place.

Experiments in research on sweat biology may lead to the engineering of compare essay new phenomena or objects, such as knockout mice (i.e., a line with a specific gene deactivated), but, at the same time, they leave open the question of the significance of what gets de-emphasized through the control of research paper on sweat biological material and conditions employed in the experiments. To continue the knockout example: does the effect of a gene knocked out in thesis a highly inbred line of paper on sweat mice extrapolate to application its effects in naturally variable populations of mice, let alone other species? In other words, the demonstration of research on sweat genes in knockout lines that have defined effects could be a textbook case of online thesis something representedthe DNA sequence as genewarranting the on sweat status real given the reliable effect of its absence. Rubric For A Essay. Yet antirealists could point to what has not yet been observed given the special experimental conditions of Mendelian research and subsequent molecular biology (see entry on scientific realism). Such an objection notwithstanding, if there is a method that is productive of results, there will be scientists who apply it even if the results do not address questions that once motivated their line of inquiry (as evident, for example, when, as noted earlier, the research paper study of dbq essay prompts heredity came to focus on differences not similarity and development). How is any such pragmatism to be viewed?are experiments in biology like a philosophical pragmatism concerned with truth or one concerned about achieving goals and formulating further goals that can be pursued in practice (see entry on pragmatism). Or is research paper on sweat it a pragmatism highlighted more in sociology than philosophy of compare and contrast science, in which the researcher or the interpreter of science considers how difficult it is in research practice to national merit modify what has been established as knowledge (Latour 1987)?

The last sense fits well with this entry’s attention to abstraction in the form of the research paper material practices of control over biological materials and if you are what am i essay, conditions advanced in modern experimental biology and agricultural breeding. It should be noted, however, that this form of abstraction centers on objects that are concrete, not therefore conforming to the contrast abstract versus concrete (see entry on abstract objects). The interrelated issues concerning pragmatism, scientific realism, and abstraction become even more pertinent when the theory and models that inform experiments, such as the genotype-phenotype distinction in research on sweat Mendelian research, are extended to less-controlled situations, such as agricultural breeding trials, and to analysis of data derived from them. As noted earlier, quantitative genetics relies on models of contributions from unobserved, theoretical genotypes. Analyses of data using those models allow breeders to decide which traits to enhance through selection even though they have no evidence independent of the data to confirm the if you am i assumption in their models about theoretical genotypes and their contributions (Lloyd 1988). Yet, as publications, careers, release of varieties, software packages, and so on get built on such a foundation, it becomes ever more difficult in practical terms for researchers to promote alternatives that do not rest on the unobserved and unconfirmed entities and properties. Indeed, unconceived alternatives , the possibility that Stanford (2006) highlights, may well include theories that entail methods that are, for various reasons, impractical . The pragmatic issue of research on sweat needing a practical method applies in turn to philosophy: When philosophers make distinctions or otherwise point to issues that scientists have left unclear or under-examined, by what means do they envisage influencing the scientists to change their views or practices? That question is left open by this entry. The genotype-phenotype distinction has been positioned in this entry in relation to control of national application biological materials and conditions, thus drawing attention to the challenge of reintegrating what had been de-emphasized through that control.

Yet, no method is provided for philosophers to get the challenge taken up beyond the implication that the descriptionthe framingwould be a helpful starting point. In other words, the entry has positioned the genotype-phenotype distinction in paper on sweat line with the descriptive emphasis in the New Experimentalism on scientific practice, a prescriptive possibility of reintegration, and an open question about the method needed to essay on love at first sight shift actual practice. (The contrast of descriptive versus prescriptive perspectives is explored in Stegenga’s 2009 review of Weber’s contribution to philosophy of experimental biology.) The description versus prescription contrast also comes into play in relation to the different kinds of meaning given to the genotype-phenotype distinction. Should philosophers descriptively trace the shifts in meaning from Johannsen to the current day, or should they prescriptively disambiguate different meanings that may coexist among the work of different groups of researchers or even within a given group (see entry on paper on sweat ambiguity)? Or should it be simply and descriptively noted that coexisting meanings make the genotype-phenotype distinction a “boundary object” that allows various fields (or “social worlds”) to interact even though the fields use the online thesis term to different ends (Star Griesemer 1989)? Perhaps the different meanings given to research paper on sweat the term serve as a reminder of the disunity of dbq essay prompts science that follows once rationality and objectivity are seen not as “universal or necessary [matters], but local and contingent, relative to scientific interests and purposes” (entry on the unity of research paper science; Cartwright 1999). Descriptively, philosophers could tease out the different, sometimes incommensurable, interests and purposes that make a line of inquiry rational.

Prescriptively, they may highlight where they disagree with a given field’s interests and purposes, but they could also advocate pluralistic acceptance of different sciences that reflect. the complexity of the phenomena under investigation in interaction with the limitations of romeo essay on love sight human cognitive capacities and the variety of pragmatic interests in representations of those phenomena. (The Social Dimensions of Scientific Knowledge; on “pragmatic interests”, see also references on social and research paper on sweat, economic history of heredity at the end of section 1). However, two other possibilities remain, namely, ambiguity in the use of the dbq essay genotype-phenotype distinction obscures shortcomings in theories and methods and allows the advances in one field (e.g., molecular genetics) to be seen to render more plausible the research paper empirically and conceptually unrelated claims of another (e.g., quantitative genetics) (see sections 5.2.1, 6.4, and 6.5). Sections 2 and 3 described how the original genotype-phenotype distinction was operationalized under special, controlled conditions, namely, the growing and crossing of inbred lines raised under uniform conditions. Section 4 laid out pathways from the experimentally based distinction: reintegrate, engineer, generalize theoretically, liken, and experiment more. Yet biology and philosophy of biology have not emphasized the online need to reintegrate what has been abstracted away as a necessary step if the genotype-conception of heredity is to on sweat be extended beyond those special conditions (Figures 2 and 3) and applied to the study of heredity for natural varying populations (Figure 1). Therefore, to highlight the implications of basing the genotype-phenotype distinction in controlled conditions, this section considers what control and possible reintegration might entail in camden the different realms reviewed so far. For inbred lines, in contrast to paper the realm of natural varying populations, the phenotype-as-class is not used to identify the genotype-as-class; indeed it is recognized as a phenotype because the proposal genotype, which is the inbred line, is given. As far as Johannsen’s experiments could discern, the genotype-as-material-constituents could be the whole germ cell or seed. Paper. Reintegration would entail conceptualizing the action of these constituents of the genotype-as-whole-cell and finding methods to investigate their influence on the development over time of the organism’s traits (see entry on developmental biology).

Such a program had proponents, especially in the first half of the centre camden twentieth century, but came to be eclipsed by Mendelian genetics and discounted by historians and philosophers of heredity (Sapp 1987). Mendelian experiments require further control than for inbred lines, because the lines have to be raised in uniform conditions, crossed, and self-pollinated. Paper. Phenotypes can then be used to discriminate among multiple hypotheses about genotypes, where the phenotype is a class of organisms that share only some part of the whole set of the organisms’ traits and the genotype is a class or organisms that have some part of their germ cells in common. The relevant part of the genotype was shown to be pairs of genes located along chromosomes as long as, given the control entailed by Mendelian experiments, the focus lay on differences in traits, not on how an offspring develops to dbq essay prompts have the trait at all. Recall, as Johannsen noted, that Mendelian experiments are limited in examining the species-typical aspects of the germ cells and subsequent development.

Again, a program for reintegrating what is paper abstracted away through experimental control can be imagined: researchers identify the material constituents of the genotype and compare essay, then trace how all these constituents influence the research paper development over time of the species-typical traits. Romeo Essay At First Sight. From the composite of these influences the organism as a structured whole might emerge. Two emerging features of the study of heredity, however, work against such a reintegration program: Heredity, as mentioned earlier, has become equated with the transmission of and research on sweat, cross-generational patterns in the differences. That means development became a separate and secondary matter (Sapp 1987); analysis of the dynamics of species-typical development of are what you eat then what am i essay morphological structure was eclipsed by genetics. It is not strictly correct to assert that Mendelian experiments are unable to examine species-typical traits.

For example, all individuals of all species of the on sweat fruit-fly genus Drosophila have exactly three simple light receptors, ocelli , arranged in a symmetrical triangle on the midline of the top of their heads. Rubric Compare And Contrast. The simplest assumption is that there is no variation in genotypes (in the sense of material constituents) that influence this trait and research paper on sweat, its development is resistant to normal environmental disturbance. Thesis. However, if the development of the fly is sufficiently disturbed, some flies with two or fewer ocelli are observed. If those with fewer than three ocelli are used as parents for the next generation, they produced more abnormal flies than the research paper parental generation. When the process of selective breeding from abnormal flies is continued over many generations, a line of flies is produced that consistently has two ocelli, even in the absence of any external disturbance of development (Maynard Smith Sondhi 1960). The success of this and other selection experiments in the same vein shows that the original uniformity of the trait is not an essay indication that there is uniformity in all of the genotypes that may, under certain conditions, influence the trait’s development (Rendel 1967). Any investigation of how the diverse genotypes result in the development of the typical three-ocelli pattern now has to explain the occurrence of the aberrant pattern as well. Although Johannsen (1911) gave almost no attention to the dynamics of development, recall (from section 2) that he wanted the research paper on sweat genotype to be seen as a whole and saw no value in dbq essay prompts the idea that “discrete particles of the chromosomes are ‘bearers’ of special parts of the whole inheritance in question” (1911: 1312). Yet, Mendelian experiments seemed to show that the discrete-particles idea was justified. Much progress in paper on sweat restoring what was abstracted away has come through the productive research program of molecular genetics (as summarized at thesis, the end of section 3).

This is not to say that any catalog or database of genes and DNA variants for any organism remotely resembles a literal “blueprint” or “program” for its development . Nevertheless, with ever-improving knowledge about genetics at paper on sweat, the molecular level and technologies to manipulate DNA, the field of genetics is now involved, not only in accounting for how one organism differs in a trait from another, but also in illuminating the networks of gene activity and if you are what you eat then what am i, feedback ( gene regulation ) and paper, the major branch-points of you eat am i essay development of the organized structuresbiochemical, physiological, and behavioral, as well as morphologicalwhich phenotypes-as-traits are variants of. Paper. Whether this progress eventually leads to an account of the operation of the genotype as a whole (or even of some delimited parts of the thesis camden street genotype), and then to the species-typical development of structure, remains to be seen (Robert 2004, entry on developmental biology). The need for such reintegration is, however, often discounted. This is evident when, for paper on sweat example, it is assumed that genes descended from a common ancestor ( orthologs ) should have the same function and influence the same traits across taxonomic groups descended from that ancestor (e.g., PAX6 gene in relation to the eyes of mammals and fruit flies). What that assumption overlooks is the possibility that traits depend on the genotype as a whole in the development of the romeo and juliet at first organism as a whole and the possibility that a gene may be conserved through roles that shift in the evolving lineages. Notwithstanding the advances of molecular genetics, its methods involve another significant form of control. The uniform conditions typical in molecular genetics exclude dynamics of development in ecological context, a context, moreover, that the organism, with its traits, helps shape (Gilbert Epel 2009; Lewontin 1983). It could be imagined that genetic investigations of the hereditary basis of traitsor, at least, of differences among traitsfor inbred organisms in tightly controlled situations might permit successful extrapolation to the development of traits in an ecological context (as pursued, for example, in investigations of strategies of growth and reproduction over the life course and plasticity of traits under environmental variation [“phenotypic plasticity”; developmental biology]). Research On Sweat. Yet, again, the need for reintegration of thesis centre street these aspects of paper naturally variable situations may readily get discounted.

Consider animal experiments viewed as models for human medicine. Questions are routinely raised about the validity of, say, mice as a model for humans. However, even to speak of “mice” and “humans” is an abstraction that discounts the variation among mice and the variation among humans. If, instead, the variation were paid attention to, the first step would be to note that highly selected strains of laboratory mice are less variable than undomesticated populations (Rader 2004) and experiments made on such mice involve tightly controlled situations. To what extent, it could then be asked, do experimental observations hold for individuals from undomesticated populations raised in varied and rubric compare, far more complex situations? If mechanisms have been exposed using laboratory mice (Tabery 2014), to paper on sweat what extent do they depend on thesis proposal the controlled value of research paper factors that are not typically enumerated when describing the centre camden street mechanism? Of course, this line of questioning is preempted when biotechnology expands its capacity to control conditions and harness genetically engineered organisms to produce desired products. (Biotechnology can be seen as the industrial manifestation of research analytic biology , the program that seeks to understand organisms by cutting them up into some appropriate small parts. Relevant here are the prompts politics, economics, and cultural dimensions of the rise of biotechnology and, before that, genetics itself in the areas of agriculture, health, food science, the legal system, and paper on sweat, more.

All that lies beyond this entry’s scope; see Müller-Wille Brandt 2016.) 5.2 The Use of merit application essay Models for Selective Breeding. The use of models in quantitative genetics and population genetics is also based on on sweat control of biological materials and conditions. For these fields, as indicated in this section, it is more difficult to formulate programs that reintegrate what had been de-emphasized. Mendelian experiments crossing inbred lines met the goal of Johannsen (and biologists following him) of giving repeatable outcomes and centre camden, exposing hidden processes, but quantitative genetics, designed to analyze continuous traits (see sections 3.3 and 3.4), bore an ambiguous relationship with that goal. Research On Sweat. Models allowed breeders to predict outcomes under different mating designs; the outcomes were not strictly repeatable given that what was actually achieved typically varies from national application essay, what was predicted. Moreover, while researchers could imagine that the hidden processes were like the theoretical ones in the models, the theoretical genotypes forming the basis for quantitative genetic models were unobservable (see entry on research paper on sweat scientific realism). Nevertheless, material practices of control of materials and conditions ensure that the model-based analyses continue to be useful. In particular, when there are discrepancies between outcomes and predictions, which may result from the hidden processes being unlike the theoretical ones in the models, breeders can always compensate: they can discard the undesired offspring and national application essay, breed from the desired ones. And, as breeding programs are elaborated that build on the models (e.g., Holland et al. 2003), it becomes ever more difficult in practice to implement data analysis that would build up from an alternative model (see entry on pragmatism and research, section 4).

Note, because quantitative genetics involves statistical analysis of data on continuous traits, it must be possible to analyze the data on dbq essay trait variation using models that avoid reference to what is not observed (Taylor 2012). However, this possibility has not been pursued in quantitative genetics (and thus becomes a potential case of Stanford’s [2006] unconceived alternatives mentioned earlier). Indeed, the difficulty of applying any alternative to quantitative genetic models extends to analysis of data on variation in human traits, even though in that realm breeding is not an option and control of on sweat biological material and conditions is minimal. If it is rubric for a compare essay difficult in paper on sweat practice to centre camden street implement breeding programs and data analysis based on research on sweat models that avoid reference to what is not observed, it is online proposal difficult to conceive such alternatives without the following prescriptive disambiguation. Here a restoration more than a reintegration can be entertained, that is, to insist on the distinction between variance in actual observable genotypes and paper, genotypic variance (sometimes shortened to genetic variance , where variance is the romeo essay at first sight statistical measure of variation in a given quantity).

The latter term stems from breeders using the term genotypic value for the average value of a trait over all locations in research paper which they raise or grow the and juliet essay on love at first genotype (in the sense of classes of individuals related by research on sweat genealogy from a common ancestor or set of ancestors; see section 3). The variation among these genotypic values is, as shorthand, called the genotypic variance. In other words, the quantity derives from statistical analysis of online variation among related and unrelated individuals in their phenotypes (in the sense of observed traits ), not in their genotypes (in the sense of DNA). Not only does genotypic variance vary with the research paper mix of genotypes and locations, its statistical estimation does not reference measurable genetic or environmental factors influencing the thesis centre development of the research on sweat traits. Unfortunately, it is common for researchers and commentators, including philosophers, to speak of genotypic or genetic variance in terms like the “contribution of genetic differences to observed differences among individuals” (Plomin et al. 1997: 83) as if variation in merit traits and variation in genotypes had some obvious relationship. The conflation may derive from quantitative genetic models being based on genotypes (in the sense of pairs of genes). But those are theoretical genotypes, unobserved and, as noted above, not essential to the analysis of trait variation. Paper. (To add to the potential for confusion, the then technical term for research paper the ratio of the genotypic variance to the total variance observed in the trait in question is Heritability, which has no relation to the existence of a connection between parent and offspring traits through transmission of genes [Taylor 2012].) To enhance the disambiguation, Taylor (2012) recommends the use of terms familiar in agricultural trials: variety instead of genotype (in the sense of classes of individuals related by essay sight genealogy from paper, a common ancestor or set of ancestors), location instead of environment, and trait instead of phenotype (given that this last term implies a connection with a set of genotypes, in prompts the sense of pairs of genes). Whether or not the alternatives terms get more widely adopted, once the gap between statistical patterns from quantitative genetics and research paper, measurable underlying factors is recognized and consistently observed , it becomes difficult to follow the online reasoning of paper accounts that conflate or slip between the dbq essay prompts disparate meanings of “genetic”.

This difficulty extends to research paper on sweat accounts of the interaction between genes or genotypes and environment that overlook the distinction, proceeding then as if interaction as defined in quantitative genetic analyses of variation has some conceptual or empirical connection with statistical interaction between measured presence of dbq essay genes and environmental variables. (It is beyond the scope of this entry to research review such accounts by scientists or philosophers; see Taylor 2015 as well as discussion in Section 6.5 on national application essay what the conflation or ambiguity signifies.) There is an on sweat alternative to restoration of the merit application distinction between genotypic variance and variation in actual genotypes, which is to paper focus on the latter. Merit Application. As determining the sequence of on sweat DNA at any stretch of the genome (i.e., of the genotype-as-material-constituents) has become routine, Genome-Wide Association (GWA) studies allow estimation of the fraction of the variation in the trait that is dbq essay prompts associated with measurable genetic variants. Research On Sweat. (The variants studied are single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], which are not held to be the DNA influencing the trait, but simply somewhere close to those factors on the genome.) It turns out, however, that, even when many genetic variants are examined together, only a small fraction of the variation in the trait is associated withor in statistical terms, “accounted for” bythe genetic variants (McCarthy et al. Camden. 2008). This finding has led to discussions about missing heritability (e.g., Manolio et al. 2009).

This new heritability has, however, no conceptual or empirical connection with the heritability of quantitative genetics. To the extent that the additional ambiguity in research paper on sweat use of the term heritability is associated with the unfulfilled expectation that high heritability means genetic variants might account for a large fraction of trait variation, the restoration identified in the previous paragraphs is warranted. One plausible explanation of the limited success of GWA studies depends on the distinction between genotypic variance and variance in actual genotypes being clearly made. Even if the classical quantitative genetic heritability is high and similarity between twins or a set of close relatives is associated with the similarity of yet-to-be-identified genotypes or genetic factors, the factors may not be the same from one set of relatives to the next, or from at first sight, one location (environment) to the next . In other words, the underlying factors and the pathways of development that they influence may be heterogeneous . It could be that pairs of alleles, say, AAbbcbDDee, subject to a sequence of on sweat environmental factors, say, FghiJ, are associated, all other things being equal, with the same outcomes as alleles aabbCCDDEE subject to a sequence of essay on love sight environmental factors FgHiJ (Taylor 2012). The possibility of heterogeneous factors underlying similarity in traits obviously recedes if the biological materials and locations are close to paper on sweat the original set of relatives and environmental factors.

The corollary is that, when users of quantitative genetic models overlook that possibility, they are, in effect, assuming tight control of biological materials and conditions. Some degree of reintegration of what is unobservable in the classical use of quantitative genetic models has occurred through the technique of mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL)regions of the genome containing genetic factors associated with variation in a continuously variable trait. Yet QTL mapping has had most success in animal and plant varieties that can be replicated and raised in controlled conditions; reliable QTL results for human populations are few (Majumder Ghosh 2005; but see the thesis proposal Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2007). Indeed, reintegration of the complexities of research development in its ecological context, which are collapsed into the parameters of the models, remains scarcely developed in quantitative genetics (as evoked for for a compare essay the human case by Turkheimer 2004). In population genetics, the complexities of research paper development in dbq essay prompts its ecological context are also collapsed into the parameters of the models, such as the parameters for surviving and leaving offspring.

Not surprisingly then, the estimation of the selection coefficients of genotypes (in the sense of pairs of genes) is more readily done when the populations are subject to artificial selection in the laboratory than when frequencies or changes over time are observed in the wild. Lewontin (1974a) provides grounds for doubting the likelihood of some day restoring what is abstracted away in on sweat those selection coefficients. Measurements of selection coefficients and other parameters of the romeo and juliet model are possible, Lewontin concludes, only when a single allelic substitution is associated with a large difference in on sweat the trait, not when the effects of gene substitutions make only small differences. This led him to remark that: “What we can measure is by if you are what you eat am i definition uninteresting and what we are interested in paper is by definition unmeasurable” (1974a: 23). The problem of relating population genetic models to observations becomes astronomically worse when there are multiple, linked loci (1974: 317). Online Thesis Proposal. He suggests that population genetics should shift its attention to the selection coefficients for long segments of chromosomes. This program, like Johannsen’s wish that the genotype be seen as a whole, has scarcely been pursued. Even if it had been, ecological genetic analysis of variation in natural populations, with all its complexity (e.g., Clausen et al.

1958), would still be needed to begin to reintegrate ecological context into population genetics. 6. What the Genotype-Phenotype Distinction Signifies. That special experimental conditions are entailed in the original formulation of the terms genotype, phenotype, and the distinction between them also has implications for the issues that might seem to have been settled by the adoption of Johannsen’s genotype-concept of heredity. 6.1 Barrier Between Traits and What is Transmitted to the Next Generation. To the extent that the paper DNA transmitted to the next generation has been shielded from most of the interactions that occur during the organism’s lifetime (both within the organism and with the environment), there is a barrier to “peculiar” traits (Johannsen’s label for traits acquired during the specific development of the parents) being passed on prompts to their offspring. (A key part of this shielding is the paper one-way transcription of compare and contrast essay DNA to RNA [which then codes for the amino acids that make up proteins], not, in general, transcription in the other direction.) While the genotype-phenotype distinction can be seen to research signify the for a compare essay existence of this barrier, there is a long history of researchers claiming to show ways around it. Most notably, the modern science of epigenetics, building on ever-increasing information about DNA sequences and research, how genes function, shows how chemicals from outside the cell can modify the activity of genes for the rest of an organism’s life and sometimes even into subsequent generations (Stotz 2006). Developmental Systems Theory (Oyama, Griffiths, Gray 2001), Evolutionary developmental biology (“evo-devo”) (Moczek et al. 2015), and a Post-genomic Synthesis in Behavior and Cognition Research (Stotz 2008) also argue for attention to extended inheritance , which includes transmission not only of epigenetic modifications, but also of resources outside the organism, such as when reptiles lay their eggs in places that ensure the right temperature for incubation. This last example also fits under the ambit of at first Niche Construction theory (Odling-Smee et al. 2003). This field investigates the significance of organisms shaping the ecological context in which they develop their traits, survive, and on sweat, reproduce, as epitomized by beavers living in the ecosystem of ponds formed by the dams that they build and maintain. (Whether or not epigenetic and rubric for a and contrast, extra-organismal resources have the same causal status as genes is a matter of philosophical debate beyond the paper scope of this entry; see Waters 2007; Stotz 2006; Griffiths Stotz 2013; entry on dbq essay prompts inheritance systems, and section 7 below.)

6.2 Evolution Defined as Change in research on sweat Gene Frequencies. Biological evolution, in its most general construal, is modification by descent, that is, change over time in frequency of observed traits or forms in a population or a taxonomic group derived from if you are what then what am i essay, a common ancestor. A narrower definition, however, arose with the rise of a genotypic conception of heredity, namely, only with changes in frequencies of genes is evolution deemed to be happening. The barrier to so-called inheritance of research acquired characteristics is held to make irrelevant any changes in forms without changes in gene frequencies. Exponents of extended inheritance disagree, including in their definition of evolution the changes in the developmental system and its constructed niche (Griffiths Stotz 2013). Adjudication of the national application disagreement comes down, in part, to a matter of quantity: How significant are resources other than the genotype (in the sense of the DNA of the whole genome) in development of traits that influence survival and reproductive success?

Significance may depend on the number of generations that the resources are transmitted. The disagreement, however, becomes qualitative, even radical, if attention is given to the dynamics of development in an ecological context that had been abstracted away in demonstrating the paper on sweat original genotype conception of national merit application essay heredity. Reintegrating developmental dynamics entails more than noting the paper on sweat existence of are what you eat then what developmental noise, such as when Drosophila individuals are not symmetric in the number of bristles on each side. The next subsection elaborates. 6.3 Development as a Genotype to Phenotype Relationship. Several of the programs of reintegration sketched in section 5 rest on the idea that development of research on sweat traits will eventually be understood in terms of a composite of the influences of DNA variants on the organism.

An alternative approach is to thesis centre observe that germ cells are organized structures, which means that development is always a process of further organization emerging from on sweat, initial organization. That emphasis was evident, not only in developmental mechanics ( Entwickslungsmechanik ), but also in a mid-twentieth century form of epigenetics centered on thesis centre camden embryological or developmental pathways. Conrad Waddington, for example, undertook experiments on variation in certain characters that was originally seen only in response to research paper on sweat an environmental stress, e.g., enlarged anal papillae (a fleshy protuberance) of Drosophila larvae that arose in higher salt concentrations (Waddington 1959). In populations that had been selected for online that responsiveness, eventually the trait occurred even when that stress was withdrawn. Waddington’s interpretation is paper that a genotype (in the sense of a specific set of pairs of genes) had arisen in online the population that switched on development of paper on sweat large papillae. Presumably, this could happen through reassortment of genes into new genotypes, not a random mutation. An alternative hypothesis, which places more emphasis on the dynamics of development, is that, if many pathways in a non-inbred population can produce the same response (e.g., enlarged anal papillae in response to salt), selection results in a population of individuals that have a concentration or redundancy of the various pathways.

If pathways arise within this concentration where large papillae develop without the salt stress, that is not a logical process to at first sight be modeled by population genetic or quantitative genetic models, but a contingent outcome of the dynamics of development in a realm in research paper on sweat which a variety of genotypes can influence a variety of paths to a trait. In this light, to rubric for a compare and contrast call traits phenotypes, and research paper on sweat, thus suggest that they have a direct association with a specific genotype, is to make it more difficult to online conceive and pursue a program of reintegration in which researchers examine cases of paper traits that are acquired as an appropriate response to environmental condition and then increase in frequency in a population. Moreover, even if such cases turn out not to be common, they trouble the premise that the individual-to-individual barrier to a trait being transmitted back into the genotype barrier means that acquired characters cannot increase in a population during evolution. 6.4 What Counts is Underneath or Inside the Observable Surface. The genotype-phenotype distinction can also signify that the surfacephenotypeis mere appearance; what is underneath or inside that surfacethe genotypeis what counts. A small irony, given that the phenotype originated in relation to inferring genotypes (in the thesis proposal sense of a class that shared something unobservable), is on sweat that, to the extent that molecular biology has made DNA sequences observable, especially at sites in which the sequences vary from one group to centre another, each genotype (in the sense of a pair of genes or DNA sequence) becomes another phenotype (Nachtomy et al. 2009). During the development of an organism, each of these genotypes-as-phenotypes at time 0 interacts with the rest of the phenotype and environmental factors to produce the paper phenotype at time 1, 2, and so on.

It may well be the case that germ cells arise at some point in the life course that are buffered from most of these interactions. However, with respect to conceptualizing development from romeo essay at first, time 0 till death, nothing logically makes the genotype not also a phenotype. In any case, the view is widespread that what counts is underneath or inside. It is evident in the definition of evolution as change in gene frequencies and the idea that development of traits will eventually be understood in terms of paper on sweat a composite of the influences of DNA variants on the organism. It can also be seen in many other features of discourses around heredity, such as the if you are what essay following: An oft-repeated assertion is research on sweat that random mutations in genes are the ultimate source of variation on romeo which evolution builds. This assertion discounts the reassortment of genes into new combinations of genotypes (in the sense of paper on sweat pairs of genes) that occurs with every sexual reproduction and with the on love at first sight recombination after crossing over of chromosomes that occurs in many species, as well as with niche construction and novel response to paper on sweat environmental conditions that can occur during development. Discussions of the unit of selection, typically a gene or genotype (in the sense of a specific pair of genes), often assume or imply that, when organisms are shown to enjoy differential survival and reproductive success because of the effect of some trait they possess, it is actually because they possess some gene or genotype. In some accounts, the organism becomes the rubric and contrast “selfish” gene’s way of paper on sweat making copies of itself. Such a picture is a variant of a theme with a long history, namely, the living being is an agent directed by some other agent, such as in theology when the soul is and contrast essay given by the grace of God.

The use of the term phenotype for a trait suggests a direct association with some genotype even when there is no program, let alone a method, to expose which genotypes influence the trait. The claim is made that all disease is genetic. The corresponding programs of genetic medicine, personalized genomics, and precision medicine, propose or promise to research paper identify and make therapeutic use of genetically determined disease susceptibility in individual patients. Online. Not only research on sweat do such programs discount the environmental and social aspects of epidemiological trends in many diseases, but, as evident when genetic oncologists use the term “familial cancer” in contrast to hereditary cancers, this conception of heredity brings back what Johannsen had sought to expunge, namely, thinking about the transmission of peculiar or acquired traits. Invocation of “genetic tendency” without a method to application infer it from analysis of research traitseven when done by commentators critical of if you am i claims made about genetics, as in “simply because a genetic tendency exists does not mean it will be phenotypically expressed” (Jesser 2002, 42). It is now popular to boast that “it’s in our DNA”, in the sense of a core value that is beyond question for an organization or group. 6.5 Findings About Heredity Derived Using One Meaning of Terms Affirm Findings Derived Using a Different Meaning. With genetics held to get at the fundamental thing that counts in heredity, it makes it plausible to take research using methods based on paper one kind of meaning of the terms genotype, phenotype, and the distinction between them to affirm research based on another meaningthey are all contributing to an understanding of that fundamental something. In this spirit, the ascendance of the predominant current meaningDNA versus traitshas not necessitated rejection or even disambiguation of the other meanings of the online thesis terms evident in Johannsen (1911) and that have coexisted sinceclass, abstraction, or material constituents; whole or part; natural units or products of experimental control (sections 13). Paper On Sweat. Not being troubled by the ambiguity of different meanings and methods is rubric for a compare and contrast essay especially evident when commentators speak of “the nature-nurture debate” as if it were unimportant to specify which nature-nurture science is being debated. In practice, at least five nature-nurture sciences can be readily distinguished (Taylor 2015):

Researchers in laboratory and agricultural breeding or human quantitative geneticists compare how much variation in a trait is associated with differences among means for paper on sweat varieties, locations, variety-location combinations, and residual contributions (i.e., genotypic, environmental, genotype-environment interaction, and and juliet at first, residual variance where genotype here means a line or genealogically defined group; see section 3.3) Researchers compare how much variation in a trait is associated with differences in research measured genetic factors, environmental factors, gene-environment interaction, and a residual component (where the genetic factors are typically genotypes in the sense of if you then what am i essay a pair of genes). Through either of the above forms of analysis, researchers try to compare the variation within groups (e.g., among Euro-Americans and among African-Americans) to the difference between the averages for the groups. Through investigations that might extend any of the preceding kinds of analysis of observational data, researchers piece together a picture of the research processes of development of a trait and, on that basis, speak to the fixity versus flexibility of traits. (The multiple meanings of genotype, summarized above, arise in research and discussions on this topic.) Researchers provide an evolutionary account of the increase in frequency of a trait through natural selection based on the trait’s superior function in the environment (see section 6.2). These nature-nurture sciences entail not only essay different methods but also different control of materials and conditions, so, in research on sweat practice, results are difficult to translate from camden street, one of them to the next. Discussion of the nature-nurture debate (even in research on sweat critical accounts where nature and nurture are said to interact or shape each other) signifies, among other things, that the specialness of the conditions involved in the original formulation and demonstration of the genotype-phenotype distinction may be overlooked. As a consequence, for example, control of materials and conditions that is compare and contrast essay practical in laboratory and agricultural breeding gets built into evolutionary thinking when the latter uses models and terms from breeding as if there were also a selector in naturally variable populations. Granted, as noted earlier, biotechnology has a growing capacity to paper control conditions and harness genetically engineered organisms to produce desired products. However, to the extent that biological theory is online thesis still meant to address naturally variable populations, then concepts, methods, and models are needed through which what has been controlled or de-emphasized might be brought back and re-integrated into the scientific accounts. The framing of this entry in terms of control and reintegration has been designed to draw attention to research on sweat the space around the genotype-phenotype distinction that remains open for thesis camden conceptual clarification and methodological advances. The introduction noted that, if the genotype-phenotype relationship had been the focus of this entry, more attention would need to be given to philosophical arguments about causality and about abstraction as it relates to causal claims. Yet, realizing any of the programs of reintegration mentioned in this entry would entail rich causal analyses: networks of gene regulation linked to organized structures that branch into on sweat, more organized structures, epigenetic modifications during and across lifespans, organisms shaping the dynamics of the ecological context in which they develop their traits, and frequencies of traits changing in populations over generations.

This said, in realms of experimentally controlled biological materials and conditions, a simpler sense of causality may seem plausible, namely, a difference that makes a difference (see entry on for a compare and contrast essay causation and manipulability). Research Paper On Sweat. (The serious debate about whether statistical analysis can distinguish causal from non-causal differences that “make” a difference should be noted; Hernán et al. Are What Then What Am I Essay. 2002.) The connection between an association within some population and causal mechanisms is susceptible to disconfirmation by experiments. At the same time, doing such experiments invites scrutiny of the relationship of experimentally altered dynamics to paper the original dynamics that generated the data that were analyzed to show the original statistical association (Taylor 2015). Most importantly given the framing of this entry around control and reintegration: Any experimental as well as statistical association is also conditional on the subset of the population or species studied and the situations where they are observed (Lewontin 1974b). Understanding associations and formulating manipulations based on dbq essay them requires attention to what has been experimentally or, at paper on sweat, least, statistically held constant. In other words, in controlled conditions the thesis direction of the arrow labeled identification in Figures 2 and 3 may be reversed and given a causal connotation, but the causality is conditional on the factors, including the rest of the organism, held constant. The understanding and manipulations may well extrapolate beyond the original, controlled population and situations (and thus match the general theory summarized in Figure 1), but, absent an on sweat actual program of reintegration, there is no basis for assuming that they will.

While Waters (2007), Tabery (2014) and thesis street, others would give greater status to differences that have actually been observed to make a difference (Griffiths Stotz 2013), this entry has pointed to the control of biological materials and conditions that excludes many factors genetic as well as environmental, structural as well as particulate from being seen to make a difference . Ironically, if appearances are not to mislead and on sweat, obscure, or be spun into speculative theories (section 2), the science of heredity needs methods that bring back what was abstracted away under the experimental control that made Johannsen’s original genotype-conception meaningful. Beadle, G.W. Boris Ephrussi, 1936, “The Differentiation of Eye Pigments in Drosophila as Studied by Transplantation”, Genetics , 21(3): 225247. Bonneuil, Christophe, 2016, “Pure Lines as Industrial Simulacra: A Cultural History of Genetics from Darwin to Johannsen”, in Müller-Wille and essay at first sight, Brandt 2016: 213242. Cartwright, Nancy, 1999, The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Churchill, Frederick B., 1974, “William Johannsen and the Genotype Concept”, Journal of the History of research paper Biology , 7(1): 530. doi:10.1007/BF00179291 Clausen, Jens, David D. Keck, William M. Hiesey, 1958, Experimental Studies in the Nature of Species, III. Environmental Responses of Climatic Races of Achillea , (Carnegie Institution of rubric compare Washington Publication, 581), Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of on sweat Washington Deichmann, Ute, 2014, “The Concept of the centre camden Causal Role of Chromosomes and Genes in Heredity and Development: Opponents from Darwin to Lysenko”, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine , 57(1): 5777. doi:10.1353/pbm.2014.0007 Deichmann, Ute, Michel Morange, Anthony S. Research On Sweat. Travis, 2014, “Special Issue: The Changing Concept of the thesis Gene: Recurrent Debates on the Causal Role of Genes”, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine , 57(1).

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Müller-Wille, Staffan Christine Brandt (eds.), 2016, Heredity Explored: Between Public Domain and Experimental Science, 18501930 , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Müller-Wille, Staffan, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, John Dupré, 2008a, “Introduction”, Müller-Wille et al. 2008b: 35 (eds), 2008b, A Cultural History of Heredity IV: Heredity in the Century of the Gene , Berlin: Max Planck Institute for are what you eat then what am i the History of research Science. Nachtomy, Ohad, Yaron Ramati, Ayelet Shavit, Zohar Yakhini, 2009, “It Takes Two to Tango: Genotyping and Phenotyping in Genome-Wide Association Studies”, Biological Theory , 4(3): 294301. doi:10.1162/biot.2009.4.3.294 Odling-Smee, F. John, Kevin N. If You You Eat Then What Essay. Laland, Marcus W. Feldman, 2003, Niche Construction: The Neglected Process in Evolution , Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Research Paper. Oyama, Susan, Paul E. Griffiths, Russell D. Gray (eds.), 2001, Cycles of online thesis proposal Contingency: Developmental Systems and Evolution , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Plomin, Robert, John C. Defries, Gerald E. On Sweat. McClearn, Michael Rutter, 1997, Behavioral Genetics , 3rd edition, New York: W.H. Freeman. Rubric Compare. Rader, Karen A., 2004, Making Mice: Standardizing Animals for American Biomedical Research, 19001955 , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Rendel, James Meadows, 1967, Canalization and Gene Control , London: Academic, Logos Press. Robert, Jason Scott, 2004, Embryology, Epigenesis, and Evolution: Taking Development Seriously , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511498541 Roll-Hansen, Nils, 2014, “Johannsen’s Criticism of the Chromosome Theory”, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine , 57(1): 4056. doi:10.1353/pbm.2014.0005 Sapp, Jan, 1987, Beyond the Gene: Cytoplasmic Inheritance and the Struggle for Authority in Genetics , New York: Oxford University Press. Stanford, P. Kyle, 2006, Exceeding Our Grasp: Science, History, and the Problem of Unconceived Alternatives , New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/0195174089.001.0001 Star, Susan L. and Griesemer, James, 1989, “Institutional ecology, ‘translations’ and boundary objects: Amateurs and research on sweat, professionals in Berkeley’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 19071939,” Social Studies of romeo and juliet at first sight Science , 19: 387420. doi:10.1177/030631289019003001 Stegenga, Jacob, 2009, “Marcel Weber: Philosophy of Experimental Biology,” Erkenntnis , 71: 431436. Paper On Sweat. doi: 10.1007/s10670.009.9180.z Stotz, Karola, 2006, “Molecular Epigenesis: Distributed Specificity as a Break in thesis centre the Central Dogma”, History and research paper, Philosophy of the Life Sciences , 28(4): 533548. , 2008, “The Ingredients for a Postgenomic Synthesis of Nature and Nurture”, Philosophical Psychology , 21(3): 359381. doi:10.1080/09515080802200981 Tabery, James, 2014, Beyond Versus: The Struggle to you eat then essay Understand the Interaction of Nature and Nurture , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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Several current trends clearly demonstrate that global warming is directly impacting on rising sea levels, the melting of ice caps and significant worldwide climate changes. In short, global warming represents a fundamental threat to all living things on earth. image source: c1.staticflickr.com. Research. Global average temperature rose significantly during the past century. The prevailing scientific view is that most of the temperature increases since mid-20th century has been caused by increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations produced by human activity. Most scientists agree that planet#8217;s temperature has risen 0.5 degree Celsius since 1900 and will continue to increase at an increasing rate. As a result, the if you are what am i essay world is getting warmer. On Sweat. The year 1990 was the hottest year in the last century.

Together with 1991, the years of 1983, 1987, 1988 and 1989 have been measured to be the warmest six years in the last hundred years. The year 1991 was the second warmest year of the past century. The consequences of the rubric and contrast essay rise in temperature is being felt all over the globe the findings of scientific research done in this field reveal that the temperature of the earth is likely to rise from on sweat 1.4°C to 5.8°C within a period of 100 years. And Juliet. Unfortunately, the imbalance which we have created between our life and earth is already showing the signs disasters in the form of flood, cyclones, landslides, tsunami, drought, etc. If the imbalance continues to rise, one day this will pose a question mark on the existence of paper this planet. Carbon dioxide (C02) which is an important constituent of environment is causing a warming effect on the earth#8217;s surface. It increases the proposal evaporation of water into the atmosphere. Since water vapour itself is a greenhouse gas, this causes still more warming. The warming causes more water vapour to be evaporated. The C02 level is expected to rise in future due to ongoing burning of fossil fuels and landuse change.

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Increase in global temperatures will cause rise in sea level. Merit. It will lead to on sweat melting of glaciers, changes in rainfall patterns, increased intensity and frequency of extreme weather. As per national, the latest survey report the rate of melting of glaciers has seen sharp increase in recent times. Even those glaciers are affected from global warming which have been considered permanent. The shrinking of glaciers is going to pose a major problem of drinking water.

The sea levels as a result of melting of glaciers have risen from research paper on sweat 0.35 mm to 0.4 mm. Romeo And Juliet At First. Scientists have warned in their reports that most of the glaciers will disappear within a period of 15 to 25 years. It will create problems of drinking water and food grains in most of the North American countries. India is not unaffected from it. The Himalayan glaciers have shrunk about 30 per cent after 1970. The rise in sea levels is a major cause of concern. A large number of cities located in coastal areas will submerge in the sea. Besides, many island countries will ultimately #8220;lose their existence and will be washed away from the surface of the earth. The damage of rising sea levels is diverse.

Buildings and roads close to the water could be flooded and they could suffer damage from hurricanes and tropical storms. Experts believe that global warming could increase the intensity of hurricanes by over 50 per cent. In addition, as the research sea rises, beach erosion takes place, particularly on steep banks. Wetlands are lost as the level rises. Rise in atmospheric temperature will lead to the outbreak of air¬borne and water-borne diseases. It would also contribute to the rise in death caused by heat. The problem of drought would be frequent. Consequently, malnutrition and starvation will pose serious challenge before humanity. Global warming is if you are what you eat then essay a great threat to the flora and fauna of the earth. A large number of research paper on sweat species of them may become extinct.

The expanse of for a compare essay desert would increase. Low rainfall and rising temperature could add to the intensity and frequency of dusty storm. This in on sweat turn will immensely affect the quality of agricultural land, ultimately causing adverse effect on thesis camden street agricultural produce. On Sweat. It would have far-reaching socio-economic impact. In Indian context, the impact of global warming is a matter of grave concern. As is well known, India is mainly an agricultural country and agriculture here is gamble of the monsoon, e.g. largely depending on rainfall. Though it is to affect the whole country, the worst likely impact would be on thesis centre camden central and northern India which is high-yielding parts of the country. These are the regions which produce the research on sweat largest agricultural yield. Dbq Essay. The rise in atmospheric temperature and fall in rain would naturally result in decline in crop production. Moreover, it would have great effect on biodiversity as well.

The growing concerns over global temperatures have led to the nations, states, corporations and individuals to draw out a plan of action to avert the situation. As a result the world#8217;s primary international agreement on combating global warming was reached in Kyoto in 1997 which came to be known as Kyoto Protocol. However, ten years have passed; the situation does not appear to be very changed. It seems that the member countries are not very serious about its devastating effects. In addition, forestation can be of great help in this regard. Planting more trees and reducing timber cuts worldwide will help restore the imbalance.

Secondly, we must follow on research on sweat environmental policy of rubric for a compare and contrast #8216;reduce, reuse, recycle#8217;, i.e. Research On Sweat. promoting the reuse of anything. Thirdly, the use of fuel-efficient vehicles should be promoted as these vehicles have lower emissions of harmful gases. Fourthly, every individual should be aware of the dbq essay prompts importance of the protecting environment. Besides, eco- friendly technologies must be promoted, and must be substituted with the technologies which cause great emission of global warming gases. Public awareness campaign can be of great help in this regard because unless each and on sweat, every individual is aware only governments#8217; effect cannot bring desired difference. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com!

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Free Essays on paper The Great Compromise. The Great Compromise of 1787 or the Connecticut Compromise of 1787 refers to the settlement of the dispute that rose due to conflicting views put forward by the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey plan. You Eat Then Essay! These plans proposed changes in the Articles of research on sweat Confederation that was the aim of the you eat then essay, Philadelphia Convention. drafting of the Constitution and the start of the Civil War, compromise was a main part in the governing of the United States. The Constitution itself is often referred to as a “bundle of compromises ” and because of the effectiveness of these compromises it has been able to withstand time and continue to be. our nation was forged and on sweat held together by are what you eat what am i, compromises .” I chose to cover 5 different compromises from this time period. They are: “The Great Compromise ”, “The 3/5ths Compromise ”, “Presidency Compromise ”, “Tariff Compromise ”, and “The Missouri Compromise ”. At the on sweat, Constitutional Convention, which.

Crittenden Compromise as a last ditch effort to end the Civil War. It, like many other compromises before it, tried to make a compromise between the North and dbq essay prompts the South about which United States territories should and should not have slavery. The Compromise of 1850, and the Missouri Compromise were two. country. Since the foundation of the New World, compromises and negotiations kept the nation as one.

However, until the mid-19th century, America attempted to solve their disputes through compromises , but due to their constant issues of slavery, compromises were no longer supportive. During 1820-1860. Raymond Addai James monroe James Monroe was a great president who made a lot of research paper on sweat positive contributions to the United States. Street! His achievements include acquisition of paper on sweat Florida which opened large areas for settlement and agriculture. Dbq Essay Prompts! Also, President Monroe showed compassion for slaves during. cooperation, and problem solving among the workers of a given group. These systems have been available to workplaces for a long time and have been used for a great deal of time.

They have ranged from the telephone to email system to paper on sweat current multi-user supported online-based applications. In spite of the advantages. CElaine Church History 151 Midterm #1 The Compromise of 1877 The Compromise of 1877 marked the dawn of a new era in American History. Most events after the compromise , decades down the road, are direct results of the compromise . Specifically blacks were most affected by you eat what am i essay, this. Rights they were. Prompt: Analyze the effectiveness the political compromise in reducing sectional tensions from 1820-1861.Make sure you discuss (but not necessarily limit your discussion to) The Missouri Compromise , The Compromise of 1850. You must discuss the debate and various opinions and the provisions of the bill.

Agreeableness is a person’s ability to get along with others, Agreeable individuals are considerate, friendly, helpful and willing to compromise their interests. Research! Mulally had great ability to get along with others. He liked to include and involve everybody. Essay! He was very friendly and warm. Ted reed in his article. The Ability to Compromise Is Important When Responding to Conflict? to compromise is important when responding to conflict? Introduction Peace cannot be kept by force; it can only be achieved by understanding’. This is one of the famous quotes commented by Albert Einstein. When encountering conflict, it is a decisive factor whether the ability to compromise can. Summer Peterson 12-13-06 Hour 3 7 Great Virtues - Ben Franklin - The first virtue Ben Franklin wanted was “An Aversion to research Tyranny”.

The main idea of this to Ben is rubric compare essay that he doesn’t like tyranny, which is power or control of one person. He didn’t like to paper be told what to do to and he also. The Compromise of 1850 Chris Owens 13404 The Compromise of 1850 is one of the most important compromises in this history of the United States, maybe even the world. The Compromise of 1850 is national merit application made up of five bills passed in the United States of research on sweat America in September 1850, and. The Great Compromise, the Three/5ths Compromise and street Tax. The Great Compromise : The 3/5ths Compromise , and Tax The Great Compromise , the 3/5ths Compromise , and The Bill Of Rights justify that the making of the Constitution was a bundle of compromises . On Sweat! The Great Compromise is the Constitutional Convention's agreement to establish a two-house national. The Economic Impact of Slave Trade. Slavery made quite an romeo essay sight, economic impact on the nation. The South remained strong agriculturally while the research on sweat, North grew more industrially. Romeo And Juliet Essay On Love Sight! This was great until the North decided they were taking a stand against slavery and abolishing slavery almost completely by the early 1800’s. Research! By 1830 the Abolitionists.

been worked out through compromises . Centre! For more than 30 years arguments between the North and South had been growing. By 1861 these differences between the Northern States (which included the Mid-Western and Western States) and the Southern States had become so great that compromise would no longer work. Historical Events and Early Governing Events. Constitution and explain the tension between them. Research Paper On Sweat! In June 1215, the Magna Carta was signed between the barons of Medieval England and King John. “ Great Charter” is the Latin meaning for “Magna Carta.” It was one of the proposal, most important documents of paper on sweat that time.

It was also the attempt by the barons to on love sight stop. but once it reached the senate it was a deadlock. Henry Clay, “The Great Pacificator”, developed a compromise known as the Missouri Compromise . The Compromise drew a line at the 36-30, which became known as the Missouri Compromise line. Research Paper! There would be no slavery in the Louisiana territory north of. Economics: the Key to a Country's Development. countries, it responded negatively to the Tariff of 1828, also known as the Tariff of Abominations. People such as John C. Online Thesis! Calhoun, a member of the Great Triumvirate including Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster, supported the measure of a Nullification to protect trade.

This provided a temporary. sample responses to evaluate your own work. 1. Three-Fifths Compromise How do you feel about the Three-Fifths Compromise ? Was it a wise decision by the framers of the constitution to on sweat keep the nation united, or was it an unacceptable compromise even at the cost of the nation breaking up over the issue. The 1850’s Were a Time of Attempted Compromise When Compromise Was No Longer Possible. let go of each other. They attempted to compromise to prevent larger conflicts. Unfortunately, there were various events that happened along the way that made compromise impossible. The statement, “The 1850’s were a time of attempted compromise when compromise was no longer possible,” is a true and valid. new nation. In the late 1780’s the new nation had been struggling to essay pay off the debts that were accumulated during its fight for independence from paper Great Britain.

These problems were made even worse by the limitations present in the Articles of Confederation. One of national merit essay those limitations was that Congress. be fair. Ms. Shulman may be the minority in this type of situation, however with the ever increasing number of women’s reform movements, there is a great belief that all women need to readjust their expectations of their spouses or significant others. “See, the belief, I think was in the 1970s perhaps. subverting the needs of the smaller states. Research Paper! The Great Compromise leveled the field, with representation based on population in the lower house, the rubric essay, House of Representatives, and equal representation in the higher house, the Senate.

After the research paper, Great Compromise , things coalesced into the sometimes-called North. Was Slavery the Cause of the essay, Civil War. war. Such events are, but not limited to ; “bleeding Kansas” , John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, the Dred Scott case, the Kansas-Nebraska act, Compromise of 1850, territorial spread of slavery should spread, and paper the idea of popular sovereignty. All of these events had something to do with the idea. will have to buy a new display that suits your needs. The biggest problem when choosing a display is prompts how much you’re willing to compromise . It took me years to research paper compromise with the fact that I will not find one display that satisfies all of my needs. The best gaming displays are usually lower end monitors.

job with due diligence; listening attentively and responding courteously; judicious while avoiding procrastination; demonstrating willingness to compromise my ego in order to learn from my own mistakes; finally, exhibiting patience and tolerance when mentoring and romeo and juliet essay on love at first coaching others. Project management. International Affairs Have Been the Nemesis of paper Liberalism. the Essence of Liberalism Is Self-Restraint, Moderation, Compromise and Peace Whereas the Essence of International Politics Is Exactly the Opposite: Troubled. International affairs have been the nemesis of Liberalism. The essence of Liberalism is self-restraint, moderation, compromise and peace whereas the national essay, essence of international politics is exactly the opposite: troubled peace, at paper, best, or the state of then what war. Discuss.

To be answer this question effectively. Emma Toomey AP US History Mr. Eschle- Period 7 10.16.12 Written Analysis #4 The Missouri Compromise had many effects on American culture, including an economic effect by prohibiting slavery in the unorganized territory north of research paper Missouri’s southern border, a political suspicion between those representing. The Great Divide The issue of slavery was discussed in many ways. People talked about the morality of the institution (or lack thereof), the national merit application, economics of slavery, and the political issues that came about because of it. No matter how it was discussed, the North and South could not agree. Northerners. The Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise , written by Henry Clay, attempted to limit the slavery boundaries; it was later declared unconstitutional and is also considered one of many events that led to the American Civil War. The compromise became a precedent for research paper settling subsequent North and. Leadership and camden street Ethical Decision-Making.

there are plenty of other companies to do business with that would pay the price they are asking. I would try to explain to that becoming a great company with great success in profit is more than just cut and paper on sweat dry. What you want to centre camden do is create business in research paper on sweat the future and you eat then essay not just center in on the hearing. stated that “nurses have a duty to remain consistent with both their personal and professional values and to research on sweat accept compromise only to the degree that it remains an application, integrity-preserving compromise ” (American Association of on sweat Nurses, 2001). Having a clear vision can mean a lot of things to different leaders. This posed a problem: as these new territories would be admitted as states, would they be free or slave? To deal with this, Congress passed the Compromise of 1850 which basically made California free and allowed the people to pick in Utah and New Mexico.

This ability of a state to decide whether it. conflicts that arise in the implementation of economic activity, participants are allowed to traffic in the light of their own mutual interests to compromise . But a big part of centre camden conflict remains unresolved, for various reasons: because of the fundamental differences of paper on sweat participants, because of the reluctance. The 1820 Missouri Compromise Slavery and the Civil War By Stephen Waters Research Task- Describe the role of the 1820 Missouri Compromise in the campaign against slavery! The 1820 Missouri Compromise played a large role in for a and contrast the campaign against slavery. Research Paper! In 1819 Missouri became a statehood.

Electoral College Informative Speech. establishes the system of the Electoral College, which was favored at the time over a popular vote. In a 2011 article from the Historian titled The Great Compromise of 1787, noted historian Todd Estes explains the political attitudes of the centre street, time. During the framing of the constitution, some politicians believed. previous attempts to compromise on slavery had reached an unavoidable end also made the Civil War an inevitable and undeniable conclusion to research the problems brewing between the two sides (this is a really long sentence.

Should it be 2?). For A Compare Essay! There was simply no further room for compromise . There were many differences. Discuss the Author's Presentation of Social Class and Money in Fitzgerald's the Great Gatsby and Charles Dickens's Great Expectations. In both novels social class and research paper on sweat money is proposal a dominant theme and important to the development of the plot. Great Expectations is about Pip who belongs to the skilled working class who longs for paper on sweat self advancement in education, morals and social class. His character wishes to for a compare climb the ladder of research paper society. ?AMERICAN PAGEANT GUIDED READING QUESTIONS Chapter 6 1. Explain what caused the great contest for North America between Britain and camden street France, and why Britain won. 2. Describe France’s colonial settlements and their expansion, and compare New France with Britain’s colonies in North America.

3. Explain. but they later realized that there a need for paper a whole new Constitution. This new basic charter of the United States would be known as A Bundle of Compromises as a result for all the are what then what am i essay, conflicts that had developed. State representation was an issue at the Convention because of the research paper, conflict between the. In the Early Nineteenth Century, Americans Sought to Resolve Their Political Disputes Through Compromise, Yet by 1860 This No Longer Seemed Possible. Analyze the Reasons for This Change.

Use the Documents and Your. were full of the North and the South making many attempts at reconciliation that just fell short. Thesis Camden Street! Among those were the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and the Great Compromise of 1850. Other tempestuous attempts led to research paper the Tariff/Nullification Controversy, anti slavery debates in congress, and the Kansas-Nebraska. Science Innovation and and juliet essay at first sight Its Impact on Life. apart, however there are some innovation that go against basic human principles that keep society balanced. Research Paper! For example, stem cell research shows great strides in scientific evolution and can benefit those with illnesses.

However, its research involves the destruction of embryonic fetuses which ultimately. concerns lead to the demise of the Articles of Confederation and the adoption of the United States Constitution. Discuss these concerns and the compromises that were made to arrive at the Constitution that is still in place today in the United States. If You What Am I Essay! The Articles of Confederation established the. in the Articles of Confederation • How the Constitution addressed the research on sweat, complaints in the Declaration of Independence • The Great Compromise and how representation of states in Congress is determined Include a more detailed discussion of one of the following topics in your paper: . individuals to war effort – fear of leaving slaves unattended ? Philipsburg Proclamation – slaves that rebelled would gain protection and freedom from essay at first sight Great Britain ? 5,000 African Americans (free and slave) fought for research on sweat Patriot Cause ? The Marquis de Lafayette – instrumental in application essay gaining French troops to. Great Gatsby; Is the gangster glamourised? means glamorous. Research Paper On Sweat! Nick doesn’t suspect that Gatsby plans might have been to use him as an agent for his bonds. Moreover, he trusts Gatsby to a great extent and doesn’t question his persistent offers, ‘Well this would interest you. It wouldn’t take up much of essay your time and you might pick up a nice. The great Compromise The Great Compromise of 1787 also known as the Connecticut Compromise or Sherman's Compromise , was an agreement made among the delegates to the Constitutional Convention that the American government would have two houses in Congress: the Senate where each state has two Senators.

Agreeableness is research paper on sweat a person’s ability to get along with others, Agreeable individuals are considerate, friendly, helpful and willing to compromise their interests. Mulally had great ability to get along with others. He liked to include and involve everybody. He was very friendly and warm. Ted reed in his article. colonists to start the American Revolution. John Locke was very influential with his ideas of Consent of rubric compare and contrast Cover and Limited Monarchy. Voltaire also had great ideas, which contributed to the American Revolution such as, that natural law should run the government, and God’s law should not. It is a proven fact. Confederation were written this way at on sweat, a time when the essay, American colonists did not want their government to become overly powerful like the government of Great Britain.

The lack of paper a strong national government in the Articles of Confederation led to economic complications and legislative disorganization for. style is used to online thesis deny the existence of a problem of to avoid a confrontation. According to the text, it is appropriate to use when an issue is not of great importance. It also could be used when a cooling-off period is necessary. It is for short-term, not effective for long-term use. It should not be. What Was the 1850 Compromise and paper Why Did It Fail? What was the 1850 Compromise and Why did it Fail? In 1850, Henry Clay one of the most influential political leaders in American history introduced a set of resolutions, which aimed to national essay please both North and research paper South America. The five proposals were rolled into a single ‘omnibus’ bill, which offered.

time period and compromises were at national merit application essay, first effective, sectionalism over national subjects, especially slavery, led to a crisis in which compromises often meant more increase in political tensions. (Doc F) Sectionalism abruptly increased in the 1820 and 1830's with The Missouri Compromise and the Tallmadge. Nature of American Politics (Late 1800s) reform, believed that corruption would be eliminated if civil service reform happened. James Blaine from Maine. MUGWUMPS: Mugwumps centered around Great Lakes, refused to vote for their party’s nominee (because it was James Blaine, it was exposed to the press that he wrote to research paper on sweat the railroad companies that. How Drugs Operate Synapses and How Affect the Brain. the alcohol is the most common tranquillizing drug, and and contrast essay is fast absorbed into the circulation. This oldest drug had physical side effects that compromise the neurotransmitters GABA, endorphins and dopamine, among other (Koob et., 1998). Additionally, alcohol has the distinguishing to raise the paper, result. The Great Compromise and How It Reflects American Value of Representation. The Great Compromise reflects the American value of and juliet on love at first sight representative government by making the representation of the state as fair a possible.

Before the great Compromise , The United States had a very unstable government. Research! The government system was the Articles of Confederation, the first form of national. constitutional convention of 1787. of the United States of America since 1787. When people think of the Constitution, they are reminded of the construction of the foundation of this great country that we live in. It is what has built up our government and granted us the liberties that make America, America. This magnificent document was.

between the rubric and contrast, north and south by strengthening sectionalism. The “momentous question” that Thomas Jefferson refers to is the Missouri Compromise . Henry Clay creates this compromise when Missouri applies for admission into paper, the Union as a slave state. Since the beginning of the republic, new states had come in. Missouri Compromise In 1819, the territory of Missouri applied for statehood. It was the first new state to be taken from the land acquired in the Louisiana Purchase.

The issue of Missouri attempting to become a state sparked much debate and controversy. Essay! The debate in Congress was mainly about.