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Sfsu creative writing faculty

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College of Liberal & Creative Arts

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College of Liberal & Creative Arts

oedipe le roi resume Résumé : Pour Freud, le complexe #x0153;dipien est la représentation inconsciente par laquelle s’exprime le désir sexuel de l’enfant pour le parent du sexe opposé et son hostilité pour le parent du même sexe. Sfsu Creative Faculty? Mais il apparaît que les adultes projettent leurs propres sentiments refoulés sur les enfants, ce que fait Freud en l’occurrence avec le complexe #x0152;dipien. Of Passage Wright Essay? En fait, le désir sexuel qu’il attribue à l’enfant est une projection de l’attitude perverse que ses propres parents avaient envers lui. Creative Writing? Examinons de plus près ce dont il est question dans le mythe d’#x0152;dipe. Dans la mythologie grecque, #x0152;dipe était le fils de Laïos et Jocaste. Rite By Richard? Pour échapper à la prédiction d’Apollon, qui prétendait qu’il serait tué par son propre fils, Laïos ordonna à un serviteur d’abandonner l’enfant sur le Mont Cithéron, avec ses deux pieds cloués.

Mais au lieu de cela, le serviteur le confia à un berger, qui plus tard le donna à Polybe, roi de Corinthe, et à sa femme Mérope qui n’avaient pas de descendance. Sfsu Writing? Ils l’appelèrent #x0152;dipe #150; Oidipos signifiant pieds enflés #150; et l’élevèrent comme leur fils. Le mythe commence par un infanticide, le père faisant tuer son enfant en l’exposant pour qu’il soit dévoré par les bêtes sauvages, ce qui était un supplice courant dans l’Antiquité. Rubric For A And Contrast Essay? Il est probable que le serviteur ait en réalité obéi à son maître et cloué les pieds de l’enfant, car sans cela ses parents adoptifs ne lui auraient pas donné le nom de pieds enflés . Writing Faculty? Vraisemblablement, un berger aura trouvé l’enfant agonisant et l’aura délivré par compassion. Help A Essay? Il est donc hautement significatif que le mythe d’#x0152;dipe ait été popularisé comme l’histoire d’un fils qui tue son père, alors que les faits montrent exactement le contraire. La mise en acte de la violence paternelle. #x0152;dipe grandit et des rumeurs laissent entendre qu’il n’est pas le fils de ses parents. Sfsu Writing Faculty? Il presse Mérope de lui dire la vérité, mais les réponses de cette dernière sont énigmatiques. With Scissors Thesis? Il consulte alors la Pythie de Delphes qui prédit #150; sans lever le secret de ses origines #150; qu’il tuera son père et épousera sa mère. Sfsu Creative Writing Faculty? Dans Légendes de la Grèce antique (Payot, 1931), on for college, trouve cette description de sa réaction à la malédiction : A l’ouïe de ces paroles, #x0152;dipe fut pris de vertige, il lui sembla que son c#x0153;ur devenait de pierre et, poussant un cri déchirant, il s’élança hors du temple, sur la voie sacrée, fendant la foule compacte des pèlerins qui s’écartaient devant lui comme des ombres. Creative Writing? (1)

Pour comprendre plus encore ce qu’#x0152;dipe a à l’esprit en ce moment très critique, nous avons encore la citation suivante: Il se précipita sans rien voir sur le chemin rocailleux et s’engage dans le défilé qui aboutit à un carrefour. For A Compare And Contrast? Trois routes s’y croisent; il frémit en les apercevant, car la Peur, posant sa froide main sur son c#x0153;ur, le remplit d’une terreur sauvage et irraisonnée qui grave dans son cerveau en traits ineffaçables l’image de ce lieu néfaste. Creative? Tout autour de lui, les monts sourcilleux se dressent menaçants et leurs échos semblent répéter la malédiction de la prêtresse. Paper? Il s’en va droit devant lui, comme une bête traquée, ne se détournant ni à droite ni à gauche. Creative Writing? (2)

A ce moment précis, #x0152;dipe se trouve face à un vieil homme assis dans un chariot tiré par des mules, entouré de ses fidèles serviteurs. Rubric For A Compare Essay? Comme ces derniers lui commandent de s’écarter, il essaye de forcer le passage par la violence. Creative Faculty? Le vieil homme étend sa main pour l’arrêter, mais #x0152;dipe le jette à bas de son char et retourne sa rage aveugle contre les serviteurs, assommant les uns et égorgeant les autres avec son épée pour frayer son chemin. Social Networking Websites? Sans le savoir, il vient de tuer son père biologique Laïos. Le meurtre rituel du fils : une vérité intouchable. Au c#x0153;ur de la quête d’#x0152;dipe, nous trouvons sa détermination à découvrir la vérité sur ses origines. Creative Writing Faculty? Sa mère adoptive Mérope et la prêtresse de Delphes ont toutes deux conservé ce secret bien gardé, obligeant le fils à endosser le poids de leur silence. For A Compare And Contrast Essay? En effet, si Mérope avait informé son fils qu’il était un enfant trouvé, les choses se seraient vraisemblablement déroulées autrement.

Mais l’interdit dépassait largement le seul fait de faire connaître une ascendance cachée: ce qui devait resté secret, c’était le meurtre rituel du fils par le père . Voyons maintenant comment #x0152;dipe s’y prit inconsciemment pour révéler l’intouchable vérité. Creative? Son voyage à Delphes, qu’il entreprit seul, avait pour but de lui permettre d’entendre l’oracle d’Apollon, le dieu de la Lumière et de la Vérité. Wright? Son parcours le conduisit proche du Mont Cithéron, où il fut exposé et faillit perdre la vie lorsqu’il était enfant. Sfsu? Selon la légende, il fallait un pas assuré et une tête solide pour marcher sur l’étroit sentier rocailleux qui serpentait entre la montagne et la mer, car les vents s’élancent en hurlant du haut des collines comme les Furies en courroux, précipitant du haut des falaises surplombantes, dans le gouffre béant qui bouillonne au#150;dessous, tout ce qui s’oppose à leur passage . Rubric For A Compare? (3) Sans aucun doute, cet environnement particulier fit écho à la terreur qu’il avait ressentie face à la fureur de son père et dans sa lutte éperdue pour la vie dans la nature sauvage, avec ses pieds cloués. Plus tard, lorsque la prêtresse prononça la malédiction fatale, celle#150;ci résonna comme la sentence de mort énoncée par son père. Writing Faculty? Nous lisons qu’#x0152;dipe fut pris de vertige , ce qui confirme la ré#150;émergence du traumatisme précoce. Essay? En sortant du temple, il revécut la dissociation des émotions générée par l’acte brutal, raison pour laquelle il lui sembla que son c#x0153;ur devenait pierre . Creative Writing? Finalement, il poussa un cri déchirant et plongea dans la remise en acte de sa lutte précoce pour sauver sa vie. Remarquons combien la réalité présente est incorporée par le processus de dévoilement: les pèlerins sont des ombres , le chemin est un étroit défilé , les monts alentours sont sourcilleux et menaçants . Paper? #x0152;dipe est rempli d’une terreur sauvage et irraisonnée , mais poursuit sans rien voir comme une bête traquée . Creative Writing? Nous comprenons que ce lieu néfaste représente en réalité la remise en acte de ce qui se produisit des années auparavant sur le Mont Cithéron, dans des circonstances qui furent gravées dans sa mémoire en traits ineffaçables. A cet endroit, le mythe délivre un message qui n’a #150; à ma connaissance #150; jamais été compris auparavant. By Richard Wright? Au carrefour, le vieil homme qui se trouve devant #x0152;dipe n’est autre que Laïos, son bourreau, entouré de ses hommes de main. Writing? Le fils est maintenant un guerrier porté par l’incroyable énergie de sa rage si longtemps réprimée.

Il peut revivre l’extrême violence qui lui fut infligée de longues années auparavant par ces mêmes protagonistes et résoudre enfin l’origine même de sa névrose. Researchers? Lorsque son père lève sa main, il se soustrait à l’inexorable mort en assommant celui#150;ci et en tuant ses gardes du corps. Writing Faculty? Faisant cela, il révèle la brutale cruauté de l’ordre patriarcal incarné par le père. Il n’est pas surprenant que Freud n’ait jamais prêté attention à l’homicide commis par Laïos sur #x0152;dipe, son fils. Rite Wright? Fondateur de la psychanalyse, il est lui#150;même l’incarnation d’une figure paternelle. Sfsu Faculty? Mais aucun de ses disciples n’a réalisé que ce crime était à l’origine de la névrose d’#x0152;dipe. Running With Scissors Thesis? Cette évidence apparaît si l’on considère ce qui se passa immédiatement après la mise en acte du traumatisme subi par #x0152;dipe: délivré de la terreur qui enfermait son esprit, il surpasse facilement le Sphinx et devient un roi juste et sage. Lorsqu’#x0152;dipe quitta Delphes, poursuit la légende, il jura de ne jamais retourner à Corinthe par peur de voir se réaliser la malédiction d’Apollon et prit la direction de Thèbes. Sfsu Creative Faculty? Il trouva les habitants dans une profonde détresse. Help A Essay For College? Non seulement leur roi Laïos venait d’être tué par des brigands, pensait#150;on, mais la ville était ravagée par un terrible monstre. Sfsu Creative? Chaque jour, le Sphinx dévorait l’un d’entre eux parce que personne ne parvenait à résoudre l ’ énigme qu’il imposait.

A ce moment précis, #x0152;dipe et le peuple de Thèbe sont sur le point de rejouer ensemble leur fantasmes respectifs dans une relation leader#150;groupe. Compare And Contrast? Voyons donc ce que ces protagonistes ont à l’esprit. Mourir serait coupable, s’il se trouve, fût#150;ce aux extrémités de la terre, quelqu’un qui ait besoin du bras d’un homme fort et de l’intelligence d’un homme sage. Sfsu Creative Writing? Jamais plus je ne reverrai Corinthe, la très fameuse, et ma demeure sur les rives de la mer sonore, car si je retournais auprès des miens, je ne serais pour eux qu’un fléau. Essay Social Networking? Je m’en irai donc dans de lointains pays, et j’apporterai quelque bénédiction à ceux qui ne sont pas de mon sang. Creative? (4) Enfant, #x0152;dipe avait été arraché à sa famille biologique et avait dû renouer des liens affectifs avec ses parents adoptifs, Polybe et Mérope. With Scissors Thesis? Néanmoins, les circonstances tragiques de son abandon précoce par Jocaste, sa mère de sang, laissèrent des blessures qui ne cicatrisent pas. Sfsu Creative? Exilé depuis sa plus tendre enfance, il ne connut jamais de repos. Help Writing A Essay For College? En décidant de ne pas retourner à Corinthe, auprès de ceux qu’il aime, #x0152;dipe remet en scène cette rupture première. Writing Faculty? Sa demeure sur les rives de la mer sonore #150; perdue pour toujours #150;, c’est le sein maternel. La citation montre clairement ce qu’un leader de cette époque a de si caractéristique.

Pour #x0152;dipe, mourir serait une lâcheté parce qu’il a été rendu responsable du crime que ses parents commirent contre lui. Writing? Par conséquent, il se vit comme un fléau . Writing Faculty? Le choix qui lui reste est d’apporter quelque bénédiction à qui pourra faire usage de sa force et de son intelligence. A Essay For College? D’un point de vue psychogénique, nous pouvons dire qu’il a pleinement endossé le destin tragique de son rejouement. Sfsu Creative Faculty? Ainsi, au peuple de Thèbes, #x0152;dipe peut#150;il rapidement affirmer : Je monterai et je défierai le monstre. Social Websites? L’énigme serait bien difficile, en vérité, si je n’arrivais pas à la deviner. Creative Writing Faculty? (5)

Dans le même temps, les Thébains vivent dans un profond désespoir. Running With Thesis? Leur roi #150; une figure paternelle emblématique #150; est mort et sa dépouille est enterrée loin de son pays natal, au carrefour de trois chemins. Creative? De ce fait, apparemment, aucun rituel de deuil n’a pu être organisé et tous sont saisis d’une grande anxiété. The View From Window? Et chose plus affreuse encore, poursuit la légende, leur ville était ravagée par le Sphinx, monstre terrible à visage de femme, mi#150;aigle, mi#150;lion, qui, chaque jour, dévorait un homme, parce qu’il n’y en avait pas un à pouvoir résoudre l’énigme qu’il leur proposait. Writing Faculty? (6) L’origine de ce fantasme particulier n’est pas mentionnée, mais nous pouvons sans doute possible le mettre en relation avec l’anxiété induite par la perte de la figure paternelle. Social Networking? Remarquons que cette terreur est encore plus grande que le trouble causé par la mort de Laïos. Sfsu Creative Writing? La disparition soudaine d’un voile invisible semble les plonger tous dans un sentiment d’impuissance innommable, personnifié par la figure maternelle dévorante du Sphinx.

D’un point de vue psychohistorique, nous pouvons dire que les Thébains vivent une phase d’effondrement paranoïaque, et qu’ils recherchent une solution illusoire à leur anxiété en sacrifiant rituellement leurs enfants au Sphinx. Scissors? Lorsqu’#x0152;dipe propose de défier ce dernier, les Thébains réalisent inconsciemment qu’il pourrait bien être suffisamment fort pour mettre en place un nouveau fantasme de groupe et devenir leur leader. Pour saisir l’espoir qu’ils déposent en lui, nous avons l’extrait suivant : Tous l’accompagnent de leurs prières et de leurs bénédictions jusqu’à la porte de la ville. Writing Faculty? Ils le quittent là, car celui qui a dessein d’affronter le Sphinx doit s’en aller seul à sa rencontre et nul ne saurait lui venir en aide. By Richard Wright? (7) #x0152;dipe face à la violence maternelle. Voyons de plus près le fantasme organisé par les Thébains autour de la figure du Sphinx.

Tandis qu’#x0152;dipe s’avance hardiment vers ce dernier, poursuit l’histoire, son c#x0153;ur bat parce qu’il lui apparaît d’abord comme un oiseau puissant dont les grandes ailes d’or et d’airain miroitent aux rayons du soleil, qui l’enveloppent d’une auréole de lumière. Faculty? Et au centre de ce cercle lumineux, brille un visage pâle et beau comme une étoile au lever de l’aurore . Help A Essay? (8) La figure maternelle se tient sur un rocher surélevé, de sorte qu’#x0152;dipe la contemple depuis le bas, exactement comme il voyait sa mère alors qu’il était nourrisson. Sfsu Creative Writing? Elle est distante, mais auréolée du regard aimant que lui offre son enfant. Lorsqu’il s’approche, néanmoins, le feu de la convoitise s’allume dans ses yeux : [le Sphinx] étend vers lui ses griffes cruelles et se met à agiter sa queue de côté et d’autre, comme un lion furieux qui guette sa proie . By Richard? (9) Et c’est #150; bien sûr #150; ainsi que se comporta sa mère envers lui. Sfsu Faculty? Ses bras ressemblaient aux pattes d’un lion et elle fondait sur lui comme un aigle impitoyable. Rite Of Passage By Richard Wright? #x0152;dipe comprend alors que celle qu’il avait inconsciemment idéalisée comme la plus belle des femmes, était en fait le plus vil des monstres au c#x0153;ur meurtri par la convoitise et la cruauté. Sfsu Faculty? C’est elle, Jocaste, qui #150; au bout du compte #150; l’abandonna à son sort cruel sur le Mont Cithéron pour conserver les privilèges de son rang. Devant le Sphinx, #x0152;dipe fait face à la violence maternelle (10). Manifestement, les Thébains s’étaient tenu à distance de la vision insoutenable du Sphinx. Help A Essay? Ils avaient choisi un leader puissant #150; Laïos #150; pour refouler la violence de l’homicide maternel. Sfsu Writing Faculty? Lorsque leur souverain avait été tué, ils avaient offert des sacrifices humains, précipitant rituellement leurs enfants du haut des falaises pour tenter d’exorciser leur propre traumatisme. Writing For College? Seul celui qui aurait le courage de regarder cette réalité en face pourrait les délivrer #150; pour un temps #150; de la malédiction fatale.

L’énigme imposée par le Sphinx est une métaphore de la réalisation de l’homme. Sfsu Creative Writing? Le fait qu’elle soit gardée par une figure maternelle en dit long sur l’enjeu que représente la relation mère#150;enfant dans l’accomplissement de l’adulte. Paper? Voici cette énigme: À l’aurore, il se traîne sur quatre pieds; à midi, il marche sur deux; le soir, c’est sur trois qu’il avance en chancelant. Sfsu Creative Writing Faculty? Quel est cet être, jamais le même et cependant jamais plusieurs, mais un seul ? (11) Ayant traversé à Delphes la terreur qu’il avait de son père, #x0152;dipe résout sans difficulté la sordide devinette et se libère de l’emprise maternelle : Quel serait cet être, sinon l’homme ? A ces mots, la furie se jette du haut de son rocher et se précipite dans le gouffre ouvert à ses pieds. Running With Scissors Thesis? D’une manière significative, elle se donne le genre de mort qui fut infligée à de nombreux jeunes Thébains dans une tentative illusoire pour apaiser les traumatismes très précoces issus de leur enfance.

Nous avons vu jusqu’ici qu’un mode de parentalité basé sur l’infanticide #150; tel qu’il prévalait dans la Grèce antique #150; est l’origine inconsciente des évènements relatés dans le mythe d’#x0152;dipe. Sfsu Creative Faculty? La tâche qui est assignée au nouveau leader est celle d’en conserver intacte la structure répressive. A Essay? Nous savons que l’histoire ne connaîtra pas une fin heureuse. Sfsu Creative Writing? La solution illusoire que les Thébains choisissent pour réprimer leur anxiété névrotique est donc précaire, parce que les souffrances humaines cherchent un chemin vers une pleine reconnaissance. Rubric For A Compare? Finalement, #x0152;dipe se crèvera les yeux et nous examinerons la portée symbolique de cet acte. Sfsu Creative? Voyons pour l’instant comment le groupe fait face à une nouvelle phase d’effondrement paranoïaque, matérialisée par une épidémie de peste. Selon la légende, une clameur d’allégresse salua la mort du monstre et #x0152;dipe fut proclamé roi sur l’heure, parce que qui, mieux que le vainqueur du Sphinx, le sauveur de la cité, était digne de régner sur eux? (12) On lui donna la veuve de Laïos en mariage et il hérita des biens du royaume. With? Le pays connut de longues années de prospérité, tantôt dans la paix, tantôt dans la guerre. Sfsu Creative? Mais un jour, en raison de l’irritation persistante des divinités, une effroyable peste emporta des milliers de victimes. Il est intéressant de revenir sur l’interprétation que Freud fit de ce mythe, au moment où s’accomplit la seconde prédiction de l’oracle de Delphes et qu’#x0152;dipe devient l’époux de sa mère. Dissertation Researchers? Pour la première fois en 1897, dans une lettre à Wilhelm Fliess, le fondateur de la psychanalyse décoda la destinée tragique d’#x0152;dipe comme le point nodal d’un désir infantile incestueux.

Il écrivait: J’ai trouvé en moi comme partout ailleurs des sentiments d’amour envers ma mère et de jalousie envers mon père, sentiments qui sont, je pense, communs à tous les jeunes enfants, même quand leur apparition n’est pas aussi précoce que chez les enfants rendus hystériques (#x2026;). Sfsu Creative Faculty? La légende grecque a saisi une compulsion que tous reconnaissent parce que tous l’ont ressentie. Paper Researchers? Chaque auditeur fut un jour en germe, en imagination, un #x0152;dipe, et s’épouvante devant la réalisation de son rêve transposé dans la réalité. Creative Faculty? (13) On ne peut qu’être perplexe en considérant le décalage existant entre le mythe et son interprétation par Freud. Essay The View From? Aucun indice n’atteste l’existence d’une compulsion qui entraînerait #x0152;dipe #150; prétendument hystérique #150; vers sa mère biologique.

Plus prosaïquement, la veuve de Laïos fait partie du butin offert au vainqueur du Sphinx, parmi d’autres biens. Sfsu Creative Writing? Comme nous l’avons vu précédemment, les souffrances refoulées de Freud lui font projeter sur l’enfant des sentiments pervers qui témoignent en réalité de sa propre névrose. Rite Of Passage Wright Essay? Malgré cela, la vulgarisation du complexe d’#x0152;dipe tel qu’il fut imaginé par Freud a contribué à voiler d’une suspicion pathologique tout l’amour qu’un enfant manifeste naturellement envers sa mère. Dans le mythe grec, l’effroyable peste est attribuée au fait que le meurtrier de Laïos n’a jamais été découvert. Creative Faculty? Malgré des investigations plus intenses, l’épidémie poursuit ses ravages et les Thébains se tournent alors à nouveau vers des sacrifices humains pour tenter de calmer leur sombre désespoir. Dissertation Researchers? Une génération s’est écoulée depuis le couronnement d’#x0152;dipe. Sfsu Creative Faculty? Le leader a vieilli et la cité se souvient à peine qu’un jour il les tira des griffes du Sphinx. Researchers? Une nouvelle issue fantasmatique est sur le point d’émerger: le sacrifice du leader lui#150;même. Pour tirer l’affaire au clair, #x0152;dipe interroge Tirésias, le devin aveugle qui a connu six générations de mortels. Sfsu Creative Writing Faculty? C’est lui qui #150; bien des années auparavant #150; avait rapporté la malédiction d’Apollon prédisant que Laïos serait tué par son premier fils. Writing A Essay For College? Tirésias se refuse d’abord à parler, mais devant les insinuations d’#x0152;dipe qui le soupçonne de cacher la vérité, il finit par prononcer une nouvelle imprécation:

Malheur à toi, #x0152;dipe, malheur à toi! Car tes yeux voient et cependant tu n’aperçois pas ce que tu es, et tu ne discernes point tes propres actes. Sfsu Creative Writing? Bientôt, étranger sur une terre étrangère, tu erreras privé de la vue, tâtant le sol de ton bâton; et, à l’ouïe de ton nom et de ton crime, les hommes s’éloigneront de toi, remplis d’horreur. The View My Bedroom Window? (14) Pourquoi l’omniscient Tirésias ne mentionne#150;t#150;il pas le crime que Laïos a commis sur son propre fils? Quelle est cette crainte mortelle qui se glisse dans le c#x0153;ur d’#x0152;dipe, pareille à un reptile visqueux et rampant? Manifestement, ce n’est pas une vérité qui saisit celui#150;ci mais un nouveau mensonge, un message contradictoire qui crée dans son esprit ce que les psychologues nomment aujourd’hui un double n#x0153;ud. Creative? #x0152;dipe est prisonnier de la sentence qui le rend coupable du meurtre de son père en dépit de son innocence . Rite By Richard Wright? C’est ce conflit intrapsychique qui caractérise le destin d’#x0152;dipe et fait de lui un personnage si proche de nous.

En tant que leader de Thèbes, il avait essayé d’adoucir les souffrances de ses contemporains. Sfsu Creative? Maintenant, il va également supporter le poids de leur aveuglement. Le seul témoin à comparaître dans l’affaire de ce présumé crime, est un des plus fidèles serviteurs de Laïos. A Essay? C’est lui qui fut chargé d’exécuter la sentence de mort prononcée contre #x0152;dipe, lui encore qui estropia l’enfant avant de l’abandonner à l’un des bergers de Polybe. Sfsu Creative? Questionné par #x0152;dipe, il commence par nier, puis est contraint d’avouer. Writing A Essay? Un dialogue significatif se tient alors devant l’assistance royale, durant lequel le crime réellement commis par Laïos est à peine mentionné. Writing Faculty? D’une manière prévisible, le fils victime devient bientôt le bourreau de son père : #x0152;dipe: #150; Qui t’avait chargé de me mettre à mort sur la pente de la montagne ? Serviteur: #150; N’en demande pas davantage, ô roi, je t’en conjure! Il est des choses qu’il vaut mieux taire. #x0152;dipe: #150; (#x2026;) Parle, je te l’ordonne. Rite By Richard Essay? Dussé#150;je même apprendre de toi que je suis fils d’esclave, je suis prêt à le supporter. Serviteur: #150; Tu n’es pas fils d’esclave, mais de race royale.

Ne m’en demande pas davantage, ô roi! #x0152;dipe: #150; Parle, vieillard, parle. Sfsu Creative Writing? Ton silence excite mon courroux. Rubric? Je t’obligerai à tout dire, dussé#150;je employer la violence. Serviteur: #150; Oh! Ne porte pas sur moi des mains cruelles! C’est par égard pour toi que je voulais me taire. Sfsu Writing? Je t’ai reçu de ta mère, et ton père était? le roi Laïos.

Tu le rencontras dans son chariot au carrefour de trois chemins, lorsque tu fuyais Delphes, et, dans ta fureur, tu le tuas sans le connaître. Rite By Richard Wright Essay? Malheur à moi! Car les dieux m’ont choisi pour être le témoin involontaire de leurs oracles. Writing Faculty? (15) Par la bouche du fidèle serviteur, trois secrets sont mis à jour successivement: l’infanticide ordonné par le père, les origines royales d’#x0152;dipe et les circonstances de la mort de Laïos. Researchers? Mais seul le dernier retient l’attention de l’assistance parce que la culpabilité d’#x0152;dipe a déjà été établie par l’oracle. Sfsu Writing Faculty? Au contraire, Laïos et Jocaste #150; les parents infanticides #150; ne sont pas remis en question: les Thébains n’ont simplement pas la maturité affective nécessaire pour le faire. Websites? La légende raconte que, de prime abord, ceux#150;ci eurent de la peine à saisir le sens des paroles prononcées par le serviteur. Sfsu Faculty? Mais lorsqu’ils comprirent que l’épouvantable prédiction s’était accomplie et qu’#x0152;dipe avait tué son père, un tumulte s’éleva de la foule. Il y a une autre raison qui explique cette issue prévisible. Essay Window? #x0152;dipe est un enfant abandonné, condamné à mort par ses parents biologiques.

Inconsciemment, il reconnaît son destin dans la malédiction de Tirésias. Creative Faculty? Il remet donc à nouveau sa vie entre les mains d’une projection parentale représentée par la foule en colère, avec ces paroles : Chassez#150;moi de ce pays, ô peuple de Thèbes! Traitez#150;moi comme il vous semblera bon; car les dieux ont fait de moi un maudit et un impur, et ma mort seule vous délivrera de la peste. The View From My Bedroom? (16) Tirésias, porte#150;parole du rejouement. Il est temps d’examiner de plus près le rôle joué par le devin Tirésias, dans le déroulement du drame mythique. Creative Faculty? Ce personnage central avait prédit à Laïos qu’il serait tué par son premier fils, justifiant la décision du roi d’exposer #x0152;dipe sur le Mont Cithéron. Essay The View From Window? C’est lui également #150; bien des années plus tard #150; qui dévoile à ce dernier son destin funeste d’aveugle errant. Sfsu Writing? Au moment où le leader de Thèbes s’apprête à remettre sa vie entre les mains de la foule, l’homme sage prononce à la place son bannissement. Dissertation Researchers? Alors, écrasé de honte et de douleur, #x0152;dipe arrache ses propres yeux #150; témoins de ces choses inconcevables #150; accomplissant ainsi la prédiction de Tirésias. Creative Writing? Les mortels semblent n’être que des pantins dans les mains des dieux, tels que prophètes et prêtresses s’en font les porte#150;parole. Social Networking? Mais le sont#150;ils vraiment ? Pourquoi Laïos eut#150;il foi en la malédiction d’Apollon ? Pourquoi #x0152;dipe prit#150;il les mots de la prêtresse de Delphes pour une vérité?

Enfin, pourquoi les Thébains ne mirent#150;ils pas en doute l’imprécation de Tirésias en se fondant sur la bonne foi et la droiture d’#x0152;dipe ? Il y a une réponse unique à ces questions: parce que les protagonistes n’étaient pas conscients de la violence parentale infanticide à laquelle ils furent soumis. Sfsu Faculty? En conséquence, il leur était impossible de se soustraire au rejouement de cette violence, qu’ils mettent en acte par l’identification projective à des figures royales et le sacrifice rituel de bouc émissaires. Running Thesis? Si les prophètes étaient si bien avisés, ce n’était pas du fait d’un degré supérieur de conscience, mais de leur intuition des rejouements qui enchaînent les humains à leur destinée. Incidemment, la légende décrit très justement le vieux Tirésias comme celui qui connaissait les choses cachées du présent et de l’avenir . Creative? Il n’est pas mention du passé, et pour cause, puisque c’est dans le passé refoulé que réside la clé des rejouements présents et à venir! Cette disposition magique de l’esprit explique pourquoi les hommes de l’Antiquité prenaient si facilement les mots des prophètes pour leur propre compte, pourquoi prédictions rimaient le plus souvent avec condamnations. Rite Wright Essay? Il y avait des émotions interdites que personne ne pouvaient ressentir, et #x0152;dipe était allé plus loin que ce qui était communément accepté en ces temps. Sfsu? Tirésias le condamne précisément sur cette transgression : #x0152;dipe, n’accuse pas les dieux de ton destin fatal. Essay Social Networking? Nul ne peut approcher son doigt de la flamme sans se brûler, qu’il agisse sciemment ou non, C’est sans le connaître, en effet, que tu as frappé ton père. Sfsu Creative Writing Faculty? Mais le sang répandu retombe sur ta tête, car ce fut ton âme irascible qui, faute de frein, s’emporta comme une bête furieuse.

Si tu n’avais pas porté la main sur un vieillard, jamais tu n’aurais tué ton père. Running With Scissors? (17) Finalement, qu’est#150;ce que symbolise l’aveuglement qu’#x0152;dipe inflige à sa propre vue, se condamnant à vivre dans l’errance pour le restant de ses jours? Depuis toujours, il a porté le secret de ses origines. Sfsu Writing Faculty? Sa force et sa droiture extraordinaires l’ont conduit à l’orée d’une vérité inconcevable: ses parents biologiques sont des meurtriers. Essay Networking? Mais le processus de dévoilement met en péril la structure sociale, inconsciemment construite pour permettre le refoulement des traumatismes infanticides. Faculty? Sa mort semble inévitable, en tant que rejouement du sacrifice routinier de si nombreux enfants pendant l’Antiquité. Essay From Window? Lorsque Tirésias prononce à la place un bannissement, ce dernier fait également la promesse suivante:

Et cependant, dans le miroir confus de la prophétie, je crois te voir, reposant dans un bosquet d’arbres sacrés, gardien tutélaire du pays qui sera ton dernier asile, après que tes pieds auront parcouru jusqu’au bout la voie de l’expiation et que les jours de ton pèlerinage seront accomplis. Creative? (18) L’aveuglement et l’errance sont pour #x0152;dipe une alternative à la mort. With Thesis? C’est le prix qu’il paie pour ce qu’il a vu. Writing? Mais en se conformant aux paroles de Tirésias, il va inaugurer un nouveau standard de comportement pour les générations à venir: la figure d’un fils qui mutile sa conscience pour laver le crime de son père. Running? Parce qu’il a su dompter son âme fougueuse et porter la peine de son prétendu péché, #x0152;dipe incarne une structure de refoulement d’un type nouveau, qui préfigure la personnalité ambivalente du Moyen âge. M.A. Creative Faculty? Cotton #150; 04.2001 / www.regardconscient.net.

(1) E. Help A Essay For College? F. Sfsu Writing Faculty? Buckley (traduction de S. Of Passage Wright? Godet), Légendes de la Grèce antique , Librairie Payot Cie, 1931, p. Sfsu Creative Writing Faculty? 17. (10) Gravure tirée de E. Websites? F. Creative? Buckley, op. Scissors Thesis? cit . Creative Faculty? , p. Rubric For A Compare? 25. (13) Lettre du 15 octobre 1897, citée par Elisabeth Roudinesco et Michel Plon in sfsu Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse , éd. Essay Social Websites? Fayard 1997, p. Sfsu Creative Faculty? 744.

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The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents. Featured on creative, the CBS Evening News with Katie Couric . See Will Homework Ban Ease Student Stress? “An excellent resource that provides research-based information as well as practical information. Dissertation Paper Researchers. Administrators, teachers, and parents will find Cooper's book to be an sfsu creative writing indispensable resource.” —Mary Johnstone, Principal, Rabbit Creek Elementary, Anchorage, AK.

“An easy-to-read, comprehensive resource for teachers, administrators, district staff, and parents interested in social websites, best schooling practices around homework.” —Barb Keating, Principal, FW Howay School, British Columbia, Canada. Does Homework Work? Homework is the cause of more friction between school and home than any other aspect of education and sfsu creative becomes the prime battlefield when schools, families, and communities view one another as adversaries. This comprehensive third edition tackles all the tough questions: What's the right amount of dissertation researchers, homework? What role should parents play . Citations Add to sfsu writing, My List Share Text Size. Cooper, H. (2007). The battle over homework: Common ground for administrators, teachers, and parents Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd. doi: 10.4135/9781483329420. Cooper, Harris.

The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents . 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2007. doi: 10.4135/9781483329420. Cooper, H 2007, The battle over homework: common ground for administrators, teachers, and parents , 3rd edn, Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA, viewed 5 October 2017, doi: 10.4135/9781483329420. Cooper, Harris. The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2007.

SAGE Knowledge . Running With Scissors Thesis. Web. Sfsu Writing Faculty. 5 Oct. Running. 2017. Have you created a personal profile? Login or create a profile above so that you can save clips, playlists, and searches. Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into sfsu writing faculty, your member profile to access the rubric and contrast essay, email feature.

Chapters Front Matter Back Matter Subject Index. [Page ii] To Faye Norflus Cooper, for the wonderful things she passed on to her grandchildren, through me. Copyright © 2007 by Corwin Press. All rights reserved. When forms and writing faculty sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities who have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

A Sage Publications Company. 2455 Teller Road. Thousand Oaks, California 91320. Sage Publications Ltd. London EC1Y 1SP. Sage Publications India Pvt. Ltd. B-42, Panchsheel Enclave.

New Delhi 110 017 India. Printed in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Cooper, Harris M. The battle over homework : common ground for administrators, teachers, and parents / Harris Cooper. — 3rd ed. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-4129-3712-4 or 978-1-4129-3712-2 (cloth) ISBN 1-4129-3713-2 or 978-1-4129-3713-9 (pbk.)

1. Homework. I. Title. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2. Acquisitions Editor: Rachel Livsey. Editorial Assistant: Phyllis Cappello. Production Editor: Libby Larson. Copy Editor: Julie Gwin.

Typesetter: CM Digitals (P) Ltd. Proofreader: Ellen Brink. Indexer: Karen McKenzie. Cover Designer: Scott Van Atta. How much time should children spend doing homework? Should elementary school children do any homework at all? Do both high and writing a essay for college low achievers benefit from homework?

What role should parents play in the homework process? Homework is a source of complaint and friction between home and school more often than any other teaching activity. Parents protest that assignments are too long or too short, too hard or too easy, and creative faculty too ambiguous. Essay Websites. Teachers complain about a lack of training, a lack of time to prepare effective assignments, and a lack of support from creative, parents and administrators. Social. Students gripe about the time homework takes from sfsu, their leisure activities, if they understand its value at all. These complaints are not surprising, considering that homework assignments are influenced by more factors than any other instructional strategy. Teachers can structure and monitor homework in many different ways. Student differences play a major role because homework allows students considerable leeway in whether, when, and how to complete assignments. The home influences the process by essay social networking, creating an atmosphere that fosters or inhibits study. Sfsu Faculty. Finally, the broader community plays a role by providing other leisure activities that compete for rite of passage, the student's time. This third edition of The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents has been significantly revised from the second edition.

The summaries of [Page x] research that appear throughout the book are based on a new synthesis of the creative faculty, most recent studies of homework. The policy guidelines have been completely updated. But the book is still meant to be a resource not just for school administrators but for teachers and parents as well. I have written this book to help everyone involved in the process make sound decisions about a essay for college homework. My objective is to provide readers with the terms, definitions, and research evidence needed to writing faculty, hold conversations about running with scissors thesis homework in a constructive manner. Also, I hope to help readers set effective homework policies, rules, or guidelines, be they for a school district, a school, a classroom, or a family. The book speaks to sfsu faculty, all the parties in paper, the homework process—administrators, teachers, parents, and students. A key to ending the battle over sfsu creative, homework is communication.

It is critically important for all parties to know what others are doing and why. To help communication, much of the a essay, material in the book is presented in the “frequently asked questions,” or FAQ, format that has grown very familiar in recent years. Creative Writing Faculty. I did this to make it easy for readers to find answers to the questions that concern them most. Administrators can use this book not only to essay, help develop policies but also to assist in explaining to teachers and parents the rationale behind the sfsu creative faculty, homework guidelines they set. Likewise, teachers can use the essay window, book to improve their classroom practices and to sfsu faculty, assist in justifying those practices to parents and a essay students. Sfsu. Parents will find reasons why certain practices are followed by schools and teachers as well as some practical advice regarding how to help their children with homework. But most important, I hope the book is used by administrators, teachers, and compare and contrast essay parents together to make their discussions about homework a positive experience and to help resolve disagreements. The book addresses homework issues at both the elementary and secondary levels. We shall see that the differences in the functions and results of homework at different grade levels are among homework's most interesting and revealing characteristics. [Page xi] The book is divided into six chapters. The first chapter contains (a) a general definition of homework; (b) the important distinctions in writing, homework assignments; (c) a list of the possible effects of homework, both positive and negative; and paper (d) a model of the homework process.

Also, I provide a historical framework for understanding the issues and debates about sfsu faculty homework. The second chapter summarizes research on whether homework is generally effective, as well as whether it is more effective for some grade levels, subjects, and types of help a essay for college, students than for others. This chapter also looks at research on how much homework is best for students at different grades. The third chapter examines studies of variations in homework assignments that can influence their effects on achievement. Particular attention is paid to the structure of assignments and the value of classroom follow-up, such as grading and creative writing faculty feedback.

The fourth chapter looks at for a essay, how the community and faculty family fit into the homework process. It offers parents some suggestions, based on research, about when and how to get involved in their students' assignments. The fifth chapter, written with school administrators and teachers first in mind, reviews some of the policy recommendations offered by government agencies, education-related organizations, school districts, and schools. I integrate some of these recommendations into a set of homework policy guidelines—consistent with research findings—for school districts, schools, and classrooms. Finally, I have included a chapter with tips for teachers, parents, and rite of passage wright students meant to creative writing, help them ensure that homework is completed in an efficient and effective way. My involvement with homework began in 1986. In that year, I received a grant from the National Science Foundation to gather, summarize, and integrate the research on running with scissors thesis, the effects of homework.

At that time, research had little influence on homework practices and policies. This was because the influences on creative writing, homework are complex—no simple, general statement about whether homework helps learning was possible. Essay. Furthermore, there was enough homework research so that studies could be found to promote whatever position was desired, while the contradictory evidence was ignored. Thus, [Page xii] advocates for or against homework often cited isolated studies either to support or refute its value. I had no strong predisposition favoring or opposing homework when I began my studies 20 years ago. I did have a two-year-old son at creative, the time (with a daughter to essay my bedroom window, follow shortly thereafter), so homework was about to become an issue in my family. Sfsu Creative Writing. My wife had just begun her elementary school teaching career, one that now also spans more than 20 years. In addition, I had much experience with techniques for dissertation researchers, summarizing research literatures (Cooper, 1998; Cooper Hedges, 1994). Faculty. I believe firmly that research, when comprehensively summarized and help writing fairly treated, can positively influence educational policy and practice. Therefore, I attempted to collect all research, both positive and negative, that examined the creative faculty, effects of homework or that compared variations in homework assignments. Then, I applied the most rigorous techniques to integrate the results of studies, using statistical procedures if possible.

Ultimately, my first synthesis of homework research included nearly 120 studies. It require me to read about twice that many related pieces on social, homework and resulted in the first book-length assessment of homework as an instructional strategy, titled, not surprisingly, Homework (Cooper, 1989). The first edition of The Battle Over Homework followed. Creative Writing Faculty. Next, in the mid-1990s, my colleagues and I conducted an essay websites extensive survey of writing faculty, more than 80 teachers and 700 families regarding how the homework process unfolded in their lives. When this research was completed, I prepared the second edition of this book. Now my students and I have completed yet another review of the literature on homework, covering the social, studies on homework that have appeared since the first review. We found more than 60 new studies on the effectiveness of homework, about 60 studies that looked at parent involvement, and numerous studies on the impact of assignment characteristics on faculty, homework outcomes. It was the results of these recent research reviews that motivated me to prepare this third edition. Also, in the two decades since my involvement with [Page xiii] homework began, I have spent hundreds of hours talking with individual principals, teachers, and the view from window parents about writing faculty homework. Running With Scissors. I have given workshops for teachers and led discussions with groups of parents. Those discussions, along with the literature by researchers and practicing educators as well as my own investigations, are the foundation for the contents of the pages that follow.

Too often, educators, parents, and students fall into ways of thinking that view schools and families as adversaries. Homework is a prime battleground in these conflicts. I believe that the battles over homework can be avoided. Indeed, I view families as the first and principal site of learning and schools as extensions of families. When we keep these ideas in mind, homework becomes an opportunity for cooperation in learning. Thanks are extended to the National Science Foundation and the U.S.

Department of Education for providing the funds I needed to carry out the research that informs this book. Sfsu Creative Faculty. Of course, the opinions expressed herein are those of the author and not necessarily of the funding agencies. Thanks to my collaborators on the research, in rite by richard essay, particular, to Jim Lindsay and creative writing faculty Barbara Nye for their collaboration on dissertation, our survey research and to Jorgianne Robinson and Erika Patall for their stellar work on creative writing faculty, our most recent research syntheses. And especially, thanks to the hundreds of parents, teachers, and students who completed questionnaires and shared their ideas and experiences about homework with me. They provided a constant reminder that research is never more valuable than when it helps make our everyday lives just a little bit better. The contributions of the dissertation paper researchers, following reviewers are gratefully acknowledged: Rabbit Creek Elementary School. New Westminster School District.

British Columbia, Canada. [Page xvi] Ronald L. Sfsu. Russell. Assessment Consultant/Licensed School Psychologist. Loess Hills Area Education Agency 13. Associate Professor of Education. University of Missouri–St. Louis. Harris Cooper is a professor in the Department of Psychology and director of the Program in Education at Duke University.

He received his PhD in social psychology from the University of Connecticut, spent 26 years on the faculty at the University of researchers, Missouri–Columbia, and sfsu writing faculty has been a visiting scholar at Harvard University, Stanford University, the University of from my bedroom window, Oregon, and the Russell Sage Foundation. For six years, he was an faculty elected member of the board of education in Columbia, Missouri, a school district serving more than 16,000 students. Dr. Cooper is widely recognized as the nation's leading expert on rubric compare essay, homework. His work has been quoted in every major print outlet in the United States, and he has appeared as a guest on NBC Dateline , the sfsu faculty, Oprah Winfrey Show , and all the major television and radio news programs. Dr. Cooper's research interests include other applications of social psychology to educational policy issues. He has published more than two dozen articles and book chapters on the formation and effects of teacher expectations. With Scissors. He has recently written on the policy implications of research concerning summer school and modified school calendars. Sfsu. He is the author of two books on the process of conducting research syntheses. [Page xviii] Dr.

Cooper is the editor of Psychological Bulletin; has been an the view from my bedroom window advising editor for the Journal of sfsu creative writing, Educational Psychology , the Elementary School Journal , the Journal of Experimental Education , and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; and has been a guest editor of special issues on homework for the Educational Psychologist and Theory Into Practice . He has been a recipient of the American Educational Research Association's Interpretive Scholarship Award and Early Career Award for Programmatic Research. The Corwin Press logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Scissors Thesis. Corwin Press is faculty, committed to improving education for all learners by the view my bedroom window, publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK-12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin Press continues to carry out the writing faculty, promise of its motto: “ Helping Educators Do Their Work Better .” Citations Add to My List Share Text Size.

Cooper, H. (2007). The battle over homework: Common ground for administrators, teachers, and parents Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd. doi: 10.4135/9781483329420. Cooper, Harris. The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for networking websites, Administrators, Teachers, and Parents . 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2007. doi: 10.4135/9781483329420. Cooper, H 2007, The battle over homework: common ground for administrators, teachers, and parents , 3rd edn, Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA, viewed 5 October 2017, doi: 10.4135/9781483329420. Cooper, Harris.

The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents. Sfsu Creative Writing Faculty. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2007. SAGE Knowledge . Web. 5 Oct. 2017.

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3 Keys to Realizing Your Dreams and Goals. When it comes to manifesting our dreams and accomplishing our goals, there are three vital components that deserve our attention. Before we get into that, ask yourself the faculty following question: Am I actively moving toward my goals and rite of passage by richard wright essay dreams every day? Everybody has dreams and most people have goals. Sfsu Writing. If you want your goals and dreams to with scissors thesis, become reality, you must move toward them consistently and purposefully. By nature, we always begin with distance between where we are and where we want to writing, be. Our job is to narrow that distance until it no longer exists. To accomplish that, we need to draw our goals and help writing dreams closer to us, while simultaneously moving toward them. Some people attempt to attract their goals without taking much action. Sfsu Creative Faculty. Others choose to act on essay the view from window their goals, but without the writing added advantage of also drawing those goals to them. Action alone can bring positive results, but it is much faster to a essay, combine the two techniques.

For the sake of clarity, let’s differentiate between dreams and wishful thinking. In some conversations, the two might be interchangeable. Writing. Not so in this case. When I talk about dreams, I am really talking about highly desirable goals, future realities that we fully intend to realize. For our purposes, a dream is something that we are willing to work toward, and essay the view from window are determined to manifest, just like a goal. What kind of dreams and sfsu faculty goals do you have? When you project your thoughts into the future, how do you see things? Do you see a variety of positive changes across the compare and contrast full spectrum of your life? Do you see yourself healthier, wealthier, and wiser?

Are you willing to move toward that vision in sfsu creative writing faculty order to realize it? If so, then this is really a highly desirable goal, and that is exactly the kind of dreams we are talking about social websites today. 3 ways to move toward the realization of your dreams. 1) Total clarity. Before we do anything else, you need to clearly define exactly what your dreams or goals are. This is not the time to deal in writing faculty generalities; you need to be very specific. Scissors. One of the best ways for you to get really clear is to write down a detailed description of exactly what you want to accomplish. Writing things down requires that you get a well defined mental image first. Sfsu Creative Writing Faculty. The very process of putting your thoughts into words creates clarity.

This clarity will help you form a vivid mental image that you can carry around with you 24 hours a day. Most of the rubric for a compare and contrast essay time your personal reference to your goals and dreams will be that mental image, but you will also be able to refer back to the written description to sfsu creative writing faculty, help you maintain clarity. One of the websites most powerful things you can include when writing down your goals and dreams is how they make you feel. The feelings you attach to creative writing faculty, the things you intend to accomplish are your greatest source of motivation and energy. So, be sure to compare essay, include your feelings in your written description. Think carefully about each aspect of sfsu faculty this future reality. How does it make you feel? What emotional anchors resonate with each detail? Write them down. As you read back through your written description, allow yourself to experience those feelings and get emotionally involved in the picture. When you conjure up this mental image of how your life is going to be, fully experience it on an emotional level.

This is the true power of having clearly defined goals and dreams, and identifying your emotional attachments to them. 2) Take action. Now that you can see and feel your goals and dreams with clarity, it’s time to begin moving toward them. What steps do you need to take to move you closer to realizing these dreams? What sequence do those steps need to the view from window, be in to produce your intended result? What action can you take each and every day to keep you moving in the right direction? Once again, writing these things down will produce clarity.

It is writing, much easier to thesis, take action when you know what actions need to be taken. Sfsu Creative Faculty. Reaching your goals means that you need to take the proper actions at the right time. There is for college, a natural sequence that will produce your intended result. Following the right sequence allows events to faculty, unfold in a very productive way. Always take time to create an action plan. Not only will it keep you moving in the right direction, but it will also allow you to writing, anticipate what comes next. Of course, we can’t anticipate everything, and we need to be willing to make adjustments along the way.

That’s the beauty of writing faculty having an action plan, it allows us to essay networking websites, be flexible without getting too far off course. So, even though we will need to make minor adjustments, a plan keeps us heading in th direction of your dreams until we reach them. Creative Writing. 3) Attract your dreams to you. Now that you know exactly where you are going, how you feel about it, and essay how you are going to get there, what’s next? When we started out there was distance between you and the dreams and goals you are working toward. You have been actively closing that distance by moving toward your vision for the future. Now, it’s time to draw your dreams toward you. Creative. How can you do that? It’s really just a matter of perspective.

Up until now, you have been projecting yourself into essay this vision that exists in the future, but let’s reverse that. Instead of sfsu creative projecting yourself into a future reality, allow yourself to receive that reality in the present tense. See yourself as stationary and your goals and dreams as moving toward you, and then let them surround and engulf you. Help Writing For College. Wrap yourself up in sfsu creative writing faculty them like a giant blanket. Feel the joy of receiving that vision. Networking Websites. Imagine how wonderful it feels to have the reality of that vision totally permeate your life right now. Feel your dreams realized in the here and now. *** If part of your dreams was a beautiful new home, don’t see it from the outside; see yourself in sfsu writing faculty the middle of that beautiful dream house. See yourself living there, going about your daily activities, feeling completely at home and comfortable. Social Websites. See yourself as a full participant, not a spectator. *** If you have been actively moving toward a new career, visualize yourself actually performing the duties of that career. Again, don’t see it from the outside as a spectator would.

If your new career involves a desk, a computer, and writing faculty a telephone, put yourself there. Look at the screen, answer the phone, lean back in dissertation paper researchers that amazingly comfortable leather chair – participate! Always harness the power of a 3 dimensional approach. By employing all three of these techniques, your dreams will become your realities much faster than you may have thought possible. Nothing in life is one-dimensional. Sfsu Creative. The quicker you shorten the distance between where you are and where you want to be, the more empowered you become. This approach allows you to override the perceived limitations of time and space, and to more fully comprehend your own ability to manifest your dreams and goals. What do you think about this approach?

Can you see yourself living your dreams? If you enjoyed this article consider email updates! Personal Power and essay social the Magic of Self-Appointment. 3 Growth Strategies used by Every Successful Entrepreneur. Why do You want Financial Success?

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Brand Preference Literature Review. “A consumer buying a product is buying it for its function, performance, utility nevertheless he/she is buying for its image status” (Terpstra Sarathy, 1997). In fact, consumer products have implications much greater than just their function or utility. (Levy, 1959; 2007 Business Monitor Survey, 2007; Ericksen, 1996; Mick, 1986; Czikszentmihalyi et al., 1981; Sriram, et al. 2006; Leigh and Gabel, 1992;). Products are now are not just consumed for their material utilities but also for sfsu creative writing faculty, their symbolic meaning which is conveyed by their brand images. (Elliot, 1997). Deducing that, the products are not merely “sets of attributes which yield any particular benefit” (Holt, 1995, p. 1). Therefore, a consumer is much likely to use brands to essay the view from express how he/she is either similar to/different from people of their group (Markus and Kitayama, 1991).It has been reported by Bhat Reddy (1998) that, the brands have practical emblematic importance for its consumers. This emblematic importance that is creative writing associated with the brands, is often conveyed through the choice a of brands (McCracken, 1986; Gottdeiner, 1985). Meaning that, there exists relation between brand image, which is in sync along the consumer’s self image the emblematic importance of the brands. (Zinkham and Hong, 1991; Chang and Chieng, 2006). Consumer will prefer those brands whose personalities match to his/her self image (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000). Consumers does so mainly to paper express themselves; as being alike to the personalities (Kassarjian, 1971; Aaker, 1999; Sirgy, 1982).

In other words, consumer prefers certain brands to either create or maintain his/her self image to themselves or to their groups (Zinkham and Hong, 1991; Sirgy, 1982; Wallendorf and Arnould, 1988). In current scenario, “purchase and consumption have emerged as silent ways of self-expression” (Jamal and Goode, 2001, p. 483). Researches shows us that self expression or perceived self image do affect consumer’s brand preference their purchase intentions (Domestic Beer - US - December 2007, 2007; Ericksen, 1996; Mehta, 1999;) Its live example is, Ericksen’s research in 1996 where he found significant relation in self image and the intention to buy US based automobile (Ford Escort). Therefore, it could be inferred that “individuals prefer brands that do have image compatible with their self perceptions” (Solomon, 1983; Ericksen, 1996; Belk, et. Creative Writing? al., 1982; Jamal and Goode, 2001; Zinkham and dissertation paper researchers Hong, 1991;) The higher self image consistency will strengthen positive attitude towards brands products (Ericksen, 1996; Sirgy, 1982, 1985, 1991; Sirgy, et. al., 1997; Schoenfelder and Harris, 2004). Therefore, consumer’s self-image is strongly related to the brand’s image vice versa is also true. (Graeff, 1996). To the brand’s exact status deducibility for weather the sfsu brand is strongly related to from my bedroom window the image of an individual; brand awareness is critical. Brand awareness is defined as, “a rudimentary level of brand knowledge involving, at the least, recognition of the brand name” (Hoyer and Brown, 1990, p. 141), practically brand awareness is considered as a consumer’s ability to recognize a specific brand within a group in order to make the purchase (Percy and creative faculty Rossiter, 1992). This reason that, every advertisement aims at creating and maintaining brand awareness; (McMahon, 1980; Investopedia, 2008).

Advertisers all over the globe employ repetition only to impress advertised brand on consumer’s consciousness making them feel comfortable aware of the brand. (Bogart, 1986). It could be said that, advertisers pursue consumers to scissors keep brand name in their evoked set for creating better chances of purchase (Wang, 2007). Hoyer (1984) deduced that consumers are passive receivers of the writing product’s information and they spend minimal cost (i.e., efforts, time) in choosing amongst brands. However, “awareness does not only influence the first choice; but it also effects the choice on subsequent selections” (Hoyer and Brown, 1990, p. 147). Therefore, brand awareness has become a significant stimulator in decision-making process of the customer (Jarboe, 2006) as, increased brand awareness supports the probability of products being able to show up to consumer’s expectations and rubric for a and contrast essay the increased chances of faculty, a particular brand being purchased; (Baker, et. al. 1986; Nedungadi, 1990) which means that a consumer has greater a tendency to of passage by richard wright buy familiar and or well-established brands (Jacoby et al., 1977).

Moreover, researchers have also found positive relation between advertising for creative writing faculty, increasing brand awareness the sales (Jarboe, 2006; Bass and Leone, 1983; Bass and Clarke, 1972). Therefore, it could be proposed that brand awareness has significant influence on rite wright, the consumer’s brand preference. Maneuvering the research further we reach a yet another key concept that could be discussed here is the writing concept of Customer-based brand equity as it has a tremendous effect on consumption behavior. Coustomer-based brand equity is defined as ““. . . the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand. A brand is said to with scissors have positive customer-based brand equity when consumers react more favorably to a product and creative faculty the way it is marketed when the brand is identified than when it is essay social not” (Keller, 2003, p. 60).During 1980s theoretical researches were focused on measuring a brand’s equity via financial (Farquhar Ijiri, 1993; Swait et al., 1993; Simon Sullivan, 1990;) customer-based methods (Green Srinivasen, 1990; Rangaswamy et al., 1993; MacLachlan Mulhern, 1991). Recently, brand equity has been predominantly defined in customer-based contexts (Keller, 1993) is further extended to include effect on purchase intent brand preference (Cobb et al. Sfsu Faculty? 1995; van Osselaer Alba, 2000), brand alliances (Rao Ruekert, 1994; Rao, et al., 1999). The focus of this research will be the brand equity from the rubric essay brand alliance perspective. One of the most researched field currently is brand alliance; brand alliances, is a market- driven relation where two brands co-exist so as to enhance value of the product.

It is creative writing defined as a the with circumstance where “. . Sfsu Writing Faculty? . Help For College? two or more brand names are presented jointly to the consumer.” (Rao et al., 1999 p. Sfsu? 259) The earlier researches on brand alliances illustrated its dangers; Farquhar (1994) suggested that brand alliances create higher asymmetrical brand associations which can dilute the brand image. Also, the brand equity has obvious dangers derived from the dissertation paper researchers consumer’s perceiving potentially negative experience with an allying brand which they transfer to the new allied product or brand. Surprisingly, recently, many researches addressing brand alliances have deduced that brand alliances have positive effects. Recent researches have found that brand alliances: allows the consumers to perceive that higher quality brands will only ally with high-quality brands. (Rao Ruekert, 1994) can develop favorable attitude towards a brand combination. Creative? (Simonin Ruth, 1995) may help the low-quality brand in writing a essay for college gaining a good customer base when allying with a high quality brand. (Levin, Davis, Levin, 1996) can bring greater beneficial effects for less known brands than for the much known brands (Simonin Ruth,1998) may be helpful in creative writing faculty signaling greater product quality to the customers. (Park et al., 1996) Despite aforesaid positive prediction, van Osselaer Janiszewski (2000) found that pairing two brands could produce both positive and negative effects on help writing a essay, the participating brands. Confirming previous research (e.g., Park, Jun, Shocker, 1996; Simonin Ruth,1998). Janiszewski and van Osselaer (2000) in sfsu creative faculty their research concluded that a brand alliance can/can not be helpful for the allying brands, depending on when consumers were first aware of individual brand versus the brand alliance. However, the basic findings shows that brand alliance improves consumer evaluation of the focal brand (e.g., McCarthy Norris, 1999; Lafferty et al., 2004; Voss Gammoh, 2004; Vaidyanathan Aggarwal, 2000;Washburn et al., 2004;) as there exists different types of brand alliances such as partnerships for : joint promotions (Rao et al., 1999) where the partnering brands (e.g., Ocean Spray Cranberry Juice Smirnoff Vodka) are promoted as being complimentary to each other; dual branding in case of researchers, two restaurants (e.g., Wendy’s Tim Horton’s) that share the same space (Levin Levin, 2000); and co-branding which involves complete physical integration (e.g., K.C. Sfsu? Masterpiece barbeque sauce flavoring with Ruffle’s potato chips) of for college, two brands (Levin Levin, 2000). Concept of sfsu writing, co-branding has been there since long, however the with scissors widespread practice of this concept in consumer goods market became popular in early 1990s. (Khan, 1999). Co-branding is termed as brand extension (Aaker and Kller, 1990), brand alliance (Park et al., 1996b; Rao and Ruckert, 1994), strategic alliance (Preble et al., 2000) marketing partnership.

In a larger context, co-branding is defined as collaboration of multiple brands in marketing, production, even technology while not loosing their separate individual business entities (Stewart, 1995). According to Park et al. (1996a) co-branding is a combination of multiple brands to become a single separate brand. In addition, co-branding is also believed to add greater value to the customers is also known to be a good method to enter a new market. (Carpenter, 1994). Creation of shared values for sfsu creative, customers is key aspect of co-branding. There exists several levels of co branding which are as follows from lower to higher level meaning higher the level closer is the practice to theory. Level 1 : Reach Awareness is the lowest level of involvement with largest potential for participation from diverse fields. e.g. the co branded credit card of General Motors’ /Visa. Level 2 : Values Endorsement, is when the of passage by richard partnering brands aim at enhancing their customer’s perceived value through the endorsement of the brand value of the allying brands to the customer. E.g. the mutual endorsements of cookware manufacturer (Tefal) with cooking school (Le Cordon Bleu cooking school). Level 3 : ingredient co-branding customer perception of higher value of sfsu, a brand can also be built by using ingredients from a market leader brand. Running With Scissors? e.g. Sfsu Creative Writing Faculty? use of Intel microprocessors Intel brand name in computer hardware industry. Level 4 : complementary this highest level of value creation is categorized with smallest potential pool of participants; that is minimum number of allying brands.

This level of co-branding is practiced mainly by rubric compare and contrast two strong complementary brands. e.g. tie up between petrol pumps (Esso) supermarkets (Tesco) for 24-hour mini supermarkets at petrol pumps in UK.(Kippenberger 2002) Therefore, co-branding is a way to increase the influence scope of the brands, embrace newer technologies, enter new markets, reduce costs through cost sharing restimulating the market demand through refreshing the brand image (Blackett and Boad, 1999).Moreover, co-branding helps in writing achieving greater brand awareness, higher sales revenue through reinforced brand reputation could also act as motivation for the employees customers to prefer the new venture.(Chang, 2008). Therefore, co branding can act as a tool for essay the view from my bedroom window, gaining shot term strategic advantages as well as long term deliberate intensions. (Doshi, 2006). Sfsu Creative Writing? Co branding, is a marketing strategy that brings benefits like “ better brand exposure, higher sales, entrance in foreign markets, revenue from royalty payments market priming, reduced investments, access to cutting-edge technology, avoid barriers for entry exit, reduced risk, communication of product quality, quicker returns, ability to benefit from premium pricing, better relations between trade customer, effective communications, better consumer interest.” (Blackett and Boad, 1999, p. 22;Bhat and Reddy, 2001;). Visa MasterCard applied this concept in 1980s in bankcard industry are known to essay the view be the pioneers of co-branding (Arend, 1992). Previously, co-branding strategies have also been used widely used by General Motors, General Electric, Ford ATT. Creative Writing? (Raphel, 1994). In recent years, this concept has been practiced in service industries such as hotels, airlines etc. (Young et al., 2001) here the essay networking websites co-branding partners share their infrastructure which enables them in serving customer with lower operational costs (Boone, 1997). The alliance of Holiday Inn with TGIF with has caused in a boost in the sales for both the companies (Casper, 1995).

Similarly, McDonalds Disney are jointly promoting each other (Jensen and Pollack, 1996), there are in market combined products of Nestle Contadina (Benezra, 1996). The airline industry is no exception to sfsu creative writing faculty this practice, there are co-branded cards in the industry that facilitates customer by discounts on tickets, frequent flyer points, ticket upgrades, insurance, airport lounge usage, and free companion tickets (Lee, 2001). Experts had proposed several guidelines research agendas as the practice of for college, co-branding spread (e.g., Carpenter, 1994). Sfsu Writing Faculty? Despite this growing practice of co-branding, very little empirical research is conducted on rite essay, this subject; specially in sfsu writing the Indian automobile industry where Maruti-Suzuki, Hero Honda etc. like co-branded alliances outshine every global brand in terms of running thesis, sales volume, market share. Almost, every literature on the topic had defined this concept (e.g., Hahm and Khan, 2001) or described the writing advantages (e.g., Rao and Ruckert, 1994) and help writing a essay disadvantages of the strategy. This research will help us in developing fresh insight in the phenomena of sfsu creative, co branding practiced by automobiles giants in Indian automobile industry; moreover, focusing the rubric for a and contrast research on the youths will also help in understanding the future of co-branding in Indian context. Therefore, consumer’s self-image is strongly related to the brand’s image vice versa is also true. Therefore, it could be proposed that brand awareness has significant influence on the consumer’s brand preference.

The focus of this research will be the brand equity from the brand alliance perspective. 2007 Business Monitor Survey, Part 2: Branding, Bundling, Channels, and writing Recycling. Dec. Writing? 2007. IDC. http://www.giichinese.com.tw/chinese/id58504-monitor-survey.html. (May. Sfsu? 18, 2008). Aaker, D.A., Kller, K.L., (1990). Consumer evaluations of brand extensions. Help? Journal of Marketing 54 (1), 2741.

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13, Richard J. Rubric For A? Lutz, ed. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 637-42. Bass, Frank M. and Clarke, Darral G. 1972. Testing Distributed Lag Models of Advertising Effect. Journal of Marketing Research, 9 (August), 298-308.

Bass, Frank M. and Leone, Robert P. 1983. Sfsu Creative? Temporal Aggregation, the Data Interval Bias, and Empirical Estimation of Bimonthly Relations from Annual Data.Management Science, 29 (January), 1-11. Belk, R.W., Bahn, K.D. Mayer, R.N. By Richard? 1982. Developmental recognition of consumption symbolism. Journal of sfsu creative writing faculty, Consumer Research, 10( 4-17). Bhat, S. Reddy, S. K. 1998. Symbolic and functional positioning of brands. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15(1), 32-43.

Bhat, S. and Reddy, S.K. 2001. Rubric For A Compare And Contrast Essay? The Impact of Parent Brand Attribute Associations and Affect on writing, Brand Extension Evaluation. Journal of Business Research, 53, 111-122. Blackett, T. and Boad, B. 1999. Co-Branding: The Science of Alliance, London: Macmillan Press Ltd. Bogart, L. 1986.

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A Typology of Co-branding Strategy: Position and faculty Classification. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge. Hollywood: Vol. 12, Iss. 2; p. Dissertation Paper Researchers? 220-226. Cobb-Walgren, C. J., Ruble, C. Writing Faculty? A., Donthu,N. (1995). Brand equity, brand preference, and purchase intent. Journal of Advertising, 24, 2540.

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296300). Levin, I. P., Levin, A. M. (2000). Modeling the role of brand alliances in the assimilation of product evaluations. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9, 4352. Levy, S.J. 1959. Symbols for sale. Harvard Business Review, 37(July-August), 117-24. MacLachlan, D. L., Mulhern, M. G. (1991). Measuring brand equity with conjoint analysis. Paper presented at thesis Sawtooth Conference, Sun Valley, Idaho.

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TV Loses the„Name Game?but Wins Big in Personality. Advertising Age (December 1), p.54. Mehta, A. Dissertation Paper? 1999. Writing? Using self-concept to assess advertising effectiveness. With Thesis? Journal of Advertising Research, 39 (January/ February), 81-9. Mick, D.G.

1986. Consumer research and semiotics: exploring the morphology of signs, symbols, and significance. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(2), 196-213. Nedungadi, Prakash (1990). Recall and Consumer Consideration Sets: Influencing Choice Without Altering Brand Evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (December), 263-76. Park, C.W., Jun, S. Y., Shocker, A. D. (1996). Composite branding alliances: An investigation of extension and feedback effects. Journal of Marketing Research, 33, 453466. Park, C.W., Milberg, S., Lawson, R., (1996b).

Evaluation of writing, brand extensions: the role of product level similarity and brand concept consistency. Journal of Consumer Research 18 (2), 185193. Preble, J.F., Reichel, A., Hoffman, R.C., (2000). Strategic alliances for competitive advantage: evidence from Israel’s hospitality and tourism industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management 19 (3), 327341. Rangaswamy, A., Burke, R. R., Oliva, T. A. (1993). Brand equity and the extendibility of brand names. International Journal of compare and contrast essay, Research in Marketing, 10, 6175.

Rao, A. Sfsu Creative? R., Ruekert, R.W. (1994, Fall). Brand alliances as signals of essay, product quality. Sloan Management Review, pp. 8797. Rao, A.R., Ruckert, R., (1994). Brand alliances as signals of product quality. Sloan Management Review 36 (1), 8797. Rao,A. R., Qu, L., Ruekert, R.W. (1999). Signaling unobservable product quality through a brand ally.

Journal of Marketing Research, 36, 258268. Raphel, M., 1994. Writing Faculty? Supermarketing yesterday, today and tomorrow. Direct Marketing 57 (3), 1820. Schiffman, L.G. Kanuk, L.L. 2000. Consumer Behaviour, 7th ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Schoenfelder, J. and Harris, P. 2004. “High-tech corporate branding: lessons for market research in the next decade.” Qualitative Market Research, 7,2, p. For A Essay? 91. Simon, C. Sfsu Writing? J., Sullivan, M.W. Essay The View From? (1990). The measurement and determinants of brand equity: A financial approach.Working Paper. Sfsu Creative? Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago. Simonin, B. L., Ruth, J. A. (1995). Bundling as a strategy for new product introduction: Effects on consumers’ reservation prices for the bundle, the new product, and its tie-in. Journal of Business Research, 33, 219230. Simonin, B. L., Ruth, J. A. (1998). Is a company known by the company it keeps? Assessing the spillover effects of websites, brand alliances on consumer brand attitudes.

Journal of Marketing Research, 35, 3042. Sirgy, M.J. 1982. Self-concept in consumer behaviour: a critical review. Sfsu Faculty? Journal of Consumer Research, 9(December), 287-300. Sirgy, M.J. Essay Social Websites? 1985. Using self-congruity and ideal congruity to predict purchase motivation. Journal of Business Research, 13, 195-206.

Sirgy, M.J., Grewal, D., Mangleburg, T.F., Park, J., Chon, K., Claiborne, C.B., Johar, J.S. and Berkman, H. Sfsu Creative Writing? 1997. Assessing the predictive validity of rite wright, two methods of measuring self-image congruence. Journal of the sfsu creative faculty Academy of Marketing Science, 25(3), 229-41. Sirgy, M.J., Johar, J.S., Samli, A.C. and Claiborne, C.B. 1991. From My Bedroom Window? Self-congruity vs. functional predictors of consumer behavior. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19 (Fall), 363-75. Solomon, M.R. 1983. The role of products in social stimuli: a symbolic interactionism perspective.

Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 10, 319-29. Sriram, S. et al. Faculty? 2006. “Effects of Brand Preference, Product Attributes, and Marketing Mix Variables in Technology Product Markets.” Marketing Science, vol.25, No.5, pp 440-456. Stewart, A.L., 1995. Co-branding just starting in Europe. Marketing News 29 (4), 56. Swait, J., Erdem, T., Louviere, J., Dubelaar, C. (1993). The equalization price:A measure of consumer-perceived brand equity. International Journal of researchers, Research in sfsu writing Marketing, 10, 2345.

Terpstra, V. Sarathy, R. Help A Essay? 1997. International Marketing, (7th edition), The Dryden Press, Orlando, FL. Wallendorf, M. Sfsu Writing Faculty? Arnould, E.J. And Contrast Essay? 1988. Sfsu? My favorite things: a cross cultural inquiry into object attachment, possessiveness, and social linkage. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(March), 531-47. Vaidyanathan, R., Aggarwal, P. (2000).

Strategic brand alliances: Implications of ingredient branding for a essay for college, national and private label brands. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 9, 214228. van Osselaer, S., Alba, J. W. (2000). Consumer learning and brand equity.Journal of Consumer Research, 27, 116. Voss, K. E., Gammoh, B. S. (2004). Building brands through brand alliances: Does a second ally help? Marketing Letters, 15, 147159. Wallendorf, M. Arnould, E.J. Sfsu Creative Writing Faculty? 1988. My favorite things: a cross cultural inquiry into object attachment, possessiveness, and social linkage. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(March), 531-47.

Wang, A. 2007. Chinese Consumer?s Mobile Phone Brand Status Awareness. Market Intelligence Center. Dissertation? http://mic.iii.org.tw/english/store/research_store.asp?Doc_sqno=5068. Sfsu Creative Writing Faculty? (May. 16, 2008). Washburn, J. H., Till, B. D., Priluck, R. (2004). Brand alliance and customer based brand equity effects. Essay Websites? Psychology Marketing, 21, 487508. Zinkham, G.M.

Hong, J.W. 1991. Writing Faculty? Self concept and advertising effectiveness: a conceptual model of congruency, conspicuousness, and response mode, Paper Presented in Holman, R.H. and Solomon, M.R. (Eds), Advances in Consumer Research, 18, 348-54. Association for essay social networking websites, Consumer Research, Provo: UT. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of sfsu, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. With Thesis? Each of creative faculty, us is qualified to a high level in the view my bedroom window our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to sfsu creative writing faculty your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Coursework work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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Les principales lois concernees. Loi n° 78-17 du 6 janvier 1978, notamment modifiee par la loi n° 2004-801 du 6 aout 2004 relative a l'informatique, aux fichiers et aux libertes. Loi n° 2004-575 du 21 juin 2004 pour la confiance dans l'economie numerique. Utilisateur : Internaute se connectant, utilisant le site susnomme. Informations personnelles : « les informations qui permettent, sous quelque forme que ce soit, directement ou non, l'identification des personnes physiques auxquelles elles s'appliquent » (article 4 de la loi n° 78-17 du 6 janvier 1978).