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Preserving language essay

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Preservation Of Minority Languages In Modern World - UK Essays

book reports terms Centre for Academic Success. Preserving Language! A report is a systematic, well organised document which defines and analyses a subject or problem, and which may include: the record of a sequence of events. Toefl Model Essays! interpretation of the essay significance of these events or facts. evaluation of the facts or results of research presented. discussion of the outcomes of toefl writing essays, a decision or course of action. Reports must always be: Various courses require you to write reports (as opposed to essays), notably business and scientific or technical subjects. There are, however, different interpretations of what a report should look like, so it is important that you check with your course tutors and preserving essay, course documentation as to the report format and content expected. In addition, there is at essay on cleanliness at home, times some blurring between what “essays”, “reports” and “assignments” are, so again check within your department. Much of the advice given in Guide 1.01, How to write an essay, also applies to preserving essay, reports. Always analyse your brief carefully, making sure that you fully understand the topic, question or case, that you know what the purpose of the report is, and cause, who it is preserving language essay, being written for. The clearer these things are in your mind, the easier the report will be to write and the more effective it will be. When you are researching, planning and school essay, eventually writing, continually ask yourself what the main purpose of the report is, what your objective is in writing it: is language, it to inform; to argue; to persuade; to evaluate? What does your reader want to see in the report and what will they do with it?

You first need to high school essay, decide your basic framework. Language Essay! With your main topic or question as a central focus, jot down your initial thoughts and start to nature for future, group these together. You may find the Mind Mapping technique useful: see Guide 2.11. Start to divide key ideas from subsidiary information, and continually ask yourself if everything is relevant; if it isn’t, then delete it. From your prior knowledge (from reading and lectures), you should be able to put together a fairly basic structure. You will now be able to preserving language essay, plan your research. Ask yourself what you need to find out, maybe in the form of questions that need to be answered, then approach your reading from sam watkins this starting point. Preserving! If you have specific information to look for, it will make your reading easier and less time consuming. (See Guide 2.02 Reading techniques). Try not to gather too much information. Again, keeping your topic or question in mind, reject anything which is not 100% relevant.

When you’re making notes, always try to summarise the main points as concisely as possible. Remember to make a comprehensive record of any sources consulted in essay at home, order to be able to correctly reference these. Make a record of the research methods you used. Unlike essays, reports are written in preserving, sections with headings and on nurture for future, sub-headings, which are usually numbered. Essay! Below are the possible components of a report, in the order in which they would appear. Effect Cause Smoking! Check within your department which of these you should include. This should normally include the title, your name and the name of the language tutor to whom it is being submitted, date of submission, your course/department, and if applicable, the name of the person and/or organisation who has commissioned the report. Avoid “fancy” fonts and effects and don’t include any clipart. Acknowledgements (usually just in long reports) A list of people and organisations both within and outside Birmingham City University who have helped you. Contents page (always included in reports of toefl writing, 4+ pages) A clear, well-formatted list of all the sections and sub-sections of the report.

Don’t forget to language essay, put the page numbers! If applicable, there should be a separate list of tables, figures, illustrations and/or appendices after the main index. Make sure that the headings in this list correspond exactly with those in your main body. It is at home, best to do your list of contents right at preserving language essay, the end. Terms of reference (sometimes included) A definition of the task; your specific objective and purpose of writing. Even if you don't include this as a heading, it is a vital process to go through in your planning.

If it is group work, who exactly is responsible for what? How long have you got? What is your task timescale? Why are you writing the report? What exactly are the assessment criteria? Who are you writing the report for? Are you actually playing a role? What does your reader want to see?

Procedure (sometimes included) How your research was carried out; how the information was gathered. Materials and methods (included if applicable) Similar to effect cause essay, procedure, but more appropriate to scientific or engineering report writing. The following advice comes from Robert Barrass' book Scientists Must Write (Chapman Hall,1978:135-136): Summary (usually included in essay, longer reports; may be called Executive Summary, Abstract or Synopsis) This is pollution, a very brief outline of the language essay report to give the potential reader a general idea of what it’s about. Essay! A statement of: method/procedure used (unless included in separate section) main conclusions and recommendations. Introduction (always included) This should show that you have fully understood the task/brief and that you are going to cover everything required. Indicate the language basic structure of the report. You should include just a little background/context and indicate the reasons for essay writing the preserving report.

You may include your terms of reference and procedure/research methods if not covered elsewhere. Your introduction will often give an indication of the conclusion to essay on nurture nature for future, the report. Main body/findings (always included) This is the substance of your report. The structure will vary according to the nature of the material being presented, with headings and sub-headings used to clearly indicate the different sections (unlike an essay). A situationproblemsolutionevaluation approach may be appropriate. It is not sufficient to essay, simply describe a situation. Your tutor will be looking for analysis and for essay smoking a critical approach, when appropriate.

Charts, diagrams and tables can be used to reinforce your arguments, although sometimes it may be better to include these as an appendix (particularly if they are long or complicated). Do not include opinions, conclusions or recommendations in this section. Results (possibly included in language essay, scientific/engineering reports) This section records your observations (in the past tense) and would normally include statistics, tables or graphs. Your conclusion should draw out the high essay pollution implications of your findings, with deductions based on the facts described in your main body. Don’t include any new material here. Preserving! Recommendations (sometimes included) These should follow on logically from at home your conclusion and preserving language essay, be specific, measurable and nature, achievable. They should propose how the situation/problem could be improved by suggesting action to be taken.

A “statement of cost” should be included if you are recommending changes that have financial implications. Recommendations can be numbered if you wish. Appendices (sometimes included) An appendix (plural=appendices) is detailed documentation of points you outline in your findings, for example, technical data, questionnaires, letters sent, tables, sketches, charts, leaflets etc. It is supplementary information which you consider to be too long or complicated or not quite relevant enough to include in your main body, but which still should be of interest to your reader. Each appendix should be referred to in your text. You should not include something as an appendix if it is not discussed in preserving language, the main body.

This is a list giving the full details of all the sources to effect, which you have made reference within your text. By far the essay most common method in use at Birmingham City University is the Harvard method. Bibliography (sometimes included) This is toefl model essays, either a separate list of sources which you have used during your research, but have not actually made reference to in your writing, or this list together with your list of references. Check in your department what you are expected to use. Glossary (occasionally included) Include a glossary if the language essay report includes a lot of specialised vocabulary or acronyms which may not be familiar to the reader. Always use clear and effect essay smoking, concise English, avoiding jargon and colloquial language.

Write in preserving, fairly short sentences. Make sure you develop each paragraph sufficiently (usually a minimum of 5/6 sentences). Most of your report should be impersonal, although it may be appropriate in your conclusion or recommendations to include more personal language. Be extra careful with verb tenses. Grammar, spelling and punctuation. Links to further resources on thesis statement social conformity writing reports. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Centre for Academic Success. City North : 0121 331 7685 Email. Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email.

To book a tutorial at Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.

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IETLS; Should government spend money on preserving language? YES

Trafficked Along the “Balkan Route” This photo essay originally appeared on June 9, 2016 on Medium. Refugees and Migrants Are Left Unassisted as Exploitation Is Often Undetected. I n recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of refugees and migrants traveling on the “Balkan route” — the path stretching from the Middle East to the European Union through Turkey and language essay South East Europe — in essay on cleanliness, search of a better life in preserving language, the European Union. The journey, via the choppy and often deadly waters of the Aegean Sea, is conformity fraught with risk and many people find themselves exposed to exploitation, including human trafficking. A family fleeing the war in Syria.

Over half a million people entered Serbia between October 2015 and September 2016, according to the UN. The vast majority of them were merely passing through on preserving essay their way to other countries. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. To date, however, there has been limited empirical evidence of when, why and how vulnerability to human trafficking arises in mass movements of migrants and refugees. Little is also understood about how new patterns of vulnerability and exploitation challenge established procedures for the identification of and on nurture nature assistance to essay trafficking victims. Hundreds of trafficked migrants and refugees — from Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere — who have moved to and through Serbia over the past two years have provided a unique insight into their experiences in a new report by NEXUS Institute and Fafo in partnership with Serbian non-governmental groups Atina and Centre for Youth Integration . Syrian refugees in a makeshift camp in Lebanon. Restrictions on refugees’ ability to work legally in Lebanon, as well as strict enforcement of visas and residence permits, has increased refugees’ vulnerability to sex trafficking and forced labor.

Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. Our research highlights the exploitation and trafficking of migrants and refugees who have moved to and through Serbia over sam watkins, the past two years. Reported human trafficking cases included male and female victims, adult and child victims and individuals trafficked for different forms of exploitation. The types of trafficking ranged from forced labor, begging or marriage to sexual exploitation. To a lesser extent, trafficking for the removal of preserving language, organs was also reported. “Several migrants and pollution refugees have been forced to provide sexual services as a means of continuing their journey toward the preserving language essay, EU,” said Rebecca Surtees, NEXUS Senior Researcher and the report’s co-author. “In some cases, they were forced to sell sexual services to survive. In other instances, smugglers forced migrants or refugees into high essay prostitution in order for essay them to earn money to on nurture nature fund the onward travel.” “Migrants and refugees were also trafficked for labor in their attempt to earn money to continue their onward journey. They often had their passports seized and held by ‘employers’, were not paid and subjected to preserving threats and physical violence.

This included men, women and children.” A mong refugees and migrants who are staying temporarily in school pollution, Serbia there is a great fluidity in essay, the identities of “migrant”, “refugee” and “trafficking victim”. High School Essay? Some individuals were originally trafficked but also became refugees or migrants when they escaped. One woman escaped her exploitation as a domestic worker in the Gulf and fled to Europe as a migrant. Preserving Essay? Another woman was exploited as a “sex slave” in her home country but managed to flee and then also became a refugee. In other cases, migrants or refugees were trafficked at cause some stage of their flight. One man fled his home country with his wife and children initially to a neighboring country. There, he was pressured to sell his kidney to fund his family’s onward flight.

“People have also been vulnerable to exploitation in settings where they have been stranded or unable to move on because they lack resources to pay smugglers or others to help them to continue their journey,” said Anette Brunovskis, Fafo Senior Researcher and co-author of the study. It is challenging to language essay identify trafficking victims under any circumstances. But it is particularly difficult during a massive and rapid movement of migrants and refugees, often organized by smugglers. Essay On Nurture Nature For Future? For this reason, human trafficking may not be easily recognizable as such, the report points out. “The fast movement of an language extraordinarily high number of migrants and refugees of mixed nationalities make it difficult for police, aid groups and other front line responders to identify cases of trafficking,” said Brunovskis. “The lack of a common language and a deep mistrust in pollution, local authorities further complicate the situation. To set up appropriate and effective human trafficking screening mechanisms or identifying particular vulnerabilities are enormous tasks in this fluid and ever-changing transit setting.” Syrians, fleeing from areas controlled by Islamic State, sit in preserving, the rocky desert where Jordan meets Syria Iraq. For some refugees and migrants, it was the situation they had ended up in as a result of on cleanliness at home, trafficking — either in their home countries or in refugee camps — that led them to flee in the first place.

Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. T ypical indicators and signals of trafficking risk, which front line responders have been trained to identify, might not be relevant when it comes to trafficked migrants and refugees. There is an urgent need to develop more responsive tools to identify and preserving essay assist trafficked migrants and refugees. But it is also important to sam watkins essay consider other forms of language essay, vulnerability and exploitation that migrants and refugees face, which may be caused by or lead to sam watkins essay human trafficking. Syrian refugees warm up in their makeshift shelter in Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. “ T o protect the rights of trafficked migrants and refugees, it is important not to focus too heavily on discrete ‘identities’, whether ‘migrant’, ‘refugee’ and/or ‘trafficking victim’,” said Rebecca Surtees. “Paying attention to this complexity and the overlapping identities will not only allow for a more holistic assistance response for individuals, but also a more inclusive social protection response generally in this country and beyond.” Human Trafficking In Indonesia: The Difficult Road Home. This photo essay originally appeared on July 13, 2016 on Medium. I n Indonesia, human trafficking is a pressing problem.

With over 32 million people living below the poverty line in this vast island nation, many thousands of essay, Indonesians each year end up in working conditions indicative of trafficking. And once a trafficking victim returns home, the toefl, ordeal of being trapped in modern slavery is too often followed by a daunting personal struggle to put their life back together, according to language essay new research by the NEXUS Institute, an independent human rights research and on cleanliness at home policy center based in preserving essay, Washington, D.C. Over 10 percent of Indonesians live under the poverty line, with some 30 million people forced to beg or scavenge to make ends meet. Poverty and lack of opportunity may contribute to the risk of human trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Based on extensive interviews with almost 100 trafficking victims and over thesis social conformity, 100 anti-trafficking professionals and service providers in Indonesia, Going Home — Challenges in the Reintegration of Trafficking Victims in Indonesia details the uncertain and precarious path toward recovery and reintegration faced by preserving language many victims of human trafficking in school, Indonesia.

Going Home is the first in a series of preserving, longitudinal studies by the NEXUS Institute about human trafficking and victim reintegration in Indonesia. A woman recycles plastic bottles at high school essay pollution a garbage dump in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. “ T his research is the first longitudinal study on human trafficking conducted in preserving essay, Indonesia and one of only a few in the world. It offers a unique lens into thesis statement social the complex process of language, reintegration for victims after being trafficked, drawing on the firsthand accounts of a diverse group of trafficking victims,” said Stephen Warnath, President, CEO and Founder of NEXUS Institute. Essay On Cleanliness? “These men and language essay women shared their experiences with us and, in effect, doing so, reveal stories of hope, determination, perseverance, courage, and resilience. Our report documents their experiences and introduces what support is available for reintegration of victims of human trafficking in Indonesia, and the constraints and preserving essay obstacles victims face in on nurture nature for future, accessing that support.

The stories that emerge from our interviews are not unique. Listening to preserving their voices and the lessons to be learned from them can benefit many countries around the world.” Women in prostitution by the railroad tracks. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A girl, who recently returned after having been trafficked into prostitution, walks through her home village. For those who have been rescued or have escaped trafficking, support from their families and communities is often critical to their recovery, but far from assured, according to NEXUS’ research. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.

A number of government initiatives exist to assist returning trafficking victims. Indonesia’s Anti-Trafficking Law (Law 21/2007), for example, provides a right to healthcare, psychological support and sam watkins counseling, temporary shelter and legal aid. “ N onetheless, returning home and language essay reintegrating after trafficking is on cleanliness at home often a daunting process,” said Rebecca Surtees, NEXUS Institute Senior Researcher and preserving the study’s lead author. “Many returning trafficking victims do not receive the assistance and support that they need to recover — despite existing legislation and support programs. As a result, they often have a difficult time reintegrating into their families and communities and moving on with their lives after trafficking. They often face on-going vulnerability.” A man receives medical care in a community clinic in West Java. When trafficking victims return home, they often require a range of thesis statement, assistance, including emergency and long-term medical care. They also often require a raft of other services, including counseling, job placement or income generation, access to education, housing and legal assistance. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A policewoman outside a unit in preserving language, West Java tasked with investigating crimes against essay nature, women and children, including human trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.

Travelers at Jakarta’s main bus station. Reintegration is much more than only language essay returning to one’s family. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Often, trafficking victims do not know what services they are entitled to and how to access them. Those who do receive assistance from the government or civil society do not always receive help that is tailored to their individual needs or adequately supports their efforts to reintegrate, according to the study. This is, at least in part, because programs and services do not take into account all forms of trafficking and all types of victims. “ I n Indonesia, as in many countries, there is an sam watkins assumption that most trafficking is for sexual exploitation,” Rebecca Surtees said. “Indonesian trafficking victims include men, women and language essay children who are exploited sexually or for labor. Reintegration services and support need to be tailored to each individual victim’s unique and specific experience and assistance needs.” A domestic worker employed in an Indonesian household.

Aside from sexual exploitation, a vast number of Indonesian women are trafficked each year into domestic servitude in Asia and the Middle East. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A man working in a factory in high pollution, West Java. Many Indonesians are trafficked for different types of labor. This includes factory work, construction, agriculture and commercial fishing. An increasing number of identified Indonesian trafficking victims are males. Photo: Peter Biro for language NEXUS Institute. Workers and fishers in Jakarta’s port. Many trafficked Indonesian migrant workers were not recognized as trafficking victims, including men exploited in the fishing industry, the NEXUS report finds. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A fisherman in the waters off the port in high essay, Jakarta.

Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. T he report documents how Indonesians become trapped as victims of trafficking in preserving, many countries around the world. “Indonesians are trafficked within the country or exploited abroad, in neighboring Asian countries as well as further afield, including the Middle East, Africa and Latin America,” said Thaufiek Zulbahary, NEXUS Researcher and co-author of the report. This map shows the various forms of exploitation and school essay destination countries for respondents in the NEXUS report. Because of the limited understanding of trafficking among many practitioners and government officials, a lot of trafficking victims are simply unidentified.

NEXUS research shows that these victims are often unidentified because police and service providers often do not recognize that men can be trafficked or that victims can be trafficked for labor. Victims themselves often do not understand that their experiences of exploitation while migrant workers are, in fact, the crimes of language essay, human trafficking and cause smoking forced labor. Nearly half of the preserving language essay, trafficked persons in the NEXUS study were not formally identified and nature went unassisted, like this woman in a district of West Java. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. “ T hey go unrecognized as trafficked and are often seen instead as failed or irregular migrant workers,” Rebecca Surtees said. “Trafficked persons themselves often do not recognize the nature and extent of their exploitation.

As a consequence, they go unassisted and struggle to recover from preserving trafficking and reintegrate into their families and communities.” Those who are formally identified as trafficking victims often face barriers in accessing available services. “ T here is often a lack of effect cause essay, information about available reintegration assistance and trafficking victims do not know where to go or who to ask for support,” said Suarni Daeng Caya, NEXUS Researcher and co-author of the report. “Support programs for trafficked men and boys are also currently very limited.” For those who receive support, assistance is often “one-off” and short-term. This contrasts with longer-term and preserving language comprehensive support that most trafficking victims need to at home achieve sustainable reintegration. A woman at her vegetable stand in Jakarta. Economic assistance, such as capital to start a business, is generally offered as a one-off form of assistance for former trafficking victims and not coupled with other forms of preserving language, support that victims often need, like medical care, counseling, education and training. Photo: Peter Biro for sam watkins essay NEXUS Institute. A man running a small food business in his village.

Food stalls are a common form of language, small business in Indonesia. Formerly trafficked men typically received short-term, one-off support like a single small grant or loan to essay on cleanliness start a small business, which, without other services like business or vocational training, makes it difficult to build and sustain an economically viable business. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Nonetheless, there are services in the country that can support trafficking victims in their efforts to reintegrate and recover. “This includes services not only for trafficking victims, but also for exploited migrant workers who have returned home and for preserving language essay persons who are socially and economically vulnerable,” said Laura S. Johnson, NEXUS Researcher and report co-author. “Some programs and services — like access to education — are available to all Indonesian citizens.” Among the report’s recommendations is that trafficking victims need to be supported in making greater use of toefl writing essays, services and programs that already exist to preserving language assist a wide range of beneficiaries, rather than to limit support solely to programs dedicated to assist those who have survived being trafficked. Trafficking victims are often eligible for this larger array of programs, but currently they are rarely able to access and obtain these programs’ services and high school essay support. Others key recommendations are that reintegration services — which need to be long-term, comprehensive and provided by qualified professionals — should be made available to all types of trafficking victims (men, women, girls and preserving language boys) as well as victims of essay on nurture for future, all forms of human trafficking. Service providers should work with individual victims to assess their needs and to design a plan for their reintegration; they should work with victims over time to implement and monitor their reintegration process. While these stories, and the report that they are based upon, focus on Indonesia, these findings are relevant for many countries around the world.

“The experiences recounted by Indonesian trafficking victims mirror the experiences of trafficking victims shared with NEXUS researchers in many other places,” Stephen Warnath notes. “In most countries there is much more that can be done to provide critically needed support for the men, women and children who have escaped or been rescued from human trafficking. The insights offered in this and other NEXUS reports can help guide governments in their efforts to help trafficking victims return home and rebuild their lives.” A small business in a trafficking-affected village in West Java. Small business grants are available to trafficking victims and exploited migrant workers in some areas through government programs. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A man and language essay boy register for services at a local health clinic in West Java.

Trafficking victims are entitled to emergency medical care under the essay, Anti-Trafficking Law. However, in some cases, returning trafficking victims are unable to access healthcare and preserving other services because they do not have their identity documents. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A group of women stand outside their houses in a village in West Java. Indonesia has several laws intended to protect women and children from violence.

Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. The government provides funds to renovate homes deemed uninhabitable. Model? In some cases, returning trafficking victims may be eligible to essay receive this type of essay, assistance to support their reintegration. Still, millions of Indonesians live in very poor conditions. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. An elderly man begs on the street in language, a city in West Java. The government of Indonesia has a range of social assistance policies and programs designed to assist the socially vulnerable. For example, Indonesia’s government recently established a program which will provide health insurance to impoverished and socially vulnerable persons throughout the country.

NEXUS’ report urges greater use of on cleanliness, such programs to support the reintegration of trafficking victims and prevent re-trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Children in a village in West Java. In Indonesia, primary school education is free of charge. Essay? Nonetheless, many Indonesian children are unable to complete their education. A large number of children are unable to continue their education each year because they are forced to work or marry.

Lack of education may make them vulnerable to trafficking and exploitation. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Photographs in this report, by award-winning photojournalist Peter Biro, illustrate various aspects of daily life in Indonesia. Unless stated otherwise, individuals in sam watkins essay, these photographs are not trafficking victims. All rights are reserved by the NEXUS Institute. The NEXUS study, Going Home, was made possible through the support of the United States Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP) . The research was implemented in partnership with the Indonesian Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection and the Indonesian Ministry of Social Affairs. Read the full report here . You can follow more of NEXUS Institute’s work at and language essay @NEXUSInstitute. Traffickers and Trafficking Enterprises.

Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations. Traffickers and essay Trafficking Enterprises. Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations. TTRP has taken a reprieve – and there are changes underfoot! Until our next and preserving language essay final post, Rebecca Surtees, to whom we are immensely grateful for steadfastly supporting our mission, provides us with a final guest contribution to thesis social the blog.

This post is adapted from Traffickers and trafficking. Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations , a paper authored by NEXUS Institute within the framework of the NEXUS Institute and IOM Human Trafficking Research Series funded by the U.S. Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in essay, Persons (J/TIP). On Nurture For Future? For more information on this topic and others relating to strategies to obtain and analyse better data for more impact, visit us at and language essay @NEXUSInstitute . A persistent obstacle to achieving more effective criminal justice results in human trafficking cases is our rudimentary understanding of traffickers and the operations of their criminal enterprises. This post highlights why this shortcoming exists and recommends initial steps for ways to supplement and augment current data collection and analysis.

While much research exists about trafficking victims, far less is known about the high pollution, behaviours, motivations and operations of the perpetrators of trafficking. A clearer picture of how traffickers operate can be used in the development of criminal justice and social welfare responses to human trafficking – informing policies, strategies and interventions. Largely, what is known about traffickers and preserving language essay trafficking is drawn from trafficking victims. While much can be learned from this data, there are also limitations in terms of what this data set does (and does not) tell us. There are four key challenges in sam watkins, attempting to understand traffickers and preserving language trafficking operations through research with trafficking victims. High Essay Pollution? These are: The impact of language essay, selection bias: which trafficked persons are interviewed (and what subgroups can reveal) . Trafficking victims with whom researchers and service providers come into contact are largely those who have been officially identified and/or assisted. School Essay? Thus, information about traffickers comes from the experiences of this group and not from those who have not been identified and/or have not been assisted. Limitations in the information trafficking victims can provide about traffickers and preserving language essay their operations . While victims may have some information about their exploiters and the trafficking process, they are unlikely to have a comprehensive understanding about nature for future traffickers and/or their operations.

Victims will not necessarily have contact with the full range of actors involved in the process, particularly high-level strategists. As a consequence, trafficked persons are likely able to provide only certain types of limited information and are generally unfamiliar with the preserving language, intricacies of the thesis social conformity, trafficking operation. The ability of victims to supply information about essay traffickers . What trafficking victims disclose may be largely a function of thesis statement conformity, what they feel safe and comfortable to reveal. Some may fear reprisals from traffickers, or mistrust authorities. Others may wish only to put their trafficking experience behind them. As a result, many victims may not be able or willing to provide information about their traffickers and trafficking experiences. Preserving? Victims may also be more open to talking about some individuals and sam watkins actors involved in the trafficking process as opposed to others, which influences what data is available. Essay? Ethical issues related to some types of questions . Researchers must consider ethical issues in research with trafficked persons, not least the stress and difficulty of being interviewed about trafficking experiences and writing essays exploiters.

When service providers collect information from trafficking victims they are assisting, there is also a blurring of the roles and boundaries between research and essay service provision, which can impact the data and undermine feelings of comfort and essay on cleanliness at home trust. Nonetheless, recent studies suggest potentially fruitful entry points for research about traffickers and preserving language essay their operations, drawing on two distinct types of data: Criminal j ustice statistics , including police investigations and court documents. Researchers interested in learning about the perpetrators of trafficking and their criminal operations should more intensely analyse criminal justice statistics. Official crime statistics provide information in school essay, terms of the criminal justice system response to trafficking, including what is working well and what needs improvement. Police files and investigations are useful in piecing together the trafficker side of the puzzle. Language? Court transcripts, where legally accessible, reveal information about the individuals involved (including descriptions of traffickers’ lives, motivations and actions) as well as individual cases and movement through the criminal justice system. A number of studies illustrate the depth and thesis statement social conformity breadth of information that can be drawn from criminal justice data including: Another Delivery from Tashkent , Understanding human trafficking: Development of typologies of traffickers , Women who traffic women: the preserving language, role of toefl, women in human trafficking networks – Dutch cases , The organisation of human trafficking. Preserving? A study of criminal involvement in sexual exploitation in essay on nurture nature, Sweden, Finland and Estonia and Analysis of Some Highly-Structured Networks of Human Smuggling and Trafficking from preserving language Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium . There are, of course, methodological limitations within these data sets, some of which mirror limitations of victim-centred data. For example, there are biases in terms of what and who is included in this data set – who gets arrested, charged and convicted.

Further, trafficking is under-reported, under-detected and, as a consequence, also under-investigated and under-prosecuted. The reported number of trafficking cases is also potentially deceptive and may reflect an under- or over-estimation of those that come into the criminal justice system. The functioning of a criminal justice system also informs the available data. Different information gathering tools, variable skills of criminal justice practitioners, and the legal and policy framework can all play significant roles in on nurture for future, what data is generated and what this data reveals. Language? Such selection effects inform what we know and understand about traffickers and their operations. Primary research with traffickers . Little research has been done directly with individuals and organisations engaged in this crime. However, primary research can reveal much about who traffickers are in different settings and markets; their roles and levels of engagement; how trafficking takes place; how it differs according to location, destination and form of exploitation; traffickers’ motivations and their relationships to the persons they exploit; how human trafficking operations work within the broader market; and trafficker perceptions and feelings about their “work”.

This might be collected by conducting ethnographic studies, individual case studies, interviews, perpetrator surveys, life histories and so on. The small body of effect, existing research on traffickers presents important insights. Not infrequently, it begins to reveal a picture that differs, at least in part, from that based on information from trafficking victims, law enforcement, service providers and other anti-trafficking professionals. Preserving Language Essay? For example, a number of cause, studies describe how traffickers perceive their role in trafficking operations – for example as facilitators in preserving, the migration process or business persons helping out sam watkins essay, prospective migrants. This benign, even positive, self-characterization of essay, their criminal activity introduces considerations that expand our understanding of traffickers, their decision-making and their actions. See for example, Techniques of neutralizing the sam watkins essay, trafficking of women. A case study of an active trafficker in Greece . Language Essay? Others focus on the trafficking operations, at different levels and sam watkins involvement of traffickers, including Sex trafficking: an exploratory study interviewing traffickers , From Victims to Victimizers: Interviews with 25 Ex-pimps in Chicago , A report on trafficking in women and children in India and preserving language essay Organised immigration crime: a post-conviction study . And a recent book, Human Trafficking in essay on cleanliness at home, Cambodia , is based on interviews with incarcerated traffickers involved in sex trafficking. Research with traffickers is difficult and complex. Risks (to researchers and respondents) must be carefully weighed, particularly in locales where organised crime is prominent. Researchers’ access to traffickers may be limited or not easily arranged. Essay? Responsiveness may also be a function of when and where traffickers are accessed.

Interviewing traffickers when they are in custody will likely affect what they are willing to essay nature talk about and how they frame their narrative. Preserving Language? Careful thought is needed as to what information one collects from traffickers as well as in what context and why. There are also ethical considerations to consider when researching traffickers, in terms of holding information that may help identify victims or observing, and possibly even inadvertently participating in, the trafficking process. Nonetheless, there are opportunities for effect cause essay collecting information directly from persons involved in various parts of the trafficking process. Such information will complement the current dataset derived largely from trafficking victims. Improved understanding of traffickers and trafficking operations requires looking beyond the victim-based dataset to other information, including traffickers themselves. Governments, researchers and others need to recognise the shortcomings of victim-based understandings of traffickers and their trafficking enterprises. Preserving? Relying primarily on essay on nurture for future information provided by trafficking victims to study traffickers results in substantial biases and selection effects influencing our knowledge of traffickers and trafficking operations. It also contributes to a “black and white” picture of trafficking victims and language traffickers, when the high essay, reality is often far more complex.

In moving toward a better understanding of traffickers and their operations, new sources of information and new methods and preserving approaches need to be developed and refined. Thesis? This need is more than methodological. It is also an issue of perspective in which an preserving understanding and sam watkins explanation of trafficking is derived largely (and sometimes exclusively) by considering the preserving essay, behaviours, actions and backgrounds of trafficking victims to the exclusion of the perpetrators of the crime whose actions and motivations should be the primary concern if combating trafficking is our objective. After trafficking. Cause? The reintegration needs and experiences of trafficked children. After trafficking. The (re)integration needs and experiences of trafficked children. Regular contributor Rebecca Surtees from the preserving language essay, NEXUS Institute is back this week. This post focuses on model one of the findings identified in “After Trafficking. Experiences and challenges in the (re)integration of trafficked persons in the GMS” , a regional study of (re)integration in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). Essay? The research study was commissioned by the six COMMIT governments as part of the cause essay, 2 nd and 3 rd COMMIT Sub-regional Plan of Action (2008-2010 and 2011-2013) . The study, conducted by NEXUS Institute , analysed the effectiveness of (re)integration processes and structures from the preserving language essay, point of view of trafficked persons and the service providers that support them, uncovering whether and to what extent services currently offered to trafficking victims and their families are meeting their (re)integration needs, including any unmet assistance needs.

The study was coordinated by the United Nations Inter-Agency Project on for future Human Trafficking (UNIAP) and was overseen by a Regional Working Group comprised of Save the Children UK, World Vision International, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), NEXUS Institute and UNIAP. This study was based on in-depth interviews with 252 trafficked persons from all six countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) about their experiences of (re)integration, including successes and challenges, as well as future plans and preserving essay aspirations. The study included persons who had been identified and essay assisted, as well as those who were not identified and/or did not receive assistance. Understanding the diverse and complex post-trafficking trajectories sheds light on a wide range of issues and dynamics at play in the (re)integration processes in the GMS. It also highlights both the strengths and preserving weaknesses of existing (re)integration mechanisms and processes. Trafficked children (anyone under the age of eighteen years at the time of exploitation) accounted for approximately 40% of the study’s respondents and appeared in each country’s sample (totalling 24 boys and 83 girls). These trafficked children were primarily exploited within the region, although in a handful of cases the essay on cleanliness, children were exploited in neighbouring countries, namely Malaysia and Indonesia.

Children were trafficked for sexual exploitation (37), labour exploitation (23), begging and language street selling (12), forced marriage (5) and for both sexual and labour exploitation (2). In four instances, there was an intervention before the child was exploited. Developing effective and responsive (re)integration programmes requires an understanding of these children’s trafficking experiences, as well as their pre-trafficking circumstances and post-trafficking lives. Trafficked children, by virtue of sam watkins essay, their age, maturity and language trafficking experience, had specific and often specialised assistance needs. Some (re)integration organisations were specialised in supporting the (re)integration of trafficked children and offered comprehensive and tailored services to children of different ages and at different stages of development.

However, amongst the sam watkins, trafficked children interviewed for language essay this study, specialised assistance and age appropriate services were not always available. In some cases, (re)integration services for children did not differ substantially from those for adults and most children did not describe assistance tailored to their individual needs as children. Indeed overall there were limited specialised (re)integration services for trafficked children. Issues in the provision of child-specific (re)integration support centred around different service areas including: 1. Appropriate accommodation for trafficked children. Most trafficked children were assisted in shelter programmes at essay some stage after trafficking.

This was an important form of assistance for those who were unable to return home – e.g. because they were without parents or a viable family environment. However in too many instances children stayed in preserving language, shelters for long periods of time, often many years. Effect Smoking? One girl in Cambodia, for example, had lived eight years in essay, a centre that assisted trafficked children. In very few instances was “kinship care” (care provided by essays relatives or extended family) pursued in spite of being the best alternative when family reunification was not possible. There were also very few alternative placement options for children who could not be (re)integrated in their home environment – for preserving language example, foster care, small group homes or semi-independent living. There was also limited support for trafficked children and youth in transitioning to an independent life when unable to return to family/community. 2. Medical assistance. Receiving medical assistance was important for trafficked children given the impact that trafficking had on their physical development and well being.

It was also critical given the extreme violence most children had suffered while trafficked and the almost total lack of medical care they had received while trafficked. One Vietnamese girl, assisted in a shelter programme, identified medical care as a key form of support, because her family was too poor to effect essay pay for medical treatment. The availability of medical care in the shelter (and the lack of this assistance in the community) was a key factor in her decision to accept assistance. Trafficked children who stayed in preserving language, shelters general received medical care. However, those who did not reside in a shelter generally did not receive medical care after trafficking. Many respondents spoke about the prohibitive cost of medical care for thesis statement their families, which meant that, for many trafficked children, trafficking related injuries and illnesses went untreated. Even when medical assistance was provided, staff did not always have the training and skills to provide sensitive and appropriate services to trafficked children, which is critical when treating highly traumatised and essay extensively violated children.

3. Psychosocial support and counselling. Counselling and thesis conformity support was available to trafficked children in many shelter settings. However, the extent to which counselling was offered by professionally trained counsellors with the requisite skills for working with vulnerable children was unclear. Interviews with trafficked children suggested that they received informal, emotional support more commonly than professional, child-specific counselling. There was a need for preserving language essay culturally and child appropriate counselling, as well as support in high school, developing coping tools like how to deal with stress, anger, conflict and so on.

4. Education, including integration into preserving essay formal schooling. Many trafficked children had very low education levels and often lacked basic literacy and numeracy skills. Some had never been to school whereas others left school when they were trafficked. Options for educational opportunities were generally limited to sam watkins essay children assisted in a shelter programme. Indeed, a number of trafficked children and their families accepted assistance precisely because it afforded them access to education. Many assistance organisations did not help trafficked children in returning to school, nor were state social workers or community leaders involved in supporting school reinsertion. Moreover, there were often barriers to preserving school reinsertion in the community – e.g. bureaucratic procedures and lack of cooperation by statement social teachers and essay school administrators. More than one trafficked child was told that they were “too old” to return to school, but were offered no option for “catch-up classes” or information about on nurture alternatives like non-formal education or vocational education/training.

5. Life skills education. Trafficked children commonly lacked basic life skills – e.g. Preserving Language Essay? interpersonal skills, communication and listening skills, skills in negotiation, problem solving and decision making and so on. Life skills were vital to help trafficked children move on from trafficking and to successfully (re)integrate in thesis statement conformity, their family and/or community. Trafficked children and youth interviewed for this study often seemed to suffer from a lack of confidence and low self-esteem. One boy, trafficked for labour in China, described his feelings about being tricked into his trafficking situation. He talked about how he thought there must be something wrong with him because he always had bad experiences and now had been “cheated again.” Later, while accommodated at a shelter, he came into conflict with another boy staying there and chose to run away because he didn’t know how to resolve the essay, problem. 6. Vocational training.

Depending on the age and needs of the trafficked child, vocational training may be appropriate. In many cases, older children and sam watkins youth chose to pursue vocational training opportunities. Such opportunities were generally offered while staying in shelters with few options for vocational training in home communities. In some countries there were restrictions on when children could start vocational training, and in one case, a trafficked girl who had returned home to Myanmar was prevented from preserving attending vocational training because she was “too young” (although unable to return to school because she was “too old”). Instead, she worked for model a year until she was eligible to be trained. A determination of when a child should (and should not) attend vocational training requires a more flexible approach from essay service providers. 7. Economic support (to the trafficked child/youth or their family) While some trafficked children and youth directly received economic support, it was commonly given to their parents/guardians.

Even when children did receive support themselves, they often handed it over to their parents/family. At Home? In some situations, economic support translated into preserving language positive economic outcomes for the family, and by implication, the child. This appeared to be particularly successful when coupled with assistance for statement social the child to preserving language essay return to statement social conformity school, including not only money for school fees, but also support for purchasing books and uniforms. However, it was not always the case that supporting the family as a whole was automatically positive for the children. For example, some families depended on children to contribute to the family’s income and providing small business opportunities meant that children worked in preserving language, that business, sometimes in lieu of sam watkins, attending school. In other cases, children had no voice in terms of how economic support was pursued. Exploring economic options necessarily involved deciding when to work directly with the language, child toward his/her skills development and economic empowerment, as well as when and how to work with the child’s parent or guardian. For example, one boy, trafficked internally in essay on nurture nature for future, Myanmar for labour, was assisted to return to school by a local community-based programme. He was also provided with assistance for his family to preserving set up a poultry farm, but the farm could not meet his family’s needs. His father was ill and unable to work every day. Therefore the boy also needed to effect cause essay continue to preserving language contribute to his family’s income.

As he explained, the education assistance was important but it was not a complete solution to his situation. The overarching factor, ultimately, should have been a determination of the child’s best interest, which could only have been assessed by involving the child in sam watkins, this decision-making process. 8. Language? Legal assistance and support during legal proceedings. Many trafficked children, including some who were very young, were involved as victim/witnesses in legal proceedings against cause smoking, their traffickers and essay there seemed to be limited options to thesis statement conformity decline to be involved. Preserving Language? One girl from Myanmar, exploited in a factory in Thailand, explained that she did not want to on nurture nature for future give testimony in court but the police “encouraged her strongly”. Trafficked children, like adults, generally gave testimony and statements on multiple occasions through translation and in an environment where they did not understand the language. Moreover, victim/witnesses were often accommodated in shelters for long periods of time while legal proceedings were pursued, with little to no contact with their family members. 9. Family mediation, counselling and support. Many trafficked children came from language essay problematic family environments and were unable to return to live there because problems were unresolved.

In some cases returning to the family environment may have been possible with appropriate mediation and counselling by service providers and practitioners. This form of assistance was generally lacking in the region. Thesis Statement Social? Some organisations worked with children while they lived in preserving, the family/community setting, as an alternative to shelter-based care. While not an essay smoking option for all trafficked children (some originated from very unhealthy and difficult environments), it was a constructive approach for families, which, when supported during (re)integration (e.g. through family mediation, monitoring, financial assistance), helped to forge a functional family environment. 10. Essay? Case management and follow-up after (re)integration. Children were likely to require a longer period of monitoring and essay on cleanliness at home follow-up as part of (re)integration given their specific situation and preserving vulnerabilities and because they were not in a position to care for essay themselves as children. In addition, the types of assistance needed by children – e.g. education – are longer term, often a matter of language essay, several years.

One Vietnamese girl, who was trafficked internally for labour, was first assisted to return to school in 2008. Social Conformity? When interviewed in 2012 she was still receiving support and was in regular contact with the NGO staff that supported her. By contrast, some trafficked children received little to preserving no case management and monitoring. 11. Child-specific protocols and at home procedures in preserving language, the provision of (re)integration support.

Many trafficked children had been victimised from a very young age and over long periods of time. Interacting with them required tailoring support to their age, maturity and developmental stage. Essay On Nurture? In many programmes, child victims were assisted alongside adults with no discernible difference in preserving language, the handling of these cases. The implementation of child-specific protocols and procedures appeared to toefl writing model essays have been very limited. It was also concerning that children were not consulted about their assistance in many cases, with the preserving, needs of trafficked children determined solely by service providers, or by service providers in consultation with their parents or guardians.

One girl from Myanmar, trafficked for begging and street selling in Malaysia, was assisted by an organisation upon her return, assistance that she very much needed and on cleanliness at home was grateful to receive. However, when asked whether she had any concerns about receiving assistance, she expressed frustration at not having been actively involved in decision making about the assistance she received and plans for her (re)integration and life over the longer term. She explained that when assistance staff came to meet her, they spoke only to her mother. Preserving Language Essay? They did not consult with her. Trafficked children were significantly represented in this study, signalling that children in the region are at high risk of exploitation and human trafficking. While children seemed to essay on cleanliness at home accept assistance when they perceived it would benefit them, overall assistance upon return was lacking and frequently was only offered in connection with shelter stays. Greater attention (and resources) are needed to more adequately support the preserving, specific and diverse needs of trafficked children in moving on toefl from their trafficking experiences, particularly in the long term and in their home communities. This will involve not only improving the capacity of anti-trafficking professionals working with children, but also mainstreaming (re)integration services for trafficked children into the social protection framework which should, in principle, be equipped with specialised skills in working with vulnerable children. Critically, trafficked children need to be (voluntarily) involved in preserving, the development and monitoring of (re)integration programmes designed to assist them. Only with their participation and input will (re)integration programmes and policies in the region be able to meet their needs and interests. Trapped at sea.

Using the legal and regulatory framework to combat trafficking at sea. Trapped at essay sea. Using the legal and regulatory framework to combat trafficking at language essay sea. Once again, we welcome Rebecca Surtees from the NEXUS Institute. This post is writing model essays adapted from “ Trapped at sea. Preserving Language Essay? Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to effect cause Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of preserving language, Seafarers and Fishers ”, published in 2013 in the Groningen Journal of International Law. Vol.

1, No. 2: Human Trafficking. The article was prepared in the context of the NEXUS/IOM project entitled: Taking stock and moving forward. Considering methods, ethics and high school pollution approaches in trafficking research and data collection, funded by U.S. Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP). The original article is also available at and . Recognition of the diversity of trafficking for forced labour in recent years has included increased attention to exploitation within the seafaring and commercial fishing industries.

It is clear, based upon our research, not only that human trafficking takes place, but that such cases are aided by language sector-specific aspects that heighten levels of risk and vulnerability for seafarers and fishers that may lend themselves to abuses, such as isolation at sea, lax regulation, oversight and enforcement, and limited contact with authorities on land and at sea. Trafficked seafarers and fishers in various regions of the world are exposed to a range of hardships, including: the effect cause essay smoking, lack of basic necessities like food and water for extended periods; substandard and often inhumane conditions; long work hours, sometimes days on end, with only a few minutes of break in this time; lack of any compensation; restricted or no freedom of movement; and violence against them. Given that research by language NEXUS Institute has documented a spectrum of abuse against essay, seafarers and fishers as well as a context of heightened risk and vulnerability, greater understanding is needed of the full range of abuse at language essay sea experienced by seafarers and fishers – including cases that rise to the level of human trafficking. Addressing exploitation in these sectors requires an effective and appropriate transnational legal and regulatory framework, which is enforced across jurisdictions. Understanding the various legal and regulatory opportunities to prevent and high pollution combat trafficking at sea is an essential starting point for future discussion and intervention. International law that may be used to combat trafficking at sea falls generally into three areas: 1) International anti-trafficking law : including human rights law as it applies to trafficking-related exploitation. Primary instruments of international anti-trafficking law include the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Trafficking Protocol) and the Council of essay, Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings (CoE Convention); 2) International maritime law : the body of high school essay, laws, conventions and treaties that govern international private business or other matters involving ships and shipping; and.

3) The international law of the sea : the body of preserving language, public international law that primarily draws on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS); almost universally recognised as establishing the regime of at home, law and order in the world’s oceans and seas. Understanding the essay, laws that can be used to improve the situations of fishers and seafarers requires parsing these complex bodies of international law relevant to trafficking at sea. “Trafficking at on cleanliness sea”, in the context of this discussion, involves seafarers and fishers undertaking at-sea activities , including the transport of cargo, fishing, fish processing and preserving transportation while on vessels, rafts, fishing platforms or otherwise offshore. It does not include other examples of model essays, trafficking in the shipping or fishing sectors nor does it include shore-based operations (e.g. port-based work, shore-based fish harvesting or fish/seafood processing and packaging). The definition of a fisher is found in language essay, the ILO Work in Fishing Convention (subsequently referred to as the WIF Convention); in lay terms, a fisher is any individual who is a member of the crew on board a fishing vessel. This differs from a seafarer, who according to the Maritime Labour Convention (subsequently referred to as MLC) is “any person who is essay on cleanliness employed or engaged in any capacity on board a ship to which this Convention applies”.

The MLC applies to all ships, publicly or privately owned, ordinarily engaged in commercial activities, other than ships engaged in fishing. There may be an overlap between seafarers and fishers, particularly in relation to fish carriers. For example, in our study of trafficked seafarers from language Ukraine, a number of toefl model, men were trafficked on vessels engaged in illegal crabbing in the waters off of Russia. The overlap is evident here as the men used their training as seafarers to operate the preserving, crabbing vessels, but also worked as fishers directly responsible for the crab catch. That being said, as all of their work took place on board a fishing vessel, they would be considered fishers as they fall under the definition of fishers according to the WIF Convention.

Distinguishing between seafarers and thesis social fishers according to the type of vessel (fishing or merchant) on which they work is essay important because maritime law offers different protections for individuals on board, depending on the classification of essay, a ship. Under maritime law, fishing vessels are less regulated than merchant fleets and crews aboard fishing vessels are, arguably, more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation, including human trafficking. Moreover, a different legal and regulatory framework for trafficked persons exists at sea than on land. Trafficking at preserving essay sea often differs in how prevention, protection of victims and prosecution of trafficking crimes may (or may not) take place and by effect cause essay whom. Trafficked seafarers and fishers may find themselves aboard vessels that are unflagged or flagged to another State, ashore in a foreign port or never entering port, and/or suffering abuse and exploitation on the high seas or in waters that fall within the territory of one or various States. The issue of jurisdiction is particularly relevant in preserving language, the context of trafficking at sea given the increased likelihood of trans-jurisdiction, with merchant and fishing vessels moving easily and often between jurisdictions. Effect Cause Smoking? Determining which State(s) has (have) legal and regulatory responsibilities to address trafficking at sea not only depends on the nationality of the preserving essay, victim and of the essay at home, trafficker(s), but also on where the vessel is (i.e. the ports and waters it may enter) and the country to which the vessel is registered. On the high seas jurisdiction is reliant on the system of flag State control . All vessels must fly the flag of the country to which they are registered: the State under whose protection the essay, ship sails and to whose laws it must adhere. This is toefl essays known as flag State responsibility.

In reality, many vessels fly what are known as “flags of convenience” (FoCs). This refers to language essay the business practice of registering a merchant ship or fishing vessel in statement social, a sovereign State different from that of the ship owners to reduce operating costs or avoid certain regulations. FoCs are from States with an open register that usually are unable or unwilling to take seriously their flag State responsibilities, either in terms of enforcing their existing national laws or in terms of implementing laws that comply with their responsibilities under the preserving, treaties they have ratified. Thesis Statement Conformity? This, then, provides space for the perpetration of a raft of potential violations, including the exploitation of seafarers and fishers in ways that constitute human trafficking at sea. Lack of regulation further limits opportunities for identification of those already aboard vessels or for preserving escape from trafficking. Liberia, for example, is a commonly used FoC. Effect Cause Essay? The Liberian Registry is one of the largest and most active shipping registers, with approximately 4,000 ships registered to the Liberian flag in 2013. But, according to preserving essay the 2013 Trafficking in Persons Report issued by the U.S. Department of State , the Government of Liberia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. The Liberian government only recently achieved its first trafficking conviction using its 2005 anti-trafficking law and, overall, has made only minimal efforts to protect trafficking victims.

If a trafficking situation were to be identified on a ship flying Liberia’s flag on the high seas, Liberia’s anti-trafficking legislation would apply and the protection of trafficked seafarers or fishers on board would depend on the Government of Liberia’s ability or willingness to enforce that legislation. It is concerning that the most common FoCs, like Liberia, are those of thesis statement, States that have not brought their national laws and anti-trafficking efforts in accordance with the requirements of the Trafficking Protocol and, where relevant, the CoE Convention. A further complication is that seafarers and language fishers are often recruited through crewing agencies that may or may not have an official presence in their home countries. In this regard, while there are crucial differences between cases of trafficking at toefl sea and other forms of trafficking exploitation that must be taken into preserving language account, there are also important parallels and similarities underlying this form of trafficking that can be noted. For example, trafficked fishers and seafarers may pay hefty recruitment fees to find work on board vessels.

Issues of fraud and deception in contracts and/or the recruitment process, subcontracting, and multiple levels of culpability from crewing agencies to vessel owners complicate problems for fishers and essay on nurture nature for future seafarers who find themselves in exploitative situations. The lessons that can be learned in addressing such challenges (e.g. Language? requiring recruitment fees to thesis be borne by the employer or ensuring that trafficked persons are not criminalised for crimes they commit as part of their exploitation) can and should be applied to exploitation in other sectors. The quality of current national legislation in many States remains a limiting factor in terms of States’ ability to combat human trafficking and essay States need to bring their legislation in thesis, line with their obligations under anti-trafficking law and maritime law (and enforce their laws on their vessels as required by the law of the sea). A commitment is also needed by preserving States to implement and enforce the existing obligations from international anti-trafficking law, international maritime law and the law of the sea to combat trafficking at sea. This will require education and training of those working in the anti-trafficking and fishing and seafaring sectors as well as cooperation and coordination between the different sectors. It will also require monitoring and enforcement by and of States, and also likely incentives and thesis statement social sanctions for those States who do not live up to essay their obligations to prevent and combat trafficking at sea. Ethical principles in the re/integration of trafficked persons. Experiences from the Balkans. Ethical principles in the re/integration of trafficked persons. Experiences from the Balkans. This week we welcome back Rebecca Surtees.

Rebecca is Senior Researcher at NEXUS Institute, an international human rights research and policy center in Washington, DC. NEXUS Institute is dedicated to combating human trafficking as well as other human rights abuses. This post is written in conjunction with a newly released report on developing common ethical principles within anti-trafficking re/integration. In the high pollution, Balkan region, human trafficking continues to be a pressing issue. One central aspect of anti-trafficking work is re/integration; the language, process of recovery and economic and social inclusion following a trafficking experience. Re/integration services are often key to trafficked persons’ ability to recover and toefl writing model essays move on preserving essay with their lives. And yet few organisations and programmes have developed ethical principles according to which their re/integration work is implemented, monitored and evaluated. In response to this gap, a set of ethical principles for re/integration programmes and policies have been developed in statement, the Balkan region. These principles – a new and significant development in re/integration work – were developed by language essay NEXUS Institute in collaboration with eleven re/integration NGOs supported under the Trafficking Victims Re/Integration Programme (TVRP), funded by the King Baudouin Foundation and GIZ.

These principles, grounded in thesis statement conformity, direct re/integration work and preserving language essay developed collaboratively from the essay on nurture, bottom-up, aim to hold re/integration practitioners and policy makers to preserving language a higher standard and to be accountable in their work. They are a first step for all of us working on re/integration toward enhanced re/integration support for trafficked persons. Ethical principles provide a foundation for the development, implementation and evaluation of a rights-based re/integration response to human trafficking. Principles underpinning re/integration work relate to attitudes, rights and duties about human welfare – for example: “respect for the autonomy of service users” or the essay on cleanliness at home, “promotion of human welfare”. Principles are much broader in scope than standards , which are, very generally, a set of rules for ensuring quality re/integration programming and preserving regulating a professional and accountable system of re/integration service provision. Standards serve as the foundation for the development of practical guidelines that are used by service providers in sam watkins, their day-to-day re/integration work with trafficked persons, in preserving language, a variety of care settings. Guidelines are instructions on how to do something; they are the instruments that service providers use in order to put standards into operational practice. Thesis Conformity? Standards and guidelines exist in some places and preserving not in others. In any case, ethical principles are the starting point from which standards and guidelines get articulated and underpin the theoretical framing of re/integration. Professional ethics concern matters of right and wrong conduct, good and bad qualities of character and the professional responsibilities attached to sam watkins relationships in a work context.

Ethical principles are intended for use by any professional working in the field of anti-trafficking re/integration, whether for GOs, NGOs or IOs, from a range of preserving language, different fields including social work, psychology, medicine, law enforcement, law and school essay so on. Because ethical principles are the foundation of a human rights based response to trafficking and re/integration work, they are relevant for policy makers and legislators as well as service providers and practitioners. Some of these ethical principles are mandated by international and preserving language national legislation, making their safeguarding not only an issue of ethics but also a legal requirement. For example, there are a range of legal issues associated with the collection, transfer and sharing of nature for future, sensitive data (sometimes the subject of language essay, legislation on data protection), such as data collected in the context of re/integration case management. In some cases, re/integration programmes and activities may be governed by multiple legal and ethical codes – for example, the country of the organisation managing the programme, the country where the programme is being implemented (if different from the former) and/or the country funding the programme – making implementation challenging. Twelve ethical principles in the re/integration of high, trafficked persons. Principle #1. ‘Do no harm’. Re/integration programmes and policies should “do no harm” to trafficked persons. Principle #2. Informed consent.

Trafficked persons have the right to full and preserving essay accurate information about re/integration assistance and their consent in accepting this support should be fully informed. Principle #3. Confidentiality. Trafficked persons’ confidentiality must be strictly guarded in the context of re/integration work. Principle #4. Anonymity. Re/integration professionals must ensure that all information shared is sufficiently anonymous to prevent trafficked persons from being identified.

Principle #5. Privacy. Trafficked persons have the right to privacy, to pollution be free of unwanted or unsanctioned intrusion at all stages of their re/integration. Principle #6. Non-discrimination . Trafficked persons should not be treated unfavourably or face negative or prejudicial attitudes due to their trafficking experience. Principle #7. Safety and language essay security. Trafficked persons’ safety and thesis security is paramount and language must be assessed (and responded to) throughout the re/integration process. Principle #8.

Sensitivity. Trafficked persons must be treated with sensitivity and respect throughout the re/integration process. Principle #9. Empowerment. Trafficked persons should be equipped with the skills, ability and confidence to recover and lead an autonomous life. Empowerment should be fostered throughout the re/integration process. Principle #10.

Beneficiary participation. Beneficiaries should be (voluntarily) involved in their own individual re/integration plan as well as, where appropriate, the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the re/integration services, programmes and effect cause essay policies. Principle #11. Data protection . Data collected about trafficked persons in the context of re/integration must be strictly protected in adherence with national and international legal standards. Principle #12. Child protection and the “best interests of the child” . Re/integration programmes and policies should ensure that trafficked children are protected and preserving essay their best interests are the primary consideration. These ethical principles are often interrelated and so will often be considered in combination. For example, confidentiality and essay pollution anonymity are complementary in that keeping the identity of programme beneficiaries anonymous is one means of maintaining confidentiality when working toward re/integration.

Similarly, protecting confidentiality is essential to ensure both the safety of victims and also data protection. Maximising beneficiary participation is language often central in ensuring non-discrimination. And practising non-discrimination and approaching victims with sensitivity are elements of essay, ensuring that the re/integration ‘does no harm’. The real life impact of ethical principles on the re/integration of preserving, trafficked persons in the Balkans. Supporting beneficiary participation and empowerment.

One re/integration organisation spends a great deal of time resolving administrative issues with beneficiaries – e.g. civil registration, obtaining new documents and so on. Caseworkers explain to beneficiaries the different steps involved in writing essays, the process – e.g. what office to contact, how to preserving get there, how to fill in forms and how to submit documents. The organisation supports this process but requires beneficiaries to directly undertake this process to learn how to take on thesis conformity this responsibility themselves. Gaining informed consent. “Fadila” was offered to stay in a shelter because she faced conflict in preserving essay, her family and discrimination from family members. However, she declined this assistance because she was told that the toefl, shelter was closed and she could not have contact with her family while there. The state social worker, the police officer and language the social worker from the re/integration programme spent time with her and her family to explain the programme, including that it was voluntary and she could leave at sam watkins any time. They provided both written and verbal explanations of the programme and services offered. Eventually she agreed to enter the programme.

Breeching the principle of ‘do no harm’ “Emina”, a trafficked girl, was involved in two legal proceedings related to her trafficking experience – one for preserving human trafficking, the other for rape. Staff from the essay on nurture nature, Centre for essay Social Work arranged for Emina to provide testimony in both cases on the same day to save time and reduce travel costs. Emina, however, was heavily traumatised by having to essay cope with both cases at language the same time as well as facing both her trafficker and rapist. Afterward, she suffered a nervous breakdown and tried to commit suicide. Breeching confidentiality, anonymity, privacy, child protection and writing model data protection. One organisation working on re/integration faced a situation in which it was legally obliged by the state social services to share case files of their child beneficiaries. However, the staff subsequently learned that these case files had not been securely and confidentially stored but rather had been left in boxes in the corridors of social services’ offices, accessible to anyone who wished to look at them. Breeching sensitivity, privacy and confidentiality. “Marija” was a trafficking victim who approached the national employment agency in her hometown in an effort to find a job as part of essay, her re/integration. A clerk at the admissions desk recognised her and began asking her questions about her life. The clerk also told the social workers who were accompanying her very personal things about her family and private life, many of which were negative and which Marija found embarrassing.

After this incident, Marija chose not to register with the thesis conformity, national employment agency and, moreover, expressed a wish to preserving leave her hometown and be integrated in another community instead. While ethical principles have often been implicit in writing model, the work of language essay, re/integration organisations, there is great value in identifying and explicitly articulating them. This includes how an organisation’s ethical principles’ can be operationalised in day-to-day re/integration work and if/how organisations face challenges in adhering to these principles. Toefl Writing Model? It will also be important to continue to discuss and adapt ethical principles, not least because re/integration is a dynamic process and regularly involves new issues and challenges. To ensure successful, sustainable and ethical re/integration programming and preserving language policies, new ethical principles (or the high school essay pollution, further articulation of these existing principles) are likely to be needed as well as the tools for implementation and monitoring of those principles. Researching the unseen: Challenges in human trafficking research. Researching the unseen: Challenges in human trafficking research.

TTRP is essay pleased to have Rebecca Surtees as a guest blogger this week. Rebecca is Senior Researcher at essay NEXUS Institute, an international human rights research and policy center in Washington, DC. Preserving Language? NEXUS Institute is dedicated to school combating human trafficking as well as other human rights abuses. Recent research studies include: Trafficked at preserving essay sea. On Cleanliness? The exploitation of Ukrainian seafarers and fishers; No place like home. Preserving? Challenges in the reintegration of trafficked women; Trafficked men, unwilling victims; Out of sight?

Challenges in effect essay smoking, the identification of essay, trafficked persons; Leaving the past behind: Why some trafficking victims decline assistance; Beneath the surface. Methodological challenges in trafficking research ; and Measuring success of counter trafficking interventions in the criminal justice sector . Researching the unseen. Much human trafficking research is based on high pollution data from trafficked persons who have been formally identified and assisted by preserving language anti-trafficking organisations and professionals. This type of research reveals a great deal about their pre-trafficking situations and vulnerabilities, their trafficking experiences and their assistance experiences and needs, all of which is essential in toefl writing, informing policies and interventions to prevent and combat trafficking. However, there are certain biases in terms of the information that we get from trafficking victims who have been identified and assisted, which means that our picture of trafficking is only partial.

That is, not all trafficked persons are offered (or accept) assistance and there are also differences in terms of which trafficked persons researchers will have access to language and why. Moreover, there is an implicit assumption that information from identified and assisted victims is the same as what we would learn from trafficking victims who are not identified and assisted. And yet the little research that has been done with unidentified or unassisted victims suggests systematic differences between the two groups. Unidentified and unassisted. Identified victims are those who have been determined to be “trafficked” according to formal identification procedures involving designated authorities. Assisted trafficking victims are those who are identified as trafficked by essay on cleanliness relevant authorities and assisted within the anti-trafficking framework or the more general social assistance system. Many trafficking victims are identified but not assisted – for preserving essay example, they decline to be labelled “trafficked”, are unsatisfied with available assistance, do not wish to return home, do not trust service providers, do not need assistance or have other forms of support.

Many others are never identified – for example, because of poor identification processes, limited capacity of anti-trafficking professionals, specific legal or administrative procedures, not understanding their experience as “trafficking” or because they avoid being identified. These two groups – identified but unassisted victims and unidentified trafficking victims – are generally of unknown sizes, boundaries and essay nature. It is unclear the extent to which they are (and are not) represented by the experiences and characteristics of assisted victims, including how these experiences might fluctuate from preserving place to place and over time. Factors which influence who does (and does not) come into the anti-trafficking framework are diverse and context specific. They include not only individual or family characteristics (e.g. attitudes to sam watkins essay and knowledge of assistance, access to other forms of support, (not) needing assistance, (positive or negative) family relations and so on) but also social or cultural norms, policy or legislative frameworks, how programmes are designed and funded and political commitment to anti-trafficking efforts within a country. Moreover, these factors may change over time and in response to various external factors such as the broader political environment, donor interest, funding and so on.

Reaching the essay, unreachable. A more rounded and sam watkins essay carefully derived picture of trafficking (and assistance needs) must include not only those who have been identified and essay assisted but also the unseen – those who have not been identified or assisted. Unidentified and unassisted trafficking victims can be accessed at different stages of their trafficking and post-trafficking lives – while they are still in a trafficking situation (that is, while still abroad or at home); upon return to the home country/community; after trafficking (that is, once they are back in their community and/or some time after their return). Determining the appropriate research method and approach to be used at each stage of trafficking/post trafficking will depend on the scope and nature of the research. But at all stages and with all methods there are challenges to be borne in mind, not least in terms of biases that influence the data and the myriad ethical issues which arise.

Moreover, these experiences are still sub-samples of trafficked persons and their stories must be fit and framed within the broader (and diverse) picture of human trafficking. Researching persons still in trafficking situations. Sampling currently trafficked persons – for example, those still on a labour worksite or in prostitution – is one means of accessing the thesis statement, “unidentified”. However, access to preserving language essay worksites and prostitution arenas differ greatly from setting to essay setting and some sites of preserving language, exploitation (arguably the most exploitative ones) are largely inaccessible to researchers. Moreover, access is school essay generally arranged through gatekeepers, which means that access (and the boundaries of the research sample) is informed by the mandate, work and relationships of these agencies or institutions as well as any motives they may have or perspectives they wish to advance – e.g. ideological perspectives of trafficking, positions on prostitution, a desire to highlight certain issues and so on. Trafficked persons may also be limited in what they are able (or willing) to preserving essay disclose while still trafficked, posing risks to respondents and researchers. Others may not recognise that they have been trafficked. Finally, researchers have an ethical obligation to provide assistance and ultimately an exit strategy to trafficked persons with whom they are conducting research. Researching in the return process.

Respondents may be accessed after trafficking ends but prior to sam watkins essay or during their return home – for example, while detained, awaiting or following deportation, preparing to or testifying against traffickers or following deportation. Gatekeepers at these stages might include prison officials, immigration authorities, law enforcement and/or lawyers. Preserving Essay? However, such settings (as well as the stress and sam watkins anxiety generally experienced in the period after exit from essay trafficking) are not necessarily conducive to effect cause smoking full and comfortable disclosure. Preserving? Moreover, some respondents may not feel able to decline to be interviewed or may hope that participation will lead to a more positive outcome – for example, some assistance or reprieve in essay, the deportation process. Here too there are ethical obligations for researchers in terms of providing information about assistance options abroad and/or at preserving language home. Researching after trafficking. Accessing unidentified and unassisted respondents in their homes and communities (including after some period of time) can be complicated, particularly in terms of how it can (negatively) influence relations with family and community. There is, for example, the model essays, risk of “outing” people as trafficked to their families and communities, which can have serious implications in situations where discrimination and language essay stigma of trafficked persons is essay on nurture nature for future commonplace. This type of language, sampling may be more viable in others settings (for example, where stigma related to prostitution is essay on nurture less and ? or socially manageable) or for other forms of trafficking (for example, less stigmatised forms of exploitation like labour). However, the extent to which victims (of different forms of trafficking and in different contexts) may suffer (different forms of) stigma or discrimination has not been extensively studied and caution is therefore needed. Even if we are able to find and ethically access unidentified and unassisted trafficking victims at this post-return stage, it remains an open question as to what extent these trafficked persons will divulge their exploitation experiences to (unknown) researchers.

Disclosure will be impacted when there may be implications for divulging – for example, retribution from traffickers, fear of language, stigma, being forced to testify, fear that their story will be made public and so on. Equally, disclosure may increase when there are (at least perceived) benefits to divulging – for example, payment for nature participation, referral for language essay services, helping others from nature suffering in the future and a chance to talk about their difficult experience. Preserving Language Essay? There are additional layers of thesis statement conformity, complication (and ethical considerations) when accessing persons who have proactively avoided identification and language essay assistance. Why research with unidentified and effect essay unassisted victims matters. Understanding trafficking through the lens of preserving language, unidentified and unassisted trafficked persons often provides a different picture than is commonly presented in trafficking research and discourse. This generally means including less considered profiles of victims (for example, men and boys, the elderly, older women), other forms of exploitation (for example, different forms of forced labour, forced marriage, begging) and sam watkins essay a wide range of assistance and protection needs. It also potentially calls into question some assumptions about trafficking and trafficking risk, which, in turn, will mean reconsidering how some assistance is preserving language essay designed and offered. Interventions designed for identified and assisted victims will not necessarily respond to the needs of other (and all other) trafficked persons.

This is of particular concern given that many (and arguably very many) trafficked persons are never identified and/or assisted. Expanding research to include these under-considered trafficked persons is vital if policies and programmes are to respond to the needs of both visible and less visible trafficking victims. Moving beyond the heavy reliance on research solely with assisted victims has real life implications for sam watkins essay unidentified and preserving unassisted trafficked persons and their families. Their stories and experiences and needs must be part of our understanding of, and response to, the issue. They can translate into a more well-rounded anti-trafficking response in identifying the types of programmes and policies that this group of high, trafficked persons needs and wants as well as more targeted (and appropriate) prevention efforts.

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To Kill a Mockingbird: Racism in Film in the 1960’s Essay. The 1960’s was a decade of radical social change and revolutionary attitude. While people were able to language, come together on many issues and influence positive change in social, our nation, racism was still a shaky platform for much of language essay society. Toefl. Because the ideas of hatred and inequality were deep rooted in so many people, the social activists in favor of an equal America faced a long and dangerous road toward change. Films of the essay decade seemed to either dance around the sam watkins issue or come on too strong. Robert Mulligan’s 1963 film adaption of Harper Lee’s 1960 novel found a balance between the two. To Kill a Mockingbird was one of the decade’s most successful films in dealing with race relations because of preserving its clear cut definition of race relations and character motives, its exploration of themes that were relevant to writing, the time, and its cinematic superiority to other films of the decade.

Not only was To Kill a Mockingbird one of the most loved films of the decade, it is language essay, one of the most widely enjoyed films of all time. Although it is set almost thirty years prior to the sixties, the film’s confrontation of racism was far from outdated. It was one of the first movies to shed a light on race relations without making people too uncomfortable. While the issue of race should have made people more than just uncomfortable, the film realized that a toe in the water towards dealing with racism was much easier for society to accept than suggesting they jump in off the high dive. The 1963 film was shot in black and white, an incredible allusion to the indisputable nature of the sam watkins essay characters. According to Barry Keith Grant’s American Cinema of the 1960s textbook “the characters in the film are quite literally black and white: drooling, prejudiced hayseeds or tolerant understanding souls.” This was the easiest way to highlight the problems with members of society who tried to remain in the middle of the issue and not take a stance; they fell into the first category by default.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., one of the most important and influential civil rights activists of the 1960s, paraphrased the work of Dante Alighieri when talking about neutrality; “The hottest place in hell is reserved for those who remain neutral in times of great moral conflict.”1 He went on to add, “He who passively accepts evil is as much involved in it as he who helps perpetrate it. He who accepts evil without protesting against it is really cooperating with it.”2 For many years, people thought they were doing the right thing by remaining neutral. One can imagine their thought process assured them that not taking a stance was better than fighting for preserving language, the wrong side. To Kill a Mockingbird put an thesis conformity, end to that mentality. Because of its clearly defined view of only two sides to racism, the language film forced audiences to reevaluate what side they fell under.

People were forced to decide what they believed in, instead of blending in to anonymity. MLK was able to clearly epitomize the unsettling reality of those who chose to remain neutral: “In the end, we will remember not the words of our enemies, but the silence of our friends.”3 Despite its success, some critiques were unhappy with the film’s portrayal of writing essays blacks. In a review by Roger Ebert, he explains his dissatisfaction with the film’s portrayal of its black characters. “The black people in this scene are not treated as characters, but as props, and kept entirely in long shot. The close-ups are reserved for the white hero and villain.”4 While this observation is true and indeed somewhat problematic, it is language, also a reason for thesis, the film’s success. As previously stated, the film avoids shocking and alarming convictions that would make the audience too uncomfortable and retreat back into language essay their blissful ignorance. Looking back, it may appear as though the film is too forgiving when it comes to racism, but it understood the high school essay pollution cautions of society and encapsulates the innocence of the early sixties. The film pushes the limits just far enough as to entice its audiences to pick and side and take a stance in a way that they can understand and accept. And by preserving, only presenting two clear choices, it forces the at home audience to really ask themselves who they would stand up for: Mayella Ewell or Tom Robinson? What some critics failed to recognize in respect to the seemingly cookie-cutter characters, was the undeniable similarities between audience members and the people in the film. Atticus Finch, a widowed considerably wealthy white lawyer, was able to pull reluctant audiences in by being the ideal father figure. His spunky daughter Scout was both lovable and endearing.

She forms her own opinions throughout the film with the preserving language guidance of essay pollution her accepting father. Atticus also has an equally charming son Jeremy, referred to as “Jem”. People easily related to and admired the picturesque but unique family, which made the films impact immensely stronger. While it is unfortunate that the white characters are perceived as the heroes and essay, the black characters almost background noise, society was hesitant to support a black hero. Charles Bukowski, an American author, once stated, “I guess the social only time people think about injustice is when it happens to preserving, them.” By making Atticus the center of the narrative, the film was able to develop a relatable story that allowed audiences to easier think of themselves in essay, Atticus’s situation. This was especially important for people who hadn’t experienced racism first hand or didn’t have a personal connection to it that was motivating them to act and preserving language, promote change. To Kill A Mockingbird’s reserved representation of race is often compared to The Intruder, a 1962 film that deals with race in a starkly contrasted way.

Where To Kill A Mockingbird subdues its condemnation of racism, The Intruder has an obvious and unsettling parallel to the situation in toefl model essays, Oxford, Mississippi that same year5. Preserving Essay. James Meredith, a black military veteran, attempted to apply to the university known as Ole Miss. Because of a former court ruling, Brown vs. The Board of Education, public schools were required to be integrated. President John F. Kennedy, a crusader for civil rights, had frequent discussions with Mississippi’s governor Ross Barnett about protecting Meredith and ensuring his safety, but the only thing the Governor ensured was that he would keep the school segregated. On September 29th, the tensions broke out into sam watkins a terrifying and violent riot at the university, not at all unlike the climatic mob scene at the end of preserving language The Intruder, which resulted in two civilian deaths and 70 injuries. The following day, Meredith became the on cleanliness at home first African-American student to essay, be enrolled at the university.6 Because of the sam watkins essay uncomfortable parallels to preserving language, reality, The Intruder was arguably the most honest film about race relations to be produced that year. However, To Kill a Mockingbird won over audiences nation wide and pushed, even if only a gentle push, for new dialogue and action concerning race relations in America.

To Kill A Mockingbird may be set in the 1930’s, but 1960’s audiences easily relate to the themes presented. Not only do the film’s events seem representative of real occurrences, the ideas conveyed clearly comment on 1960’s society. The film explores the model essays theme of language innocence in multiple ways. It deals with a child’s naive view of the world and how that is easily changed. It also presents the idea that there is social conformity, a responsibility for society to protect the innocent. The film examines the problem of ignorance and how perceptions of people should not take precedent over the facts. “Loss of innocence” is a commonly used literary and cinematic theme, while the “responsibility to protect the innocent” is less frequently used but no less important. To Kill A Mockingbird explores these themes strongly with Scout’s character. Seemingly oblivious to racism, Scout is not like other average children. She is intelligent and compassionate, with a strong moral compass (thanks to the skillful parenting of her father Atticus).

Even with these admirable qualities, she still captures the innocence involved with being a child. The family has a black cook named Calpurnia, who, before the trial, is essay, their bridge between their world and the black community. Statement. Scout isn’t exposed to the injustice Calpurnia presumably experiences when she leaves the Finch home until her father agrees to defend a black man by the name of Tom Robinson. In the film, one of the most valuable lessons presented by essay, Atticus’s defense of Tom Robinson is the responsibility to protect the innocent. This lesson is presented in both the essay on cleanliness at home courtroom and preserving, the real world. Throughout the trial of cause Tom Robinson, Jem’s naivety and lack of exposure to the racism surrounding him leads him to believe that justice will prevail no matter the circumstances. Atticus’s clear and obvious reasoning is a shining beacon of hope for the black community and preserving, his son Jem, who all share Atticus’s confidence in the courts to on cleanliness, remain unbiased. Essay. Atticus’s final speech, which is one of the sam watkins essay most famous monologues in film history, serve as an attempt to remind the jury that a courtroom sees no color and no class: In this country our courts are the great levelers, and in our courts all men are created equal. I’m no idealist to believe firmly in the integrity of our courts and in preserving, the jury system.

That is no ideal to me…It is a living, working reality. Gentlemen, a court is no better than each man of you sitting before me on this jury. A court is only as sound as the men who make it up. I am confident that you gentlemen will review without passion the evidence you have heard, come to a decision, and sam watkins essay, restore this defendant to his family. In the language essay name of God, do your duty. In the name of God, believe Tom Robinson. (Foote, 119) One would hope that Atticus’s belief in a moral obligation to defend Tom Robinson and the need for a truly blind justice system would influence audiences. Sadly, the reality of the 1960’s was not much different than To Kill A Mockingbird’s 1930’s. Members of the civil rights movement of the 1960’s had no reason to trust in the law or its courts.

Just as the model essays law fails Tom, it also failed Medgar Evars. Evars, the NAACP field secretary in 1963, was shot in the head in front of language his home in Jackson, Mississippi by White Citizens’ Council member Byron De La Beckwith.7 Evars was taken to the hospital and high essay, was refused service due to his skin color until eventually being treated. Preserving. He died fifty minutes later. Beckwith was tried twice and both juries, who were compromised entirely of white males, were unable to reach a verdict. Later that year in Birmingham, Alabama, Ku Klux Klan members bombed the 16th Street Baptist Church.8 Four young black girls were killed and effect cause essay smoking, twenty-two people were injured. Once again, the law was not a protector of the innocent lives that were lost. Instead, Robert Edward Chambliss, who was witnessed placing the bomb under the church steps, faced only a 100-dollar fine and six months in preserving essay, jail. The tragic murders and racist judicial systems in the film and 1960’s reality were a tragic reminder that society had abandoned the toefl writing model responsibility to protect the preserving essay innocent. Both the film and the terrible events transpiring around the school essay pollution nation served as a prompt to renew society’s belief in this responsibility. “For the rest of the nation, the Birmingham church bombing should serve to goad the conscience.

The deaths…in a sense are on the hands of each of essay us.” (Editorial, The Milwaukee Sentinel, September 16th, 1963)9 In the film, Jem was crushed when prejudice and bigotry won during Tom Robinson’s trial. Essay. The moment the verdict was read could be considered the moment that Jem lost his innocence. He had now been exposed to the unnatural hatred his community felt towards people that knew nothing about. The film explores the idea of ignorance in respect to its theme of the loss of innocence. The community views Tom Robinson the same way that the preserving language children view Boo Radley at the beginning of the film; they fear him because they don’t understand him and statement, they ridicule him because they think that it is harmless. The children’s idea that their mockery of language Boo is harmless directly parallels the idea of 1960’s communities that their discrimination towards blacks was harmless. Scout learns that her actions towards Boo were wrong and she learns a valuable lesson about acceptance. Sam Watkins. When the language narrator (an older Scout) says, “Boo was our neighbor,” it seems insignificant but it adds another dimension to the message of protecting the innocent. It reminds audiences that often times the people we discriminate against toefl are part of our community and that should be reason enough to preserving, be kind to them. Boo Radley and cause smoking, Tom Robinson serve as a representation of preserving language essay anyone who is discriminated against by people who are ignorant towards the truth.

The way in thesis statement social, which the children view Boo Radley as a monster is reflexive of the way the townspeople view Tom Robinson. Although Tom is not the preserving essay main character of the story, the viewer is able to place themselves in his shoes and better see life from his standpoint. Essay On Cleanliness. At the end of the film, Scout walks Boo Radley home. Preserving Language Essay. She stands on his porch and looks out towards her neighborhood and pictures what life looks like to Boo. The idea of “standing in someone else’s shoes” is commonly suggested, but not commonly practiced. Statement Social. By understanding what life is language essay, like for Boo and having compassion towards him, Scout makes more progress than a majority of the sam watkins essay adults in her town. To Kill A Mockingbird is an amazing example of how a film can create emotion and present important issues through its representation of certain themes. The film successfully creates the feeling nostalgia in its viewers by depicting childhood in a warm and comforting manner. Because the language essay viewer is so enticed by the way Scout and Jem’s youth is portrayed, and perhaps even reminded of their own, it makes their loss of innocence that much more devastating. Sam Watkins. By the end of the film, Scout and her brother had both experienced loss of preserving language innocence. Their optimistic perception of a world that was a moral and fair place was tarnished by the exposure to devastating social injustices.

The film’s rare ability to toefl essays, both be widely loved by countless audiences as well as present the hard truth about racism in America can be credited to preserving language essay, its outstanding cinematic qualities. The film was nominated for eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture, and won three of effect smoking them.10 It was deemed “culturally significant” by the United States Library of Congress and chosen to be preserved in the National Film Registry.11 Harper Lee, the author of the novel on which the film is based, only had approving remarks to share about the film adaption. She considers the film a “work of art.”12 It is obvious that she is not alone with this opinion, and for essay, many good reasons. Essay. The film’s most obvious triumph is its acting. Gregory Peck’s portrayal of Atticus Finch is one of the preserving most famous in model, movie history. Peck concealed his natural attractiveness to completely embody the parental qualities of the character. Language. He personifies the dignity and intelligence that Lee had created for Atticus in pollution, the novel. Peck received an Academy Award for Best Actor for this role.13 The combination of the incredible character that is language, Atticus with Peck’s legendary portrayal was no doubt the inspiration behind countless legal careers and is still held in high esteem by toefl model essays, anyone who values the practice of law. While Peck’s performance is undeniably brilliant, the preserving language essay film was remarkably enhanced by three young actors. Mary Badham, Phillip Alford and John Menga brought Scout, Jem and Dill to life on the big screen. Their unquestionable raw talent brought a different kind of quality to the film.

Not only essay, did their noteworthy performances help audiences connect to the film on preserving a deeper level, it also served as a clear example of director Robert Mulligan’s expertise. The black and white film’s stylistic elements enhance the story while simultaneously creating a work of art. Lighting was a key element in toefl model, creating the atmosphere and the way in essay, which the audience saw the film. To Kill A Mockingbird has soft lighting, which gives it a nostalgic feeling. Sam Watkins. The use of black and preserving essay, white relates heavily to the narrative. The lack of color gives the characters more definition instead of the scenery. It also visually presents the theme of a straight line division between the at home two races; a town that is literally separated into “black and white.” The music and screenplay are two crucial elements in creating a film. Elmer Bernstein created the score for the film, which is held in language, high regard as one of the effect essay smoking decade’s most classic film scores. It successfully adds to the film’s theme of childhood nostalgia but under the surface, has a haunting and unforgettable quality. The screenplay adaption of the film was written by Horton Foote. The task of creating a screenplay from a Pulitzer Prize winning novel could be considered daunting.

However, Foote related personally to the story, having grown up in Wharton, Texas, in the 1920’s14. The artistic achievements of the film can be largely attributed to the art directors and the cinematographer. The director of photography, Russel Harlen, received an Academy Award nomination for his work on this film.15 Throughout the movie, Harlen employs the use of point-of-view shots. Atticus’s final remarks to the jury on the Tom Robinson trial is preserving, one of the most famous scenes in movie history. Harlen shot this scene in a way that makes Atticus appear to not only be giving his speech to the jury, but also the audience in the theater. Although Atticus does not make direct eye contact with the camera, the angle makes it clear whom the speech is intended for. This scene most likely made its largest impact in the south, where the artistic execution coupled with the content of the speech would really strike a cord. School Essay Pollution. Alexander Golitzen and Henry Bumstead served as art directors for the film. They successfully created sets in Hollywood that were both historically accurate and beautiful interpretations of Alabama in 1932.16 The film’s ability to essay, transcend generations and present the problem of social injustice is due to its cinematic achievement.

Because To Kill A Mockingbird both entertained audiences and held their attention through its visual excellence, it was able to move people emotionally and prompt them to take action. The 1960s was a decade of constant social change. The Civil Rights movement was in on nurture, full swing when To Kill A Mockingbird was released. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

Date: 11 September 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on To Kill a Mockingbird: Racism in Film in preserving, the 1960’s. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.

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Preserving Minority Languages Essay -- Anthropology Globalization

Analysis Essay For The Crucible Essay. Language Essay? Directions: Choose ONE of the essay prompts/topics below. Answer your chosen prompt in a five-paragraph essay based around a one-part thesis. Each of your three body paragraphs must include a quote from The Crucible. Since this essay has a more straightforward format than the Close Reading essay for Great Expectations, we will be focusing on high school essay, the writing process as you move towards producing a final draft. Consequently, you will be required to preserving language essay complete the prewriting work in this packet, write TWO drafts, complete a peer-editing letter, and produce a final draft. Rewrites will NOT be offered on toefl model essays, this essay, so visiting the Writing Center is encouraged! Possible Essay Topics.

1. Despite the Puritan background of the citizens of language, Salem, it seems as though almost every character tells a lie at one time or another throughout The Crucible. What specific role does dishonesty play in The Crucible? 2. Essay At Home? Fear and faith are both powerful forces at work in Salem. In your opinion, what does The Crucible say or suggest about the relationship between faith and fear? 3. Many characters in The Crucible seem preoccupied with the status and maintenance of their reputations. What impact does the presence of language essay, this reputation-centered mentality have on the evolution of the cause smoking trials? Select a topic (circle or star your choice above), and language, jot down the first few ideas that pop into your head when you think about how you would go about answering your selected question. If you can’t decide on a topic, brainstorm ideas for two topics you’re thinking about. Essay On Cleanliness? Based on preserving essay, how many ideas you’re able to come up with for each topic, choose one (if drafting doesn’t go well, you can always change your mind later on).

Brainstorming: Brainstorm a clear, coherent answer to the question (this will be the basis of toefl writing model essays, your thesis). Answer: Now, brainstorm what you could possibly focus on in your three body paragraphs to prove your thesis. In other words, what THREE reasons/ideas will you use to support/justify your thesis? Formulate your thesis. Your thesis should clearly state your answer to the topic question.

Since you will be writing a one part thesis, you do NOT need to preserving language essay include your three supporting reasons or ideas in your thesis. Remember that you will be answering the sam watkins question objectively, so the word “I” should NOT appear in preserving language, your thesis (or anywhere else in the paper). Thesis: _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________. Create a logical order of ideas for your paper. One idea (in terms of your thesis) will guide each body paragraph. Under each main idea, brainstorm potential quotes you will pull from sam watkins essay, The Crucible to support your argument in that body paragraph. You don’t necessarily need to language essay include direct quotes yet; a paraphrase or note that will remind you of a specific quote is fine. Effect Essay Smoking? Body Paragraph 1: ______________________________________________________________________ Possible quotes: Body Paragraph 2: ______________________________________________________________________ Possible quotes:

Body Paragraph 3: ______________________________________________________________________ Possible quotes: Putting it all Together. Language Essay? 1. In your introductory paragraph, include a hook statement/attention grabber that relates to thesis statement your topic, and include a small amount of background information (assume your reader has read the book). Be sure to include the preserving language title and author (Remember to italicize the title!). High School Essay Pollution? You will end your introduction with your thesis statement. 2. Your three body paragraphs must begin with a topic sentence that transitions into language the paragraph, states the main idea of the essay nature body paragraph, and relates to the thesis in some way.

Support your argument with evidence from the novel. You must include a quote from the novel in each body paragraph to support your claims, and you MUST analyze/discuss the preserving language essay importance of that quote to essay on cleanliness at home prove your point! Your analysis should explain specifically HOW each quote proves your thesis. Language Essay? Include a concluding sentence for each body paragraph that connects back to your thesis. 3. In your concluding paragraph, restate your thesis and reinforce the main points of your paper.

Any specific items of background information that you referenced in your introduction could be mentioned again. Thesis? Most importantly, your conclusion should end with a detailed, well thought-out statement of the preserving IMPLICATIONS of your argument. At Home? Answer the question of “So what?” Tell your reader why your argument matters or what your argument implies (this is preserving essay your take-home message). Use 12 pt. Times New Roman Font and 1” margins.

Type double-spaced on essay, one side of the paper. Do not use I, me, we, YOU or any other personal pronouns. Do not refer to the essay or narrate the essay as you write it – just write it! Do not refer directly to preserving language essay quotes. For ex., there’s no need to essay say “This quote says…” “This quote shows…” Use at preserving essay, least THREE quotes in your paper. “Properly cite your quotes with page numbers in parentheses after each quote,” said Mrs. Filush (4). Write your essay in present tense. Example – Proctor says…, Abigail believes… Pre-writing Packet:____________________ (5 points) 1st Draft: ____________________ (15 points) Peer Editing Letter: ____________________ (15 points) 2nd Draft: ____________________ (15 points) Final Draft: ____________________ (75 points) Rubric Checklist – The Crucible Essay.

INTRO – ______/ 10 pointsComments: _____ Hook/attention grabber. _____ Background Information. _____ Title, Author (listed correctly) _____ Thesis Statement offers specific argument in response to topic. BODY #1– ______/ 15 points. _____ Topic sentence connects to thesis. _____ Topic sentence includes main idea of effect essay smoking, paragraph. _____ Paragraph includes quote; quote is cited properly. _____ Context provided for quote/quote well-blended into writing _____ Discusses/analyzes quote to help support argument. _____ Paragraph ends with a connection to the thesis. BODY #2– ______/ 15 points. Language Essay? _____ Topic sentence connects to thesis. _____ Topic sentence includes main idea of sam watkins, paragraph. _____ Paragraph includes quote; quote is cited properly. _____ Context provided for quote/quote well-blended into writing _____ Discusses/analyzes quote to help support argument. _____ Paragraph ends with a connection to essay the thesis. BODY #3– ______/ 15 points. _____ Topic sentence connects to thesis. _____ Topic sentence includes main idea of paragraph. On Nurture? _____ Paragraph includes quote; quote is cited properly. _____ Context provided for preserving language, quote/quote well-blended into writing _____ Discusses/analyzes quote to help support argument. _____ Paragraph ends with a connection to the thesis.

CONCLUSION – ______/ 10 points. _____ Restates thesis. Thesis Social Conformity? _____ Wraps up main points. _____ Leaves reader thinking about the larger implications. STYLE MECHANICS – ______/ 10 points. _____ Double spaced; 12 pt. Times New Roman font; 1” margins _____ Essay is preserving language written in present tense. _____ No use of I, me, we, or YOU (personal pronouns) _____ No reference to essay or quote. _____ No contractions. _____ Proofread: No grammatical or spelling errors. Essay? _____ Sentence structure: Essay is preserving essay free of fragments and run-ons _____ Style, sentence variety, and diction (word choice) Final Draft _______/75Prewriting Work (packet): _______/51st Draft: _______/15. Peer Editing Letter: _______/152nd Draft: _______/15. Total Score_______/125Letter Grade: _______. Statement Social Conformity? University/College: University of Chicago. Preserving? Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 5 August 2016.

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The first country to do so was Austria-Hungary declaring on Serbia in July 28. Different countries declared war amongst each other which continued. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Treaty of Versailles , Trench warfare 1077 Words | 2 Pages. found important or that we wanted to go back to for more clarification. I had also been taught the simple skill of essay for future rereading where if it didn’t make sense . the preserving language essay, first time go back and read the article all over again so I can try to thesis conformity understand it.

Rough drafts were something that had been required since I was learning how to write paragraph papers. We would have to language peer edit another student’s writing and see if we can find any errors however my experiences with this was that my friends would peer edit. College , Education , High school 982 Words | 3 Pages. paper 11/8/06 Rough Draft The constant threat of a military draft has been plaguing in the back of young . peoples' minds since the essay on nurture for future, terrorist attacks of preserving 9-11. Now with the increased tension of essay North Korea, prolonged war in Iraq, and language essay the all volunteer military struggling to make recruitment numbers, the draft seems almost inevitable. But is that a bad thing? In order to create equality in our military, save tax payers' money, and toefl writing model essays end the war in Iraq, I feel that a military draft may be necessary. Army , Cold War , Conscription 1976 Words | 6 Pages.

1984 Analytical Essay Rough Draft. ?1984 Analytical Essay Final Draft In the novel 1984, George Orwell demonstrates to the people of the language essay, future how one governing . Model? body can manage to manipulate a whole country such as Oceania. Throughout our past we have seen totalitarian governments take absolute control over their countries. Some examples of leaders of countries that have demonstrated a totalitarian regime are Hitler and Stalin in language, World War II. Totalitarianism is a manipulative dictatorship that strives to limit the freedoms, abolish. Benito Mussolini , Communism , Fascism 796 Words | 3 Pages. ?RUNNING HEAD: TECHNOLOGY AFFECTING COMMUNICATION Technology Affecting Communication ITT Institute of Technology Rough . Draft For Instructor Abstract The growth of technology is growing constantly and essay it is advancing every day. Due to the advancement of technology, teens and preserving preteens has been affected by it in many ways.

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Typically universities use examinations to test part or even all the knowledge of students, particularly. Academia , Anxiety , Bachelor's degree 2517 Words | 7 Pages. Rough Draft - Case Study Analysis Jennah Qutub COMM/215 December 5, 2010 A J Doherty Carl Robins was hired on as the new . campus recruiter for preserving language essay ABC, Inc. Due to a multitude of pollution errors on his part, he appeared to underestimate the job description and essay the duties involved. Apparently Carl Robins was hired for a position with excessive responsibilities for him to manage. Toefl Writing Model Essays? As a result, Carl’s lack of organization, preparation, and attention to detail became obvious. Although he was successful in hiring.

Case study , Employment , Management 888 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Rough draft 1. If one cannot rely on preserving language, himself, then others cannot rely on him. At some time in one’s life . there will be someone who depends on them for something. If this person doesn’t have their self-figured out essays then how will they figure out how to take care of that person’s needs? You are the only one that can take control of your life and to rely on someone else to essay do it for you is hurting yourself and those around you. Personal responsibility is a necessity in life and also helps.

Academic degree , Essay , Military discharge 487 Words | 2 Pages. Essay Rough Draft Poetry English 102. speakers tone. In conclusion both The Ruined Maid and essay on cleanliness The Unknown Citizen use similar deliveries to comment on worldly morals, but due to the use of a . second voice in The Ruined Maid I it is more affective in delivering its message. Weather an essay or poem is being written giving a second perspective always enriches the understanding the preserving essay, reader has of the poem. It is writing model similar to providing a counter example, it allows for thoughts to language essay form, but more importantly it allows for connections to. Comedy , Culture , Human 797 Words | 3 Pages. Sample essay Argue either in school essay pollution, favour or against preserving language the impact of the internet on people's lives in the last decade. As an effect, . avenue of entertainment and communication, and preserving essay as a research and reference tool, the internet has had a huge impact on the modern societies of effect developed nations.

At the same time, there is concern that the disadvantages and negative influences may outweigh the benefits to the society. This essay argues that, in the last decade, the advantages of the internet far outweigh the. Family , History of the Internet , Internet 1326 Words | 4 Pages. ?Ronald Cosme 11 December 2014 3rd- Whap NHD Rough Draft : Leonidas I of Sparta Section 1- Background The Persians Wars were . Preserving Language Essay? fought between the thesis statement, Persian God Kings (Darius I and Xerxes I) and the Greeks city-states (Athens, Arcadia and Sparta). There were many battles during this warring period, such as the Battle of Marathon or the Battle of Plataea, but the battle that Leonidas is language essay known for is the essay, Battle of language Thermopylae for essay on nurture his courageous acts of leadership and his historical death. Leonidas learned. Achaemenid Empire , Ancient Greece , Battle of Plataea 667 Words | 2 Pages.

? Rough Draft Andy Truong 11/11/14 Honors ENG 111 Students everywhere may feel pressured into doing well in preserving language essay, their course classes . in order to receive a higher grade. It may not seem that way in essay on cleanliness at home, high school but to a college student, grades mean everything. Grades are used as motivation for the student to strive for success and in order to be a success, they have to work hard for it. But how much can that student take in language, order to reach the grade that they want? For a college student, grades are a vital. Decision making , Education , Future 873 Words | 4 Pages. Form ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form help REGISTER! Bottom of model essays Form Essay Forum / Writing . Feedback / | | five paragraph essay about language, where should company spend his money on art or environment ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form AliAkbarzarei | Dec 15, 2012, 01:03pm #1 | a five paragraph essay about where should company spend his money on art or environment I just studying about writing and high school essay it's just a. Air pollution , Art , Environmentalism 926 Words | 4 Pages. ? . Essay Rough Draft How has America changed sense you were born, or for the fact how has American changed sense I’ve been alive?

The answer is… well… a lot actually. If you go and preserving language essay look back at the year 1997 to school essay pollution here in 2014, America has 1. Had 3 presidents 2. A number of language terrorists. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Iraq War 541 Words | 2 Pages. Anthem Rough Draft Ayn Rand’s “Anthem” illustrates a series of ironic connections between great successors of Greek mythology . Smoking? and to her two main characters. The main characters, Equality 7-2521 and Liberty5-300, both contain very interesting and unique personalities, which makes them incompatible with their collectivism society due to who they are and what they believe. Preserving Essay? Ayn Rand disperses random clues throughout the essay, book that provide evidence and reasoning of preserving language essay why she chose to high school essay pollution rename her characters. Athena , Ayn Rand , Gaia 1111 Words | 3 Pages.

| Rough Draft of Your Final Paper |2011 . | Rough Draft of Your Final Paper Steven A. Tijerina Composition 156 May 29, Betty Nazarian Although Social Security can continue to essay pay full benefits as long as new workers continue to pay new payroll taxes, planning for retirement beats relying on a fixed monthly check from Social Security. Many Americans fear that Social. Inflation , Medicare , Payroll tax 929 Words | 3 Pages. Thomas Rheaume 2-24-09 Hopkins Collegio Great Gatsby Rough Draft The American dream is the belief that people through . their struggle and toil in the harshness of life can somehow achieve their dreams. This belief plays a prominent role in The Great Gatsby. The American dream serves as a backdrop to the splendor and bustle of the Roaring Twenties. Nick Carraway is at first amazed by toefl model essays, how all his friends’ material dreams have come true.

Surely this finery and wealth must be the American dream. F. Scott Fitzgerald , Roaring Twenties , The Great Gatsby 936 Words | 3 Pages. ?Luis Espinoza Professor Wees Composition One 29 October 2014 Writing Process There are many important steps in writing an essay . . Essays are a significant part of any student’s grade in most English classes, whether in language essay, high school, college, or even those studying for sam watkins essay Masters and preserving essay a PhD. Whether it is a narrative, descriptive, expository or a persuasive essay , each one has the same process as the others. Although depending on the class level one is at, the writing process might be more or less complex. Citation , Creative writing , Essay 1030 Words | 4 Pages. ?Example of the Narrative Essay Why I learned English Many families reflect diverse cultural backgrounds that come together. My family’s . roots are intertwined with several ethnic and effect cause smoking cultural backgrounds. Preserving Language? My mother’s parents are American, but her ancestors are originally from England and Germany. My father’s mother is essay on cleanliness at home Peruvian, but his father is Egyptian.

I grew up in Peru with my parents in a quiet neighborhood of Lima. My paternal grandparents lived down the street from preserving essay us, but my maternal grandparents. Cat , Computer , E-mail 2464 Words | 7 Pages. ?Friday , December 5, 2014 Name: Spyros Zacharis EAP 1002 Dr. Christina Karavia ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY . Statement Conformity? “FINAL DRAFT ” The main point of becoming an adult is, when a person has the preserving essay, right to be independent ,and also by the time someone receives new responsibilities is accountable for his actions , either legally or personally. Effect Essay Smoking? Many people assume that in the age of 18 a person is considered an adult by. Adult , Adult development , Adulthood 794 Words | 3 Pages.

Auriel Payan April 7, 2013 English 2010 Rough Draft Women fighting in language, combat is a topic that has stirred a lot of . controversy in the last few months. This comes about sam watkins essay, from the uplifting of the ban that did not let women fight in combat. Preserving Language? Though the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act in 1948, created a corps for women in every branch of on cleanliness at home military, it was also the beginning of preserving when women would not be included in combat. Essay On Cleanliness? (Mackenzie 1,) Whenever the essay, topic of war comes to mind, the one’s usually. Combat , Coming out , LGBT 2754 Words | 7 Pages. ?Ronit Kumar 7A DAR Rough Draft May 30, 1892 New York City, NY Dear Cousin, How are you? Well, I am happily settled at my new . High Essay Pollution? home. By the way, my journey actually turned out to be very stimulating.

Let me describe it to you. I started my journey about thirty-three days ago. My parents were the ones who sent me to Ellis Island. Preserving? The reason was that there were many wars and conflicts in Italy, and my parents wanted me to be safe. I wasn’t born at that time when Italy participated in essay, the Crimean War. Ellis Island , Ferry , Manhattan 994 Words | 3 Pages. Shitty First Drafts Practice makes perfect, a common idiom to try to language perfect in thesis statement social, some particular activity. In this essay , Anne . Lamott describes the case of writing horrendous first drafts on an essay or a research paper. She designates how she went through her writing process.

Anne tries to explain that ‘shitty first drafts ’ needs a great idea to begin with and on to writing the next draft (s). Creating the language, order of the drafts by social conformity, making a subpar first drafts can lead to a good second drafts and an excellent. Conscription in the United States , Essay , Mind 1043 Words | 5 Pages. multi- sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior , 25, 293-315. Sparks, A. Preserving? M. (2012). Psychological empowerment and job satisifaction . Thesis Social Conformity? between Baby Boomer and Generation X nurses. Journal of language essay Nursing Management(20), 451-460. Zangaro, G. A. (2007). Essay? A Meta-Analysis of Studies of Nurses Job Satisfaction.

Research in Nursing amp; Health(30), 445-458. Language Essay? Health Resources and Services Administration. At Home? The Registered Nurse Survey Population: Initial Findings from the 2008 National Sample Survey. Behavior , Engagement , Motivation 832 Words | 4 Pages. credible sources, and emotional tones and languages. Gladwell effectively uses descriptive details in order to create a clear image for his readers.

For . starters, Gladwell uses the story of Bernard Goetz as a hook to draw the reader into reading the essay . This story contains descriptive details starting with the physical appearance of essay Goetz. On page 149, he says “He was as slender man in his late thirties, with sandy-colored hair and glasses, dressed that day in jeans and on cleanliness a windbreaker.” By using these. Crime , Criminology , Fixing Broken Windows 909 Words | 4 Pages. cooperative essay . She demanded that we meet at essay the library after school for two hours and plan everything out. I normally like to relax and essay . Preserving Language Essay? spend majority of thesis statement my time watching TV, so I thought this girl was truly mentally insane. Preserving Language Essay? Her mom was an excellent AP Calculus teacher who is instrumental to our school because everyone in her class passes the exam. Statement? She couldn’t stand coming in second or third, due to language the fact that she must impress her mother in every educational aspect.

Our group essay was about. Big Bang , Essay , LeBron James 1128 Words | 3 Pages. Stand Essay Guideline Assignment Background: Throughout this course, you will write a 500-750-word, five-paragraph essay in . which you “Take a Stand” on an issue; such as Childhood Obesity, Underage Drinking, or Cyber Bullying to name a few suggestions. Doing so will allow you to demonstrate your ability to effectively communicate through writing. You will develop your essay by school essay pollution, completing the following, which will be due in essay, the following topics: Topic 2: Research and high school Outline Topic 4: Rough Draft. Academia , Brainstorming , Essay 1432 Words | 4 Pages. Personal Responsibility Rough Draft. the group environment affected the individual. The previous studies sought to compare the preserving language essay, performance of the individual Annotated Bibliography cont’d . within the group as compared to the individual without the group.

In this study used for this essay , the administrators not only on cleanliness at home, sought to study the performance of the individual in preserving language essay, and out of the group but they also sought to compare the actual performance of each individual and also how they scored individually before during and after testing phases. Goal , Individual responsibility , Management 1745 Words | 5 Pages. short, it is toefl model as though Shakespeare was trying to fit everything into a short span of time. So every moment of the preserving language essay, play was actually of significance, meaning . that there wasn’t a single boring moment in the play. Thanks for toefl writing model reading :) it's pretty rough , but hope it helped. Banquo , Lady Macbeth , Macbeth 1088 Words | 3 Pages. ROUGH ESTIMATE NAME OF THE WORK: CONSTRUCTION OF PROPOSED ASSAM TYPE BUILDING ……. Preserving Language Essay? Plinth Area of the school essay pollution, Building = 44.51 Sq m As per preserving essay . Essay? Specification of APWD SOR 2004-2005 (Building) ‘A’ 1. Plinth Protection : 75 mm thick prop 1:3:6 2. Plinth Beam : As per design (RCC) 3. Plinth Wall a) Outer Wall : 225mm thick 1st class brick works in cement mortar in prop1:5 and preserving language essay 15mm thick cement plaster in prop 1:6 on exposed faces with neat cement slurry finish. b) Inner Wall. Brickwork , Concrete , Drywall 416 Words | 3 Pages.

strategy for army training. They trained brutally from sunrise to sunset everyday (Aveni, Anthony). Part of the training was to repeatedly take hits to the . elbow for the simulation of lacrosse hit and writing model essays war wounds (Aveni, Anthony). Through all this rough training they would have to deal with extreme fatigue and preserving language still put in full effort all day (Aveni, Anthony). These athletes had a specific diet that included only three meals a day (Aveni, Anthony).

This connects to regular war training because army. Ancient Olympic Games , Battle , Colosseum 1397 Words | 4 Pages. ?Exemplification Essay Organization and Essay Assignments Overview This is to help clarify our two essay . assignments. The two 5-paragraph essays that we will write this semester will each have an introductory paragraph, three body paragraphs, and essay smoking a conclusion paragraph. The first essay will be a simple expansion of the essay, Exemplification (Example) Paragraph, so it will logically be about the same person you chose as the topic for your example paragraph. The second essay will be a basic Justification. Essay , Inigo Montoya , Paragraph 2011 Words | 4 Pages. Assessment 4—Term Paper ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TOPICS INSTRUCTION: CHOOSE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING TOPICS FOR THE TERM PAPER. . 1. Violence in television programs leads to violence in sam watkins essay, our society 2. Text books should be replaced by I-Pads and online resources 3. The mass media plays an important role in essay, shaping the opinions and positions of the younger generation 4. People have become overly dependent on technology 5. Drunk drivers should be imprisoned on. Rhetoric , Writing 372 Words | 3 Pages.

never mind to school everything and chickening out. He thinks about a plan to make, then decides against it. Language Essay? “Why” is cause smoking what I have to ask? Why didn’t Hamlet do . everything he wanted to? Maybe his life would have changes completely and preserving language he would be in such a rough state. Essays? Maybe his life wouldn’t have changed at all. In Act Five Scene 1, Hamlet finally confesses his true love for language Ophelia, who has already committed suicide. As if saying this is going to sam watkins essay bring her back to essay life, he fights with her brother Laertes. Characters in Hamlet , Derek Jacobi , Gertrude 1511 Words | 4 Pages. Is the CONCLUSION satisfying? Did it leave you thinking about the broader Pop Culture or does it only repeat ideas already explained in a repetitive way? The . conclusion could have been better, expansion would have been a good idea.

9. Does the essay on nurture nature for future, essay meet the requirements of the assignment in terms of length and formatting (including a Transcription page)? Should anything be added, deleted, or changed to language essay meet those requirements? (Refer to paragraph numbers) 10. For any quote from the ad, does. Female , Feminism , Gender 1599 Words | 5 Pages. ? Sample Essay Answer Use the organization and layout of this essay , in conjunction with the essay . rubric and worksheet, as a template for sam watkins essay the in-class essay exams. Question: Compare and preserving essay contrast the essay, Chinese and Japanese attitudes and language policies regarding modernization beginning at on cleanliness the time of sustained European contact but concentrating on language, the period between 1840 and 1910. How did their status change in the eyes of the Europeans? By 1840, Europe had at least nominal domination over much of the. China , Government of Japan , Great power 1156 Words | 2 Pages. Michelle Fanaselle Mr.

Heikes College Writing 1101 Classification Essay 10 February 2015 Three Types of Fast­Food Customers . Essay At Home? The fast­food industry is preserving known to thesis social serve millions of hungry customers per day, but the types of language people who eat at these establishments were unknown to thesis social conformity me until I worked at preserving essay one. Most customers don't pay a lot of mind to the crew members at these sort of restaurants, but the workers notice them and are mindful of their patterns. Nature? Through my work in this enterprise I've . Burger King , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 572 Words | 3 Pages. 05/08/2015 Sample Academic Essay Sample Academic Essay Knowing How to Live Alone Introduction . Hook Alone one is preserving essay never lonely, says the poet and author Mary Sarton in praise of living along. Most people, however, are terrified of sam watkins essay living alone. Language Essay? They are used to essay living with others ­­ Connecting children with parents, roommates with Information roommates, friends with friends, husbands with wives. When the statistics catch up with them, therefore, they are rarely prepared.

Chances are high that most adult men and women. Infantry battalions of the United States Marine Corps 753 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jamilkinson Wilkinson Professor Wachter English 111 14 November 2014 Consciousness and preserving language essay its connection with Reality Have you ever wonder if human . consciousness and the material universe were connected or why we still use oil to thesis statement power our would knowing that it is a fixed amount that we will one day run out of any be in chaos? Do you know the most interfering power of the essay, mind or the ability of our emotions? These are the things that you don’t find in mainstream media and are not in everyday classrooms. General relativity , Mind , Photon 1201 Words | 5 Pages. ?Nathniel Valdez Professor Perez English 100 15 February 2015 The people of America agrees that everyone should have a fair and free education. When school . is toefl writing essays done usually students are told that college is the language essay, next step. Many people agree that this move would help further increase the success of our nation. In the cause, story “Idiot Nation” written by Michael moore, his opinion is opposite of most americans, he believes this nation is preserving language filled with idiots, thus the at home, title of his story, Idiot Nation. I do.

College , Education , High school 1014 Words | 4 Pages. ?Carl Kogstrom Neuberg IB MYP Biology 9 May 2014 Effects of Genetically Modified Food Genetically modified food contributes a major portion to the world’s . food supply. Genetically modified food (GMF) is food that is produced from plants or animals that have had artificial changes to their genetic material. GMFs have been tested and experimented on since 1992 and sold commercially since 1994. Essay? The DNA of crops has been altered to make them grow faster as well as resist many different pesticides. This. Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacteria , DNA 818 Words | 4 Pages.

Sample Pinker Draft #2 Steven Pinker, experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and essay Harvard Professor discusses morality . in his New York Times article, “The Moral Instinct,” emphasizing the idea of morality as a science. His main argument insists that with further analysis of the science of the moral sense, we will be able to better understand our incentives in making moral judgments. Pinker applies a series of examples, hypothetical situations, surveys, and experiments in order to prove. Cognition , Decision making , Descriptive ethics 1577 Words | 4 Pages. From Idea to language Essay notes Chapter 1 “The Writing Process” Pgs. Effect Essay Smoking? 3-12 Expository writing * Type of writing that explains, discusses, . describes, analyzes, and argues the language essay, bulk of everyday tasks that you’ll most likely be called upon to do in your career. * Includes every kind of sam watkins essay workaday job, ranging from memos and descriptions to preserving language essay evaluations summaries and formal proposals. * Mostly pragmatic and unglamorous. Conformity? The AIM of good writing * CLARITY * Ways to achieve clarity: repeated. Creative writing , Essay , Rhetoric 1508 Words | 5 Pages. ?Derrick Wallace Mrs. Campbell 4th Period Biography 9/23/13 Beyonce Knowles Derrick Wallace Beyonce Giselle Knowles was born on September 4, 1981, . in Houston, Texas, Knowles started singing at an early age.

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Kenan Malik s essay on why all languages need not be preserved

Copyright Infringement Research Paper Essay. We are well into language essay the year of 2011 and essay, technology is continuing to advance and a faster and faster rate. As technology advances there continues to be more of an opportunity for things to go wrong. The ability of our society to obtain information has been becoming as easy as it has ever been. Language Essay. I simple line into the google search bar and you are looking at millions upon millions of lings and sam watkins essay, opportunities to attain information. With this source and hundreds or even thousands of these resources just like it, piracy and copyright issues have never been more of a problem. And a very serious problem at that. Copyright is defined as a set of exclusive rights granted to the author or creator of an original work, including the right to copy, distribute and adapt the work. The exclusive rights are however balanced for public interest purposes with limitations and exceptions to the exclusive right – such as fair dealing and fair use. Copyright does not protect ideas, only language, their expression.

In most jurisdictions copyright arises upon fixation and does not need to be registered. Copyright owners have the exclusive statutory right to exercise control over copying and other exploitation of the works for a specific period of time, after which the work is said to enter the public domain (1). While piracy is simply defined as the unauthorized use of another’s production, invention, or conception especially in infringement of a copyright (2). The definition of these two is essay smoking strongly correlated and leaves them both dealing with the same issues that have been plaguing the creative minds of many people in recent times. Copyright and piracy issues have had a huge effect on how we are able to access information on the internet. Information is language essay going to continue to get more difficult to sam watkins essay, attain the further into the future we get, but how will this directly effect us? First a generalized overview over preserving language, the types of copyright and piracy strategies. The most common types of piracy of copyright-protected materials concerns books, music, films and writing essays, software. Language Essay. Books: Book publishing has the longest history of dealing with piracy. Any unauthorized use of a copyrighted work, such as a book, school manual, journal article or sheet music, represents an infringement of copyright or a case of copyright piracy, unless covered by essay on nurture nature for future, a copyright exception.

Piracy of printed works affects both paper copies and works in digital format. In some developing countries, trade in pirated books often exceeds the legitimate market. Educational institutions represent a primary target market for pirates. Preserving Essay. Infringing activities include both illegal commercial photocopying and/or printing and reproduction of thesis statement social books and other printed material in digital form, as well as distribution in hard copy or digital format. Music: Music piracy includes both traditional unlawful use of music and unauthorized use of essay music on on-line communication networks.

Bootlegging (unauthorized recording and duplication of a live or broadcast performance) and essay on nurture, counterfeiting (unauthorized copying of the material support, labels, artwork and packaging) are the most widespread types of traditional music piracy. The unauthorized uploading and making available to the public of music files or downloading such files from an Internet site is referred to as Internet or on-line piracy. On-line piracy may also include certain uses of “streaming” technologies. Films: As in language essay, the case of music, film piracy is either traditional or done over smoking, the Internet. It includes, but is not limited to, videocassette and optical disc piracy, theatrical camcorder piracy, theatrical print theft, signal theft and preserving essay, broadcasting piracy, and on-line piracy. Essay On Nurture For Future. Software: Software piracy refers to practices that involve the unauthorized copying of preserving language computer software. Internet (on-line) piracy: The unauthorized downloading or distribution over the Internet of unauthorized copies of works such as movies, music, video games and software is generally referred to as Internet or on-line piracy. Nature. Illicit downloads occur through file-sharing networks, illegal servers, websites and hacked computers. Hard goods pirates also use the Internet to preserving language, sell illegally duplicated DVDs through auctions and websites.While trafficking copyrighted works through increasingly sophisticated electronic means, such as peer-to-peer file trading networks, Internet chat rooms, and newsgroups, has an ever increasing negative impact on cultural industries, it is also argued that curtailing this phenomenon limits the right of access to information, knowledge and culture (4).

The problem in trying to prevent digital copyright infringement is on cleanliness tied up in the problem of regulating the Internet – an almost impossible feat, considering the preserving language World Wide Web today comprises more than 100 million individual Web sites. Regulators have been severely tried in recent years with the rise of peer-to-peer networks, with the most infamous being Napster. The brainchild of a 19-year-old college student, Napster launched in effect, 1999 and revolutionized the way music sharing was conducted online. However, with such a quick rise to success comes the inevitable problems; in essay, this case, the problems arose in the form of the essay pollution Recording Industry Association of preserving language America (RIAA) and copyright lawsuits. While users of Napster saw nothing wrong with sharing music, the RIAA, which represents the four major music labels, saw the situation quite differently. By late 2000, the courts had ruled that Napster must restrict access to copyrighted files, a death-blow to the young network, for all intents and at home, purposes.

The media industry probably thought it was in the clear after the Napster fall-out, and to a degree it was, until a new source of copyright infringement rose up in 2005 and became even more widely success than Napster. Language Essay. The story of YouTube, an thesis statement social online video-sharing network, is reminiscent of the preserving beginnings of its music predecessor, Napster. Founded in February of 2005 by effect cause essay, two 20-somethings, the preserving language idea for the company arose due to difficulties in sharing home videos with friends. When the site launched in May 2005, it contained about school essay pollution 30,000 videos. As with Napster, word of mouth allowed the company’s popularity to spread like wildfire. Language Essay. Less than 20 months later, visitors to the site watched 100 million videos a day. While many visitors to YouTube go to see the essay homemade videos, the company shares another similarity to language, Napster: its success is, in part, due to the illegal sharing of essay copyrighted files. YouTube’s terms of service forbid sharing of copyrighted materials, and the company monitors content to limit the language number of violations, but copyrighted material still gets through. With such material widely popular among users of the site, the companies whose videos were being shared on effect cause, the site saw the situation differently. In March of 2006, NBC asked YouTube to remove a Saturday Night Live skit. Viacom soon followed suit, threatening action against preserving, YouTube if it did not remove clips from Comedy Central shows like South Park and The Daily Show.

Many industry insiders speculated that YouTube’s fate would follow in the footsteps of Napster. Rather than sit idly by, however, YouTube took action. The company began signing licensing agreements with companies including Warner Music, Sony BMG and CBS Corp., allowing the essay at home content providers to supply the clips and share in advertising revenue. YouTube also attempted to assuage the companies’ concerns with a promise to develop new software capable of finding and removing copyrighted materials. The biggest hope for preserving YouTube, however, lies in its acquisition by Google, the search engine giant worth approximately $130 billion, which paid $1.65 billion to high, purchase YouTube on essay, Oct. 9, 2006. While this acquisition did not remove the threat of future lawsuits, most analysts believed the power of Google and its many existing media partnerships will allow YouTube to avoid Napster’s fate. Additionally, Google’s technological advantages in finding and removing copyright infringement threats go far in easing the minds of the essay media companies. In my opinion Google’s many existing partnerships suggest that these companies will continue to do business with a Google-owned YouTube, rather than following the legal path they did with Napster and its related music piracy companies (3). The example of Napster and language, YouTube is thesis statement social a very generalized and a very modern look at the issue of preserving language essay copyright and for future, piracy issues but I also feel that they are very high scale cases that represent the problem at essay hand very well. There are millions of similar small scale websites such as these that are stealing information and school pollution, making money off of preserving essay other peoples work.

But as stated by Jessica Vitak above, how could you possibly be able to monitor such a vast array of internet sites? It is almost impossible to even fathom. Now that these two giants have brought the school essay issue of copyright and preserving essay, piracy into the general publics eye we need to explore how this will effect the collection of information in our lives. Following up Napster and YouTube the new revolution with high speed internet connections is the ability to high, go after movies. As we know and have seen there is a lot of power in Hollywood. It is a multi-billion dollar industry and is a point of serious concern.

A movie is a large amount of language information that takes a lot of time and internet speed to be able to nature for future, download. Language Essay. But again with the essay on cleanliness at home advancement of technology getting this type of file is no long more than a 20 minute download period. Many argue to say that this can have great effect on our economy because of the amount of money that this industry brings in. The Motion Picture Association of America warned against a “growing global epidemic” of movie piracy over the Internet this week, citing a survey of Internet users in which nearly one in four respondents had illegally downloaded a movie online. The study, conducted by online research company OTX, queried 3600 Net users in eight countries, and was cited by the MPAA as the harbinger of the tough times the industry faces ahead in grappling with online piracy. Although the MPAA participated in delivering the survey results it did not fund the study, an OTX representative says, adding that the company undertook the survey independently.

According to the survey, 24 percent of respondents reported that they had downloaded a movie online, and 69 percent said that they did not believe that online music piracy was a major concern. The study was performed in Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Korea, Japan, the U.K., and the U.S., and shows a direct correlation between broadband penetration and essay, the incidence of piracy, the researcher says. In Korea, for instance, where broadband penetration is estimated to stand at 98 percent, 58 percent of respondents said that they had downloaded a movie online (5). These are clearly alarming numbers and much higher than I think any one would guess if they were asked but, now that we know how high those numbers are what exactly is the effect. Clearly there must be a large loss of money but how great? And is sam watkins essay that a number that we can even guesstimate on? The economic impact of movie piracy equated to $1.37 billion in lost revenue to the Australian economy and 6,100 jobs forgone over the 12 months to July 2010, according to a new report from the Australian Federation Against Copyright Theft (AFACT). The report, carried out by IPSOS and Oxford Economics and surveying 3500 adults, also found tax losses to movie piracy amounted to $193 million, while direct consumer spending losses to the movie industry, local distributors, producers and essay, retailers amounted to $575 million.

As much as one third of the Australian adult population had downloaded, streamed, burned or otherwise not paid for movie content during the period. Some 92 million pirated movies were also estimated to have been viewed or obtained within the period. According to sam watkins, AFACT executive director, Neil Gane, the preserving language essay findings showed that movie piracy had a destructive impact throughout the economy. “The film community is no different than any other sector of the economy that relies on skill, investment and essay on cleanliness, hard work,” Gane said in preserving, a statement. “The losses are significant and on cleanliness at home, the report highlights the need for urgency in addressing this problem.” AFACT members include Village Roadshow Limited, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures Australia, Paramount Pictures Australia, Sony Pictures Releasing International Corporation and Twentieth Century Fox International. In September the Australian Federal Police (AFP) said it had embarked on language essay, a major crackdown of on cleanliness counterfeit goods, including pirated software, computers and CDs and DVDs, in a move hailed by as a victory by software companies such as Microsoft and representatives of the music and film and TV industries. The arrests were the result of investigations which had stemmed from preserving essay information provided by industry stakeholders such as Music Industry Piracy Investigations (MIPI), the Australian Federation against Copyright Theft (AFACT), the Trade Mark Investigations Service and the Union of European Football Associations (6). To me these numbers are amazingly alarming and thesis social, are clearly a huge issue. Though they are not numbers from the United States of America they make it very evident that this is a world wide epidemic. The way that our economy is these days we cant afford to be losing out on any amount of money, let alone billions. University/College: University of California. Type of preserving language essay paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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