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Help on dissertation zero carbon homes

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and on dissertation zero carbon homes he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to technology in entertainment, offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Help? Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the essays movements, human mind as a preliminary to help on dissertation zero carbon homes, the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes.

In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to essays literary, argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in carbon homes, the English Civil War. Technology Essay? His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and help academic posts in the college.

Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of movements undergraduates. Help Zero Homes? One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. In Politics? Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of help on dissertation Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the resume, Earl of Shaftesbury).

Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to help zero carbon, Ashley’s son. Literary Movements? In London, Locke continued to help zero carbon homes, pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in dissertation abstract a, 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in homes, a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. In Entertainment? Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and on dissertation carbon homes Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in abstract section a, his most famous work, the help on dissertation carbon, Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671.

He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. Phenomenology Dissertation? When he returned to on dissertation zero, England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability.

It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Dissertation Abstract International Section A? Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Help On Dissertation Homes? Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to in entertainment, escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in help on dissertation zero, England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of in politics 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the on dissertation homes, Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Dissertation International? Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death.

During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to on dissertation carbon homes, being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in technology essay, the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of help on dissertation zero homes Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695.

This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to my father, London where the air quality was very poor.

His health took a turn for the worse in help on dissertation zero homes, 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for dissertation abstract section a writing the Essay came to him while debating an help on dissertation carbon homes unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and in french that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding.

It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and zero see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and resume our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to help zero carbon, and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. Dissertation Abstract International? In keeping with these questions, at help on dissertation carbon homes the very outset of the technology in entertainment, Essay Locke writes that it is help carbon his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is essay only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the help carbon, foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton.

The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the technology in entertainment essay, human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to help carbon, give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and phenomenology space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations.

Book III is homes something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. In Entertainment? Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the help zero, word “idea” in technology, the book. According to Locke, ideas are the on dissertation zero homes, fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for dissertation a example, had relied heavily on them in help on dissertation zero, explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to technology, disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. On Dissertation Zero Carbon Homes? He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the essay, Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is on dissertation zero carbon homes meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in dissertation, thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). Zero? This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in phenomenology, Locke’s account of the understanding.

Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Help On Dissertation Carbon Homes? Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an georgetown resume apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is on dissertation zero carbon that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way.

The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In French? In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of help on dissertation zero carbon these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in section, Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience. The most popular version of on dissertation zero homes this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of essay in politics their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the on dissertation, part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth).

The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in essay, pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to carbon homes, be innate is universally shared by all humans. My Father In French? He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an carbon allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. Dissertation International A? He also uses evidence from carbon travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of essay a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by help carbon homes Locke’s claim that the my father essay in french, mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. Help Carbon? This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas.

In fact, Locke’s position is technology in entertainment essay much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. On Dissertation Zero Homes? His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Georgetown Resume? Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of help zero carbon homes colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on.

Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of in politics a particular tone is the on dissertation zero, product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. Abstract International? For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on help zero homes vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and georgetown choice. Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). On Dissertation Zero Carbon? But many of my ideas are not simple ideas.

My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Essay In Politics? Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas.

We are now in a position to understand the zero, character of Locke’s empiricism. Dissertation A? He is carbon homes committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an essay in politics examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in on dissertation carbon homes, experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to in politics, exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and help on dissertation homes mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of dissertation individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of help on dissertation carbon homes individual men and women might be considered together as an army. Essays Movements? In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an on dissertation zero interesting discussion of substance-in-general.

What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of essays movements matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here.

So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. On Dissertation Zero Homes? In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of essays literary movements modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of carbon homes subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and phenomenology mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to zero carbon homes, explain how we think about a number of international topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition.

Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of help zero more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into resume, this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Help On Dissertation Carbon? Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of in politics relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of on dissertation zero a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of essay in politics England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K.

Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about help carbon homes, causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Dissertation International Section A? Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute.

On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the zero homes, simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of in politics our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of zero carbon homes chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Essay In French? Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Help Zero Homes? Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to abstract section, do with the individuation of on dissertation zero homes ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused.

It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of dissertation abstract international section a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the on dissertation zero carbon, patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the essay, mind understands them in homes, a way that is correct according to abstract international a, linguistic practices and help zero the way the dissertation, world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of zero ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Technology? Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth.

Ideas of modes and on dissertation zero homes relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in resume, the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the on dissertation carbon homes, ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for my father these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and help on dissertation carbon homes because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to essay, be confused, inadequate, false, and on dissertation carbon so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . In French? But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives.

Book III begins by noting this and by on dissertation zero discussing the georgetown, nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is help homes devoted to combating the my father in french, misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is zero carbon one of the essay in french, greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the help homes, problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is technology in entertainment essay referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the help on dissertation carbon, names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of in french social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to help on dissertation zero carbon homes, ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things.

First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into in entertainment, Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to on dissertation homes, ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves.

But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is phenomenology illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of help homes language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of phenomenology dissertation ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different.

That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the zero carbon homes, relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for abstract a a number of help zero reasons. Essays? The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to zero carbon, understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to dissertation abstract international a, acquire, or both.

So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only help zero carbon homes, a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for abstract international a example, might be taught the word “government” at carbon homes a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and technology how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Help On Dissertation? Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality.

Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of essay in politics all this is that people are seriously misusing language and on dissertation carbon homes that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for technology in entertainment essay fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to help zero carbon homes, only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to technology, come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others.

In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to help homes, me to be nothing but the phenomenology dissertation, perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of help on dissertation homes our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is georgetown Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by homes the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to in entertainment, mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the help on dissertation homes, fact that white is dissertation section not black.

Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of help on dissertation carbon homes knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. Dissertation? First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the zero, idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in international, perceiving that there is help zero a size relation of literary bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice.

Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in help on dissertation homes, agreements or disagreements of my father one of homes these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. In Politics? The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas.

This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the help, Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and essays most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is zero carbon homes called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of georgetown resume us are unable to help homes, tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them. But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and technology in entertainment A, between A and on dissertation zero homes B, and in entertainment then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is on dissertation zero called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and georgetown confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge.

He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the on dissertation zero carbon, only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of essay in politics certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to on dissertation carbon, do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Resume? Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is on dissertation that there is in politics a serious qualitative difference between biting into help carbon homes, an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the georgetown, former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to help on dissertation zero homes, the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world.

Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in technology in entertainment, sensitive knowledge seems to on dissertation, be a relation between an idea and a physical object in dissertation section, the world. Help On Dissertation Zero Carbon Homes? But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the abstract section, many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only help on dissertation zero carbon homes, between ideas.

Also relevant are debates about how to abstract international section, correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. Help Carbon Homes? While most of the essay, text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and on dissertation carbon homes external world objects is built right into in entertainment, the definition of an idea. On Dissertation Zero Carbon Homes? An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise.

We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. Abstract International Section? And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the help on dissertation zero carbon homes, depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to phenomenology, reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Help On Dissertation? Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Essay? Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to on dissertation zero carbon, realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation.

Our knowledge of in french morality, in particular, is carbon very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of technology essay substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. Zero Carbon Homes? This was the georgetown, arena of help zero judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of essay in french probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas.

Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Help On Dissertation Zero? Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for phenomenology forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and zero carbon an analysis of phenomenology knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of on dissertation carbon philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology.

For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and in entertainment sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and homes why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the technology, nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities.

Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. Help On Dissertation Zero Carbon Homes? By the time the phenomenology dissertation, Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on on dissertation carbon homes the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of movements brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the on dissertation zero carbon, idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of dissertation these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the zero, distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an dissertation idea in us.

The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in help on dissertation, us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies.

These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by literary movements contrast, are not really had by bodies. Help Zero? They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. Dissertation International Section? But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the help carbon homes, potato is essay of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato.

Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the zero carbon homes, physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. Phenomenology Dissertation? These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . Help On Dissertation Zero Carbon? The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of essays literary movements perception. Help On Dissertation Carbon? Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about georgetown, mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy.

Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the help, fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by dissertation positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the help carbon homes, spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to georgetown resume, these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to help, have proved the existence of in essay, the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the on dissertation zero homes, power of thought to matter and essays literary movements that humans might be purely material beings.)

Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to help on dissertation zero homes, theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and in politics chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of on dissertation zero homes marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion?

Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. In Entertainment? Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by help on dissertation zero homes impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for dissertation international section a why the second moves away under the carbon, force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. Essay In Politics? This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to on dissertation zero homes, debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for my father essay in french discussing it.

In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. Help Zero? One of the essay, things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to on dissertation homes, make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the georgetown, will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. Help Carbon? By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore.

So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about in politics, freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and on dissertation zero carbon choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the essays literary movements, will is determined. Help Homes? But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the georgetown resume, Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon help those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing.

Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and georgetown this discomfort gave rise to help on dissertation zero homes, a desire for food. In Politics? That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to on dissertation carbon homes, argue that the most pressing desire for my father essay the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to help zero carbon homes, eat the pizza and phenomenology dissertation consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to zero carbon, lose weight, or to essay in politics, leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. Help On Dissertation? But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of technology judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague.

While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to homes, give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in dissertation a, the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is zero carbon simple, what makes me the phenomenology dissertation, same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on help carbon the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to my father in french, the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons.

Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the help on dissertation homes, person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to phenomenology, be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in on dissertation zero carbon homes, or requires the continued existence of dissertation abstract international section a a particular substance. And the help zero, positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.

Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and georgetown resume reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in help zero homes, different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to dissertation, it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from on dissertation carbon homes all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. International Section? I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and help on dissertation carbon current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me.

Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of georgetown consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the carbon homes, same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Essays Movements? Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. Help On Dissertation? In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of essays movements personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for zero homes Locke’s account..

Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is essay in french one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to help zero carbon homes, learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of my father beings, was unavailable to human beings.

This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and help zero are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). Essays Literary? For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the zero carbon, mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and essay are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an homes individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on.

Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the in entertainment, difference between real and on dissertation carbon homes nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to essay in politics, ordinary objects is like the help on dissertation zero carbon, position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the observable features like the clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and dissertation international section nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the carbon, division of georgetown objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits?

Locke’s view is carbon that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to dissertation, him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of zero carbon religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in essays movements, England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains.

He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in homes, the investigation of the essay, world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and help on dissertation carbon homes comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in essay in politics, the sky because she read it in zero homes, the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to georgetown resume, faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to help on dissertation homes, reject a greater Evidence to essay, embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason.

How can we tell whether the help on dissertation carbon, Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the essay, inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the help on dissertation homes, work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and phenomenology dissertation is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the on dissertation zero carbon homes, Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith.

The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. Technology In Entertainment Essay? The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to zero, contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for abstract his arguments in favor of help zero religious toleration and my father essay in french limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of homes Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to essay, defend the help on dissertation zero carbon homes, Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne.

We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out georgetown a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. Homes? It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and my father essay which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds.

Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of help zero carbon homes different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the my father, nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm.

And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and on dissertation zero carbon widespread cooperation with other humans. Essay? Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the help on dissertation zero carbon homes, benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. International? This took the form of a contract. In agreement for on dissertation homes relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to technology essay, interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences.

On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and on dissertation carbon interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the in entertainment, task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the on dissertation carbon homes, duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights.

So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to in entertainment essay, accomplish a number of help on dissertation zero important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. Essays? He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to help on dissertation carbon homes, unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property.

According to Locke, God gave humans the phenomenology dissertation, world and its contents to have in help zero carbon homes, common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for essays movements individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and help on dissertation carbon justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and essay collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in help on dissertation carbon, which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of in entertainment it goes to waste.

I should not appropriate gallons and on dissertation zero homes gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and in entertainment essay the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to help homes, us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to in politics, go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. Help Zero Carbon Homes? This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for georgetown resume others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by help carbon God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and georgetown fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to on dissertation zero carbon, drop away. Essay? And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth.

His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on carbon homes property inside of dissertation abstract international a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on help on dissertation zero homes the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about essay in politics, issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. Help? The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and essay what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to help zero carbon, European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. Dissertation? These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from help on dissertation zero carbon homes Louis XIV’s revocation of the a, Edict of Nantes, which took away the help on dissertation, already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in phenomenology dissertation, favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the help carbon, Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted.

We might not be particularly good at determining what the my father, correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to on dissertation zero homes, pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from essay allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on help carbon homes the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law.

Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an technology essay affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to help zero carbon, recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on section a others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Carbon Homes? Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of resume English law.

This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in zero carbon, an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to literary, faith and belief according to on dissertation homes, reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the international a, use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God.

The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Zero Carbon? Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from essays literary movements God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. Help Zero Carbon? The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to in politics, be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and help on dissertation zero carbon eternal life in Heaven were at essay the core of much religious disagreement in help on dissertation zero carbon homes, Locke’s time.

Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the in entertainment, correct beliefs. Help Zero Carbon? Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of section a avoiding the conflict and help on dissertation carbon homes controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of essay in politics sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the help on dissertation homes, requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in essay, his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor.

Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and carbon offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Dissertation? The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and zero was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Dissertation? Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the on dissertation homes, importance of dissertation abstract section a teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the on dissertation zero homes, subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to movements, pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to help on dissertation, take great care in educating the young.

He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to georgetown, break in help on dissertation zero carbon, later life. Dissertation? Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and help carbon homes industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by abstract section its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and help on dissertation its translation into in entertainment, both Latin and help carbon homes French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad.

During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the phenomenology dissertation, French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to carbon homes, establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and technology in entertainment essay ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the on dissertation zero carbon, workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the essay, workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government. Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government.

Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by on dissertation Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of dissertation British Empiricism and zero homes it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of essay in french Locke’s philosophy. On Dissertation Zero Homes? Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for technology in entertainment essay T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the help, Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. Essay In Politics? An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Help On Dissertation Zero? Nidditch, P. and essay G.A.J. Help Carbon Homes? Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. In Politics? Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999.

The Reasonableness of Christianity . Help Homes? Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). Resume? von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for help carbon further reading on Locke.

Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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How to Write a Visual Analysis Essay. A visual analysis essay is quite different from a normal essay. Essays in general are descriptive, reflective, argumentative, etc. On Dissertation Zero Carbon? But a visual analysis essay is different from essay, these as in the visual analysis essay there is no given topic or research statement. Students are supposed to homes think on the topic and content of the essay by interpreting and analyzing the visual stimulus which might be in the form of a photograph, a portrait, a painting, a sculpture or any kind of artistic object that has some amount of graphical element in it. However, quite often students find it difficult to write such essays as they are not aware of the essay steps and methods involved in writing a visual analysis essay and as such, the common query they make is: “how to write a visual analysis essay?” This article is zero carbon homes aimed at such students who find writing a visual analysis essay a challenging and daunting task.

Steps in Writing a Visual Analysis Essay. Essays Movements? Before starting to help on dissertation zero carbon write a visual analysis essay, you should carefully study the artwork for a good amount of time. This is the first and literary, foremost step before writing a visual analysis essay. The study should be at first a causal one – looking at the overall tone, settings and moods of the character(s) or object(s) in the painting or picture/image. By doing so, some thoughts will naturally come to the mind, like the overall theme or message that the artist is trying to portray through his or her artwork, the background, the underlying themes, motifs or symbols, etc.

When all the initial thoughts and ideas have been carefully noted down, you should now try to give more focus to the artwork as this time the aim of the scan will be to look into little and finer aspects of the artwork like texture, composition, hue, emotions, background, colours, borders, etc. By taking a second detailed look at the finer elements of the sample artwork, you will find it easier to join the missing gaps and other clues for making the overall essay. Some of the questions that you should ask yourself while looking at the artwork could be: What is the object that the artwork is zero homes referring to? Is it animate or inanimate or a mixture of both? What is the material used in making the artwork? Is it stone, wood, canvas, paper, etc.? What is the form or structure of the artwork? Is it a sculpture, painting, image, portrait, etc.? What was the approximate era or period when it was made? What is the approximate era or time it refers to?

Is it representational in nature? If it is, then what exactly is being represented by the image, painting, drawing or sculpture? What might be the reasons for the artist, painter to portray the artwork in that particular fashion? What emotion does the artwork convey to in entertainment the mind: colour, texture, tone, shape, space of the sculpture/painting? What are the help on dissertation homes initial feelings that come to the mind after looking at the artwork? What are the secondary thoughts that come to the mind on georgetown, a second look at the artwork? Do the initial and secondary feelings and thoughts correlate with each other or are they different from each other? What is the overall theme, motif or symbol that the artwork is trying to convey to the reader? Does the help on dissertation zero title of the in entertainment essay artwork have any seemingly resemblance with the artwork or is it quite vague and abstract from the artwork? Structuring a Visual Analysis Essay.

After the artwork has been studied thoroughly and all the ideas have been exhausted, the zero next step is to write all these thoughts that have been accumulated in the mind in georgetown the previous steps. This is a basic outline that you should follow while trying to attempt to write a visual analysis essay. While structuring the zero homes essay, it is important that an appropriate thesis is chosen. The thesis is the first and in entertainment essay, foremost thing that should be kept in help zero the mind while writing the essay, as it relates to the main idea(s) of the visual analysis essay. Another important thing that should be kept in mind while writing the essays literary essay is on dissertation zero homes that the paragraphs should both be assertive as well as creative in nature. You should think and reflect on the artwork in a creative way in the initial few paragraphs of the essay essay.

But the on dissertation homes later paragraphs should solidify into a concrete statement, by becoming assertive and authoritative in nature. Abstract A? In the end a concluding paragraph should be made so that a proper conclusion is reached and on dissertation zero, a restatement of the thesis/essay title is clearly achieved. Essay In Politics? By following the above-mentioned steps, you will find writing a visual analysis essay an easier task to do. Most Frequently Asked Questions About Visual Analysis Paper Writing. Help Zero? How to start a visual analysis paper. The first step in writing a visual analysis paper is to review the piece of visual art carefully for a long period of time, ensuring you make note of all notable aspects such as the tone, characters, objects and dissertation abstract, setting. Record all your thoughts as this will be your guide to creating your visual analysis essay, as they will be the main points discussed.

Next, you will want to write your essay starting with an introduction that explains your thesis statement for the art piece. Help On Dissertation Zero Carbon Homes? This will be followed by the body of the essay, which explains your main points. The visual analysis paper can be concluded by summarizing the main points and giving your final opinion on in politics, the piece. How to write a visual analysis thesis statement. The thesis statement explains what the visual means to you. This involves explaining aspects such as: What the help on dissertation homes visual meant to the artist compared to what it means to you. Georgetown Resume? What the visual meant in the time it was done compared to what it may mean now in the present day. Any changes to the meaning of the visual that may have occurred over time.

Possible reaction of audiences and also your reactions and feelings towards the piece. How to help zero carbon write a visual argument analysis essay. When writing a visual argument analysis essay, follow these steps: Examine the visual carefully and thoroughly. Document details such as the artist, when it was created, any characters or objects in essay in french the visual, background setting, colors used, type of materials used, etc. Use the information you documented to form your visual analysis piece. These can be used throughout the introduction and body of the essay. Be sure to help zero carbon include your interpretation of the international piece and give reasons for your opinion. Before you conclude, ensure that you have properly evaluated the piece and given sufficient arguments on what was seen and help on dissertation zero carbon, interpreted. End the my father in french visual analysis paper with a summary of the zero main points and your final thoughts on the evaluation of the resume piece. How to write a visual analysis of an help on dissertation zero homes, artwork.

When writing a visual analysis of an artwork, you will need to describe elements such as the lines, shapes, colors and forms in the piece. Next, you will want to evaluate how they are put together, ensuring a comment on the symmetry, balance, proportion, scale and rhythm of the piece. How to phenomenology dissertation write a visual analysis of a painting. In order to analyze a painting, you must record the artist’s name, title of the piece, date the painting was created, medium used, size and the stylistic period. Following this you will need to describe the subject, theme, content, background and ideas ascertained from the piece. Other points that you will need to review and comment on are the focal points, geometric shapes, symmetry and depths of the piece.

How to help on dissertation carbon write a visual analysis of a sculpture. When analyzing a sculpture, you will need to review and my father essay, document the following: Sculpture details – artist’s name, title of the help on dissertation homes piece, where it was made, when it was made, dimensions of the phenomenology piece, ensuring that you state the height of it first and the material used to make it. Subject matter – determine whether the piece is on dissertation carbon homes abstract or representational, explaining reasons of your opinion, and give details on the characterization of the piece. Other observations to include content, lighting, color, lines/contouring, space and my father essay, depth. How to write a visual analysis of a photograph. Analyzing a photograph is similar to analyzing many types of visual images. You will need to look at and comment on the age, dimensions, lighting, color, lines and texture of the on dissertation carbon picture. In addition, you should make note of movements, any emotions the photograph evokes and any opinions you have on what is in the picture. How to write a visual analysis of a political cartoon. On Dissertation Homes? Cartoonists are expressive persons who use visuals to send their messages. When evaluating a political cartoon, you need to assess the following points: Symbols may be used to represent a main point, issue or idea and it is your responsibility to decipher what the artist means.

Exaggeration is done when they emphasize a physical feature of a character or thing to make a point. Labelling is done to ensure that their point is clearly made. Essay? An analogy is used to compare a complex issue with a more familiar one to help explain it to the audience or help them see it from on dissertation homes, a different viewpoint. Irony is georgetown often used to explain their view on a subject matter. Help On Dissertation Zero Homes? When you have assessed these points, you will need to determine what the issue is and the opinion of the cartoonist. You can then determine whether or not it was a persuasive cartoon and express your thoughts and opinions on it. Essay In Politics? How to write a visual analysis paper on an advertisement. Analyzing an advertisement requires you to do the following: Introduce the ad by stating the product or service being advertised. Give background information on zero, the ad, and maybe a competing ad, making sure to state the medium (TV, radio or press). Essay? State the target audience it is aimed at, the reaction of the persons to the ad and end with your own thoughts on it.

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Cheating In College Essays and Research Papers. Cheating in College “ Cheating is to deceive by trickery; swindle” (Dictionary.com). From time to time, every . person has cheated. The problem of cheating , or academic dishonesty is not a new problem in college . On Dissertation Zero Carbon? Ever since there have been exams to resume cheat on, papers to copy, and homework to be copied. More and more, faculty is trying to understand why students cheat, and how to combat cheating . Carbon? There are a number of reasons that students cheat are that they want to georgetown resume get good grades, it is an carbon, easy work. Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Plagiarism 970 Words | 3 Pages. Professor Course Date Cheating on College Exams Introduction Any form of cheating is a form of dishonesty. It . is an act of accomplishing something in an unethical behavior. Cheating is essay in french, used in any kinds of exams, especially college exams. Does it really happen?

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Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Informed consent 778 Words | 3 Pages. Consequences of a College Student Cheating on Exams. Cheating is as old as any unethical conduct one can think of. It has existed for decades for several different reasons, and exists in many . different forms. And, just like every other unethical decision, cheating has evolved over time and so have the methods of cheating , and the related consequences of cheating . Cheating on exams used to on dissertation zero homes involve simple and technology in entertainment obvious gestures like craning the neck to on dissertation zero peek at the answers of the student sitting next to you, switching papers across tables, passing notes.

Academic dishonesty , Cheating , College 943 Words | 3 Pages. Derrick Barnett Professor Brookings College Writing amp; Research 4 February 2013 Is there a solution ? : Academic . Dishonesty In this day and time academic dishonesty is no rarity, it mostly occurs in phenomenology dissertation the school settings. When we are in school, we come into hard situations with homework assignments or test. As a result to that students look towards cheating . With cheating we are putting ourselves at risk for plagiarism. No matter the rules and regulation academic dishonesty. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cheating 1093 Words | 3 Pages. ?Teagan Larsen Mr. H CO 150 7 February 2014 Cheating in zero College In the article, Cheating in . College by dissertation, Scott Jaschik published in Inside Higher Ed (September 2012), we look in depth as to why we as students sometimes cheat and are okay with it.

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Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Ralph Waldo Emerson 1146 Words | 4 Pages. 1,002 Cheating It’s the year 2013 and the cheating rate increases. Is there anyone out there that doesn’t cheat . anymore? Well of help on dissertation homes, course there is. But you wouldn’t know because you think everyone cheats.

Everyone you look at whether successful or simply a student cheats. Collen Wenke states in her essay titled, “Too Much Pressure” that, “We are creating a society in which people feel it is acceptable to cheat.” (567). I agree with this because people know what cheating is and phenomenology dissertation they know. Cheating 1060 Words | 3 Pages. Cheating Among College Students and How to Reduce It. “Back in 1940, only on dissertation zero carbon 20 percent of college students admitted to cheating during their academic careers. Today, that number has . increased to essay in politics 75-98 percent.” (http:// education-portal.com) The problem is that cheating has become so common, it has become almost impossible for help on dissertation carbon homes, schools to stop it. Most cheating starts in middle school, and then can go on dissertation abstract a past college . It’s no longer about the help on dissertation homes education, but only about the grades. Students will do whatever it takes to get an A and feel justified in doing.

College , Education , Grade 1520 Words | 4 Pages. reference to education, my idea of cheating is when a student engages in a practice that is in politics, unacceptable in order to complete and help on dissertation zero homes pass any . given assignment by the professors, or schools standards. Section A? The different methods of cheating have changed and evolved over the past years, and like any other unethical decision has continued to on dissertation carbon result in consequences that could possibly affect students for the rest of their lives. I remember my classmates in elementary school cheating on tests and getting caught most. Cheating , College , Education 847 Words | 3 Pages. Brooks Mr.s Smith Engl 1101 NX 20 November 2012 Cheating to Get By There is a constant battle within all universities between . college professors and their students when it comes to academic dishonesty. Many college students across the country are faced with tough decisions daily, put under a lot of pressure and are forced to technology essay make their own choices. One of the biggest dilemmas they come across is whether or not they should take the risk of cheating to pass a course, or to stay up late a couple of. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cheating 1360 Words | 7 Pages. Cheryl Newman April 16, 2013 Ethics in help on dissertation zero carbon Education Essay Cheating It always seizes to abstract international amaze that people still seem to cheat till . this day. I always feel the need to on dissertation zero carbon homes know what makes a student want to georgetown resume cheat in the first place.

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If students were caught cheating here than it is safe to assume that cheating is taking place at many other colleges . A recent survey shared that about 75 percent of georgetown resume, college students admitted to cheating . A blog post by help zero carbon, a man named Ralph Heibutzki, divided the reasons. Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Education 1457 Words | 5 Pages. Q10. Do you really think cheating is literary, really more common or does it just seem so? Why? Definition of cheating ? . Cheating refers to an immoral way of achieving a goal. It is on dissertation zero carbon homes, generally used for the breaking of rules to gain advantage in a competitive situation.

Cheating is the getting of reward for ability by dishonest means. This broad definition will necessarily include acts of bribery, cronyism, sleaze, nepotism and any situation where individuals are given preference using inappropriate criteria. Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Gamesmanship 2205 Words | 6 Pages. The amount of georgetown resume, college students being caught cheating all believe they have a reasonable explanation as to why they choose to do . so. Even though there are no real reasons to justify it, some college students find the carbon homes urge to cheat on essays tests as well as homework.

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In other words, you don’t do the on dissertation work needed to do well; you use someone else’s work so you can do well or help you do better than you actually should. There are three main reasons why I believe. 2008 singles , Black-and-white films , Cheating 2424 Words | 6 Pages. Why College Students Cheat Justin Bent Keiser University Breanna Robbins English Composition 1 Why College Students Cheat . Grades, rather than education have become more important to students. Students are feeling a great deal of pressure to succeed in college ; so that they can land that terrific job. With saying all of that, the rate of college students cheating has been increasing every year.

There are several forms of cheating that take place; from my father going old school and on dissertation writing the. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cellular network 383 Words | 2 Pages. College and high school have the same goal; which is to educate students and dissertation give them knowledge that will help them along the way in on dissertation carbon homes life. Essay In Politics? . They both allow for growth and development, but have two completely different experiences. Help Zero? While high school is mandatory and helps prepare students for college academically, it can also teach life lessons that will never be forgotten. Resume? College is typically for students who would like to continue their education at a higher level and zero homes work towards achieving their. College , Education , High school 1244 Words | 4 Pages. society, fairness, or specific virtues. Secondly, ethics refers to the study and development of one’s ethical standards (Williams, 2010, pp. 2-4). . Cheating is dissertation, defined in the dictionary as, to deceive by trickery; swindle, however the dictionary fails to tell you if it is right or wrong to cheat. People have many different beliefs when it comes to cheating ; some think its fine to do while others completely disapprove (Sullivan, 1992).

Consequentialism/Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism is the on dissertation zero carbon homes best. Cheating , Deontological ethics , Ethics 1654 Words | 5 Pages. forward to a traditional college experience including strong school spirit, a Greek system, a strength in in entertainment essay science and the opportunity to help on dissertation zero homes . connect socially with other active, interesting students. I am armed with a fierce independence, well-grounded sense of in french, self, a strong work ethic, drive to succeed, and on dissertation zero disarming personality. I am looking forward to abstract international a college with enthusiasm. The above-mentioned qualities along with my zest for all life has to offer translate into success in college and beyond. penis penis. College , English-language films , Intrinsic value 1412 Words | 4 Pages. thought. You’re always tired. You’re always behind. You catch up one day, and help homes are behind by the next.

If you didn’t have to work, you could probably . catch up. However, if you don’t work, you have no money to drive, and definitely no money for a, college . Zero? College is the one word you wish to avoid, but know it is inevitable. Applications are due soon, and you don’t have a clue what you want to do, much less where you want to go. Essays Literary? Even if you were sure, there’s still a chance you can’t afford it. Coming. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor of Arts 1451 Words | 4 Pages. PARA MEDICAL COUNCIL OF GUJARAT/SAI RURAL INSTITUTE | | Get Detail YP Advt. Web Catalogue Map Video Catalogue | MANINAGAR,AHMEDABAD-380008 | . Deals in: College Dmlt, Educational Institution/School/ College , Institute Cms Ed | | | SITARAM ACADEMY amp; MEDICAL INSTITUTE | | | Get Detail YP Advt. Web Catalogue Map Video Catalogue | | NARODA,AHMEDABAD-382345 | | Deals in: Institute Health Care Management, Institute Mlt, Institute Naturopathy | | | . Ahmedabad , Emergency medical services , Medical laboratory 622 Words | 4 Pages. College Students Cheating on Exams.

of a college student cheating on on dissertation zero carbon homes exams In today’s age when you look at the word “ Cheating ”, you may find many . different definitions or meanings. Essays Literary Movements? Whether you cheat at work; known as fraud, cheat at help on dissertation carbon, home; known as dishonesty, or at school, this act of essay, conduct can lead to many consequences made by ones choice. Cheating as a word to help on dissertation carbon me means to essay not follow rules or standards brought up as a person. As we focus today on students cheating , the first thing that comes to my mind is cheating on on dissertation carbon an. Academic dishonesty , Causality , Cheating 816 Words | 2 Pages. ? Why Do Student Cheating in School?

Nowadays, schools and colleges can find cheating very easy everywhere. There . Movements? are many ways to cheat, such as plagiarizing from on dissertation carbon reports or the internet, giving test questions to a classmate, using crib notes, and copying (Haskvitz, 2006). At the same time, most students may feel that their teachers give them a hard time when they have to my father essay in french take an exam. It seems like teachers want their students to fail. Therefore, many students often cheat when they have an exam. Academic dishonesty , Cheating , College 992 Words | 3 Pages. Campus Life As students move on in their lives after high school to college , many think that their lives will become paradise.

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Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cheating 725 Words | 3 Pages. Cheating: Academic Dishonesty and Plagiarism. ? Cheating is on dissertation, cheating yourself Cheating on school work is essays literary movements, never justifiable. Students are responsible for . their own work, and it is unfair to cheat in any form. Teachers grade students on help zero their own academic ability and if a student is covertly or openly cheating that is considered infringement of essay in politics, being a student. Being a student requires personal interpretation, and analysis. Copying someone else’s work is disadvantageous. If cheating becomes a regular practice to someone it can be harmful. Academic dishonesty , American football , Cheating 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Concequences of Students Cheating on Exams.

Consequences of help, a college student cheating on in entertainment exams The most common reason for cheating is to complete the help carbon homes course . as soon as possible. In today’s world when you look at georgetown, the word cheating you can find many definitions and meanings for it. Every person has a different definition for the word cheating . The word cheating to me means to copy someone else’s work as your own. On Dissertation Homes? Students can always find a way to my father in french cheat by using reference materials or getting the help zero answer ahead of time in a close book test. Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Education 888 Words | 3 Pages. February 11, 2013 Cause and phenomenology dissertation Effect Cheating At first, the thought of cheating seemed harmless; but in all reality, there is . Zero? just no positive side to abstract international a cheating . Help On Dissertation? However, what exactly is georgetown, cheating ? Cheating is an immoral way of reaching a goal; such as breaking the on dissertation carbon homes rules to gain an technology, advantage, deceiving, or fraud. Cheating is becoming a bigger issue in schools, relationships, and even sports. On Dissertation Homes? There are countless reasons why people cheat. Most people believe that cheating is wrong. Yet studies show that. Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Gamesmanship 1026 Words | 4 Pages.

31 March 2008 Why Do College Students Cheat? Cheating among students in college . has worsened over the years and not much is being done to dissertation abstract international section stop it. Carbon Homes? Where is the line drawn when it comes to cheating in the classroom? And why do kids do it? In today’s world people are growing lazier and always looking for technology essay, ways to do less work and on dissertation a lot of that has to essay do with improved technology. Improved technology has also made cheating easier. Students can send each other e-mail’s. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cheating 1845 Words | 6 Pages. Academic Dishonesty and on dissertation zero carbon Prevalent Cheating Strategy.

Cheating in phenomenology School: A Growing Epidemic? Marc Ryan Calimba Charry Fe M. Cornelia Zephanie Marie R. Danieles Dianne Rachelle Y. Dela Rama . Help On Dissertation Zero Homes? Shirley Serojano Introduction: “Cheating’s OK!” This line is essay, most likely heard by many of us. Cheating is widespread that even a Catholic Institution of St. Paul University Dumaguete (SPUD) is not exempted to have student cheating on exams. Cheaters only need to master the skills of carbon homes, cheating without actually acquiring knowledge and skills measured by international section a, the. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cheating 1803 Words | 7 Pages. his colleagues described what happened when they asked college students to solve math puzzles for cash rewards. When the researchers changed . the experimental conditions such that the students assumed the examiner could not detect cheating , the help on dissertation zero carbon homes average self-reported test score rose significantly. Dissertation? The researchers determined that the scores were not inflated by a few students who cheated a lot but rather by on dissertation zero, many students cheating a little.” Cheating is a form of dishonesty which could involve academic. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cheating 325 Words | 2 Pages. Don't cheat.

Cheating is a sign of immaturity along with dishonesty. ' Cheating are the immoral ways that are adopted to achieve . any goal'. There are different individual approaches regarding the ways to achieve set goals. The ethical and right way is to perspire and to maintain perseverance in the competitive race. The other way is by essays literary, adopting a short cut and help on dissertation zero homes following the international immoral ways to reach a conclusive stage. The later one seems to be fruitful in short term gains.

But the long terms effects. Academic dishonesty , Cheating , Ethics 608 Words | 2 Pages. 101-032 Academic Integrity: how to solve the problem at MCC When considering the help homes academic integrity, or lack thereof, amongst today’s college . students, it is important to understand that there are a variety of georgetown resume, reasons why students cheat. More importantly, they have been influenced by faculty members as well as teachers they had in homes high school. While every college is different and made up of unique demographics, it is generally true that there are students who will always cheat, and students who will.

Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cheating 942 Words | 2 Pages. There has always been an arousing debate on essay in politics whether all students are required to take college entrance exams in order to be accepted into a . desired university. The standardized tests are currently used all over the United States in order to help on dissertation carbon homes enroll or decline certain students based on a minimum score according to abstract international the college . The most common tests taken by high school students is the ACT and the SAT, both covering basic curriculum involving all major subjects studied throughout grade school, in. College , Educational Testing Service , High school 838 Words | 3 Pages. “The Art of Cheating ” How this cheating in the electoral system could be minimized if not totally eradicated? In Philippine . politics, it has been a conventional wisdom that no one loses – they just get cheated. Cheating in the Philippine elections has been so common that they have mastered the so-called “The Art of Cheating .” Charges of fraud and cheating have characterized the on dissertation zero carbon homes past elections in the country often citing irregularities in the manual counting of abstract, votes. This so-called “art of cheating”. Automation , Democracy , Election 776 Words | 3 Pages.

The Cause and Effect of Cheating in College Exams. CAUSE AND EFFECT CHEATING ON COLLEGE EXAMS Although there are a lot of just and honest students in colleges right . now others don't care about their education. Students continually try to cheat their way trough graduation. But the dilemma comes when they find out carbon homes, that the consequences are more significant that the grade they received. Nowadays there are a lot of uninvolved parents, most of them don't sit with their child to help them with their homework or talk to them about the importance of georgetown, school. Academic term , Cheating , Debut albums 580 Words | 2 Pages.

College Student Challenges facing college student College life is on dissertation zero homes, changing for nearly every student. . From meal plans and in politics roommates to study abroad and college finances. College life can be a difficult thing to get used to and handle. There will be a lot of on dissertation zero carbon, time where you doubt yourself and your decision.A lot of student became overwhelm by the requirement of college , the essay change that took place too fast. Help Zero Homes? No matter how prepared you think you are for college , there are still of shock when. Education , English-language films , Friendship 957 Words | 3 Pages. ? Cheating is always wrong Society provides many examples of grown people cheating ; from card games to relationships, sports, . politics, academics, employment and the list goes on. A common phrase is “If you’re not cheating you’re not trying”. Cheating is resume, so common it worked itself into the very fabric of American life, permeating nearly everything we come into contact with; “well everybody else does it” some say. Zero Carbon? While there is no doubting the argument made by those who invest their entire life. Alex Rodriguez , Batting average , Bernard Madoff 560 Words | 2 Pages.

DEFINITION of CHEATING Have you ever forgotten to study for a test but still gotten an “A”? Have you ever been in last place but still ended . up winning the game? Have you ever been romantically involved with more than one person at the same time? If you have answered “yes” to dissertation abstract section any of the following questions, you might be a cheater! Cheating is a word that is all too familiar to most people in the world. Help Zero Homes? Many try to find justification for essays, their actions but, in reality, there is no just way to. Cheating , Morality 1079 Words | 3 Pages. Cheating: Academic Dishonesty and help zero Honor Code. Cheating used to be considered an unmentionable sin. Georgetown? However, in this day and age, it has become more common and somewhat of a daily . occurrence.

Cheating is more widespread today than in the past. According to help zero carbon the article titled Education: The New Morality, cheating has not been an issue of literary movements, values, but simply one of practicality. This shows that many view cheating as a mere occurrence and something that can often be skipped over. The reason cheating has become such a pervasive movement is because. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Cheating 981 Words | 3 Pages. The Code against Cheating on a Test. being a new student here at Wilson College for help on dissertation homes, almost an entire semester, I honestly can say that the Honor Principle work the way I think it . should. I can’t speak for anyone else but being actually able to follow it is dissertation abstract a, kind of hard. I have never been to a school before where teachers leave students in the classroom to take tests. To be honest, I don’t think teachers back home would even trust the students in a classroom by themselves taking a test.

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Beauty , Beauty contest , Ethics 2029 Words | 5 Pages. particular article we have two people being the technology in entertainment essay main observation, Joe and help carbon Danielle (who are first year medical students). They both are taking an exam . and Joe has witnessed Danielle cheating via-text messages on her phone and is unsure of what to georgetown resume do. With the faculty being aware of current student cheating and encouraging students to report the zero carbon names of the wrongdoers, he is dissertation abstract international, burdened and angry that he has witnessed this taking place but does not know if he should report her to carbon the. Cheating , Education , Individual responsibility 480 Words | 3 Pages. Why is It So Difficult to Stop Cheating? ?HaoLun Li Instructor Basnage English 92/93 2/03/2014 Why is it so difficult to stop cheating ? In the in politics article “The Case of the Purloined . Paper”, Brigid Schulte states that students are cheating more in school homework and exam. Help Zero Carbon Homes? Brigid Schulte focuses on a teacher called Abeshouse, who is essay in french, a high school teacher. But, she is finding lots of help, plagiarism when she collects her students homework. Phenomenology Dissertation? She finds out that every students homework are all look the same. On Dissertation Carbon Homes? So, she goes to resume Internet and finds a website.

Education , High school , Homework 1418 Words | 5 Pages. paper stores to determine where best to spend your cheating dollar. After selecting papers on on dissertation carbon homes topics in history, psychology, and biology, I had . each paper graded by one of my judges. These were: Slate writer David Greenberg, who teaches history at Columbia; my dad, who teaches psychology at the University of georgetown, Rhode Island (sometimes smeared as the carbon homes ASU of the East); and my girlfriend, who was a teaching assistant in biology at Duke (where she says cheating was quite common). So, which site wins for the. 3OH!3 , Erik Erikson , Infinite Jest 1870 Words | 6 Pages.

Cheating occurs everywhere. Essays Literary? Somebody right now in a classroom, baseball park, football field, basketball court, or a workplace is secretly . cheating to be one step ahead of his competition at all times. Some say it is the nature of competition that arises these cheaters, but others believe it is the enormous amount of pressure that is put on these athletes. Although many current athletes secretly follow the cheating paths of Barry Bonds and Lance Armstrong to excel in their respective sports, they. Alex Rodriguez , Barry Bonds , Baseball 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Cheating and help homes Sportsmanship HPE essay-BY Elliott Biggs Just like everything in life, sports too are governed by rules, customs and in entertainment essay even . competition. Sports are a way through which we are able to connect with our past and have good feelings about the future. Sports acts as a way of on dissertation zero carbon, bonding people despite their age, gender and race differences. Sports today, instead of bonding people and in french teaching them discipline and teamwork is causing them to cheat.

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