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Black Panther Party Essays (Examples) Black Panther Party. Authenticity and Legacy of the Black Panther Party. College. Real History of the an essay paper, Black Panther Party. Amidst a country of racism against application essay page African-Americans, it became inevitable that groups of colored citizens would band together to an essay paper carry out college essay page what police thought to be one of the biggest threats in national security in the United States. Bibliography Essay. In Oakland, California, there existed a highly-built tension between the African-American peoples of the neighborhood and the White police force. Because of the police brutality that led to an abuse of power and numerous violent outbreaks between the groups, the Black Panther Party was created as retaliation, one that would lead to further violence between police and BPP members. Page. political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to explore the under presentation of Blacks politically. There were eight sources used to corporate finance master complete this paper.
C.O.R.E. And Its Role in the Black Freedom Struggle. He explained that the ballot of 1964 represented a catalyst for the time being, When all of the white political crooks will be right back in college application essay cover your and my community . with their false promises which they don't intend to keep. He stated further that the Democrats lied about their support of the civil rights bill and had no actual intentions of perfect husband passing it. He stated that they were simply out to play games and were using African-Americans as bait. Essentially, Malcolm stated that all African-Americans must use the ballot or the bullet.
They must defend themselves and also push for equality and essay cover, black nationalism as well as human rights (Malcolm X). What Birdie learns is that race, like many other issues of identity is corporate master, mutable, if your appearance is passable. One thing that is college cover page, particualy interesting is that blackness is an ideal in the work, and corporate finance master, the white daughter (Birdie) is not the favored daughter. Page. Danzy Senna's 1998 novel, Caucasia, casts blackness as the ideal, desired identity. For protagonist Birdie Lee and her sister, Cole -- offspring of a civil rights movement union between their white activist mother and black intellectual father -- whiteness simply pales in comparison. (Harrison-Kahan 19) to a great degree whiteness is constructed as a lesser identity to blackness, based on cultural richness and identity, through appearance and persuasuve essay, inner knowledge. This is reflective of the Black Power movement that is idealized in this work by essay, the Black Panther movement. To be black was to be a personal source of pride and annotated introduction essay, any lessor version of it elicited#8230;#8230; [Read More] Le ROI Jones was the application, original name for the activist who became Amiri Baraka. He came from the Beat Movement to activism after the assassination of Malcolm X, taking his new name. As a writer, he was able to contribute a literate voice to the civil rights and annotated introduction, Black Power movements.
This paper will outline those contributions that he made to both of these movements, including founding the Black Arts Movement. Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat. Assata Shakur's Autobiography. notes in Public Enemy: Power to the People and the Beats, the Civil Rights Movement did not change living conditions for many black Americans: Elaine Brown, a Taste of Power. Pecola Breedlove's experiences in Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye symbolize the internalization of college application cover page sexism and thesis, racism. On the application cover, contrary, Anita Hill's willingness to stand up and speak out against a powerful male official represents the externalization of sexism and racism. Anita Hill lacks the self-hatred embodied by the character of Pecola, but in spite of her confidence and poise, lacks the power or wherewithal to undermine institutionalized sexism.
Although Hill had an opportunity to machinist research paper make the personal political, her failure to convince members of the Senate about Clarence Thomas's misconduct highlights the ongoing struggles for all women and especially women of color to reclaim power. When The Bluest Eye was written, the prospects for women of color were even poorer than they were when Anita Hill testified. Yet the outcome of essay cover Hill's testimony proves that patriarchy remains entrenched in American society. Karl Marlantes' Matterhorn. Tupac Sahkur's Poetry.
This is why people that had financial resources to paper move away from the agitated center often chose Harlem. At the same time however, We must canonize our own saints, create our own martyrs, and elevate to positions of essay cover page fame and honor black women and men who have made their distinct contributions to our history. (Garvey1, 1) standard joke about America in the 1960s claims that, if you can remember the decade, you did not live through it. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug usage, the joke also points in a serious way to social change in the decade, which was so rapid and far-reaching that it did seem like the world changed almost daily. This is the paradox of Todd Gitlin's years of hope and days of rage -- that with so much social and cultural upheaval, the problem, overall mood at any given moment in the 1960s must surely have seemed contradictory. How then can we assess the three most important themes in this broad social change? I would like to make the case that the three longest-lasting social changes came with America's forced adjustment to college essay page new realities on the international scene, with Vietnam; on the domestic scene, with the persuasuve essay, Civil Rights movement; and#8230;#8230; [Read More] Board of college application essay cover page Education of Topeka.
This case represented a watershed for Civil Rights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to annotated essay task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for college application cover page, civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of essay fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in college application essay this instance, the legislative system that ran the country. On the threshold of the Civil Rights movement, Baldwin would publish. Notes of a Native Son. Though 1953's Go Tell It On The Mountain would be. perhaps Baldwin's best known work, it is finance master, this explicitly referential. dialogic follow-up to Wright's. Native Son that would invoke some of the most compelling insights which. Baldwin would have to offer on the subject of American racism. This is, indeed, a most effectively lucid examination from the perspective of a. deeply self-conscious writer enduring the twin marks in a nation of. virulent prejudice of being both African American and homosexual.
The. result of this vantage is college essay, a set of essay essays that reaches accord with Wright's. Application Cover. conception of the socially devastating impact of math segregation on the psyche, conscience and real opportunity but also one that takes issue with the. brutality of Bigger, a decidedly negative image to be invoked of the essay cover page, black. Wright, R. (1940). Native Son. Chicago: First Perennial Classics, edition. Walter Lippmann, Drift and Mastery. Dr. An Essay Paper. Martin Luther King, Jr., on Non-Violence and Natural Law.
Fortune Affect Grand Master Flash's Political Message? However, when I visited Big Thicket National Preserve, I got an entirely different view of Texas, which actually seems to capture the essence of the state. Driving through Texas, I learned that it is an incredibly biologically diverse land, and nowhere is this biological diversity more evident than in the Big Thicket. At the park I learned that the Big Thicket has an extremely unusual level of biological diversity, and college essay cover page, actually represents almost all of the major North American geography types including swamps, forests, deserts, and plains. I was lucky enough to see some of the alligators that populate the park, but which are rarely seen by people. Finance Master. I also met some hunters who were at the preserve hoping to college photograph some of the corporate master thesis, rarer wildlife in the park: black panthers. The problem is that the panther population is application essay, not large, and they are not seen reliably at any set#8230;#8230; [Read More] Media in research paper America as the college cover, Fourth Estate: From Watergate to the Present. AP and thesis, the Lesson.
It is thus unclear how Cohen exactly deems when these silences or transformations occur. Too bad the only thing suave about him was his outfit. Even if it was only as suave as it could have been if he'd kept the Armani from application cover page Barney's (qtd in Naugle 52). This has led to reconciliation among the divided states. It is this unifying theme that is also expressed in both the book, Friday Night Lights, as well as the movie, Miracle.
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panic attack essay A Comprehensive Overview. This essay summarizes current information about varieties of panic disorder and their treatment. It is cover based almost entirely on publicly available information gathered during the years 1998 through 2000 from sources (not specifically cited) that include published research papers (most available through MedScape or MedLine), published textbooks and trade books authored by qualified mental health professionals, articles in WebMD and the New York Times, the opinions of on my clinicians specialized or experienced in the treatment of panic disorders, and the experiences of some hundreds of individuals (patients, health care professionals, and peer counselors) who have shown up in various Internet-based support communities focused on panic disorders or other anxiety disorders. The intent is to application cover page, introduce the reader to the wide body of knowledge that exists today and to problem, integrate and disseminate a variety of emerging insights often omitted from the narrow classical view of these disorders.
This essay should not take the place of medical and psychological treatment. Individuals who believe they may have panic disorder should be evaluated by a physician familiar with the complexities of panic disorders and cover page, the conditions that mimic or accompany them (some of persuasuve which are discussed herein) and should receive an appropriate combination of pharmaceutical and essay cover, psychological treatment from qualified caregivers specialized in this family of conditions. For further background and a more detailed disclaimer, please refer to the end of this document. The online source for this essay resides at http://www.panic411.org/ This essay may be linked to or printed for limited noncommercial distribution by individuals.
Any other form of dissemination or republication must be authorized in writing. Panic Disorder is a broad-brush label currently applied to finance, a variety of conditions having clearly distinct etiologies, prognoses, and college application cover page, appropriate treatment strategies. Reasonably distinct causes of panic disorder include: Phobic sensitization to symptoms of panic or anxiety #150; fear of the fear Prolonged stress Anxious or obsessive patterns of thinking Poor breathing habits, whether rooted in anxiety or other causes Emotional or existential turmoil (whether conscious or unconscious), often deriving from conflicting expectations, needs, desires, or external requirements and resulting in a subjective perception of helplessnes or paralysis. These first causes are the best known and, together with one or two concepts such as false suffocation alarm and separation anxiety, are considered the math problem games, classic causes. Page! However, they may in fact explain a minority of cases.
Other causes include: A hereditary defect in the metabolism of cholecystokinins (CCK), endocrine substances involved with regulating both digestion and stress endorphins. People with this form of panic disorder have likely exhibited escalating gastrointestinal symptomatology, often Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease or Irritable Bowel Syndrome, for years or decades before the emergence of panic attacks. Norepinephrine and secondarily epinephrine GABA Serotonin. Each of the causes of panic disorder listed above is finance master supported by a body of college application essay cover published research, except as noted in bibliography essay, the last point, where the relevance to panic disorder is college more speculative and is not suggested by the researchers but is suggested by the well-documented statistical association of panic disorder with schizophrenic families. Ongoing advancement in bibliography introduction, the scientific understanding of panic disorder may reveal etiological overlap among these factors beyond the overlap already suggested or it may lead to further differentiation. In addition, there are a number of distinct medical conditions, some commonly recognized and essay cover, others not, that mimic panic disorder or exacerbate sub-acute cases into an acute phase. Beyond the universally recognized but very rare pheochromocytoma, some of the more commonly encountered conditions are: Hypothyroidism. Screening for corporate thesis TSH levels is widely regarded among first-line clinicians as sufficient screening for thyroid abnormalities; however, such limited screening consistently fails to identify a number of hypothyroid conditions that lead to panic attacks and college cover, other serious and sometimes life-threatening pathology. Math Games! Once the condition has advanced to college application essay cover, the stage of panic disorder, correcting the underlying imbalance may not be sufficient to bring about remission, as damage to the nervous system can already have occurred at this point. Strictly speaking, it can be argued that panic disorder is a misdiagnosis when it is math problem secondary to application cover page, any of annotated bibliography essay these conditions. Application Essay Cover! In the real world, however, medicine most often fails to diagnose the underlying condition if the bibliography introduction, presenting symptoms have an anxious presentation to them.
As a result, the college cover, panic disorder population #150; on machinist research paper which all research is conducted, from college application essay cover page, which the understanding of panic disorder derives, on which treatments are tested, and to which the resulting diagnostic and on my perfect future husband, therapeutic protocols are applied #150; is exactly this mixed bag of patients and causes. Application Essay Cover! A diagnosis of panic disorder carries with it a substantial likelihood that one (or more than one) of machinist research these factors is present. Studies over long periods have established that thought patterns once thought to be causative in panic disorder, such as hypervigilance, catastrophic thinking or catastrophic interpretation of sensations, among others, emerge in many patients as a result of the condition and college application, cannot in fact be considered preexisting causative factors in those patients #150; that, for instance, the math games, tendency toward catastrophic interpretation of relatively normal physical sensations typically emerges (if at all) as a gradual consequence of the normal interpretation of catastrophic physical sensations lying outside non-afflicted individuals' realm of experience. It is also critical to understand that individuals with panic disorder do not necessarily worry more, feel more stressed, or internalize or somatize more than non-afflicted individuals. They can certainly develop such traits as a result of the college application essay page, condition (or possess them from birth), but the distinguishing factor is bibliography introduction that the cover, neurochemistry of an individual with panic disorder reacts differently from that of annotated introduction a non-afflicted individual even to low or normal levels of stress #150; or to other, idiopathic factors not necessarily related to situational stress or worry.
This difference manifests itself in a variety of ways, some of which are well understood and some of which are not. Absolute elimination of panic attacks should be one goal of treatment, because of their kindling effect. With each panic attack, the nervous system becomes more prone to experience the next one. This is not only a psychological process, but a neurological one as well. Absolute elimination of panic attacks is not a sufficient goal of treatment, much as elimination of sugar from the essay, urine of a diabetic is math problem games not a sufficient goal of treatment for diabetes. The insufficiencies, imbalances, and college application essay cover, processes leading up to the panic attacks, both neurological and psychological, are far from benign. Because of the math problem, variety of causes and processes at work in panic disorder, there are few generalizations one can make that would apply to as much as 75% of the panic population. However, subgroups and regularities do clearly exist, so there are many generalizations one can make that apply to various groups of application cover page as much as 30-40% of the finance, population.
The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV™) describes a panic attack as follows: The essential feature of a Panic Attack is a discrete period of college application essay cover page intense fear or discomfort that is accompanied by at least 4 of 13 somatic or cognitive symptoms. The attack has a sudden onset and builds to a peak rapidly (usually in 10 minutes or less) and corporate thesis, is often accompanied by a sense of imminent danger or impending doom and an urge to escape. The 13 somatic or cognitive symptoms are palpitations, sweating, trembling or shaking, discomfort, nausea or abdominal distress, dizziness or lightheadedness, derealization or depersonalization, fear of college application cover page losing control or going crazy, fear of dying, paresthesias, and chills or hot flashes. Attacks that meet all other criteria but that have fewer than 4 somatic or cognitive symptoms are referred to as limited-symptom attacks. This is an essay paper probably as good a rudimentary operational description as any, although it is only a committee consensus not based on any consideration of essential underlying mechanisms. College Application Essay! (The idea of peaking within 10 minutes is now generally agreed in the panic disorder community to apply to a minority of cases. Persuasuve! Full status panicus can persist for hours or even days. Presence of the 10-minute observation in DSM-IV is college cover page probably a legacy from the time when panic disorder was thought to be synonymous with hyperventilation syndrome.) It is important to note that anxiety or fear, although typical, is not a requirement.
Intense discomfort, whether existential or physiological, is finance master thesis equally a qualifying factor. In fact, the terms panic disorder and panic attack may do as much to obscure the true face of the disorder from clinicians and patients as they do to make it understandable to the general public. Much additional insight can be gained from college application essay page, one of the essay perfect future husband, pioneers in treating panic disorder before there was much medical understanding of the condition, Dr. Claire Weekes. She wrote of a panic attack as consisting of a first fear and a second fear. The first fear is some cluster of sensations, often untriggered, of which the patient suddenly becomes aware. These would be sensations like those broadly categorized in the DSM-IV definition (and treated in somewhat more detail under later headings in this essay). We know today that the term arousal or dysautonomia is more appropriate than fear to many patients and clusters of sensations, but Dr. Weekes' early insight is still remarkable for her time, crucial to understanding the anatomy of a panic attack, and therapeutically useful today.
The second fear is a reaction to the appearance and sensations of the first fear. Competing descriptions have emerged for why this second fear comes about #150; premonition of death, fear of suffocation, resonance with primal separation trauma, catastrophic thinking, etc. #150; but basically, Weekes' premise is that the college application, second fear is fear of the first fear. It is a rapidly escalating, possibly eruptive panic reaction that feeds back into the manifestations of the first fear or triggers new manifestations. It is Weekes' second fear that is addressed by most attempts to treat panic disorder. Research Paper! Patients are taught not to fear the primary sensations of the episode. This is an extremely useful concept in essay, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for panic attacks. In the days before any such phenomena were recognized, patients either learned to do this on their own or medicated themselves with alcohol or with medications prescribed for nerves. (Or in research, the worst cases, they were committed to psychiatric hospitals.) The aim of such CBT is to learn and internalize the idea that the primary manifestations are benign and to learn not to compound them with a panic reaction. Antidepressant medications also primarily treat this second fear, even as some of them may exacerbate the essay cover, primary manifestations of panic disorder. Nonetheless, the fact remains that the primary manifestations of a panic attack, the first fear, can be intensely unpleasant. Even without any second fear, the primary manifestations of a panic attack can have a distinctly paroxysmal quality of their own, akin to machinist paper, vomiting or a slow-motion sneeze or a slow-motion shudder or an orgasm.
They have differing causes in different cases. Various theories compete to college application cover page, provide an explanation. Some neurologists hypothesize neuroelectrical chaos. Some make an an essay paper analogy to a sort of epilepsy outside the brain, while others dispute the appropriateness or desirability of such an analogy. Others find deficiencies of college page parasympathethic neurotransmitters.
In some patients, blood oxygen saturation drops by annotated introduction, 25% or more, sometimes in response to circulatory disturbances and other times in application, response to corporate finance, underbreathing. College Essay Cover Page! It is likely that a relatively large number of transitory endocrinological and neurological manifestations exist but are difficult to observe in progress. And then there are patients in whom the primary manifestations are non-paroxysmal. Such patients may simply shake randomly and uncontrollably, or feel intense generalized abdominal distress, or experience a variety of alien internal sensations. These sensations can be frustratingly difficult to describe, since they often lie outside of shared experience, the language lacks any directly descriptive terms for them, and the non-afflicted can only try to interpret such descriptions in terms of essay perfect future personal experience. A further complication is that even medical doctors versed in panic disorder do not always know what is happening biologically or how to observe or measure it in other than superficial terms. The experience usually looks like fear and it most often, though not always, feels like fear as well, albeit sometimes a strange fear. These manifestations may continue for hours or even days in the absence of medical intervention (despite the DSM-IV's specification of essay cover 10 minutes as a norm), and not all patients experiencing these symptoms experience the escalating or eruptive second fear to which Weekes refers. It is possible to learn not to compound one's reaction when blood oxygen saturation falls substantially, or when a drop in the availability of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine below a certain threshold causes muscles to go into random spasms, or when any of a host of other manifestations appear, but absence of a compounding second fear by no means implies that one is well or feels well. One might well say of some cases #150; and annotated introduction essay, such cases are not rare #150; that over time the panic disappears but the disorder remains. On one level, that is college application essay a facetious statement, but on another level, it captures an important truth.
So while practicing psychologists and psychiatrists largely focus (wittingly or unwittingly) on treating Weekes' second fear and finance master, associated complications (primarily inter-attack anticipatory anxiety, agoraphobia, or phobic avoidance), researchers and neurologists work at expanding our understanding of the first fear, or the primary manifestations of panic attacks. The belief that most panic disorder patients are simply overreacting to normal sensations that others ignore is rapidly being relegated to history. The primary manifestations of panic attacks are often anything other than normal sensations. Researchers in whom such sensations have been induced artificially have described them as harrowing. One described them as comparable in degree of trauma to wartime experiences. Hyperarousal and the Mind-Body Duality. The conditions commonly called anxiety disorders #150; Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and other less commonly diagnosed conditions #150; are all essentially disorders of college essay cover page hyperarousal.
In the case of panic disorder, particularly of the familial variety, the hyperarousal tends to be essential (having no single, clearly identifiable cause, much like essential high blood pressure) and, at least in the early years, autonomic (expressing itself primarily or initially in persuasuve essay, physical symptoms not under conscious control). There has been a tendency in the conceptualization of these disorders (at least the first three) to think in terms of essay cover page hyperarousal specifically of the fear, alarm, and an essay paper, watchfulness circuits of the brain, but in college page, truth the hyperarousal tends to be more generalized in nature. It may even lack an intuitively anxious presentation. Corporate! Because typically anxious arousal is more likely to application, be noticed, clinicians' unawareness of the generalized nature of the hyperarousal involved can lead to underdiagnosis of hyperarousal disorders or to too narrow a focus on treatment of specific symptoms. Mental arousal comprises thoughts and feelings, both conscious and unconscious. It may express itself in many ways, some of math games them subjectively negative (such as worry or non-specific agitation), some of college essay cover them subjectively positive (such as anticipation), some of essay them constructive (such as productive focus on a project), some of them destructive (such as constant worry about improbable what-if scenarios). Mental arousal resides in the higher levels of the brain, those responsible for conscious and unconscious thoughts and feelings. Autonomic arousal consists of many bodily functions that are not under volitional control, such as heartbeat, sweating, digestion, and application cover page, others; and some bodily functions that are partially under volitional control, such as breathing and excretion, so that they self-regulate in normal circumstances but are subject to conscious or unconscious intervention from math problem, higher levels of the brain.
Autonomic arousal resides nearly everywhere in the body outside the higher levels of the college application essay page, brain, including the an essay paper, nervous, endocrinological, and college application essay cover, immune systems and the most primitive parts of the brain that regulate autonomic function. It is an axiom of psychosomatic medicine that where the mind goes, the body will follow. There is, however, an equally true but often neglected corollary to that maxim, namely that where the body goes, the mind will follow. Each type of arousal disorder and each individual case has its characteristic mixture of mental and autonomic arousal and its own characteristic relationship between the two. It turns out to make little difference in panic disorder whether arousal is subjectively perceived as negative or positive, as anxiety or as pleasurable excitement. It is the fact of arousal in itself that primes the body to experience panic attacks and then triggers the attacks. Persuasuve Essay! This is true whether the arousal stems from external stimulation or from internal factors, whether from primarily mental influences or primarily autonomic ones such as reactions to medication, food, heat, or panicogenic inhalants (including certain common air pollutants). The classical view of anxiety disorders is that mental hyperarousal is the impetus behind autonomic hyperarousal. This is an understandable oversimplification, because it describes what is true much of the time in normally functional individuals. It ignores the key point, however, that these are precisely disorders of arousal, and that there are various forms of these disorders. An arousal disorder may be driven by intrinsic hyperarousal of the college essay cover page, mind, by intrinsic hyperarousal of the math problem, autonomic nervous system, or by an aberration in the way either one influences the other.
And whatever the primary impetus of the disorder, secondary effects nearly always emerge to complicate the condition and confuse its characterization #150; effects seen in the mental and college application essay cover, autonomic domains and in the way that the corporate finance thesis, two domains influence each other. Yes, the college application essay page, mind can arouse the body and it can calm the body. It can even make the body ill, as one sees in the traditional view of problem games stress and psychosomatic medicine; and it can heal the body, as one sees in the response of essay cover such conditions as cancer to the influence of psychotherapy #150; although thankfully, one does not see anyone advocating treatment of the on my perfect future husband, mind as the college essay page, primary care for cancer patients. (One hopes that the average treatment of panic disorder will some day be so enlightened…) However, the reverse is equally true: the body can arouse the mind and it can calm the mind; and it can even make the mind ill or heal the mind. One sees one obvious example in the relaxing (or in some cases invigorating) effects of massage #150; indeed the persuasuve essay, ability of massage therapy to influence the course of mental and even physical illness. Another example is found in college cover, the mental illnesses #150; depression, obsession, anxiety #150; that frequently develop as secondary consequences of chronic organic illness.
Food reactions distinct to certain genetic groups constitute another example, as do arousal reactions to certain antibiotics and anticholinergic medications that do not act directly on higher levels of the brain. The spectrum connecting mental and autonomic arousal could be compared to a pushme-pullyou, the problem, fictional creature from Dr. College Page! Dolittle with two front ends and two brains. The beast is particularly unpredictable in individuals with anxiety/arousal disorders. The mind can be driving the disorder with the body mostly along for the ride. Or the body can be driving the disorder, with the mind doing its best to resist. Treatment of the mind can accomplish surprising effects on biology, but this is compensation, and it does have its limits. If this were not so, then psychotherapy would be the primary treatment against for instance epilepsy, a condition with certain similarities to some forms of panic disorder and a condition that is sometimes partially responsive to psychotherapy. So a good understanding of the corporate finance master thesis, mind-body connection in panic disorder generally and in any specific patient is essential to college application cover page, intelligent diagnosis and effective treatment. Notwithstanding the mind-body overlap, the essence of annotated introduction each case is cover usually to annotated introduction essay, be found in some intrinsic factor on college page one side or the other. The reader should know that the medical community currently applies the term dysautonomia to an abnormality in the self-regulation of autonomic arousal and applies the term anxiety to an abnormality in the level of mental arousal, including any manifestations of autonomic arousal presumed correctly or incorrectly to derive from conscious or unconscious thoughts or feelings.
This conceptual bias tends to hobble treatment, but it is important for the reader to understand the bibliography essay, doctor's likely perspective at college application cover page the outset of the relationship. Most of the clinical progress currently taking place in the medical treatment of panic disorder occurs through the persuasuve, process of patients exposing their doctors to the body of research relevant to college essay cover page, their own variant of panic disorder. Dysautonomia and its Paroxysms. The panic attacks in panic disorders are usually just the tip of the iceberg. Just as significant as panic attacks per math problem, se is the chronic dysautonomia present in panic disorder. A number of expressions of dysautonomia are often present for extended periods in essay page, panic disorder patients, even in math problem games, the absence of frank panic attacks. Indeed panic attacks could in most cases be called dysautonomic paroxysms, and the disorder could reasonably be called paroxysmal dysautonomia. The following is a reasonably comprehensive but certainly not exhaustive list of mostly dysautonomic symptoms associated with panic disorder. (Not all of these are strictly speaking dysautonomic, though most are, but this is college essay page a convenient place to gather symptoms frequently associated with panic disorder.) Any given person is likely to experience only a handful of these symptoms, though they may be frequent and intense. The point of such an extensive list is to provide reassurance to an essay paper, someone diagnosed with panic disorder who is experiencing any of these very diverse symptoms that they can indeed be merely symptomatic of panic disorder and not necessarily a sign that some other medical or biological condition is present.
Heart-and circulation-related: Rapid, irregular, or forceful, loud heartbeat. Sensation of skipped heartbeats. Chest pain. College Essay Page! Low or high blood pressure, often with remarkably wide swings. Panic disorder patients are sometimes diagnosed with atypical mitral valve prolapse or mitral valve prolapse syndrome.
It is characteristic of machinist research panic disorder that symptoms from several of the application page, groups above occur together. (panic disorder is a polysystemic condition, which is one factor leading to machinist research, poor recognition, diagnosis, and treatment.) It is also normal for cover page some varying level of these symptoms to math games, be present much or most of the time for essay page uncontrolled patients, but for the symptoms periodically to escalate to the point of paroxysm followed by relief of varying duration. It is common for panic attacks to occur during sleep, especially in patients with the gene for cholecystokinin-related bile reflux panic disorder. In many respects, these dysautonomic symptoms ought to be of more concern to clinicians than the essay future, panic attacks themselves, except that patients experiencing panic attacks are at a strikingly elevated risk of suicide. Normal research subjects who have had panic attacks induced by the administration of GABA antagonists have described the experience as completely unbearable and college essay cover page, the worst experience of an essay paper their lives. (It is conceptually interesting that although synthetic panic attacks can be created with some degree of success under laboratory conditions using serotonin depleters, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, cholecystokinin, sodium lactate, and application page, norepinephrine, no class of substances but perhaps cholecystokinin comes anywhere close to the panicogenic effect of essay future a GABA antagonist. Page! This suggests that the old GABA-based conceptualization of panic disorder in the wild was more correct than newer serotonin-based conceptualizations.) In a significant number of patients, dysautonomic symptoms and panic attacks emerge not during periods of long-term or short-term stress, but after the cessation of such stress or during its period of abatement. This is probably true in particular of the persuasuve, patients with cholecystokinin abnormalities.
In a significant number of patients, mental/emotional anxiety waxes and wanes, and the dysautonomia waxes and wanes, but there is no identifiable pattern of correlation. It is in cover, these patients that the neurological dimension of the disorder is the most obvious. There is an interesting minority of patients who experience severe dysautonomia, even to the point of physical incapacitation, without experiencing what they themselves would call a panic attack. This is not too difficult for research many sufferers of panic disorder to understand, particularly after therapy or years of experience with the condition have desensitized (to varying degrees) the fear response that can be aroused by the dysautonomia. One experiences all of the escalating dysautonomic arousal without the paroxysmal culmination that provides temporary relief. People who have not experienced a panic attack can perhaps understand this distinction by thinking of sexual arousal and orgasm as an analogy. It is possible to college application essay, be highly aroused without experiencing orgasm. Similarly, these non-paroxysmal dysautonomic states can be very intense #150; indeed they can be more intense than the states that would induce paroxysmal panic in other panic disorder patients or in normal individuals. Current thinking distinguishes between Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and panic disorder largely (though not entirely) on the basis of absence or presence of panic attacks.
But in some respects, these conditions appear much of the time to be differing degrees of the same biological disorder, and math problem, if it is useful to distinguish at all, it might be more diagnostically and therapeutically useful to apply a distinction at right angles to application essay page, the current one, recognizing one disorder that is primarily somatic/dysautonomic and another that is primarily cognitive/emotional. Granted there is overlap, but there does appear often to be an etiological distinction in reality. It is common practice to corporate finance, consider panic disorder controlled when panic attacks are eliminated. However, the goals of treatment should actually include elimination of most or all of the associated dysautonomia, as the dysautonomia is symptomatic of uncontrolled underlying pathology and in some cases exacerbates the underlying pathology (just as uncontrolled panic attacks escalate through neurological as well as psychological mechanisms). Panic disorder of biological genesis is chronic and mildly progressive. Although some clinicians claim encouraging cure rates, usually in carefully selected groups, studies have shown that when one looks at patients over periods of time four years or longer, a preponderance of patients experience relapse in the absence of college application ongoing pharmaceutical treatment. This is not always evident to treating clinicians (who have been known to math games, claim cure rates as high as a thoroughly suspicious 100%), because patients frequently change doctors if they perceive that their treatment was unsympathetic or ineffective; and relapse is readily perceived as a sign that treatment was ineffective if the treating physician has created unrealistic expectations of a permanent cure or has exerted subtle pressure to recover or to tough out minor episodes. It is college essay often stated that panic attacks do not lead to machinist research, heart attacks. Application Page! This is true as far as it goes; however, sufferers of uncontrolled panic disorder are at a quadrupled risk for eventually experiencing a serious cardiac event. For instance, QT prolongation (a type of subtle heart arrhythmia) is present in a disproportionate number of undertreated panic disorder patients.
In fact, a variety of arrhythmias are observed with disproportionate frequency in panic disorder patients, though many of them are only observable during an finance episode or during the lead-in to an episode. The paroxysm of the college application essay page, attack itself may serve to correct the arrhythmia. One of the annotated bibliography essay, greatest health risks for sufferers of panic disorder as they grow older is unrecognized serious illness that would be diagnosed earlier in college application essay cover page, other patients. Machinist! If it is application cover page true that a certain proportion of panic disorder patients tend toward hypervigilance and problem, hypochondria, particularly in the years just prior to and following correct diagnosis with panic disorder, yet it is also documented that primary care physicians and many specialists tend to essay page, dismiss the complaints of annotated essay patients bearing a diagnosis of panic disorder (or generalized anxiety disorder) without sufficient foundation for doing so. Panic disorder patients get organic illness just as often as other patients. They just don't get it diagnosed as often. In fact, it has been clearly shown that patients with anxiety disorders go longer before diagnosis of serious conditions than do patients without these stigmatizing diagnoses, and physicians have cause to be more concerned with the potential for college essay medical error and liability. Particularly problematic is the practice in some emergency rooms of shunting panic disorder or GAD patients presenting with chest pain or other possible cardiac symptomatology into psychiatric observation without sufficient examination. Machinist Paper! There are documented instances of college application cover page fatalities resulting from such systematized negligence. On the other side of the math problem games, same coin, emergency rooms also represent frequently missed opportunities to identify potential cases of panic disorder.
Many ER doctors are poorly trained to recognize panic disorder, particularly in its pre-emergent guise of non-paroxysmal dysautonomia. This is not surprising given the diagnostic criteria in use today. Pre-emergent panic disorder often does not look much like GAD, as it is is likely to be primarily somatic until the first string of panic attacks initiates the cycle of fear or worry and cognitive-emotional-behavioral disturbance. Unfortunately, even when ER doctors do recognize panic disorder, they are still as likely as not to dismiss it as neurosis unworthy of serious attention and counseling or referral. Patients are still likely to be told to breathe into a paper bag next time, although this is in college application page, fact more likely to trigger than to stave off a panic attack for problem games a sufferer of page biologically rooted panic disorder. In fact, panic disorder patients are often told (not asked) that they are claustrophobic, or anxious travelers, when in fact their bodies are reacting in predictable and well-understood ways to essay future husband, the elevated levels of CO2 present in poorly ventilated spaces full of breathing bodies. This ties in with the false suffocation alarm interpretation of panic disorder, although this theory has become less prominent in the field as other mechanisms have become better documented.
This is not to say that the interpretation will prove to be wrong, merely that it is not universal. And in point of fact, it has not as yet been proven to college cover page, be anything; hypotheses and machinist research paper, assertions relating to panic disorder must be subjected to the same standard of application cover proof as other, non-psychology-related, statements of medical doctrine. One finds that clinicians who demonstrate admirable scientific rigor in making non-psychiatric diagnoses are given to comically whimsical leaps of faith in attributing patients' symptoms to psychosomatic processes. (Hence the an essay paper, derisive terms psycho-so-magic and psycho-so-magical that one sometimes encounters in patient discussions.) Note: There is ample research around the false suffocation alarm to indicate that elevated CO2 levels do in fact provoke hyperarousal and panic attacks in a subset of the panic disorder population. At issue is the histrionic labeling of this reaction on the assumption that all individuals ought to experience identical toxic reactions to CO2 at identical concentrations. One might just as easily label hypoglycemic states as false starvation alarm reactions. It is not the alarm per se that is false, it is merely its characterization as one of life-threatening suffocation or starvation that is false #150; and that is not the patient's error of interpretation, as the term implies, but the diagnostician's. (And when this model was extended to a population with anxiety from pulmonary disease, the alarm sadly turned out college, not to persuasuve essay, be so false.) There are a number of conditions frequently associated with panic disorder. Some of application page them may be cause or effect of the annotated bibliography introduction, disorder, while others are merely associated. It is important for physicians to recognize the associations, because sometimes it is difficult to treat the associated condition if the underlying or associated panic disorder is left untreated.
GERD, IBS. Essay Page! Probably the conditions most universally present in panic disorder are Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease and essay on my perfect husband, Irritable Bowel Syndrome. In approximately 40% of panic disorder patients, both are caused primarily though not entirely by the excessive and irregular secretion of bile so characteristic of hereditary panic disorder. In some patients the effects are mostly upward in the GI tract, resulting in excessive stomach acid secreted to neutralize the bile and leading to GERD #150; sometimes with associated asthma or sinusitis that is not recognized as related to panic disorder or GERD. (Gastric swelling and college essay cover, consequent pressure on the diaphragm or a nerve center has been proposed as one possible cause of abnormal breathing in essay on my perfect future husband, panic disorder; such a suggestion is supported by the fact that subjective difficulty in breathing related to panic disorder can be alleviated in some individuals by pressing fingertips downward into the abdomen not far below the sternum.) Often patients will have had GERD or IBS for essay years or decades, frequently even since childhood, before the emergence of panic disorder diagnosable by current DSM-IV criteria. On My! Even panic disorder patients who do not show overt symptoms of GERD or IBS often exhibit the characteristic abnormalities of bile secretion. The combination of application essay cover page Xanax and Carafate has been found to be remarkably effective in treating these conditions in persuasuve, panic disorder patients; indeed therapeutic response of GERD or IBS to this combination can almost be regarded as a diagnostic criterion. (It is not known why Carafate is often so much more effective in the panic disorder population than newer drugs like acid blockers and proton pump inhibitors, but the phenomenon is distinct.) As one follows any group of panic disorder patients over a period of application essay cover years, half or more do apparently keep the diagnosis of essential panic disorder. However, every year a certain percentage are found to have an games organic condition the diagnosis and treatment of which resolves the panic disorder. Obviously the organic condition, or at least a tendency to it, was present years before it became overt enough to college essay, trigger normal diagnostic flags. A panic disorder patient should be prepared to believe and to accept the benign diagnosis of panic disorder for the rest of their life. But clinicians and patients alike should be alert to changes and should recognize that for instance normal ranges on laboratory tests apply to a statistical abstraction and not necessarily to every individual.
Often individuals experience well-being only within a narrower range of values than the stated range (which varies from bibliography introduction essay, lab to lab in any case), and on some types of tests, even the optimal center point may be different for application essay page different individuals. Panic disorders, the problem, comorbid conditions mentioned above, and application page, the possible reasons for comorbidity offer much fertile and bibliography essay, largely unturned ground for college application research in an essay paper, the coming years. There are quite a few chicken-and-egg questions raised by just the college essay, associations discussed above, not to mention associations that will emerge with more research. One thing that is clear even now, though, is that with or without statistical documentation, most of the associations discussed above are widely recognized in the panic disorder community. On Medicine As Biology. Those of us without a medical education tend to think of our doctor as a kind of essay perfect future master detective biologist. It's a natural assumption but it reflects an important misunderstanding of medicine as art or science. A doctor is only a master biologist in the loose sense that an architect or a structural engineer would be a master physicist. Application Cover! After a few notoriously rigorous courses in certain traditional elements of an essay paper human biology, a medical education branches rather quickly into the study of cover page established medical protocols for diagnosis and treatment of corporate finance master well-recognized conditions. When a doctor examines and diagnoses us, he is not, as we might easily imagine, unraveling the mysteries of our biological individuality. Rather he is comparing our presentation to a multitude of checklists that would match us to application cover page, one of the standard diagnoses and math problem, treatments he has (in the college essay cover, best case) mastered.
American medicine in particular prides itself in being based on statistical models of disease. The European medical tradition recognizes the statistical perspective and and the case-based or anecdotal perspective as complementary halves of a complete picture, halves that are roughly analogous to persuasuve, macroeconomics and college application page, microeconomics. But the bibliography introduction essay, case-based perspective interests American medicine only insofar as cases reflect what is typical of the statistical perspective on a patient's illness. Doctors are explicitly trained to gloss over college application and filter out the idiosyncrasies that conflict with the accepted model of the condition. Thus many will persist with a favored class of medication despite a patient's obvious adverse effects or lack of response. It is revealing that the doctor's impatience will be with the patient, not with the essay perfect husband, medication. They will ignore patients' reports of unusual symptoms as irrelevant when in fact they could be highly relevant to unraveling the individual mystery and college application page, finding a treatment that is effective for the individual patient. In such cases, the machinist paper, doctor is not treating the patient, he is treating the cover page, statistical model of the corporate finance thesis, patient's diagnosis (a diagnosis which may or may not be correct) . Nowhere does this approach to medicine fail more spectacularly than in a condition like panic disorder, where it is college page so difficult to define what is typical. But it fails in other contexts as well.
The author of this document himself was evaluated by 14 doctors over a span of games more than 10 years before aldosteronism was finally noticed, proven, and identified as the root cause of all the application cover page, symptoms that had received such a variety of diagnoses and misdiagnoses (including panic disorder) over essay that time. Mumblings about college application essay cover page, anxious patient and panic attacks were always somewhere in essay perfect, the background. In the end, he himself had to college cover, suggest the diagnosis that proved to be correct and argue vigorously for the definitive test that clinched the diagnosis. Unfortunately, the corporate thesis, author's experience is not at all unusual. Such outcomes are commonplace in panic disorder support groups.
They may even be more the rule than the exception. College Essay Cover! The overlooked diagnoses vary, but the an essay paper, experience is the college page, same. Patients go years and even decades getting hurried, substandard and frequently condescending care from doctors (often at premier practices or medical facilities) who jump to hasty conclusions and an essay paper, rush to try out the latest psychotrophic medication. Often the final and application cover page, correct diagnosis is a condition thought to be rare, such as celiac disease, aldosteronism, or thyroid dysfunction, but which appears to be strikingly common in the panic disorder population. Sometimes these failures of diagnosis occur because a doctor who might recognize a single unmistakable result on a routine test or some other unmistakable clinical indicator is not good at recognizing a constellation of persuasuve borderline results or suggestive indicators that must be considered in combination before they add up, as in the author's case, to a clear picture. More often such failures of diagnosis reflect a simple failure to be meticulous. College Application Cover Page! So patients suffer years of adverse medication reactions, stigma, and other woes that often include lost jobs, lost mobility, lost careers, lost marriages, and lost financial security.
Then a single meticulous doctor provides a correct diagnosis and correct treatment, and the neurotic symptoms magically evaporate. One truth is abundantly clear in all of thesis this: the extent to which our presentation is atypical is almost precisely the extent to which our doctors will fail to correctly diagnose and application cover page, treat us. They are trained to ignore the atypical, not to seek an explanation or accommodation for it. And there are virtually no typical cases in panic disorder or the conditions that mimic it. There are only typical treatments. There have been studies showing that doctors almost universally overstate their treatment successes and understate their patients' adverse reactions. Some studies have even explored psychological reasons for the disconnect from reality. But it is also easy to essay perfect, explain by natural selection. There are many doctors who treat panic disorder ineffectively and who fail to diagnose medical conditions masquerading as panic disorder.
There are only a few who routinely do well at it. It is well documented that most panic patients see multiple doctors (averaging ten or more) before finally receiving effective treatment or correct diagnosis. Almost every one of college application page those earlier doctors assumes that treatment has been successful, or at the very least fails to an essay paper, receive any feedback on the negative outcome or misdiagnosis. Essay Page! Thus there will inevitably be a large majority of doctors who think they are doing much better than they actually are. One could well object, in cases of delayed diagnosis, that then it's not panic disorder. Machinist Paper! But if all the patients who have had this experience or will have it in the future could omnisciently be removed from the population that forms the core of the panic disorder industry, it's not clear that there would be many left. Certainly much that the medical community now thinks it knows about the condition would no longer be valid in such an omnisciently sifted patient population, because most of the current knowledge (such as it is) has been derived from this heterogeneous population.
Unfortunately, all of this talk about undiagnosed and misdiagnosed conditions feeds into the worst and college essay cover, most common fear in the panic disorder community, namely that some terrible condition has gone unnoticed, one that will kill us before it is discovered. Essay! The bad news is essay cover page that undiagnosed medical conditions are very common in essay perfect husband, the panic disorder population. But the good news it that they are almost never fatal conditions. The fatal conditions do get diagnosed quickly. College Application Page! In fact, finding things that will kill you is the annotated, one thing that modern American medicine does better than anything else. By the time a panic disorder patient has undergone EKGs, MRIs, and all of the other routine technological marvels requiring little initiative or detective work from a doctor, the patient can be confident there is no undetected brain tumor, no undetected adrenal tumor, no potentially fatal heart arrhythmia, and no other killer lurking unseen in application essay cover, the background. On My Perfect Husband! The conditions that commonly mimic panic disorder are almost never fatal. But it is inarguably difficult to get adequate testing.
Out of every 30-60 Americans with celiac disease (a common mimic of panic disorder), only application cover, one will be diagnosed during his or her lifetime. Countless celiac patients have written in online panic support groups about the long battle for on my testing that they had to college cover, wage before getting the definitive tests and an essay paper, a correct diagnosis. For aldosteronism, the figure would be around one out of about 10-30 who ever receives the correct diagnosis. For autoimmune hypothyroidism, the prospect of diagnosis is presumably brighter, but many people write of waging long battles before the diagnosis was made. Panic disorder or the syndrome of college application essay page its symptoms, even when caused by some other condition makes it hard for the patient to practice acceptance. Yet it is essay vital to do so. We should recognize and accept that if we had a fatal condition, it would be noticed. We should recognize and accept that there may very well be some non-fatal condition causing our symptoms that has not yet been noticed #150; and that is not a catastrophe . We should recognize and application essay page, accept that in the doctor corps, as in every other walk of finance thesis life, there is a small percentage (maybe 5%?) of people who do their work really well, a somewhat larger minority who are adequate for garden-variety patients (which we are not), and a full 50% who are below average (not to mention inadequate). We must be our own detectives and advocates, but we should do so methodically, patiently, and without rancor. We should ignore the condescension and hostility of essay cover page doctors threatened by our persistence or our discontent.
People can only be as good as they are, and annotated bibliography introduction essay, it is college essay page futile to hold anyone's mediocrity against them. We should never remain locked in conflict with an unresponsive doctor, but should undramatically find another. We should remember that statistically, it will probably be the tenth or eleventh doctor who turns out to understand our condition and its treatment. Every new doctor is a step toward the right one. We should not be ashamed of master looking for the right doctor, not be intimidated by college page, charges of doctor shopping. If there is corporate master a treatable and unnoticed medical condition underlying our case, it will be our own initiative and nobody else's that leads to a doctor who can diagnose it. But in many cases, maybe half or more, no such underlying medical condition will ever be found, and we should accept that probability as well. The fact that panic is so hereditary (and genetically linked to a variety of other conditions) makes it clear that biology is cover a strong factor, but not every biological problem has found its way into the protocols of medicine. We should accept that as well. It is very possible to an essay paper, live a good life with panic disorder if only college application essay page, we find a doctor who can practice appropriate and individualized treatment. We should seek a therapist as well, one who can teach us to use the mind to compensate for failings of the body.
The first resolution must be to live as well as possible within the parameters of the persuasuve, condition. Often correct medication and competent therapy can lead to college cover, virtual normality. The search for explanations should never become more important than making the most of the annotated, function and possibilities we have. The search for another explanation is like prospecting for gold: it is a long-term quest, one in which we must pace ourselves wisely and one in which there may never be a payoff. On Treatment Options. The most commonly used treatments for panic disorder, in no particular order, are Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (or a special variant known as Panic Control Therapy), various meditation or progressive relaxation practices, medication with tricyclic antidepressants, medication with SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, another class of antidepressant agent), medication with benzodiazepines (a form of minor tranquilizer), medication with anti-epileptic agents other than benzodiazepines, and occasionally hypnosis or medication with one or another class of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs or RIMAs) or antipsychotic agents. Hypnosis is relatively uncommon because it is seldom effective for non-phobic panic and can easily worsen the situation. Attempts to unearth and treat the underlying trauma are usually misguided because if the page, initial diagnosis of paper panic disorder has been rigorous, it appears that there is seldom an underlying trauma to unearth. Medication with MAOIs is relatively uncommon because of the dietary restrictions involved and application cover page, the danger of annotated essay hypertensive crisis.
Some clinicians are working with reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors, but so far there appears to be little data on success. In listening to patients, it becomes apparent that there are patients who respond well to each of the therapies in common use, either alone or in combination. It appears somewhat common and essay cover page, highly advisable, for example, to supplement medication with CBT or PCT, but one also sees combinations of medications. Reactions to medications appear to be highly variable in panic disorder #150; less consistent, for instance, than reactions to anti-hypertensive medications in the treatment of hypertension. An Essay Paper! One sees that some patients respond negatively to several medications or classes of application essay cover medications, only to respond well to another. Some patients report that SSRI medications foster a return to spontaneity and exuberance, but others report a range of negative outcomes ranging from a dulling out of emotions or even physical sensations (resulting in serious accidental burns or cuts) at one extreme to unbearable agitation at the other. Similarly, some patients report a normalizing effect from benzodiazepines, but others experience negative outcomes ranging from stupefaction or emotional dulling at one extreme to awkward or even dangerous disinhibition at the other. It seems quite clear in talking to patients that reactions are highly individual, and it seems probable that this is due to differences in thesis, respective patients' underlying biochemical disturbances. (A number of studies have pointed out that generally speaking, antidepressants seem to work well when the primary manifestations are of a psychological character, while benzodiazepines seem to work better when the primary manifestations are of college cover page a somatic character. Here again we see evidence that there are separate etiologies underlying such a systematic difference in efficacy #150; that indeed distinct conditions are probably involved: a sort of GAD plus panic attacks and a dysautonomia with paroxysms and sometimes secondary worry.) It appears that few psychiatrists are aware of the an essay paper, distinct varieties of panic disorder outlined in the beginning of this essay, although the essay cover, research documenting them is readily available in research journals and correct identification of the variety of panic disorder is critical to the correct choice of machinist research paper treatment.
Moreover, it appears that few cases of panic disorder are even referred for psychiatric evaluation in the first place. Instead, primary care physicians tend to feel competent to diagnose and treat the condition. A typical PCP is college cover page even less aware of the complexities of panic disorder than a psychiatrist, and will almost certainly regard the condition as invariably a serotonin deficiency (which term is itself a considerable oversimplification of math games one of several serotonin-related pathologies sometimes present in depression, panic disorder, anxiety disorders generally, and some other conditions not relevant to college application essay page, this discussion). So while it is quite apparent that reactions to panic disorder medications and the correct choice of on my future husband medication vary by individual and by subtype of panic disorder, it also becomes apparent in listening to patients that many if not most physicians prescribe not according to what should or does work for college application essay individual patients, but according to what works for the individual doctor. One doctor treats virtually all cases of panic disorder with SSRI medications; another treats virtually all cases with tricyclic antidepressants; another treats virtually all cases with benzodiazepines. Patients who respond poorly to that class of medication typically suffer through several trials of four to an essay paper, six weeks each before changing doctors. It is not uncommon for a panic disorder patient to have gone through a number of physicians (with considerable personal suffering and sometimes loss of application essay cover page employment) before responding well to annotated, treatment. Oddly, it is the patient rather than the physician who is college essay labeled non-responsive when one size does not fit all.
(Patients also tend to machinist research, be unaware of the large proportion of college essay cover page doctors who have conflicts of interest in the form of subtle and an essay paper, sometimes not-so-subtle financial incentives to prescribe particular medications. In this respect, the ethical canons in medicine appear, at least based on actual practice, to be remarkably lax in comparison to those of other licensed professions.) It is application unfortunate that individual response is typically ignored in prescribing for panic disorder, because the corporate master, more one examines the essay cover page, evidence, the more it becomes apparent that any given individual is likely to respond really well to essay, a benzodiazepine or to college essay, an antidepressant, but not interchangeably. Response to one of these classes of essay drugs is likely to be optimal, while response to the other will be marginal at best. A small minority of patients seem to essay, need both, but it can also happen that the two types of introduction meds antagonize each other instead of complementing each other. College Page! This is contrary to the prevailing treatment practice, but at present, practice appears to be based more on agenda (or sometimes on tradition, lore, or peer pressure) than on objective evidence. Finance Master! Indeed most non-specialists appear to be wholly unfamiliar with the actual evidence, which is often at college application page odds with the claims of the salespeople (most of whose education is in sales,marketing, or communication) on whose counsel they rely.
The first rule of treatment in panic disorder should be: If it's currently working, don't even think about changing it! It is utterly appalling to see the numbers of patients who have been controlled and highly functional with one strategy of master management over the course of years, only to move to a new state or change employer (and thus change insurance company) or have their doctor retire, and then have complete havoc wrought in their medical condition, their emotional state, their marriage, and even their employment and financial status, all because an inept and college page, overly self-assured doctor sought to adhere to an essay paper, one or another of the continually emerging vogues in prescribing. Essay Cover! One need only search MedLine to see the course of these successive vogues over the last two decades, and an essay paper, it is clear that what is in today will be out a few years from now. There are choices to make in treating any newly emergent case of college application cover panic disorder, and humane, flexible, patient-responsive experimentation may be necessary. But experimentation with patients who are functional and satisfied is unconscionable, should be regarded as malpractice, and has indeed been grounds for successful malpractice litigation. Undermedication of chronic anxiety or dysautonomia is just as irresponsible and just as ripe for judicial redress as undermedication of chronic pain. On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.
(and Panic Control Therapy) A large proportion of patients undergoing CBT or PCT report that they have experienced significant benefits from paper, such therapy, particularly in the area of coping with their symptoms, reducing the severity of their panic attacks, and improving their overall well-being. However, very few report that CBT or PCT alone is sufficient to application cover, eliminate or even necessarily to reduce the number of annotated bibliography their panic attacks. Although there have been reports in page, the past of an essay paper very high success rates with CBT alone, a recent study revisited some of the results and came to quite different conclusions. College Application! David Barlow, Ph.D., one of the leading figures in psychological treatment of anxiety, commented on this study with the laudable observation that The one thing that we've learned . now that more data are in, is that we're not really as good as we thought we were. An Essay Paper! This was refreshing candor and integrity in a field where professional pride has often taken priority over a dispassionate and college application cover, monetarily disinterested look at the relative merits of various approaches to an essay paper, treatment. One would expect the college page, best results of paper CBT or PCT to be achieved when the application essay, condition is rooted in anxious or obsessive patterns of annotated thought. However, it is application cover not always easy to distinguish such cases. Certainly it seems incumbent to treat such thinking whenever it is present, whether it is a preexisting causative factor or merely a result of the disorder. Further investigation is needed into the effects of CBT and PCT on problem games the dysautonomia associated with panic disorder.
Although a patient is college essay page likely to be very grateful (and at essay a sharply reduced risk for college application essay cover suicide) after learning to experience less severe panic attacks in the face of persuasuve prolonged dysautonomia or dysautonomic paroxysm, little has been gained from a medical perspective if the patient nonetheless experiences prolonged and application essay cover page, frequent dysautonomic episodes. There is a certain value in teaching patients to cope with the persuasuve essay, symptoms of medically uncontrolled essential dysautonomia (especially if such treatment may reduce actual symptoms), just as there is value in teaching patients to cope with the symptoms of other chronic medical conditions. College Essay Page! Nonetheless, such therapy should not be substituted in whole for treatment of the medical condition itself. Meditation and progressive relaxation techniques are helpful for some people. Meditation techniques need to be undertaken with the understanding that dissociative states like those it may promote are not always desirable in panic disorder patients #150; that indeed they can trigger panic attacks in themselves or simply be more difficult to terminate for individuals with anxiety disorders. (There is a fair amount of controversy around meditation in annotated bibliography introduction, panic disorder, with strong opinions for and against.) And individuals undertaking either meditation or progressive relaxation need to understand that even when the college, practices are beneficial, a panic attack is most likely to occur during the transition from finance master, a state of high arousal to college application essay cover page, one of lower arousal.
This appears to be true of all or most panic disorder patients, but it is especially noticeable among those who have the aberrant CCK gene. Obviously it is desirable to make the transition from high to low arousal, but most people would prefer to do so without triggering panic attacks in the process. Learning effective relaxation may thus be more complicated for the panic disorder patient than for other individuals. On Tricyclic Treatment. A growing number of persuasuve essay clinicians now treat panic disorder using tricyclic medications, often after having used SSRI treatment for a number of years and then reverted to the use of tricyclics based on the number of adverse patient experiences. Tricyclics seem to college essay cover page, work well for a minority of panic disorder patients. Games! Statistically, some tricyclics are the most successful type of antidepressant for treating panic disorder, and those statistics were compiled in an era of less brazen manipulation of clinical trial data than we see today.
However, due to the parasympathetic insufficiency so frequently present in college essay cover page, the disorder, a certain subset of panic disorder patients seem particularly prone to excessive cardiac stimulation from this class of annotated bibliography introduction medications, which increase the availability of norepinephrine. Tricyclics are also inherently less safe than most modern antidepressants, with substantially lower margins for dosage error or deliberate misuse. Tricyclic medications also reduce the availability of acetylcholine, and reduced availability of acetylcholine is believed to be implicated in the mechanism of panic disorder. Their overall effect is to increase autonomic arousal, so like the SSRIs, they seem to work best where the college essay cover, panic disorder is essay of psychological origin or has highly prounounced psychological manifestations. On SSRI Treatment. Among clinicians new to treating panic disorder or new to college application essay page, using SSRI-type medications, these medications are often regarded as the treatment of paper choice or even a panacea. This point of view appears to be in retreat among more experienced clinicians, although it is still heavily promoted by pharmaceutical companies, whose representatives still grossly understate the side effect and withdrawal profiles while greatly overstating the success rates of these medications in treating panic disorders. However, the side effect profile for college essay cover page SSRI medications is much worse than initially published studies revealed, the effectiveness is highly unpredictable in treating panic disorder, and there is high risk for precipitating iatrogenic crisis when using this class of medications to annotated essay, treat panic disorder (especially during the beginning of treatment). An alarming percentage of patients in the Internet support communities for panic disorder had never experienced or even heard of a panic attack before they were treated for depression with an college essay cover SSRI, but experienced panic attacks leading to an ultimate diagnosis of panic disorder within their first week or even the first day of treatment and have not been able to rid themselves of the disorder after discontinuation of the SSRI.
Now they have depression and panic disorder, or sometimes panic disorder that persists beyond recovery from problem, depression. Primary care physicians on the whole, and a sizable minority of psychiatrists, are unfamiliar with the college application essay page, true side effect profiles of various SSRI medications, are unaware of the tolerance that develops to these medications when they are used to treat panic disorder, and are unaware of the persuasuve, withdrawal syndromes, despite the fact that all of these have been well documented in such sources as the British Medical Journal and essay page, the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, among others. Annotated Bibliography! (And yes, it is essay page called withdrawal and not discontinuation or discontinuation syndrome everywhere except in the United States.) A disturbing number of patients are not informed of the potential long-term risks of master thesis their medications, including the significant weight gain and sexual dysfunction, both of essay page which can persist long after discontinuation of SSRI medications. When patients report some of the side effects of usage or discontinuation that are typical in panic disorder, such as visual lag and sensations of random electric shock, their physicians incorrectly state that these are not recognized as attributable to on my future husband, SSRI medications, even though they are well documented in college essay cover page, the psychiatric literature. Additionally, almost every recent, independent study that has looked at suicidality with SSRIs has concluded that although these medications are indeed safer in overdose than tricyclic antidepressants, a significantly greater proportion of SSRI users than tricyclic users actually attempt suicide. These people are not uninformed, either #150; they know that their SSRI is not lethal, so they tend to use acetaminophen, gunshot, or hanging instead. Both anecdotal reports and systematic surveys of clinical practice reveal that a majority of physicians prescribing SSRIs do not know how to correctly taper the beginning and end of games treatment with these medications, nor what reduced dosages to use in treating panic disorder, nor what protocol to follow in switching from one SSRI to another #150; usually a direct switch is advisable, but some physicians prescribe a washout period that is college application essay page both uncomfortable (if not debilitating) and dangerous to the patient #150; nor how to switch between an machinist paper SSRI and another class of antidepressant. One does see a large minority of panic disorder patients whose condition responds well to SSRI medications, even though these patients are no more exempt from the college application, usual side effects than other patients. (Some find that the addition of Serzone [now banned], or less often Wellbutrin, can restore sexual function lost to the primary SSRI and/or reverse the perversely treatment-resistant weight gain experienced by a majority of long-term SSRI users; however, neither of these medications appears to be useful alone in corporate master thesis, the treatment of panic disorder.) Not all of the patients who respond to SSRI treatment are the ones in whom the condition seems attributable to college application cover, anxious or obsessive thought patterns, so it appears likely that there is some set of patients for whom these medications correctly target some underlying abnormality or imbalance.
However, many physicians seem unaware that a significant number of panic disorder patients react very badly and sometimes very suddenly to the anticholinergic effects of games SSRI medications, a reaction that should not be surprising given the college application essay page, parasympathetic insufficiency posited to an essay paper, be so often present or even causative in panic disorder. Most long-term panic disorder patients who show up in the Internet support communities have been on a progression of college application cover page different SSRI medications, often with a progression of different doctors, before being stabilized long-term on a regimen of Xanax, Ativan, or Klonopin. A small number end up on Valium, Tranxene or other benzodiazepines. [Update: A study presented in Atlanta at on my perfect husband the 2001 annual conference of the college essay, Anxiety Disorders Association of America made a similar observation regarding the panic disorder population as a whole.] A significant number of other panic disorder patients who show up in master, the Internet support communities began treatment on both an SSRI and essay cover, a benzodiazepine, but were forced to discontinue the SSRI due to unacceptable side effects, and then found that they were well controlled on the benzodiazepine alone. One of the disturbing characteristics of SSRI medications is that once a particular SSRI has ceased to be effective in controlling panic disorder, it usually cannot be used effectively again in the future, not even years later #150; the cessation of effect is persistent and perhaps permanent. This raises some troubling questions about the math games, mechanisms behind the well-known poop out college cover, phenomenon distinctive to SSRIs and other reuptake-inhibiting medications.
Current research hypotheses with some degree of experimental foundation include depletion of dopamine (though it is unclear why that would be so persistent), an excess of the otherwise therapeutic effect of desensitizing serotonin receptors (but why so persistent?), and physiological damage to or destruction of serotonin receptors (in which case it is an essay paper doubtful but unproven whether they can be regenerated). SSRI medications reduce the availability of nitric oxide, and reduced availability of college essay nitric oxide is suspected as a factor in the mechanism of panic disorder. They also increase production of prolactin, which may be a factor in the high incidence of persuasuve essay sexual dysfunction, and alter the application, function of the annotated essay, hypothalamus, which is one of the mechanisms being studied as a possible factor in the strangely treatment-resistant weight gain associated with SSRI usage. (It is a shame that the cover page, dramatic differences in reactions to SSRI treatment are so often minimized, trivialized, or dismissed outright instead of being acknowledged and studied more closely. It is master thesis a shame because the differences probably provide, in their sheer starkness, some of the best clues currently available to the varieties of biochemical mechanisms underlying panic disorders #150; and to the various mechanisms underlying depression and college application cover page, obsessive-compulsive disorder too, for that matter. Groups of people with similar reactions to one class of annotated bibliography drugs, particularly drugs as selective and powerful as SSRIs, probably represent de facto classifications of college cover page people with similar variants of panic disorder or depression. It is possible that failure to follow up such an obvious line of investigation is due to commercial agendas. But it is also possible that it is simply easier, with current research technology, to plan and study interactions between drugs and neurons in the laboratory than it is to look inside a living human being and observe the individual's true neurochemical processes or status at math problem a given moment #150; that our ability to college application essay, create drugs that act at the neuronal level has far outpaced our ability to observe in thorough and objective ways their actual effects on living creatures' neurochemistry. An Essay Paper! And so we rely on college application essay page a priori speculation, we rely on subjective reporting of sensations and feelings far removed from the biochemical processes that cause them, and we conjecture as to their meaning.
Typically this takes place in trials where the persuasuve essay, protocol assures minimization or even outright dismissal of reactions that are not universal or at least common to a large proportion of subjects. So when something goes wrong for a minority of patients, we conjecture around variations on the presumed and intended workings of the drug at the biochemical level; but we do not know, and cover page, we have few tools to uncover, the subtleties that explain the full range of unintended effects.) There is an old saw that antidepressants cure panic disorder, whereas tranquilizers merely control it. Never mind that such a belief erroneously regards panic disorder as a single monolithic disorder. Even overlooking that point, when one looks beyond the short-term perspective of typical clinical trials, it becomes apparent that antidepressants do not cure panic disorder, other than in rare cases #150; the condition is chronic and husband, often mildly progressive.
Follow-up studies show similar relapse rates in the long term, and college essay, it is essay perfect future husband dishonest and irresponsible to tell patients anything else. Cover! With CBT or PCT, one can sometimes reduce the incidence of outright attacks by perfect, reducing sensitivity to triggers, but the underlying dysautonomia persists #150; and it is the dysautonomia, not its paroxysms, that represents the most insidious threat to application essay cover page, health and longevity. In any case, the cure/control distinction is at best misleading because very few pharmaceutical treatments cure anything. Control of symptoms is an admirable ambition and one that is deemed fully sufficient in many other medical contexts. There is no call to discriminate against the panic disorder population with a specious and condescending distinction between cure and bandaid. The fixation on SSRIs as the one-size-fits-all treatment of choice for panic disorders is largely attributable to a marketing campaign targeting primary care physicians and their patients that was conducted for SmithKline Beecham (as the makers of Paxil were known at the time) by machinist research, the Ruder Finn agency.
As Ruder Finn trumpeted until recently on a World-Wide Web site intended for advertising industry insiders, the page, Paxil for Panic Disorder program was one of the most spectacular successes of pharmaceutical blitzmarketing in the history of the industry. Research Paper! To quote from the Web site: The Paxil for Panic Disorder program leveraged a new indication of an existing antidepressant for a relatively obscure anxiety disorder to generate unprecedented product sales growth. Seven months after the panic disorder launch, The Wall Street Journal referred to panic attacks as the hot new malady that is quickly replacing depression as the mental illness du jour.. The objectives of the Paxil for Panic Disorder campaign are: Increase sales and overall market noise [sic] about Paxil by application, generating widespread awareness of an essay paper FDA clearance of the medication's new indication as a treatment for panic disorder. College Page! Urge undiagnosed sufferers to see their physicians for a diagnosis and ask for Paxil.
Take advantage of seasonal and other opportunities. The launch phase of the paper, program was also supported with a Morning Drive-Time Radio Tour in 18 cities across the country. A satellite media tour was considered [but dropped]. Tie in to the stressful nature of the holiday season. Sales growth of college cover page Paxil since May, which SmithKline Beecham describes as unprecedented, has been attributed by the company to problem, the sales and public relations launch of the panic disorder indication. SmithKline Beecham saw its share of the application essay, total SSRI market share grow by 8.7% and its share of an essay paper new prescriptions grow 7.7% between April and November.
Note that by Ruder Finn's published report, SKB itself attributed the success of Paxil not to scientific or medical documentation but to its savvy sales and public relations launch. The clinical trials submitted as the basis of the FDA approval and ensuing media blitz were three, and in them the drug was successful in eliminating or reducing panic attacks in 25% (misstated as 76%*), in 51%, and in 33% of application cover trial subjects on Paxil, versus 44%, 32%, and 14% of subjects on placebo. To specialists in the treatment of an essay paper panic disorder, these numbers are anything but impressive #150; indeed if the drug had been promoted on application essay cover numbers like these rather than the sweeping generalizations primary care physicians hear from problem games, pharmaceutical salespeople, it is unlikely that much enthusiasm would ever have developed in the first place. Additionally, grave questions have since been raised about the integrity of the research itself. * The company did not cite a figure for all subjects in the first study, but instead counted only the one-third of subjects who responded best #150; and who were on a dosage intolerable to many patients. Application Cover! Thus the 76% for best-responders actually represents 25% for the study as a whole. Essay! (3/4 x 1/3 = 1/4) This little white lie is college essay among the least of the irregularities that have emerged in research paper, court cases involving the clinical trials of Paxil. The Ruder Finn campaign aimed to broadcast the cleaner side effect profile of Paxil, although the college application essay cover, sad truth is introduction essay that clinicians are largely in agreement today, about three years later, that of all the commonly prescribed SSRIs, Paxil seems to have the college application, dirtiest long-term side effect profile and paper, the most problematic withdrawal. (The World Health Organization's statistics on complaints about withdrawal put Paxil in a very clear #1 position.) Based on the difficult-to-ignore evidence of their own clinical experiences, primary care physicians are spontaneously moving away from Paxil in favor of milder or supposedly cleaner SSRIs. The plaintiffs in a California class-action lawsuit against the makers of college essay page Paxil (seeking changes to labeling, release of embargoed data, and machinist research, only modest monetary damages) intend to introduce documentary and testimonial evidence: that Paxil performed significantly, indeed markedly, worse than placebo in its early trials, before statistical spin doctors were brought in to fix the problem; that when dozens of trials did not yield positive results, statisticians manipulated the numbers to produce hypothetical trials in which one single patient who endured or thrived on Paxil for 365 days would completely offset 365 patients who could not endure the medication for more than one day; that the makers changed numerous reports (adding up to tens of percents) complaining explicitly of withdrawal, as distinct from relapse, to instances of relapse instead; that the company suppressed evidence of a 0.77% incidence of suicidality (considered quite high for such a serious side effect, and college essay page, later demonstrated to be even higher); that a certain identified FDA official illegally coached the makers of Paxil in clandestine conversations on how to avoid scrutiny on the suicidality issue; that the company suppressed information on a 20-25% dropout rate in early trials; that the company deliberately claimed on the record in an FDA hearing that it had studied withdrawal issues and found none, when in fact it had not studied withdrawal issues but had inadvertently become aware of frequent and severe withdrawal experiences; and that the company has systematically promoted the impression that the only people who become dependent on Paxil are multi-drug abusers, even though the company has abundant evidence (which it suppresses) that dependence and an essay paper, a pronounced neurological withdrawal syndrome are common. As internal company documents have come to light in other civil and criminal trials regarding Paxil in the United States and other countries, it has become clear that the cover, drug's makers possessed far more documentation of the drug's potential for adverse effects than they ever disclosed to the FDA, to the public, or to the scientific community.
There is obviously a place for essay on my future husband the discriminating use of SSRI medications in the treatment of panic disorder. They are irreplaceable, indeed life-saving for many people. However, they have been prescribed indiscriminately and even recklessly in recent years. Cover! The appropriateness of their use has been greatly exaggerated and the long-term risks and sometimes severe dependence and withdrawal effects (which bear no resemblance at research all to the condition being treated) have been swept under the carpet for as long as humanly possible. The question is not whether there is college a place for paper SSRIs in the treatment of panic disorder. The question is college what is the proper role of an advertising agency in shaping medical opinion and practice in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. On Benzodiazepine Treatment. By far the essay, largest group of college application essay cover page functional, well-controlled panic disorder patients who show up in the Internet support communities are those on a regimen of long-acting or short-acting benzodiazepines (or both). This parallels the conclusions of recent long-term reports following up on earlier studies and in bibliography introduction essay, some cases coming to new conclusions.
The most common regimen among such patients is a long-acting benzodiazepine taken on a regular schedule, with a short-acting benzodiazepine to be taken for breakthrough symptoms. However, significant numbers do well on a regimen of short-acting or long-acting benzodiazepines alone. A substantial proportion of these patients take only enough medication to manage their autonomic arousal, thus breaking the college application essay cover page, autonomic link in research paper, the arousal-anxiety-arousal-panic cycle, and normally rely on college application techniques learned in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to manage the cognitive-emotional aspects of the condition. Many clinicians are reluctant to prescribe benzodiazepines long-term for panic disorder, despite abundant evidence that panic disorder patients respond better to this class of medication than any other group of bibliography patients and that panic disorder patients are the least likely to abuse these or any other medications. The typical pattern is that panic disorder patients require some adjustment of dosage in college page, the beginning of their treatment #150; either up or down #150; and then remain at or below that dosage for years. When considering research on benzodiazepines, there is every reason to look at research specifically into machinist their use in panic disorder, because the patterns that emerge are quite different from those that emerge when this class of medication is used to treat GAD or situational conditions. It is common for panic disorder patients spontaneously to reduce their medication after six months to a year, and to remain satisfactorily controlled at college page the lower maintenance dosage.
It is common for panic disorder patients to try to eliminate their medication after a considerable period free of an essay paper symptoms, only to find that they must go back on their original level of medication. There may be a medication-free period of success lasting months or occasionally years, but the condition eventually returns #150; sometimes with an intensity requiring more medication than before. Panic disorder, at least in college application essay, its biologically-rooted forms, is a chronic condition. Where normal individuals report a dulling of sensation from benzodiazepine treatment, panic disorder patients typically report that they feel normal again for finance thesis the first time in years. This subjective assessment is application essay cover page often supported by an increased level of performance at work or in school. Such an assessment might even be regarded as a useful diagnostic factor. The baseline levels of autonomic arousal and of parasympathetic nervous system activity tend to be different in panic disorder patients from math problem, those found in normal individuals, and that helps explain why benzodiazepine treatment can be not merely therapeutic but normalizing in the panic disorder patient, with a lower incidence of side effects than those experienced by the general population and application essay cover, an incidence of abuse so low as to be almost nil. Optimal cognitive and motor function require the persuasuve, nervous sytem to be within a certain functional range of arousal. If you have just woken up from a deep sleep or you have just hopped off a treadmill after ten minutes of running your fastest, your cognitive ability in particular but also your motor ability to deal with demanding tasks are both going to college application essay, be well below adequate.
Your nervous system is outside its functional range of arousal. States of an essay paper depression and states of college application essay autonomic anxiety like those seen in panic disorder are analogous. Both may fall outside the optimal range of autonomic arousal, or even outside the functional range. This explains why people with panic disorder often demonstrate improved cognitive or motor function when taking benzodiazepines. Learning is a particularly demanding task, and bibliography introduction, the brain is biochemically inhibited from learning well when there are high levels of arousal-inducing hormones or neurotransmitters. Thus patients with panic disorder or a condition that mimics it may be unable to college application essay cover, learn in an academic setting and unable to benefit from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (which teaches the an essay paper, brain new patterns of thought and new reflexive behaviors) until an appropriate dose of a benzodiazepine is taken. The dose must be large enough to lower nervous arousal into the optimal range without being so large as to push it from over-arousal to essay cover, a state of problem under-arousal.
Much of the application cover, early research on the use of benzodiazepines in math, anxiety and panic was conducted with dosages that today appear stunningly high. It is essay cover strange indeed to read of studies using 6-10 mg of research paper Xanax for panic disorder when today we know that the great majority of college page patients function optimally on 1-4 mg spread across 24 hours. Some patients require as much as 6 mg per persuasuve essay, day, but that is so rare that even the most benzodiazepine-friendly physician would almost certainly question the diagnosis or consider a different type of medication. At present Xanax is the best-known benzodiazepine used against panic disorder (and the one that is FDA-approved for the condition), but perusal of early research into the use of Klonopin and other benzodiazepines against college essay panic disorder shows the same thing: the an essay paper, dosages tested tended to application essay page, be far higher #150; 2x, 3x, or even 4x #150; than the dosages commonly used and known to be effective today. It is of course important to taper the research paper, cessation of benzodiazepines carefully. Papers on this subject report that a three-month taper is college application essay cover a reasonable standard, but that six months or a year is not unreasonable for high dosages or long-term use.
In the persuasuve essay, case of panic disorder, there should not be undue pressure to get off of any class of medication, and during cessation it is often difficult to distinguish withdrawal symptoms from symptoms of the underlying panic disorder (except in application essay, the case of discontinuing SSRIs, where the perfect future, most dramatic withdrawal symptoms are clearly neurological and bear no resemblance to panic disorder or depression). A number of papers report that panic disorder patients are frequently withdrawn successfully from their medication only to have to application cover page, go back on it at the same or a higher level half a year or a year or two later. These papers suggest that it is probably healthier to machinist paper, maintain panic disorder patients at application cover a constant level of essay perfect future medication, if no problems emerge, than to subject them to this cycle of cessation and recommencement of medication #150; regardless of the class of medication in question. There are occasional patients who taper cessation of benzodiazepines over two weeks or less without difficulty. This is college application essay cover page definitely the exception, however, and should not represent an expectation. Such a rapid taper can be dangerous and even life-threatening. One sees a small number of panic disorder patients who do not tolerate benzodiazepines well.
It is widely regarded as canonical that benzodiazepines cannot be used in problem, the treatment of patients with a history of alcohol abuse. However, with proper supervision, this is not necessarily true. In fact, it turns out that benzodiazepine treatment for panic disorder can be a key to preventing alcoholic relapse. Abusers of alcohol who experience panic attacks may have been self-medicating for their panic disorder, and some even lose the college application page, desire to drink at all once the underlying state of arousal is controlled. This seems particularly true in the case of measured drinkers, those who drink regular amounts at paper regular times of day. Both anecdotal reports and college, published research emphasize that the definition and corporate, manifestations of tolerance, dependence, and application essay cover page, addiction are commonly misunderstood among physicians and even among a surprising number of psychiatrists. Experts in the use of benzodiazepines report that tolerance normally develops to their sedative, cognitive, emotional, and motor effects, but not to perfect, the autonomically anxiolytic effects, i.e. not to their ability to interrupt the neurological panic circuit. Thus a patient may report drowsiness in the early days of treatment, but the drowsiness wears off. Once an effective dosage is found in college essay cover page, the first weeks of treatment, this dosage (or, after a while, a lower one) will eliminate panic attacks and most dysautonomia for years and decades. Patients on such a maintenance dosage should be regarded as medically dependent, just as many patients are dependent on glucophage or insulin or anti-hypertensive medications that exhibit a rebound effect on cessation #150; or on Paxil, for that matter #150; but should not be regarded as addicted in the absence of all the other criteria that characterize addiction. The matter of dependence is also put into a new light by the appearance of more and an essay paper, more studies (particularly, it would seem, in Britain) stressing the college essay cover page, point of view that antidepressants also promote physical dependence in anxiety disorders.
A World Health Organization report goes so far as to state plainly that SSRI withdrawal is a more difficult problem today than Valium withdrawal was in an essay paper, its time. Reports such as these call into question whether it is well-advised after all to promote antidepressants over benzodiazepines in the belief that ADs do not cause dependence. It is after all widely recognized that benzodiazepines are often more effective and work more quickly. It is the consensus within the panic disorder community that every medication that is actually effective in treating panic disorder has the potential to create dependence. Dr. Robert DuPont, a former director of the [United States] National Institute On Drug Abuse, has stated that the application essay cover page, concept of machinist paper using the lowest possible dose of college application a benzodiazepine for the shortest period of time is inconsistent with sound clinical practice. This concept needs to include the important qualification that our goal is to maximize the math, patient's ability to function well and to enjoy life. Benzodiazepines are among the safest and most effective treatments in cover page, all of medicine , including their role in games, the treatment of panic disorder. Application Essay Cover Page! He is joined in his opinion by many experts of comparable stature and by a World Health Organization report entitled Rational Use of Benzodiazepines , WHO/PSA/96.11. (This consensus document from the persuasuve, WHO is distinct from the 1994 document Guidelines For The Rational Use Of Benzodiazepines authored by college essay, Dr.
Heather Ashton.) These medications are not a panacea and they are not without their potential drawbacks. However, they have been the problem, subject of such a fierce backlash from their extravagant misuse and overprescription in the 1970s (similar to but exceeded by the SSRI bonanza of today), and have been the target of such unscrupulous propaganda from the application essay cover, promoters of other drugs which still, unlike most benzodiazepines, enjoy the introduction essay, profitability of patent protection, that most doctors are unfamiliar with the actual evidence that should govern their prescribing. Essay Page! The evidence clearly shows that at present there is an essay paper no other class of medication that works nearly as well, in college cover page, nearly as large a proportion of the panic disorder population, as benzodiazepines; it shows that dependence is real but is math not unique to benzodiazepines and thus not a major differentiating factor; and it shows that there is no other population less prone to addiction or abuse of benzodiazepines prescribed as part of a comprehensive management strategy. No discussion of benzodiazepine treatment would be complete without a brief mention of at application cover page least two quasi-cult-like self-help networks of individuals who claim that use of even very low doses of benzodiazepines for brief periods caused them permanent neurological damage and years or decades of anxiety and panic attacks a thousand times worse than anything they experienced before. Math! (One wonders what they were experiencing before that could stand 1000-fold amplification.) With a vehemence and personally directed vitriol strongly suggestive of fanaticism, they reject any suggestion that they might instead be suffering from untreated anxiety or panic disorders, since the symptoms they describe when one pins them down to application essay cover, specifics sound very much like the symptoms of problem uncontrolled, advanced panic disorder. If this were all there were to the story, it would not be worth dignifying with mention here. However, this group cruises the Internet panic disorder support communities looking for newcomers and then bombards them with email offering self-help cures for prices that begin in the thousands of dollars and application page, gradually decline, and terrorizing these vulnerable individuals with dreadful anecdotes that sound perfectly outlandish to on my perfect future, pharmacologists and essay cover page, clinicians alike. Corporate Master! Identifiable individuals who speak up against this group are deluged with organized hate mail, some of it threatening in nature. In this age when many patients research their conditions using the Internet (as well they should), physicians should know something about this bizarre phenomenon so that they can offer knowledgeable and convincing support to patients who fall prey to these groups' terroristic tactics. On Treatment With Other Classes of college application cover page Drugs.
Other classes of drugs are sometimes used in treatment of panic disorder but do not represent first-line choices. Other drugs used clinically or in research include anti-psychotics, beta blockers, CCK antagonists, alpha2-adrenergic agonists, and anti-epileptics. Although the author lacks statistical data, there are a notable number of reports from patients experiencing good results with Effexor XR (which seems for corporate master unknown reasons to application essay cover, behave very differently from essay, its non-extended-release version Effexor), often after having bad results with SSRIs or simply having run the college essay, gamut of the major SSRIs, only to have each one in turn poop out (if the reader will excuse the scientific jargon) after a period that typically begins at a number of years but tends to shorten with each successive replacement drug. Some patients are also reporting good results with the RIMA moclobemide, and a few are reporting doing well with beta blockers. Reports of success with alpha2-adrenergic agonists are not common but do occur. This class of medication can be helpful in conjunction with other treatments. The same observations apply to finance thesis, beta blockers.
There is a small but growing trend to treat panic disorder with anti-epileptic medications. Success is mixed, but these medications are successful for an indeterminate proportion of panic disorder patients. There has been a puzzling surge of reports over the last year of doctors resorting to antipsychotic medications in the treatment of college cover panic disorder, often before even trying all of the mainstay classes of medications, and often with unfortunate consequences. However, there are a few patients who do respond better to these medications and need to use them despite their extensive side effects. A small number of patients have reported success with the opiate blocker naltrexone, which at annotated essay least theoretically could be of help to people whose symptoms are caused by stimulation from the opioid peptides in gluten or casein.. By patient accounts, the least effective drugs commonly misprescribed for the treatment of panic disorder (although there are always exceptions), are BuSpar, Wellbutrin, and Serzone. Serzone has the college application cover page, particular complication, of which an research paper alarming number of cover prescribing physicians seem unaware, of substantially inhibiting the metabolism of other psychotropic drugs, thus making it difficult to calibrate effective dosages. This is not to say that there are no panic disorder patients who benefit from finance thesis, these drugs, but they are a small percentage. There is a trend toward polypharmacy in the treatment of panic disorder, with drugs added to treat the side effects of drugs added to treat other side effects. Often drugs are piled on in an attempt to avoid or make acceptable the obvious but in some circles politically incorrect choice of benzodiazepines, or in blind adherence to the doctrine that SSRI medications simply must work for all.
The author has not encountered much anecdotal or published evidence that a polypharmaceutical approach works better than (or even as well as) the mainstay treatments, except for rare complex cases; and complex cases should absolutely be referred to a specialist in panic disorder. College Cover! Complications of bibliography introduction essay panic disorder can occasionally be severe and even life-threatening. Pharmaceutical industry insiders report that the cover, next big push in anxiolytics will be the CCK antagonists. Already marketed successfully outside the United States for this purpose (as well as for treatment of GERD and IBS), these are reportedly intended for an aggressive push into the American market when a favorable point is reached in the product life cycle of the SSRI medications. (It is possible that this CCK-antagonist generation of anti-anxiety medications may yet be leapfrogged by a newer class of medications under development to target GABA receptors even more finely than existing drugs do, but new patent filings for CCK antagonists quietly continue to accumulate.) For the time being, the SSRIs are still among the most profitable of pharmaceutical products in the United States and annotated, are among the least vulnerable to competition. Their makers aggressively seek new areas of application for these flagship profit-makers.
But factors already at college essay page work to shift the market equilibrium include recently published major studies identifying the chromosomal locus and the importance in panic disorder, GERD, and IBS of defects in CCK metabolism, increasingly general awareness of SSRI complications, and the proliferation of annotated lawsuits alleging improprieties in the conduct of clinical trials for SSRIs and college application essay cover page, the withholding of unfavorable research data. It is simply a matter of time before we see the next shift in focus. On Reported Effectiveness and machinist paper, Side Effects. It is evident to the author that at least in the case of college essay cover newer psychotropic drugs, one should trust postmarketing research and the reports of experienced clinicians over the published results of Food and Drug Administration -supervised clinical trials for machinist research paper approval of new drugs. For instance, in page, the case of one popular medication, approval trials reported an incidence of sexual dysfunction well under 5%. Yet today experienced clinicians are in agreement that over finance the same length of time covered by the original trials, the college application cover page, true incidence of sexual dysfunction is at least 60%. Some claim up to an 85% incidence in their practices. And such numbers have been substantiated in postmarketing research. How does one explain such discrepancies in the light of FDA oversight? Looking at clinical trials generally, without examining specifics of this particular medication, sources of machinist research paper such misrepresentation can lie along a spectrum ranging from poor research protocol to outright fraud.
In the application page, area of protocol, test subjects for math problem games the medication above were not asked about sexual dysfunction and felt reluctant to bring it up, especially given the relatively short duration of the college essay, trial. And while randomization may have been scrupulous within the introduction essay, trial, it has come to light that all candidates for college the study, whether they ended up on placebo or the experimental drug, were carefully hand-picked for previously demonstrated tolerance of that drug's side effects. (As an aside, it is interesting to note that physicians participating in clinical trials state that the concept of an essay paper double-blind placebo control is little more than a convenient fiction in the testing of psychotropic medications, and college page, a somewhat ridiculous fiction at problem games that. Page! They say that in most cases, the annotated bibliography, high incidence of dramatic side effects with psychotropics makes it perfectly obvious to application essay cover, the health care personnel, if not indeed to the patients, who is taking the medication and who is taking the placebo. For this reason, drug-against-drug trials are often more useful.)
Looking again at an essay paper the general case, there is also the question of fraud. Can this actually be a significant factor in college cover page, American pharmaceutical testing? Doesn't the an essay paper, FDA ensure the validity and integrity of such testing? The General Accounting Office seems to think otherwise. The New York Times, in college cover page, a 1999 series of articles on fraud in drug approval trials, cited a GAO report criticizing the FDA for repeatedly failing to investigate whistle-blower reports of fraud and for colluding in some cases to cover up evidence of its commission. According to the NYT, this GAO report concluded that the essay on my perfect husband, FDA was oriented toward overseeing methodological correctness and toward screening for scientific error, but was essentially helpless and disinclined to take action in the face of deliberate deception. As the NYT series documented, there are clinics that make a cottage industry out of manufacturing patients, complete with interview results and bogus specimens to go along. Whistle-blowers have faced disbelief, systematic discrediting, and retribution comparable to college application essay page, any found in defense industries.
Far from ferreting out and assuring prosecution of such fraud, certain FDA employees and an essay paper, their supervisors seem to have facilitated its commission and college page, cover-up, according to the GAO. An Essay Paper! This may be one reason that American pharmaceutical testing is viewed with skepticism in for instance Germany and Finland, two of the thirty-odd countries consistently recognized by the World Health Organization (and other international observers) as practicing higher standards of health care and governmental oversight than the United States. The FDA is just another government agency. While it is held in peculiar veneration by the medical community, there is no reason to expect it to be any more competent or any more scrupulous in its regulatory and inspection/examination activities than other agencies such as the Internal Revenue Service, the Department of Energy, or the application essay cover page, Department of an essay paper Agriculture. (Nor is there reason to expect it to be worse, although that is college essay cover faint reassurance.) All of these agencies have many competent, dedicated, high-minded people trying to an essay paper, accomplish good things, but there is only so much that individuals can do in the face of entrenched bureaucratic culture. All of essay these agencies, including the FDA, experience periodic scandals around competence and integrity.
The FDA comes under blistering criticism from European medical authorities (not to mention domestic sources) for its pattern of approving medications for which pre-approval research demonstrated serious problems, only to an essay paper, end up withdrawing approval under pressure from consumer organizations after unacceptable levels of fatality or injury appear. It is essay cover page naive to exaggerate the machinist, competence or integrity of the essay cover, United States' drug approval and oversight compared to taxpayer service, oversight of the nuclear energy and weapons industries, or inspection of meat and agricultural products. Many who work in subordinate roles in pharmaceutical testing claim that data and conclusions are routinely and unethically manipulated under the very noses of the FDA. Diet and Supplementation. The mainstream view in the panic disorder community is that neither diet nor dietary supplementation is sufficient for corporate finance the management of panic disorder, but that both can make substantial contributions.
There is a sizable minority, though, who find that it is possible to manage their own panic disorder primarily or entirely with diet and supplementation. The four most dramatic examples of dietary management are elimination of college application caffeine-like stimulants, adoption of a gluten-free/casein-free diet, supplementation with the amino acid taurine, and adoption of a ketogenic diet. Each of these measures is math problem games helpful only to a subset of the panic-disorder population, a subset consisting of people with unusual sensitivities. Elimination of caffeine-like stimulants. College Application Cover! Some people are exceptionally sensitive to bibliography introduction, the stimulants known collectively as xanthines, principally caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, found in various combinations in coffee, most colas, tea (even green tea), and chocolate. Cover Page! The panic disorder population appears to include a greater proportion of these people than the general population. Persuasuve! People who are not caffeine-sensitive have a hard time appreciating the extent to which the substance affects sensitive individuals. College Application Essay Page! For some people, a single 12-ounce diet cola per day, the equivalent of master thesis about half a cup of American-brewed coffee, is enough to college application essay cover, keep symptoms of panic disorder active. Quite a few people have reported that a single cup of decaffeinated green tea daily was the difference between experiencing heart palpitations and games, not experiencing them. Caffeine must be discontinued carefully. People seem to have the best success by tapering gradually #150; ounce by ounce at the end, if necessary #150; before completely quitting.
Many people take an NSAID like ibuprofen or aspirin for cover page a few days starting the day before complete elimination in order to avoid the ferocious caffeine-withdrawal headaches that can otherwise result. It takes 3-8 weeks for introduction a caffeine-sensitive individual to return to true baseline functionality and college page, sensation after completely quitting caffeine-like stimulants. Games! Prominent symptoms during the withdrawal phase are likely to cover, include headache, depression, loss of energy and initiative, muscular stiffness, constipation, temporary changes in vision, reduction in coordination, minor edema, sleeping several hours longer than usual, and markedly reduced athletic, physical, and finance thesis, mental performance. Because of the way caffeine affects biochemical production of energy to power muscle cells and brain cells, one is application essay cover page quite literally not as strong and persuasuve, not as smart during caffeine withdrawal, but full function does return after withdrawal is complete. At some point there may be a day or two of unaccustomed heart palpitations as the body moves minerals around, establishing a new balance of application essay electrolytes. But when the withdrawal phase is over, there is normally improvement over an essay paper pre-withdrawal function in most of these areas. College Application Cover! Many caffeine-sensitive people who complete withdrawal find that they are able to reduce or in essay, some cases even eliminate their psychotropic medication. But this should not be an expectation; the reason to try caffeine-elimination and persist until withdrawal symptoms disappear is simply to college application essay page, feel better, function better, and quite likely lessen some of the dysautonomia. Gluten-free casein-free (GF-CF) diet. It has been known for years that some patients' panic disorder (or GAD) improves with elimination of gluten sources and milk products. Only recently has a strong theoretical foundation for such observations emerged from an essay paper, research abroad and at a few major American medical centers.
It also turns out that truly aggressive dietary restriction, using the same vigilance a celiac patient must practice in avoiding even minimal, hidden amounts of gluten, benefits more people than was previously apparent with avoidance of only obvious, major sources. Unfortunately there is college application no quantification available yet, but it is an persuasuve essay inviting area for research. Patients who suspect gluten intolerance should have an college cover inexpensive screening for IgG anti-gliadin antibodies before commencing the GF diet. Corporate Finance! With strict avoidance, the antibodies disappear in 3-12 months. However, one is still intolerant to gluten. It may be important to know one's status in that respect, since gluten intolerance is such a strong predictor or risk factor for other serious conditions including various forms of application cover page gastrointestinal cancer and a variety of machinist research paper autoimmune conditions. If celiac disease (one particular autoimmune consequence of gluten intolerance) is suspected, additional screening should be undertaken before commencing the application essay cover, GF-CF diet. A large proportion of people with very high levels of anti-gliadin antibodies also have very high levels of antibodies to casein. Corporate Finance Thesis! Even without such high antibody levels, the gluten-intolerant patient is likely to college application cover page, experience psychotropic effects from casein, although the top American experts in celiac disease note that some patients recover the ability to tolerate milk products as their digestive tract regenerates itself. The amino acid glutamine is particularly helpful to patients with celiac disease, non-celiac gluten intolerance, or other GI problems that respond favorably to dietary elimination. The digestive tract is one of the fastest-rebuilding parts of the human body and one of essay its principal building blocks is glutamine.
Even though glutamine sounds a little like gluten, it does not contain gluten. When pure it is a safe nutrient and actually an important nutrient for gluten-intolerant individuals. Taurine supplementation. Taurine was first tried in the treatment of panic disorder because it was known to be effective in the treatment of college page epilepsy. There are patients who control their panic disorder with nothing more than aggressive taurine supplementation. A number of other panic disorder patients find that they can reduce their medication with the math, help of taurine supplementation. Ketogenic diet. The overall healthfulness of a ketogenic diet is certainly debatable. However, it is clear that some panic disorder patients are able to application essay page, control their panic disorder without medication by following a ketogenic diet, or more often a diet that is borderline ketogenic.
The reasons for an essay paper the benefit of this diet are not known, although it is well established that a ketogenic diet can also reduce or eliminate the incidence of seizure in application cover, epileptic patients. Many panic disorder patients report doing better on reduced-carbohydrate diets that do not, however, go as far in this regard as many of the paper, currently popular low-carbohydrate or high-protein weight-loss diets. There is considerable research to suggest that this might be due to the fact that the insulin-glucagon axis influences a host of other hormonal and enzymatic systems. However, there has been little direct study of carbohydrate restriction in college application essay cover, the treatment of annotated essay panic disorder, and the only connection that seems obvious and likely to be uncontroversial is the adrenaline response that can be provoked by falling blood sugar levels. Further study will probably show this to be a highly simplistic interpretation. Magnesium supplementation. Some people find that supplementation with a small amount of magnesium reduces their symptoms, particular symptoms like heart sensations, muscle tics, and annoying nerve sensations. Too much magnesium will cause diarrhea and exacerbate the body's imbalance of minerals, but just enough can noticeably improve nervous function in people who have a deficiency of magnesium in nerve cells. (The relationship between magnesium in blood serum and magnesium in nerve cells is a bit complicated and should be interpreted by college application cover, a physician who can consider the full picture, including medications that may influence where your body stores the magnesium it has available.) Fat restriction, supplementation with essential fatty acids.
In cases of math games defective cholecystokinin metabolism, fat restriction is an important but insufficient measure for the prevention of panic attacks. On the college essay, other hand, in cases of panic disorder in families where schizophrenia is present, it seems prudent to follow a diet that is sufficient in fat. There are anecdotal reports of panic disorder apparently being precipitated in such families, even relatively late in life, by adherence to the ultra-low-fat diets so recently popular, and there is solid evidence that schizophrenics do better on high-fat diets than on fat-restricted diets. Annotated Introduction Essay! While the author has uncovered no proof that a diet relevant to the care of schizophrenia is also relevant to application essay, the care of essay perfect future husband panic disorder in families where schizophrenia is present, it seems prudent, at this point in the understanding of such panic disorder and of schizophrenia, for panic disorder patients from schizophrenic families to follow the dietary measures that should be followed in schizophrenia. These include strict avoidance of application page casein (a milk protein) and machinist, gluten and gliadin (a family of proteins found in wheat, oats, barley, rye, and some exotic grains), and the inclusion of sufficient amounts of fat, perhaps above-average amounts of fat. This has obvious implications for weight control but is documented as beneficial to schizophrenics. Some mainstream medical sources also warn against supplementation of the schizophrenic diet with sources rich in the fatty acid GLA (gamma linolenic acid), principally evening primrose oil and essay cover page, borage oil. However, where the essay, author has observed such warnings, they have occurred in contexts attempting to debunk the purported benefits of these supplements, and therefore the standard of college application essay cover proof was probably lower than if the authorities in question had been asserting a benefit rather than a danger. (In other words, there is in medicine, as opposed to the body of science proper, one standard of proof applied to a claim like substance X may cause hair to grow back on your balding scalp, but quite a lower standard of proof applied to bibliography, a scare-claim like not only will substance X not cause hair to grow back on a balding scalp, but furthermore, substance X may cause the hair you still have to fall out, and maybe your teeth, too .) Nonetheless, prudence should prevail. There is solid evidence that GLA is contraindicated in college essay cover page, patients with seizure disorders, and it may be wise for corporate thesis the panic disorder patient from a schizophrenic family (or an epileptic one) to avoid GLA-rich supplements. Other dietary measures.
It is beyond the essay page, scope of this document to essay future, treat the full complement of college cover dietary supplements being used in the treatment of panic disorder or investigated for such use. There are simply too many to discuss, and an essay paper, the results are too individual to each patient. It is clear, however, that while different individuals respond to different supplements, there are beneficial effects that go beyond what can responsibly or scientifically be attributed to a placebo effect. The supplements that prove effective are not the obvious choices #150; for instance, only college application, a very small number of people report significant benefits from the corporate master thesis, well-known anti-anxiety supplements like Kava kava or Passionflower. Of those supplements, patients typically report no effect whatsoever or a reduction in anxiety without a corresponding reduction in dysautonomia. Cover Page! This poses an interesting conundrum for researchers who consider the essay, dysautonomia of panic disorder to be caused by college application page, anxiety, and supports those patients (and some clinicians) who claim that it seems the anxiety is actually caused by the dysautonomia. Nor does the antidepressant supplement St. John's Wort have very wide support among those who favor dietary supplementation.
One more often hears complaints of exacerbation of anxiety and dysautonomia, or complaints of sleep disturbance with no effect on anxiety or dysautonomia. These are similar to, but much milder than, the complaints one hears from many (by no means all) panic disorder patients treated with antidepressants. Valerian fares somewhat better, but when used in doses sufficient to exert a beneficial effect, it is reported to cause more drowsiness than its pharmacological cousins the benzodiazepines. The currently popular 5-HTP has been variously described as either useful in the control of panic disorder or directly panicogenic. Corporate Thesis! (Of course the college essay cover page, same observation applies to 5-HTP's very distant cousins, the SSRI medications.) 5-HTP administered without restriction of vitamin B6 has been linked to future husband, heart fibrosis. Very recent double-blind, placebo-controlled research suggests that Gotu Kola is somewhat effective against the variant of college page panic disorder arising from the genetic aberration in cholecystokinin metabolism. This fits theoretical predictions, because Gotu Kola and a small number of other far eastern herbs have been demonstrated to compete with cholecystokinin at CCK receptors in machinist, the body.
So far there is little experience or consensus in college application essay cover page, the panic disorder community. Supplements more commonly reported to be mildly beneficial are those that support parasympathetic nervous system function (B-vitamins, alpha-lipoic acid, precursors or cofactors for the synthesis of acetylcholine and corporate thesis, nitric oxide), supplements promoting cardiac stability (Q10, carnitine), supplements soothing the digestive tract (chamomile, bismuth, glutamine, MSM, occasionally peppermint - although the last can also be counterproductive)… It is simply not possible to do more than scratch the surface lightly in this discussion. There is no clear consensus and there are almost no formal studies of the effects of special diets or supplementation on panic disorder. However, clinicians and patients alike report that certain measures have an obvious effect for certain individuals. One might suppose that panic disorder patients would be more susceptible than most to a placebo effect; but in fact, panic disorder is so difficult to control without medication, and panic disorder patients are so reluctant to resign themselves to a lifetime of medication, that they often try many dietary supplements in a systematic fashion, generally rejecting the preponderance of them as ineffective.
For a panic disorder patient to report that a supplement is beneficial, even if it is not sufficient to college page, fully control the condition, is an exceptional event that should usually be taken seriously #150; especially if it makes possible a lighter use of medication. One cannot easily feign control of on my perfect panic disorder or delude oneself about college page, doing so, and there is little incentive to try. Panic disorders are a family of disorders the understanding of which is math still in its infancy. College Page! Much of what we thought we knew only a few years ago has been proven false. (In some cases the corporate finance, earlier understanding directly confused cause and effect.) There is far more that is not known about panic disorder than there is that is known; however, a nascent body of research in several new directions is revealing some of the secrets. Panic disorder is not a monolithic condition. Application Essay! Few generalities apply to a majority of the panic population, but many generalities apply to sizable minorities within the population. Some cases of finance master panic disorder fit the classical (since 1981, that is) psychiatric interpretation. Another set, quite possibly larger, does not, although this set has distinct subtypes for which it would be possible to develop a widely applicable diagnostic protocol. Nonetheless, by the time these disorders are diagnosed, they have almost invariably progressed to psychiatric dimensions. The disorders are polysystemic and essay, usually require multi-modal diagnosis and treatment. Parasympathetic insufficiency, often hereditary, is emerging as a new and promising direction of on my husband investigation and application page, treatment.
Problems in machinist research paper, CCK metabolism have been linked to panic disorder by multiple independent researchers for college essay page some time now, but 1999 saw publication of a major study that claims to math, have identified the application essay cover page, genetic defect in math problem, question. The biological basis of panic disorder and the long prelude of non-paroxysmal dysautonomia that typically precedes it are only beginning to receive the attention they require. It will be a tremendous step forward when there is general recognition that treatment of panic disorder must aim not only at total elimination of panic attacks (or dysautonomic paroxysms) but at elimination of the essay cover page, associated chronic dysautonomia as well. Beyond this, the goal should be much earlier recognition of chronic dysautonomia so that it can be treated well before it reaches a paroxysmal stage and the psychiatric complications that ensue. It is research paper possible that focusing on the condition as chronic dysautonomia and its advanced stages as paroxysmal dysautonomia might facilitate such recognition and application page, a shift in perception and corporate thesis, attitude. It seems inevitable that subtypes of panic disorder will eventually receive individual recognition, naming, and treatment protocols.
Primarily for commercial reasons, funding for panic disorder research has lately been focused far too narrowly on the role and the promise of SSRI medications in treating panic disorder. This shift in focus to follow the application, availability of research funding interrupted a number of other fruitful areas of introduction essay earlier research. Nonetheless, the college application cover, biological understanding of this set of disorders has reached a stage where researchers have claimed for some time now that this reigning emperor in the pharmaceutical realm is at best scantily clad. Apparently the corporate finance master, emperor's successor, in college application, the form of CCK antagonists, has already been designated and is awaiting coronation, but only on my future husband, time and experience will tell whether the college application page, next panacea is more universally effective than the current one. The author is extremely doubtful that any panacea will ever be found for bibliography introduction essay what we know today as panic disorder #150; it is too clear that distinct and essay, distinguishable disorders are being carelessly lumped together as one. There is corporate thesis a wide open field of college application cover research investigating panic disorder and its comorbid conditions.
There is much yet to be discovered, and some of it will revolutionize our understanding of games psychosomatic medicine and somatic anxiety in application essay cover page, particular. Panic disorder of biological origin (which probably includes all or nearly all hereditary forms of the master thesis, condition) is lifelong in essay cover page, nature. It does not begin when panic attacks begin, but most probably began years or decades before reaching that point. Remissions may occur, but relapse should be expected. This is husband true regardless of the method used in college application cover, treating the condition #150; it is a myth that antidepressants provide a cure, except in a limited subset of cases where panic disorder is secondary to corporate finance, another condition. Untreated or under-treated panic disorder should be considered a serious and sometimes degenerative condition. It puts significant strain on a number of college application essay cover body systems, and essay, the goal of treatment should be not merely the elimination of panic attacks but the application page, elimination of the underlying or associated autonomic hyperarousal as well. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or Panic Control Therapy is an important component of the treatment plan, even for panic disorder of biological origin. However, it should be recognized that such therapy is sufficient in itself only in those cases that are primarily cognitive-behavioral in nature.
Now that biological bases for panic disorder have been identified and tools are emerging for their quantification, more research is needed to determine what proportion of panic disorder cases are in fact of biological vs. psychological origin. It may prove to essay, be difficult to draw a clear distinction, since each type spills over into the other, but it is application cover page already evident that such a distinction is real and meaningful. It is high time to reopen the non-specialist community's mind about panic disorders and to move them from the exclusive province of psychiatry and psychology into the domains of neurology, endocrinology, genetic analysis, and probably other disciplines that will become apparent with further research. This is exactly what growing numbers of researchers and persuasuve essay, practitioners are doing. This document summarizes observations about panic disorders and their treatment gathered during the years 1998 through 2000 from research papers, recent textbooks, mental health clinicians, patients, and application page, support groups. It is not intended to provide medical advice. Nor is it intended to advocate original points of view in the scientific or medical arenas. Rather it is intended to integrate and disseminate a variety of introduction emerging insights often omitted from the narrow classical view of cover page these disorders. As the finance master, 2000's roll in, the understanding and application essay cover, treatment of this family of disorders (and they are multiple) is in clear and dramatic transition. Ongoing research about modalities of diagnosis and math, treatment is beginning to bear fruit that will profoundly influence both the medical and psychological perspectives on these conditions.
The viewpoints advanced in this paper are for the most part not of the author's own invention #150; they represent viewpoints that have arisen and show growing support in college application essay cover page, the researcher, clinician, and patient communities. In one sense, they represent a consensus; but in another sense, the term consensus is misleading because the field is still in turmoil, with different schools of thought pursuing different avenues of research and fighting to advance different agendas. This paper represents the author's good-faith efforts to gather the points of view that appear, in math problem games, his lay judgment as a hardheaded observer and a patient himself, to have the college application essay cover, best foundation and most correspondence to the reality that he and countless other patients live every day. Sources, which are not cited, include published research papers (most available through MedScape or MedLine), published textbooks and problem, trade books, articles in college, WebMD and the New York Times, the opinions of clinicians specialized or experienced in the treatment of panic disorders, and the experiences of some hundreds of individuals who have shown up in various Internet-based support communities focused on an essay paper panic disorders or other anxiety disorders. Citing of sources, which were not recorded during the author's odyssey through what was then unfamiliar territory, and many of which were reviewed long before the idea of writing this document was conceived, would have multiplied the complexity of compiling the document, greatly lengthening and delaying it as well. Such a format might also have given the appearance of advocacy in the scientific arena when the author's intent is instead to college essay, provide a coherent overview of the points of annotated bibliography introduction view advocated by professional scientists and clinicians specialized in panic disorders. Application Essay Cover Page! Readers wishing to corporate finance master thesis, look up further information on one angle or another should not find it too difficult to do so through the resources above and college application cover page, through discriminating use of Internet search engines. Somewhat contrary to established practice, the author has chosen to give considerable weight and exposure to consensus within the patient community. It is this community that lives the day-to-day reality of panic disorders, this community that feels the effects and the side effects of medications and therapies every day and math problem, knows the reality and nuance of our experience. Application Page! Our doctors and therapists can (and certainly do!) try to tell us what we are and are not experiencing based on the most interesting presentation they attended at a recent conference, or on the glowing reports of a new medication (this one miraculously free of essay on my perfect husband all the side effects that have come to be associated with each of its predecessors), or on cover page the doctrines that have brought recognition and prestige to their alma maters; but we as patients have only one agenda, which is a return to corporate finance thesis, well-being and normality; and we have only one truth, which is the experience within our own bodies that most of our doctors and therapists will never (to their great good fortune) be able to do more than imagine.
(Note: It is true that individuals showing up in Internet support communities represent in some sense a self-selecting sample. However, the same observation could be made with equal or greater validity about the individuals who choose to remain in treatment with a particular clinician or about those who choose not to drop out of essay page controlled clinical trials. Indeed even a telephone book represents a self-selecting sample. Internet support communities in the aggregate do represent one of the broadest and most diverse sources of real-world information available and include a wide variety of essay future experiences. In the case of panic disorder, these groups include individuals who are well-controlled and those who are not; those who claim to be cured or in remission without ongoing treatment and those who do not; those who favor one class of treatment and those who favor another; those who agree with their doctors' assessment of successful or unsuccessful treatment and those who make a different assessment.
Absent evidence of systematic bias, the author considers Internet support communities to be a valuable source of college essay perspective among others.) Understanding of panic disorders is still in its infancy. The whole family of disorders was more or less stumbled upon because of their severe manifestations in the psychiatric domain. But the persuasuve essay, more researchers investigate panic disorders, the more it becomes apparent that the psychiatric dimensions are merely the application essay page, tip of a very complex iceberg. There is much disagreement within the researcher, clinician, and patient communities. The two or three orthodoxies that exist seem on closer examination to essay, be illusory and shifting, and, unfortunately, are sometimes based on college cover narrow samples or populations and are sometimes colored by commercial interests or professional vesting in certain doctrines.
Ultimately the viewpoints and essay, conclusions presented here, which are meant to represent some diversity of opinion, are of the essay cover, author's own selection and are not necessarily endorsed by any other individuals or institutions except where specifically attributed. Corporate Finance Master! So in one sense this essay is merely one person's collection of opinions. Application Page! But this collection has been reviewed by researchers, clinicians, and patients alike; and while no essay could please all readers, and most especially not those who are vested in one particular point of view to the exclusion of others, the corporate master thesis, author feels reasonably justified in stating that in another sense, this document is not only built largely on published research and teaching materials, but also does meet with general approval and endorsement from at least a substantial segment of the researcher, clinician, and patient communities. The online source for this document resides at http://www.panic411.org/ This document may be linked to essay, or printed for limited noncommercial distribution by individuals.
Any other form of dissemination or republication must be authorized in persuasuve essay, writing.
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The origin of life: what we know, what we can know and what we will never know. The origin of life (OOL) problem remains one of the more challenging scientific questions of college application essay cover all time. In this essay, we propose that following recent experimental and theoretical advances in systems chemistry, the underlying principle governing the emergence of life on the Earth can in its broadest sense be specified, and may be stated as follows: all stable (persistent) replicating systems will tend to evolve over time towards systems of greater stability. The stability kind referred to, however, is dynamic kinetic stability, and quite distinct from the traditional thermodynamic stability which conventionally dominates physical and chemical thinking. Significantly, that stability kind is generally found to be enhanced by increasing complexification, since added features in the replicating system that improve replication efficiency will be reproduced, thereby offering an explanation for the emergence of life's extraordinary complexity. On the basis of that simple principle, a fundamental reassessment of the underlying chemistry–biology relationship is possible, one with broad ramifications. An Essay Paper. In the context of the OOL question, this novel perspective can assist in clarifying central ahistoric aspects of college cover abiogenesis, as opposed to the many historic aspects that have probably been forever lost in the mists of bibliography introduction essay time. The origin of life (OOL) problem continues to be one of the application essay most intriguing and challenging questions in corporate finance master science (for recent reviews on the OOL, see [1–6]). Its resolution would not only satisfy man's curiosity regarding this central existential issue, but would also shed light on a directly related topic—the precise nature of the physico-chemical relationship linking animate and inanimate matter. As one of us (A.P.) has noted previously [1,7,8], until the principles governing the college application essay cover process by which life on the Earth emerged can be uncovered, an understanding of life's essence, the basis for annotated bibliography introduction essay its striking characteristics, and outlining a feasible strategy for the synthesis of what could be classified as a simple life form will probably remain out of reach.
In this essay, we will argue that recent developments in college application page systems chemistry [9–11] have dramatically changed our ability to deal with the OOL problem by enabling the persuasuve essay chemistry–biology connection to be clarified, at least in broad outline. Essay Page. The realization that abiogenesis—the chemical process by an essay paper, which simplest life emerged from inanimate beginnings—and biological evolution may actually be one single continuous physico-chemical process with an application essay, identifiable driving force opens up new avenues towards resolution of the persuasuve essay OOL problem [1,7,12,13]. In fact that unification actually enables the basic elements of abiogenesis to be outlined, in college cover much the same way that Darwin's biological theory outlined the basic mechanism for biological evolution. Essay On My Perfect Future Husband. The goal of this commentary therefore is to discuss what aspects of the OOL problem can now be considered as resolved, what aspects require further study and what aspects may, in college application all probability, never be known. 3. Is the origin of persuasuve life problem soluble in principle? In addressing the essay cover OOL question, it first needs to be emphasized that the question has two distinct facets—historic and ahistoric, and master, the ability to uncover each of essay page these two facets is quite different. Uncovering the on my perfect husband historic facet is the more problematic one.
Uncovering that facet would require specifying the original chemical system from which the process of abiogenesis began, together with the chemical pathway from that initiating system right through the extensive array of intermediate structures leading to simplest life. Regretfully, however, much of that historic information will probably never be known. Evolutionary processes are contingent, suggesting that any number of feasible pathways could have led from inanimate matter to earliest life, provided, of course, that those pathways were consistent with the underlying laws of physics and chemistry. The difficulty arises because historic events, once they have taken place, can only be revealed if their occurrence was recorded in some manner. Indeed, it is college cover page this historic facet of abiogenesis that makes the OOL problem so much more intractable than the parallel question of bibliography essay biological evolution. Biological evolution also has its historic and ahistoric facets. But whereas for biological evolution the historic record is to a degree accessible through palaeobiologic and phylogenetic studies, for the process of abiogenesis those methodologies have proved uninformative; there is no known geological record pertaining to prebiotic systems, and phylogenetic studies become less informative the further back one goes in attempting to trace out application essay cover page, ancestral lineages. Phylogenetic studies presume the existence of essay organismal individuality and college application essay, the genealogical (vertical) transfer of genetic information.
However, the possibility that earliest life may have been communal  and persuasuve, dominated by horizontal gene transfer [15–17] suggests that information regarding the evolutionary stages that preceded the last universal common ancestor  would have to essay cover, be considered highly speculative. Accordingly, the significance of such studies to the characterization of early life, let alone prebiotic systems, becomes highly uncertain. The conclusion seems clear: speculation regarding the precise historic path from an essay paper, animate to application cover, inanimate—the identity of specific materials that were available at particular physical locations on the prebiotic Earth, together with the bibliography introduction chemical structures of possible intermediate stages along the long road to life—may lead to propositions that are, though thought-provoking and application cover page, of undeniable interest, effectively unfalsifiable, and therefore of limited scientific value. Given that awkward reality, the focus of OOL research needs to remain on the ahistoric aspects—the principles that would explain the remarkable transformation of inanimate matter to simple life. There is good reason to annotated essay, think that the emergence of life on the Earth did not just involve a long string of random chemical events that fortuitously led to a simple living system.
If life had emerged in such an arbitrary way, then the mechanistic question of abiogenesis would be fundamentally without explanation—a stupendously improbable chemical outcome whose likelihood of repetition would be virtually zero. However, the general view, now strongly supported by application, recent studies in systems chemistry, is that the process of abiogenesis was governed by underlying physico-chemical principles, and the central goal of OOL studies should therefore be to delineate those principles. Significantly, even if the underlying principles governing the transformation of inanimate to animate were to essay on my perfect future husband, be revealed, that would still not mean that the precise historic path could be specified. Essay Page. As noted above, there are serious limitations to uncovering that historic path. The point however is that if the principles underlying life's emergence on the Earth could be more clearly delineated, then the mystery of abiogenesis would be dramatically transformed. No longer would the problem of abiogenesis be one of perfect future husband essence , but rather one of detail . College Application Cover. The major mystery at machinist the heart of the OOL debate would be broadly resolved and college cover page, the central issue would effectively be replaced by a variety of chemical questions that deal with the particular mechanisms by which those underlying principles could have been expressed.
Issues such as identifying historic transitions, the definition of life, would become to some extent arbitrary and ruled by scientific conventions, rather than by matters of persuasuve principle. 4. College Application Essay Page. The role of corporate thesis autocatalysis during abiogenesis. In the context of the OOL debate, there is one single and college essay, central historic fact on essay which there is broad agreement—that life's emergence was initiated by some autocatalytic chemical system. The two competing narratives within the college essay cover page OOL's long-standing debate—‘replication first’ or ‘metabolism first’—though differing in key elements, both build on that autocatalytic character (see  and references therein). The ‘replication first’ school of thought stresses the role of oligomeric compounds, which express that autocatalytic capability through their ability to self-replicate, an idea that can be traced back almost a century to the work of an essay paper Troland , while the ‘metabolism first’ school of thought emphasizes the emergence of college application essay page cyclic networks, as articulated by Kauffman  in research the 1980s and reminiscent of the metabolic cycles found in all extant life.
With respect to this issue, we have recently pointed out that these two approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive. It could well be that both oligomeric entities and cyclic networks were crucial elements during life's emergence, thereby offering a novel perspective on cover this long-standing question [1,7]. However, once it is accepted that autocatalysis is a central element in the process of abiogenesis, it follows that the study of autocatalytic systems in an essay paper general may help uncover the principles that govern their chemical behaviour, regardless of their chemical detail. Indeed, as we will now describe, the generally accepted supposition that life's origins emerged from some prebiotic autocatalytic process can be shown to lead to broad insights into the chemistry–biology connection and to the surprising revelation that the essay processes of abiogenesis and biological evolution are directly related to machinist paper, one another. Once established, that connection will enable the underlying principles that governed the essay cover page emergence of life on the Earth to be uncovered without undue reliance on speculative historic suppositions regarding the precise nature of those prebiotic systems. 5. A previously unrecognized stability kind: dynamic kinetic stability. The realization that the autocatalytic character of the replication reaction can lead to exponential growth and is unsustainable has been long appreciated, going back at least to Thomas Malthus's classic treatise ‘An essay on the principle of population’, published in 1798 . But the chemical consequences of that long-recognized powerful kinetic character, although described by Lotka already a century ago , do not seem to problem games, have been adequately appreciated. Recently, one of us (A.P.) has described a new stability kind in nature, seemingly overlooked in college essay page modern scientific thought, which we have termed dynamic kinetic stability ( DKS ) [1,7,23,24] . That stability kind, applicable solely to persistent replicating systems, whether chemical or biological, derives directly from the powerful kinetic character and the inherent unsustainability of the replication process.
However, for the replication reaction to be kinetically unsustainable, the reverse reaction, in which the replicating system reverts back to its component building blocks, must be very slow when compared with the forward reaction; the replication reaction must be effectively irreversible. That condition, in turn, means the system must be maintained in a far-from-equilibrium state , and that continuing requirement is satisfied through the replicating system being open and continually fed activated component building blocks. Note that the annotated bibliography above description is consistent with Prigogine's non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach, which stipulates that self-organized behaviour is associated with irreversible processes within the nonlinear regime . From the above, it follows that the DKS term would not be applicable to application, an equilibrium mixture of some oligomeric replicating entity together with its interconverting component building blocks. Given the above discussion, it is apparent that the DKS concept is quite distinct from the conventional stability kind in nature, thermodynamic stability.
A key feature of DKS is that it characterizes populations of replicators , rather than the individual replicators which make up those populations. Individual replicating entities are inherently unstable , as reflected in their continual turnover, whereas a population of replicators can be remarkably stable, as expressed by annotated bibliography essay, the persistence of some replicating populations. Certain life forms (e.g. Application Essay Page. cyanobacteria) express this stability kind in an essay paper dramatic fashion, having been able to maintain a conserved function and a readily recognized morphology over billions of years. Indeed, within the college cover page world of corporate master thesis replicators, there is theoretical and college application, empirical evidence for a selection rule that in annotated bibliography introduction essay some respects parallels the second law of thermodynamics in that less stable replicating systems tend to page, become transformed into more stable ones [1,8]. This stability kind, which is applicable to all persistent replicating systems, whether chemical or biological, is then able to place biological systems within a more general physico-chemical framework, thereby enabling a physico-chemical merging of replicating chemical systems with biological ones. Studies in systems chemistry in recent years have provided empirical support for such a view by demonstrating that chemical and biological replicators show remarkably similar reactivity patterns, thereby reaffirming the existence of a common underlying framework linking chemistry to biology [1,7]. 6. Extending Darwinian theory to corporate finance master thesis, inanimate chemical systems.
The recognition that a distinctly different stability kind, DKS, is college application essay applicable to both chemical and an essay paper, biological replicators, together with the application page fact that both replicator kinds express similar reaction characteristics, leads to the profound conclusion that the so-called chemical phase leading to simplest life and the biological phase appear to be one continuous physico-chemical process, as illustrated in scheme 1. Unification of abiogenesis and biological evolution into a single continuous process governed by the drive toward greater DKS. That revelation is valuable as it offers insights into abiogenesis from studies in biological evolution and, vice versa, it can provide new insights into math games, the process of college cover page biological evolution from persuasuve, systems chemistry studies of simple replicating systems. A single continuous process necessarily means one set of governing principles, which in turn means that the two seemingly distinct processes of abiogenesis and evolution can be combined and addressed in concert. Significantly, that merging of chemistry and application cover, biology suggests that a general theory of evolution, expressed in annotated essay physico-chemical terms rather than biological ones and applicable to college essay, both chemical and biological systems, may be formulated. Its essence may be expressed as follows: All stable ( persistent ) replicating systems will tend to evolve over time towards systems of greater DKS.
As we have described in some detail in previous publications, there are both empirical and theoretical grounds for believing that oligomeric replicating systems which are less stable (less persistent) will tend to be transformed into machinist research paper, more stable (more persistent) forms [1,7,8,24]. In fact that selection rule is just a particular application of the more general law of college application essay cover page nature, almost axiomatic in problem games character, that systems of college application cover all kinds tend from less stable to more stable. That law is inherent in the very definition of the term ‘stability’. So within the global selection rule in nature, normally articulated by the second law of thermodynamics, we can articulate a formulation specific to replicative systems, both chemical and biological— from DKS less stable to annotated, DKS more stable . A moment's thought then suggests that the Darwinian concept of ‘fitness maximization’ (i.e. less fit to college essay cover page, more fit) is problem just a more specific expression of college application essay cover page that general replicative rule as applied specifically to biological replicators. Whereas, in perfect husband Darwinian terms, we say that living systems evolve to maximize fitness, the general theory is expressed in physico-chemical terms and stipulates that stable replicating systems, whether chemical or biological, tend to evolve so as to application essay cover, increase their stability, their DKS. Of course such a formulation implies that DKS is quantifiable. As we have previously discussed, quantification is possible, but only for related replicators competing for common resources, for example, a set of introduction structurally related replicating molecules, or a set of college application essay cover page genetically related bacterial life forms [1,7].
More generally, when assessing the DKS of replicating systems in a wider sense, one frequently must make do with qualitative or, at best, semi-quantitative measures. Note that the general theory should not be considered as just one of changing terminology—‘DKS’ replacing ‘fitness’, ‘kinetic selection’ replacing ‘natural selection’. The physico-chemical description offers new insights as it allows the characterization of both the driving force and the mechanisms of corporate finance master thesis evolution in college application page more fundamental terms. The driving force is the drive of replicating systems towards greater stability, but the essay on my perfect future stability kind that is applicable in the replicative world. In fact that driving force can be thought of as a kind of second law analogue, though, as noted, the application essay open character of replicating systems makes its quantification more difficult. And the mechanisms by which that drive is expressed can now be specified. These are complexification and selection , the former being largely overlooked in the traditional Darwinian view, while the latter is, of course, central to master thesis, that view. A striking insight from application essay page, this approach to abiogenesis follows directly: just as Darwinian theory broadly explained biological evolution, so an extended theory of evolution encompassing both chemical and biological replicators can be considered as broadly explaining abiogenesis. Thus, life on the Earth appears to have emerged through the spontaneous emergence of a simple (unidentified) replicating system, initially fragile, which complexified and evolved towards complex replicating systems exhibiting greater DKS.
In fact, we would claim that in the very broadest of terms, the physico-chemical basis of abiogenesis can be considered explained. But does that simplistic explanation for abiogenesis imply that the OOL problem can be considered resolved? Far from problem games, it. Let us now consider why. While Darwin's revolutionary theory changed our understanding of how biological systems relate to one another through the simple concept of natural selection, the Darwinian view has undergone considerable refinement and college application essay, elaboration since its proposal over an essay paper 150 years ago.
First the genomic revolution, which provided Darwin's ideas with a molecular basis through the first decades of the twentieth century, transformed the subject and led to essay page, the neo-Darwinian synthesis, an amalgamation of classic Darwinism with population genetics and then with molecular genetics. But in more recent years, there is a growing realization that a molecular approach to understanding evolutionary dynamics is math games insufficient, that evolutionary biology's more fundamental challenge is to application cover page, address the essay perfect unresolved problem of complexity. How did biological complexity come about, and how can that complexity and its dynamic nature be understood? Our point is cover page that Darwin's monumental thesis, with natural selection at its core, was just the beginning of a long process of refinement and elaboration, which has continued unabated to annotated bibliography essay, the present day. Precisely the same process will need to operate with respect to the OOL problem. The DKS concept, simple in essence, does outline in the broadest terms the physico-chemical basis for abiogenesis. But that broad outline needs to be elaborated on through experimental investigation, so that the detailed mechanisms by which the DKS of simple chemical replicating systems could increase would be clarified. Already at this early stage, central elements of those mechanisms are becoming evident. Thus, there are preliminary indications that the process of abiogenesis was one of DKS enhancement through complexification [1,7].
More complex replicating systems, presenting a diversity of features and functions, appear to be able to replicate more effectively than simpler ones, and so are likely to be more stable in DKS terms (though this should not be interpreted to application essay, mean that any form of bibliography essay complexification will necessarily lead to enhanced DKS). The pertinent question is then: how does that process of complexification manifest itself? And this is where systems chemistry enters the scene [9–11]. By studying the college cover page dynamics of an essay paper simple replicating molecular systems and the networks they establish, studies in system chemistry are beginning to application page, offer insights into that process of replicative complexification. Following on from earlier work by Sievers von Kiedrowski  and Lee et al . , more recent studies on RNA replicating systems by Lincoln Joyce  and most recently by Vaidya et al .  suggest that network formation is crucial. An Essay Paper. Thus, Lincoln Joyce  observed that a molecular network based on two cross-catalysing RNAs replicated rapidly and could be sustained indefinitely. College Application Essay. By contrast, the most effective single molecule RNA replicator replicated slowly and was not sustainable.
But in a more recent landmark experiment, Vaidya et al .  demonstrated that a cooperative cycle made up of essay three self-replicating RNAs could out-compete those same RNAs acting as individual replicators. The conclusion seems clear: molecular networks are more effective in establishing self-sustainable autocatalytic systems than single molecule replicators, just as was postulated by Eigen Schuster  some 40 years ago. Many key questions remain unanswered, however. What chemical groups would facilitate the emergence of complex holistically replicative networks? Are nucleic acids essential for the establishment of college page such networks, or could other chemical groups also express this capability? Is template binding the main mechanism by which molecular autocatalysis can take place, or can holistically autocatalytic sets be established through cycle closure without a reliance on persuasuve essay template binding? How would the emergence of application essay individual self-replicating entities within a larger holistically replicative network contribute to the stability of the network as a whole? How do kinetic and persuasuve, thermodynamic factors inter-relate in facilitating the maintenance of college application essay dynamically stable, but thermodynamically unstable, replicating systems [12,13]? As these questions suggest, our understanding of central issues remains rudimentary, and the road to discovery will probably be long and math, arduous.
However, the key point of application cover this essay has been to note that just as Darwin's simple concept of natural selection was able to provide a basis for an ongoing research programme in master thesis evolution, one that has been central to biological research for over 150 years, so the DKS concept may be able to offer a basis for ongoing studies in systems chemistry, one that may offer new insights into the rules governing evolutionary dynamics in simple replicating systems and, subsequently, for replicating systems of all kinds. Cover Page. Such a research programme, we believe, promises to further clarify the underlying relationship linking chemical and biological replicators. In conclusion, it seems probably that we will never know the precise historic path by which life on the Earth emerged, but, very much in math the Darwinian tradition, it seems we can now specify the college application cover essence of the ahistoric principles by which that process came about. Paper. Just as Darwin, in college application essay the very simplest of terms, pointed out how natural selection enabled simple life to evolve into complex life, so the recently proposed general theory of evolution [1,7] points out in simplest terms how simple, but fragile, replicating systems could have complexified into introduction essay, the intricate chemical systems of life. College Application Cover. But, as discussed earlier, a detailed understanding of that process will have to wait until ongoing studies in corporate systems chemistry reveal both the classes of chemical materials and the kinds of chemical pathways that simple replicating systems are able to follow in page their drive towards greater complexity and replicative stability.
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2017-18 Common Application Essay Prompts: A Guide. Essay. Looking for help with the essay, 2017-18 Common Application Essay? Below CEA’s Founder, Stacey Brook, breaks down all you need to know about this year’s prompts. Stacey Brook, Founder and Chief Advisor. Hello, students and parents of the future class of 2022! The time has come. The Common App essay prompts for 2017-18 have just been released and—spoiler alert—they’re pretty much the same as last year’s, with a few small but notable changes. Of the five prompts we have come to know and love so well, two remain exactly the same, and college essay page three have undergone minor makeovers to expand the reach of each question and the breadth of a student’s potential responses.
The Common App has also added two new prompts to the pot, one of which is a return to the much-coveted “topic of an essay paper your choice.” (Cue the confetti!) So 2017-18 college applicants will now have seven (that’s right, seven ) essay prompts to choose from. All of these changes are good news for applicants, who are freer than ever to explore essay topics of college application essay page all tones, styles, and subjects, and who now have a few extra cues at an essay paper their fingertips to help ignite their creativity. College Application. These personal stories and feats of insight will again be relegated to 650 words, which equates to a little more than a single-spaced page. We happen to believe this is the perfect amount of space in which to make a quick and powerful impression with admissions (or write a comprehensive fan letter to Beyonce), so as far as we’re concerned, you’re golden. Because we are committed to getting you the an essay paper, most timely and comprehensive essay advice on the interweb, we have made a guide to help you navigate the ins and outs of all seven prompts. For those who have been using last year’s prompts as a reference up until now, we have noted which selections have been adjusted for the 2017-18 application cycle, and which prompts are new altogether. Before you dive (or cannonball!) into our pool of essay advice, we’d like to leave you with one last little secret: the college cover page, prompts are not actually as important as you think they are. In fact, in our instructional video series and private advising, we encourage applicants to root around for their most meaningful stories first and consider the prompts later. This is a process we call the Backwards Brainstorm, and you can learn more about annotated introduction it here.
For now, the main point we want you to take away is this: The prompts don#8217;t really matter . What matters is the cover, story you want to tell. (And that you floss at least every other day—trust us, it will pay off in machinist, the long run.) We are as sure as ever that every single one of application cover page you has a valuable story (or two or twelve!) to communicate to admissions. All it takes is bibliography introduction, ample time for reflection and a little writerly elbow grease to find it. So take a peek at what the 2017-18 application has in store for you, absorb what these prompts are really asking, and then forget about them (really!) as you explore the endless possibilities. PROMPT #1: Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is college application cover page, so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. Math Games. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. [No change] The Common App’s Prompt #1 is the Old Faithful of essay questions. It’s been around for years and offers all the cover, flexibility an applicant could ask for from a prompt, with just enough direction to get those creative fountains flowing. Focus on the key words “background,” “identity,” “interest,” and “talent” and use them as launch points for your brainstorming. Finance. What about college essay cover your history, personality, hobbies, or accomplishments might be worth highlighting for an admissions officer?
It can be something as small as seeing an episode of a television show (are you living life in math problem, the Upside Down?) or as large as the struggle of college page moving to a foreign country (especially if you had to leave behind grandma’s cooking). The most important thing to consider for this prompt is that your subject and/or perspective is dynamic and specific to persuasuve, you and who you are and no one else. Some questions to ask yourself as you brainstorm: What about my history or background sets me apart from my peers? How do I define myself? How do the people who are closest to college application cover, me define me? What have I achieved that has been integral in annotated bibliography, molding my character and ambitions?
What, in college essay cover page, my seventeen years on essay future husband this earth, has helped shape the person I am today? And some examples to consider: Has your family’s love of food and your resultant adventurous tastes and culinary curiosity allowed you to connect with cultures from around the world? Does your crazy, dyed-blue hair define you? Did going to a Picasso exhibit inspire you to start an application page, art collection that has since expanded beyond the bibliography introduction essay, borders of your bedroom? Have your yearly trips to see your extended family in China revealed something to college essay, you about your parents’ ability to overcome challenges and corporate the work ethic you have absorbed as a result? What are the challenges and college application essay rewards of having same-sex parents? Or of being raised by on my perfect future, your siblings? Or of being part of application essay a family made up of stepsisters and stepbrothers? Overall, this prompt is what we at College Essay Advisors call a “choose-your-own-adventure” prompt. It has historically served as a fabulous catch-all for subjects that don’t fit within the confines of the other prompt options.
A recent addition to perfect future husband, the Common App’s prompt selection now offers even more freedom to applicants (more on that later), but students should still think of Prompt #1 as a topic of college application essay immense choice, reeled in master thesis, by a few helpful guidelines. PROMPT #2: The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure . How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience? [Revisions in italics] We have always believed that essays about college application essay page overcoming obstacles are most effective when they focus more on solutions than problems. Accordingly, students’ responses to Prompt #2 should be directed at a student’s response, outlook, and introduction demeanor when presented with one of life’s many hurdles, and applicants should aim to showcase qualities like resilience, determination, and humility. The obstacles you choose to essay, explore can vary widely in nature, especially with the recent additions that allow students to explore challenges and setbacks in addition to corporate master, failures. They can be as serious as being tormented by college essay cover page, bullies, as ingrained as the financial issues that have plagued your family for years, or as seemingly pedestrian as a mistake that costs you a tip while waiting tables.
While the problem, possibilities are almost endless, students should be careful not to choose challenges that may seem trite (the inability to achieve an A on an exam and/or secure tickets to that Drake concert) or that illustrate a lapse in good judgment (that time you crashed your car or ate 15 bags of Cheetos in application essay, one sitting). Still, if you can isolate an incident of essay trial in your life and how you learned from it, this can be a rewarding prompt to explore. Some key questions to consider: How do you deal with hardship? What qualifies as a challenge or setback in application cover, your life and world? Are you the kind of person who can rebound—who turns every experience, good or bad, into one from which you can learn something?
What experiences might illustrate this quality? What have been some of the major challenges you’ve encountered in your life, and was there a silver lining? And a few examples to math games, think about: Has a lifelong battle with stuttering ultimately increased your overall confidence and allowed you to participate in social activities and public forums without self-judgment? Did a parent’s fragile health situation challenge you to take on more responsibilities than the page, average teenager? Did a series of setbacks on your road to becoming a child actor introduce you to screenwriting, your professional goal and biggest passion? Did your failure to follow directions lead you to a botched home science experiment (root beer explosion!) and on my future an appreciation for a balance of creativity and planned procedure? Overall, try to keep these stories as positive as possible.
Remember, these essays are not just contemplative musings on your toughest times or reflections on the hiccups that populate everyday life (though these things can certainly be touched upon); they are also about college essay cover page overcoming obstacles and refusing to annotated bibliography essay, submit to life’s greatest challenges. Application Essay. PROMPT #3: Reflect on future husband a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking ? What was the application, outcome ? [Revisions in italics] This remains one of the bibliography, most challenging prompts of the Common App’s selection, even though it has become slightly friendlier with the college application page, addition of the option to an essay paper, discuss a time you questioned an idea instead of challenging it. This prompt requires a student to speak passionately about beliefs and ideology, which are often onerous subjects that can be difficult to mold into compact stories. It can be one of the hardest questions to application page, steer in a positive, productive direction without traveling into corporate finance master, preachy, overly didactic territory. This is also a more precarious prompt than most in that students need to carefully assess the risks of cover espousing beliefs that might be polarizing for the readers of their applications. That said, a response to bibliography, this prompt can be incisive and essay cover deeply personal, as it was for a student who stood up to her parents’ old-fashioned outlook on an essay paper feminism.
Applicants who can articulate their thoughts and feelings while showcasing malleability and application cover page willingness to thoughtfully consider the ideas of others will likely stand out as valuable additions to any campus. If this prompt jumps out at you because you have a very specific story to tell or opinion to voice, run with it! Consider these questions as you brainstorm: When has your opinion been unpopular? Why are you the kind of person who is willing to stand up for what you believe in? What is important to machinist paper, you on application cover page a fundamental level of morals and essay on my values?
How passionate are you about the things you believe in? And here are a few examples for you to college application essay, ponder: Are you openly gay in a strict Catholic school environment, and what has that meant for your self-esteem and personal relationships? Did you work as an persuasuve, intern on a political campaign caught at the center of a scandal? How did you react? Did you challenge the idea of horror as a throwaway genre by executing an essay cover page, extensive research paper on the subject, launching a horror movie club at school, and arranging the most elaborate, best-received haunted house your neighborhood has ever seen? Your essay does not have to be focused around a fundamentally serious or groundbreaking issue (see the horror genre example above). What matters most when responding to this prompt is that you have strong convictions about the belief or idea you are trying to convey, and that you examine the personal effects of this ethos on your life and world. For this reason, Prompt #3 can be a great vehicle for essay, showcasing your consideration, persuasive skills, and passions to admissions. PROMPT #4: Describe a problem you’ve solved or a problem you’d like to application essay cover, solve. On My. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma-anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. College Essay Cover. Explain its significance to you and problem games what steps you took or could be taken to college application page, identify a solution. [No change] We love Prompt #4, which asks students to talk about a problem and finance master thesis how they solved or are planning to solve it.
This question is similar to Prompt #2 in college application essay cover, that it is meant to tease out a student’s problem-solving skills and provide a glimpse into an applicant’s frame of mind when dealing with challenges. Annotated Essay. It also provides a few bonus opportunities for creative expression, leaving both the college application essay page, scale and the time frame for setting up a problem/solution wide open. Students should think about everything from more traditional obstacles they have had to overcome to persuasuve, the small predicaments that have inspired them to think about what they really value. Applicants should also keep in mind that this prompt can be approached from an college, aspirational perspective. In other words: you don’t simply have to choose from problems you’ve already solved. Think about what challenges the future might bring, both personally and on a global scale.
How might you be part of meaningful progress and problem-solving moving forward? Some other questions to ponder: When have you been proactive in attempting to effect change? What inspires you to action? What kind of corporate mark would you like to leave on application essay page the world? How do you think you can positively contribute to a cause that is important to you? If you had the power to math problem, make a lasting impact in college essay cover, any area at all, what would it be? And examples to use as food for essay, thought: Has your love of nature inspired you to start a charity to help save local endangered species? Did your desire to cover page, make a stronger, non-tearable hockey lace launch you on an entrepreneurial adventure you never fully anticipated? Has your commitment to pursuing medical research inspired you to contact your favorite professors and researchers looking for essay perfect, summer lab positions, and to read every scientific paper you can get your hands on?
It is important that the application essay page, problem you choose is linked to your life and world in a meaningful way. The whole purpose of this essay-writing exercise is to reveal something valuable about yourself to admissions, so be sure to corporate finance, link the problem you highlight to your passions, actions, or aspirations. And don’t forget to detail at least a few steps you would/could take to solve your chosen quandary. While the prompts don’t really matter in essay cover, the initial conception phases of an essay (as you now know), once you’ve backed into your prompt of choice, following instructions to the fullest and answering all parts of each question are critical. An Essay Paper. PROMPT #5: Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others . Application Essay Cover. [Revisions in italics] This is the most heavily revised of last year’s prompts, which used to ask students to describe a transition from childhood to adulthood. The purview of the inquiry has been expanded to ask about finance personal growth in general, leaving the lessons and timing of an applicant’s transformation more open-ended. Students are also now free to reflect on a “realization” in addition to an “event” or “occurrence.” While a realization that changes your understanding of the cover, world will likely be sparked by a concrete marker (i.e., an event or accomplishment), we are happy to essay on my perfect husband, take the added flexibility from you, Common App. Thank you very much.
There are a few things to note when unpacking this prompt. Keep in mind that the words “accomplishment” and application “event” leave themselves open to interpretation; thus, an essay inspired by this question can tackle anything from machinist a formal event to a very small occurrence. A formal event or accomplishment might include anything from college application obvious landmarks like birthdays or weddings, to achievements like earning an award or receiving a promotion. More informal examples might include something as simple as meeting a special person in bibliography introduction essay, your life, taking a car ride, or eating a particularly meaningful meal. We have often found that smaller, less formal events make for more surprising and memorable essays, but as with any of the other prompts, as long as you can answer with originality and put a unique twist on your subject matter, all ideas, formal or informal, big or small, are fair game. Your reflection on what you learned and how you grew will be a source of great insight for college application essay cover page, admissions, and you want to annotated bibliography, make sure your essay highlights the college, intangible qualities that don’t show up anywhere else on an application. Some other things to consider: How do you react to periods of persuasuve essay transition? What inspires a change in your perspective? When have you had a “eureka” moment, and how has it impacted the way you lived your life thereafter? What were the moments in life that fundamentally changed you as a person?
When did you learn something that made you feel more adult, more capable, more grown up? Did your expansion of college application page a handmade stationery hobby into machinist paper, a full-fledged business give you the motivation and wherewithal to combat the effects of a debilitating illness? Have you learned to love the football team playback sessions that force you to routinely examine your mistakes but also to welcome constructive criticism and point yourself toward self-improvement? Did a summer-long role as the U.S. President in a mock government and college application essay cover diplomacy exercise bring out leadership skills you never knew you had? What did playing bridge at a senior citizens’ home each week show you about the value of enjoyment over competition? How did this change the way you interact and connect with others? The most important thing to keep in mind when searching for these moments is the an essay paper, element of growth, understanding, and essay transformation.
The event, accomplishment, or realization you discuss should be something that helped you understand the world around you through a different, more mature lens. And, as with Prompt #4, be sure to math problem, answer all parts of the college application page, question. PROMPT #6: Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more? [New!!] This is one of the Common App’s brand new additions for the 2017-18 application cycle, and we cannot contain our nerdy excitement, especially since this prompt was built to highlight a student’s inner nerd. College, one could argue, is an essay paper, largely about the page, pursuit of perfect future husband knowledge, so you can imagine it would be quite appealing for an admissions officer to have a meter for your level of self-motivated learning, along with a better understanding of application essay how and why you choose to perfect, pay attention to application essay cover, the things that intrigue you.
This is a full-on peek into your brain: how you process information, how you seek out new sources of content and inspiration. How resourceful are you when your curiosity is piqued to essay, the fullest? The answer to this prompt should also reveal something to college essay, admissions about the breadth or depth of your interests. For example, if you’re interested in research paper, studying astrophysics, you might choose to discuss a concept that shows how far your exploration of the sciences truly reaches. How consumed are you by this passion you are choosing to pursue academically? Some key questions to college application cover, consider: What floats your boat? Do you have an appetite for paper, knowledge about college application cover something specific? Or as we’ve asked in the breakdown for Prompt #1: What do you love, and why do you love it?
What lengths have you gone to in order to annotated introduction essay, acquire new information about or experiences related to college application page, a topic of interest? How do you typically seek to enrich your knowledge when something appeals to you? Do you have a favorite corner or the library (or internet)? A mentor who is essay, open to answering your burning questions? What about the process of college application cover page learning, especially about subjects that call out to you, is satisfying? And a few examples to get those wheels turning: Did the idea of open source code inspire you to problem games, create a tech startup with a few of your friends? What projects do you work on, and why is the idea of sharing information still so revolutionary? Did getting an internship at college an accounting firm inspire you to start each day by checking the essay, markets? Do you participate in college essay cover page, a mock trading club that allows you to use the expertise you gather from culling through economic news and analysis online and beyond? On any given Sunday morning, will we find you lost in the literature of Kurt Vonnegut or immersed in a collection of stories by Isaac Asimov? Have you taught yourself to master the compositions of Mozart and Beethoven and essay on my husband break down the songs of application cover page Bruno Mars by ear in an essay paper, your spare time?
Do you have an obsession with pizza so intense it led you to study bread-making and keep a pizza journal that documents the 700+ slices you’ve consumed thus far? (We know someone who did this—really.) How is pizza-making more scientific and/or artistic than the average person realizes? Whatever you’re into, embrace it. Show your feathers. Let your freak flag fly (within reason, obvs). This prompt is about the pursuit of knowledge and college essay cover your desire to proactively challenge yourself. Essay. Whether you are devouring the classics on application essay cover your Kindle or nerding out over the perfect cheese for calzone-making, your attachment to a subject may inspire admissions to want to learn more about it…and you. PROMPT #7: Share an games, essay on any topic of your choice. College Application Essay Cover. It can be one you’ve already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. [New!!] IT FINALLY HAPPENED. The return, not of the king, not of the Jedi, not even of the Mack, but of the topic of your choice. Feared by some, coveted by others, and legendary in its existence, regardless of where you stand on corporate the issue, this is a newsworthy edition to the 2017-18 Common App prompt choices.
For years, students have been treating Prompt #1 (which asks about your background, etc.) as Topic of Your Choice Light—it wasn’t exactly the essay cover, delicious, full-freedom version students were looking for, but they were able to make it work in a pinch. Perhaps it was the Coalition Application’s inclusion of a topic of your choice in their first-ever round of essay topic options (which will remain the same this year) that pressured the Common App to bring back the any-flavor-you-wish option to games, their application. Regardless of the reason, applicants around the world likely let out a big exhale when they saw they could serve up a big scoop of Prompt #7 to college cover, admissions this year. An Essay Paper. While we won’t know for sure until the Common App’s full release (which usually happens in August), we are guessing that students might be required to fill in a custom prompt to match their essay response for this true choose-your-own-adventure style query. For this reason, we recommend having a question of your own making at the ready if you choose to take advantage of Prompt #7. Essay. It will be good to have it on hand, just in case, and math games it’s also a fun exercise in wrapping your head around what exactly you are trying to accomplish with the subject you’ve chosen and application cover the essay you have created. Some questions to consider as you brainstorm, in persuasuve, addition to all of the ones we’ve posed thus far: What do you want admissions to know about you that they wouldn’t be able to glean from your transcript, test scores, or teacher recommendations? What are the stories that come up over and over again, at the dinner table or in the cafeteria with your friends, that might give admissions some insight into who you are and what is important to you? If you had ten minutes alone in a room with an application, admissions officer, what would you want to talk about or tell him or her about math yourself? What would you bring to a college campus that no one else would or could?
And a few examples of college essay cover potential subjects and their related (custom!) prompts: Were you born with a congenital eye defect that literally (and metaphorically) affects how you see the perfect future, world? ( Q: How is your perspective on the world unique?) Do you spend 40 minutes each Friday night tutoring a class of elementary school students in Cambodia? How has that impacted the way you mete out your time and assess your commitments? ( Q: What is the value of 40 minutes?) Did your parents let your older brother choose your name? What was his inspiration? (Please tell us your name is Gaston.) What does your name represent for you? How has it impacted your interactions in the world? ( Q: What’s in a name?) While being able to write about whatever you wish sounds great in essay cover page, theory, some students find—especially at persuasuve essay the beginning of the essay cover, brainstorming process—that they are debilitated by the “topic of your choice” option because it offers too much choice. If that is the persuasuve essay, case, fear not! Use some of the other prompts as starting points for application essay page, your brainstorming and freewriting journeys. Begin keeping a diary (now!) and jot down subjects, events, and memories as they float to the surface.
Now that you have read our handy-dandy prompt guide and understand what admissions is looking for from these prompts, you could very well have a notebook filled with ideas that are ripe for expansion by research paper, the time you sit down to write. Application Essay Cover Page. So don’t worry about having too many ideas, or not having enough ideas, especially at the beginning of the topic selection process. Once you figure out what you’d like to say (and maybe even after you draft the crux of the essay itself), see if your concept fits one of the first six prompts. Trying to back into essay on my perfect, a more specific prompt option may inspire an interesting spin on the story you are trying to tell—one you may not have thought of otherwise. If, after careful consideration, your magic essay topic does not work within the college application, confines of Prompts 1-6, you are in luck. The glorious, all-encompassing Prompt #7 will be here to catch you.
With some brainstorming and hard work, every student can uncover a story worth telling in response to one of these prompts. Remember, admissions wants a glimpse of your personality, your values, your interests and your passions. Research. They want to get an idea of college application essay cover what kind of attitude and energy you will bring to the classroom and persuasuve campus life. So take a few minutes to probe your memories, collect your stories and college application essay strike up that creative core. Every student has a fabulous essay inside of them – these prompts can help you find yours.
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Essay My Pet Dog Essays and Research Papers. My Pet Dog My buddy, pet , and wildest friend, is the muse to application essay cover, my . descriptive essay . My bulldog, Bibson, has been with my family for 3 years now and is striking in many ways that are amazing and math interesting. To properly visualize this animal, someone must first know that he is cover, a full bred male American Bulldog and, true to games, the breed, is college essay cover, almost completely snow white. The exceptions to this are the finance master thesis backs of his ears, (they have light brown spots on them) his belly, (which is pink with brown spots). American Bulldog , Attention , Dog 994 Words | 3 Pages. Rs.200/- in favour of CDL-GITAM University, payable at Visakhapatnam if the application is downloaded from www.gitam.edu d. Date of Birth extract. . Cover Page! Declaration I hereby declare that all the problem games information given above is true and college page I fully understand that my admission stands cancelled at any stage if it is discovered that I do not have the minimum prescribed qualification and an essay paper / or any information supplied by me is found to be false and application essay inadequate. Further, I assure to machinist, be a disciplined student and abide. Distance education , Education , Employment 417 Words | 2 Pages.
Dogs can bring happiness to even the saddest person. They bring out the best in college cover page, someone, and they’re always there for you. This is one of the . many reasons I love dogs so much. That, and an essay paper the fact that I’ve grown up always having at least three. My family is definitely a dog family; all of us love being around dogs , and we always have so many and want more and more. Right now, we have 4. Two Yorkshire Terriers, Rambo and Reyna, and two Sharpei mixes, Cole and college application essay page Tanner. Cole and Tanner are my babies;. Brown , Canidae , Dog 1143 Words | 3 Pages.
September (7) Documentary Essay Writing Dogs are better pets than cats Pets bring happiness to . Persuasuve! a person’s life. Essay Cover Page! They create a special bond with their owners. Entry Essay : Poverty Extended Definition Essay : Aesthetics Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats This bond can help an introduction, owner and his pet live in harmony. Application Essay! People usually get pets to have a Reflective Essay companion in their homes. Couples get pets before having a child because taking care of a pet Exit Essay is math problem, similar in taking. Cat , Cat communication , Dog 1438 Words | 4 Pages. TV with my beloved family members where I heard my fon ringing and I ran to get up the fon ,HELLO! ! ! Yes anna hru? Yeah I’m . fine. College Application Essay Cover Page! . . . Bibliography! . College Application Cover! . . Research! actually I have a dog with me and college cover page do you want to have it as your pet ? With lots of excitement and an essay paper happiness I answered yes to without thinking where to college essay cover, keep it and how to take care. But wait. Annotated Introduction Essay! What breed is that dog ? What color? , male or female?, big or small, naughty or good?, tall or short?, and he answered to that is college application essay cover page, it’s a Rottweiler dog , it’s a.
Dog , Dog breed , Dog health 3104 Words | 7 Pages. The companionship between dogs and human is not a new phenomenon. How ever, most people acquire dogs for different purposes. Some . acquire dogs for protection, and recreation, while others are for companionship. Dogs have unique characteristics different from essay, other animals. In general world it’s obvious that dogs have the application essay same senses as humans. An Essay Paper! The sense of smell, which is very unique and beneficial for criminal detect, grooming is an important part of touch for dogs , dogs understand language and most. Dog , Dog health , Dogs 1120 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay with Cats and Dogs. Compare and Contrast Essay Cats and Dogs From my childhood until now, I have always been an animal lover. . Over the years, I have owned lots of pets such as cats, dogs , fish, and hamsters.
Currently I have one cat. Cats and dogs rank at the top of the most popular pets of today. Both of them have a vast number of similarities; however the differences between canine and feline are just as enormous. College Essay Cover! I am going to annotated bibliography essay, compare and contrast the similarities and differences between dogs and college essay cover cats. Corporate Master! The similarities. Cat , Dog , Neutering 1516 Words | 4 Pages. Dogs , simply put, are man’s best friend. These fantastic creatures are extremely loving and undeniably loyal.
Both dogs and . humans are happier if we are around each other. A great deal of dog owners make their dogs a significant part of their family. Having a dog in your life awards you with numerous benefits. Cover! Dogs provide their owners with companionship and relief from math, loneliness, mental health benefits, physical health benefits and exercise options, built in home security, pleasure in knowing. Apex predator , Dog , Human 988 Words | 3 Pages.
about my three favorite breeds of dogs . THESIS: Any dog can make a great pet but my . favorites are chihuahuas, boston terriers and boxers. INTRODUCTION I. Attention Material: I have been an animal lover since I was a small child, but dogs are my favorite of all animals. II. Credibility: I have two dogs , a Chihuahua and a Boston Terrier. III. Preview: My favorite three dog breeds are, Chihuahuas, Boston Terriers, and Boxers. College Essay! Transition: Lets start by talking about my first favorite dog the.
Boston Terrier , Chihuahua , Companion dog 787 Words | 3 Pages. Jonathan Blais Mr. Ersinghaus Story Critiques 9 May 2011 My Kid’s Dog and Irony Ron Hansen’s work, . My Kid’s Dog , is a story about revenge, irony, and circularity. The family pet , Sparky, dies. We are informed of this in the first lines of the piece, “ My kid’s dog died. Sparky.
I hated that dog (244).” Here Hansen gives us a clue to their relationship, “We got off on the wrong foot. Whining in his pen those first nights. My squirt gun in his face and him blinking from the water. And then. A Story , Comedy , Fiction 1107 Words | 3 Pages.
We all have a desire to own and care for a pet as children, many families in todays society do in research paper, fact have one or even multiple household . pets that they love and embrace as part of the family. Cover Page! Unfortunately I never had the satisfaction of having a pet , preferably a dog , in my family, but because of annotated introduction this I can compare cats and dogs impartially. I chose to compare cats and dogs because I believe they are the most common and interactive household pets that one can have. College Application Cover Page! Cats have been traced back. Cat , Cosmopolitan species , Dog 980 Words | 3 Pages. Best Reasons for Adopting a Pet Having a dog is a wonderful idea, they bring companionship, personality and humor to . households across the world.
Dogs make good companions because of the friendship, unconditional love, loyalty and protection they give. I have decided to adopt a dog from an essay paper, one of my local rescue centers because there are so many unwanted dogs that deserve a loving home. Companionship is the college essay cover page number one reason I chose to adopt a dog . For instance, when you wake up in the morning. Dog , Dog health , Gray Wolf 895 Words | 3 Pages. “Lady with the Pet Dog ” Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, 1860-1904, Russian writer and physician.(Fragment) The son of a grocer and . grandson of a serf, he helped support his family, while he studied medicine, by writing humorous sketches. Machinist Research Paper! His reputation as a master of the short story was assured when in essay cover, 1888 “The Steppe,” a story in essay husband, his third collection, won the Pushkin Prize. The Island of college cover Sakhalin(Novel or story?) (1893-94) was a report on an essay paper his visit to a penal colony in 1890. Thereafter he lived. Alice Munro , Anton Chekhov , Constantin Stanislavski 1576 Words | 4 Pages.
small years old, dancing around the house, watching The Power Puff Girls and wanting, ever so badly, to be a little superhero. One day, my . mother scooped me up in her arms, breaking my concentration of crime fighting little girls, to college essay, take a trip to the pound. I was only three so as my small mind wondered, I still couldn't grasp the idea of what a pound was. Still, my loving mother would not speak a word of what the pound was. Essay On My Future! I remember toddling through the smelly place of animals big and small thinking. Dog , Pound , Pound-force 1530 Words | 4 Pages. college essay has an introductory paragraph, several body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph. You are telling the reader what you think . are the most important points, which need to be addressed in college cover, your essay . Annotated Essay! For this reason, the introduction needs to be directly related to college essay cover page, the question or topic. A strong thesis is essential to a good paper, as each paragraph of your paper should be related back to your thesis or else deleted.
Thus, the thesis establishes the key foundation for your essay . A strong. Dog , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1968 Words | 6 Pages. with the Pet Dog ” tells the story of two unhappy individuals trying to find love in perfect future, a long lasting affair. Both versions of the college application essay . story are similar in bibliography, plot, but the different point of view allows readers to view the conflicts and emotions that each character faces, instead of just getting one side of the application story. Although both stories follow the same plot, there are many differences that help readers understand the emotions of the protagonist. Chekhov’s version of “The Lady with the Pet Dog the main. Affair , Anton Chekhov , Emotion 1018 Words | 3 Pages. Abundance of Dog Doodoo Statistics prove there are 73 million dogs in the United-States.
Each and every one of those . dogs needs to perfect future, release their bowels several times a day. It is a major pet peeve for essay cover page, many people, when inconsiderate dog walkers let their pet crap indiscriminately (like on someone’s lawn) and they do not pick it up. Persuasuve Essay! Some dog walkers assume the homeowner has a dog and college page is already picking up poop throughout the yard however the piles may be larger than their own dogs head and essay the. Coprophagia , Cow dung , Dog 1763 Words | 5 Pages. Dogs Are Better House Pets Than Cats. Dogs are better pets than cats Yukako Taketani English 122 Instructor Chang March 17, 2013 Dogs are better . house pets than cats In the world, there are only three types of people: dog lovers, cat lovers, and please-no- dogs -or-cats-around-me people.
Between the dog and cat lovers, there is always a big debate on cover the subject which animal is more suited as house pets and an essay paper has better companionship with humans. According to application essay cover page, the article, “U.S Pet Ownership Statistics, there are 78.2 million owned. Cat , Cosmopolitan species , Dog 1292 Words | 4 Pages. ? Things that personally get on my nerves Pet peeve essay LaShawn Clark Have you ever . Persuasuve Essay! walked out of a public place such as a store, doctor’s office, or even a restaurant directly into a huge cloud of smoke? Maybe even just sitting at the traffic light and a huge gust of essay cigarette smoke enters your window?
How about the persuasuve designated cigarette receptacles that are located right in front of an entrance or exit? What if your child took the time to hold a door for a stranger. Cigarette , Debut albums , Family 1244 Words | 6 Pages. ?Final Essay Charles DiPerri University of Phoenix Pets are an important part of most households and most consider them . part of college essay their families. There are many different kinds of essay pets ; some you can cuddle, like cats and dogs , and others just cool to have, like tarantulas, fish and snakes. Almost every household has either a cat or a dog , but most people do not realize the similarities and the differences between the two. Application Cover Page! Our pets are like humans, they all need to eat, drink, sleep and bathe. Cat , Cosmopolitan species , Dog 1198 Words | 3 Pages. people want a pet to accompany with them outside their studying and working time. Therefore the number of people who have a dog . is increased, and the needs of annotated introduction dog are raised significantly.
The economy about page, pets is paid attention by machinist research paper, people. Not only concerned about what they eat, but also about where they live and what kinds of cloth they wear. College Essay Cover! It becomes a potential marketing in our daily life. There are different kinds of an essay paper pet kennels, and open variety projects such as pet grooming, pet washing and. Balance sheet , Cost of cover goods sold , Dog 1118 Words | 5 Pages. the dog child. Up to 81% of Americans view their pets as family members, and think about their dogs as much as . their children. 71% have a photo of math problem games their dog in their wallet or phone that they show other people. College Application Page! There are obvious benefits to having dogs rather than children. An Essay Paper! Your dog will never slam a door in your face or tell you they hate you. They can be potty trained in eight weeks.
They don’t need clothes, a car, or a college education. Essay Page! In recent years, several discoveries about dogs make. Collie , Dog , Dog breed 808 Words | 3 Pages. The advantages and disadvantages of an essay paper having the pets. Vu Research and Study Skills THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HAVING PETS . Application Essay Cover! With the development of corporate master society, people have more . demanding. So that, most people discuss the importance of staying healthy and living longer by diet, work, and college application essay cover exercise. Essay Future! But they do not know besides work, they need to keep their spirit in college page, optimism and love life. In the modern life, pets become popular with many households. Since, pets are loyal friends.
They also support a lot of things for essay, people life such as. Chimpanzee , Dog , Exotic pet 2458 Words | 7 Pages. Let me tell you a story about old dog incontinence. Application! Jane Smith's beloved old pet has suddenly started dribbling urine. Annotated Introduction Essay! She's . finding puddles of urine all over the house. College Essay Cover Page! The fur on introduction essay her dog's bottom is wet from the constant dribbling, and the odor is application cover page, overwhelming. She fears the worst, thinking that there is no cure for urinary incontinence in dogs . She's afraid it's the end of the line for her beloved friend. Why Is My Older Dog Incontinent? There are many causes for this condition. Bacteria , Dog , Kidney 573 Words | 3 Pages. Contrast essay of The Lady with the persuasuve essay Pet Dog by Anton Chekov and the Lady with the Pet Dog by Joyce Carol Oates'
While both the original and application essay page the reworked versions of persuasuve essay The Lady with the Pet Dog are interesting stories, Anton Chekov's is more . Cover! compelling than Joyce Carol Oates's due to a point of view from a different character, a stronger main character overall, and a more intriguing setting. In these two stories the account of what takes place is math, told from opposing sides of the relationship. In Chekov's version of The Lady with the Pet Dog , the story is told from the perspective of the male side of the couple. Anton Chekhov , Character , English-language films 741 Words | 3 Pages. ? MY HOLY WEEK CELEBRATION During April we celebrated the Holy week.
It is college application cover page, when Jesus Christ was crucified and an essay paper died under Poncioplilate and rose . again after three days. Hundreds of people belong to college application cover, the church to get to essay on my perfect, the great unwashed, they prayed and college application cover page thanked Jesus for saving the world from sins and temptation. There are many devoted and annotated bibliography essay believe the power of college essay cover Jesus Christ. Perhaps processions are also held with prayers too. Machinist Paper! In that respect are different saints, showing up. College Essay Cover! From this day, probably. Beach , Holiday , Holy Week 960 Words | 2 Pages.
“The Lady with the Pet Dog ” by Anton Chekhov, where the main female character, Anna S, seeks liberty from her marriage and meets . a man named Dmitry while walking her pet dog . This story takes place in Russia and problem games she is interested in Dmitry, while she is married to her husband. Application Essay Cover Page! She considers her husband a flunkey and she only married him because she wanted something better at on my perfect future husband, the age of twenty. She wanted to college application cover page, obtain financial status with him and never married for persuasuve essay, love. She said, “ My husband may be a. Adultery , Bless you , Husband 1444 Words | 4 Pages.
Essay Sentence Outline Subject: Favorite Pet Focused topic: a dog Thesis statement: A dog would . make a great pet for college application cover page, me because dogs are very loyal, they are easy to train, and an essay paper they are good company. First Body Paragraph - Major Point 1 Topic Sentence: One of the great things about a dog is college application page, that they are extremely loyal. Supporting Detail 1a: Dogs are always happy to see you when you come home from school or work. Problem! Expanded Detail: My friend. Dog , Dog health , Gray Wolf 652 Words | 4 Pages. The Lady with the Pet Dog by application page, Chekhov. What conflicts does Gurov face in The Lady with the Pet Dog and how does Chekhov present or portray these conflicts? Also, talk . about how these conflicts change throughout the story.
Dmitri Dmitrich Gurov and machinist research Anna Sergeyevna, both parted from their significant others, find each other in their times of loneliness and eventually fall in love with one another. In The Lady with the application cover Pet Dog , Anton Chekhov portrays a strong theme of love, but he also presents a conflict within the characters themselves. American films , Anton Chekhov , Black-and-white films 1598 Words | 4 Pages. Lady With The Pet Dog by Anton Chekhov and A Respectable Woman by corporate finance thesis, Kate Chopin one can see key similarities of the two works. The . short story by Anton Checkov deals with a man and a woman who are both married but regardless of this fact they fall in love with each other and college application cover have a secret affair.
The short story by Kate Chopin deals with a married woman who is tempted to math problem, have an affair with one of her husbands friends, but she resist unlike the characters in college application essay page, The Lady With The Pet Dog . An Essay Paper! Both of the works. Anton Chekhov , Black-and-white films , Husband 1809 Words | 4 Pages. ? Essay # 1 Essay on Dog – Man’s Best Friend – The dog is a loving companion to a man. He is college essay page, happy to an essay paper, . go everywhere with his master. Application! He shows his affection for corporate finance master thesis, his master by college application essay cover page, wagging his tail and husband licking his hand or face. If his master is college application essay cover, blind, the dog helps him to cross the street and paper acts as his loving guide. No man can feel lonely when he has a dog for company. A dog keeps watch over his master’s house. He will not allow anyone to touch anything belonging to his master. He will bark when a stranger.
Basset Hound , Dog , Dog breed 1188 Words | 4 Pages. When I was first assigned to read What the college application page Dog Saw I thought to myself, “Wow this book could be a little dull. Introduction! This is application cover page, my first . college assignment and I have to finance master thesis, read nineteen essays that are written by this Malcolm Gladwell guy of whom I have never heard of. I thought college work was actually going to be interesting, apparently not!” After getting the book and just reading through the different topics Gladwell had written about I began to realize that my assumption was correct. College Page! This book was going. Attention , Cesar Millan , Chess 1415 Words | 4 Pages. Requirements to have a Dog as a Pet Is it an appropriate choice for people to keep a dog as a pet ? . Having any kind of pet at home has become a really essential part of people’s living due to the different needs they have. Corporate! There is a variety of pets that people can choose from to application cover, keep in their homes. Persuasuve! Many of them would rather live with different kind of pets ; for example, they have birds, dogs and page also cats.
Nowadays, most families and an essay paper single people want to have a pet in their apartment or at application page, home. Dog , Dog breed , Dog health 959 Words | 3 Pages. ?Example of the Narrative Essay Why I learned English Many families reflect diverse cultural backgrounds that come together. Persuasuve Essay! . My family’s roots are intertwined with several ethnic and cultural backgrounds. My mother’s parents are American, but her ancestors are originally from England and Germany. My father’s mother is Peruvian, but his father is Egyptian. I grew up in Peru with my parents in a quiet neighborhood of Lima. My paternal grandparents lived down the street from college application essay page, us, but my maternal grandparents.
Cat , Computer , E-mail 2464 Words | 7 Pages. The Effects of Owning a Pet There seems to be more of us trying to improve our overall health and persuasuve well-being. Discovering new ways to . improve our lives, weather it is emotionally, physically or mentally. All of which are important to college cover, living a healthy life. In this essay , I will discuss a few of the many benefits of owning a pet . Showing you all the benefits of an essay paper your furry companion, you have waiting for you at home. I will begin with how owning a cat or dog has been shown in numerous ways.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Better , Cat 912 Words | 3 Pages. Lisa Martin English 1101 Essay #4 Cats make the perfect pet I have heard the old saying that dogs . are man’s best friend. I don’t know much about dogs , but I do know a lot about application, cats. I have had a cat as a pet for at least 30 years. They are wonderful and I know I will always have one in my life. I think cats make the perfect pet because they are self sufficient, intelligent, and good companions. The first reason I think that cats make the perfect pet is because they are self.
Cat , Cat communication , Cat intelligence 978 Words | 3 Pages. An Experience That Changed My Life Essay. be an experience that they have gone thru and learned from. In my case it wasn’t necessarily an experience, it was a dog that . changed my perception on on my perfect life. My mind and heart was opened in a whole new way. I never thought I could love an application page, animal just as much as I loved the people in my life. I always thought it was strange that pet owners loved and treated their pets the same way they treated their children. My perception on dogs or pets in general definitely changed.
Throughout this paper you will. Dog , Dog health , Dogs 1052 Words | 3 Pages. My first pet Convincing a family to bibliography introduction, adopt a pet kitten can prove to be quite troublesome. Owning a . pet requires a decent amount of free time and great responsibility. Staying persistent in your endeavors and college essay page showing your family just how serious you are can prove to be rewarding in the end. Caring for a pet cat can prove be a major responsibility for an eight year old. Even though I was fully aware that I was far too young to take on annotated bibliography introduction essay the responsibility that comes with owning a pet , I was very. Cat , Cat coat genetics , Head 1086 Words | 3 Pages. ? Dog Fighting Argumentative Essay Have you ever been hit or forced to fight when you don’t want to? If this has not happened . to you then think about how you would feel if someone forced you to fight someone else.
You would probably feel pretty terrible, getting hurt just because this person wants you to fight someone all for their entertainment. This is what some cruel humans do to application cover page, animals like dogs usually pit bulls. Dog fighting is wrong and persuasuve cruel because the animals get badly hurt and could. Michael Vick 981 Words | 2 Pages. | 2012 | | Macquarie University Tugba SENTURK42980542 | [You decide ESSAY : `should pets be cloned? `] | Tutor` Name: . Prof. College Application Cover! Helena NEVALAINEN Tutorial Name: CBMS880- Medical and machinist paper Molecular Biotechnology | Animal cloning is getting popular by scientists day by day after the success of the sheep Dolly which was the first animal clone in college application essay cover page, the world. Dolly was created effectively by Roslin Instute scientist in Edinburgh (TechNyou) and she was euthanized when she was six year old due to. Cloned animals , Cloning , Dolly 1477 Words | 4 Pages. How to Write an Argumentative Essay. The Writing Lab – D204d http://bellevuecollege.edu/asc/writing 425-564-2200 How to Write an Argumentative Essay An argumentative . essay uses reasoning and machinist paper evidence—not emotion—to take a definitive stand on college application page a controversial or debatable issue.
The essay explores two sides of an essay paper a topic and application essay page proves why one side or position is the best. Master! The First Steps Choose a specific issue to discuss. Some debatable issues cover a wide range of topics. For example, “legalizing drugs” is too broad a subject because. Cat , Dog , Neutering 1602 Words | 5 Pages. ? Lindsay Deckman Assistant Dog Training Dog Behavior Paper 287 11/11/2014 Working at application cover, a . dog daycare, I observe different body languages and ways of communication through dogs every day. Essay Future Husband! I work at a facility called Paw Beach Pet Resort where daycare is available daily for 20+ dogs in a large yard.
One of the main things I have observed while watching all the application essay cover dogs is that they have emotions. Every day they are communicating how they believe they feel to one another. Alpha roll , Dog , Dog behavior 1687 Words | 8 Pages. multi-purpose pet I wanted to inform you that I am planning to adopt a pet in the near future. I’ve considered the machinist various . pets available for college application cover page, adoption and have come to the conclusion that adopting a dog would be the best choice for both you and machinist paper me. I will explain a few of the reasons that I feel adopting a dog is our best choice; Dogs are very loyal to college application cover page, humans, they teach children responsibility, and will help protect our family and homes from thesis, criminals. The loyalty of a dog is unsurpassed.
Animal shelter , Apex predator , Dog 411 Words | 2 Pages. Exotic Pets COM/156 August 5, 2012 Exotic Pets Some families face the difficult decision of whether or not bringing home . a pet would be a wise choice, and the impact it will make on all the members of the family. Their lives will be changed in many ways for both the application cover page pet and the owner, so making the master right choice of the type of pet is crucial for a positive experience. The most popular selection among families is a dog . The Amercian Pet Product Association (APPA) is a leading not-for-profit. Dog , Exotic pet , Ferret 1480 Words | 4 Pages. Essay about Red Nose Day The purpose is to application essay cover, entertain and on my perfect future husband change lives in the UK and college application essay Africa. The money spent to aid young who live on an essay paper the . street and protect people living with domestic abuse. In Africa for vaccines etc. People make donations, people also do something fun as games, parties, karaoke night, contests and other things and it's like winning money. Cover Page! This program is great, I think there should be more people like them, generous y caring.
This type of action I love. It is best to essay, help and. British Museum , Cardiff , Remembrance Day 678 Words | 3 Pages. this task. Write about the following topic: Many people keep dogs and cats as companions.
Discuss the advantages and college application essay cover page disadvantage of an essay paper . pet ownership for th e animals involved and for the community as a whole. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at page, least 250 words. It is finance, true that many people toda y have pets in their houses. So me people say that dogs and cats can be wonderful companions while others claim th at. Dog , Health care , Mental disorder 454 Words | 2 Pages. Cats vs. College Application Essay Page! Dog After living with them, I have noticed that although there are innumerable similarities between the annotated bibliography introduction essay dog and application essay page . the cat, there are also some important differences. These two animals are the two most popular pets today.
In the U.S. over the last few decades there had been an increasing pet ownership and an essay paper a decreasing euthanasia. From 1970 to 2010, the number of dogs and cats in application essay cover, homes has increased from 67 million to an estimated 164 million.Some people prefer the company of a cat. Canis , Cat , Dog 1708 Words | 5 Pages. AAT is an evaluated documented process done usually in a group or individual setting. d. Animals such as horses, dolphins, cats, guinea pigs, birds, . dogs and many others are used for AAA and AAT. e. National Pet Owners Survey performed in 2007-2008 (which was sponsored by essay on my future, the American Pet Products Manufacturers Association) shows that pets found in 71.1 million households can help lower blood pressure and fight depression. (Barker, 2008) f. Research suggests that animals can significantly. Dog , Health , Health care 766 Words | 3 Pages. ? Dogs as Pets It has been 33,000 years since the dog became the first animal to be domesticated. It has been the . most widely kept working, hunting, and application cover pet animal in human history.
There are over 490 breeds of dogs in the world. Persuasuve Essay! Many of these dogs can be great loyal companions for your family. In my family, we have a Greyhound and an Akita. Application! Greyhounds are medium size dogs with very short, easy to maintain hair. They have a long-head, an elongated snout, and corporate master thesis are muscular built. They have a. Coat , Dog , Dog breed 507 Words | 2 Pages. Descriptive essay Shyla Hassett Everyone has a place where they go to escape all the pressures and worries of life? . Essay Cover! ? . Persuasuve! There is always that one spot that can soothe all your problems and troubles in times of stress. For some? ,? the woods? ,? the beach? ,? or the park is the place to application cover page, go? . ? For me? ,? it’s simpler. I go to my bedroom to cure all my problems? . As I walk in I can feel the soft? ,? smooth carpet beneath my feet.
I see freshly painted lavender walls with white trimming?. 2004 albums , Color , Debut albums 323 Words | 2 Pages. Possible Essay Question on The Curious Incident of the machinist research Dog in college page, the Night Time Essay Question: Does the novel end on an optimistic note? Explain why. Essay! In the book “the curious incident of the application page dog in math, the . night-time” By Mark Haddon, the college essay cover new incident of corporate finance a murder of a dog , Wellington, is introduced in the first chapter. Christopher, a boy diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome, who lives next door, seeks to solve the college cover mystery which has befallen on corporate finance thesis his neighbour’s pet dog . However, as he ventures out to find the murderer, he finds out another mystery which involves his mother who he. Dog , Fear , How to Solve It 1281 Words | 3 Pages.
leaving. Dogs and cats are given to these shelters everyday across the united states. Only about 25% of application essay cover page dogs and 24% of math games cats are . adopted, 15% are reunited with their owners, and a horrible 64% are euthanized. That is millions of animals being killed just because no one wants them. Essay! 56 percent of math problem games dogs and 71 percent of cats that enter animal shelters are euthanized. More cats are euthanized than dogs because they are more likely to enter a shelter without any owner identification.
There are some dogs that. Animal shelter , Cat , Dog 875 Words | 3 Pages. 09/17/2012 Gonzalo Garcia . My dog skip When my english professor said to me that we was going to see “ My dog Skip”, sincerely, I thought the film would be very boring. “the typical family film” I said. Application Cover! The only fact that glad me was that we went going to math problem, miss class. The praises that the professor said about the movie. Comedy film , Film , Film score 983 Words | 3 Pages. BENEFITS OF HAVING PETS 1. Decreases stress In a 2002 study at State University of New York at Buffalo, researchers found that when . conducting a stressful task, people experienced less stress when their pets were with them than when a spouse, family member or close friend was nearby. Promises Treatment Centers, which specializes in addiction, not only application essay cover recommends its patients consider getting a pet , but even allows pets in its rehabilitation facilities, according to Dr.
David Sack, CEO of annotated introduction Promises. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Blood sugar , Cortisol 1069 Words | 3 Pages. First Essay I am interested in becoming a special education teacher because every type of child needs and deserves a proper education. Cover Page! . Unfortunately not all children receive the type of education they need. Having worked and perfect future volunteered my services to multiple families who have children with different assortments of disabilities. Application Cover Page! Working with children that required high levels of assistance to essay on my perfect future, perform what would be basic task for other children.
While teaching these children the basic life skills. Education , Gifted education , High school 1808 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction Dogs in the workplace is an college application essay page, idea that was started in Britain in 1996 as “Take Your Dog to Work Day”. It was a day . where employees were allowed to bring their dogs along to their workplace for a day. The United States has followed the research paper lead of Britain, with some businesses following the practice in 1999. After realizing the benefits of college application allowing employees to bring their dogs to work, the number of employers embracing this practice on a permanent basis is increasing constantly, with. Dog , Dog meat , Employment 1182 Words | 5 Pages. How to be a responsible dog owner There is perfect husband, a lot of time and essay cover page dedication that goes into being a responsible pet owner. In this . case the pet is “man’s best friend”.
Dogs are the an essay paper loyalist pets to own. Application Page! However they require a very large amount of attention and an essay paper love. College Essay! If you do not have patience and understanding you will not be a great pet owner. An Essay Paper! Having this pet is like having a new member of the family. There are steps to becoming a responsible dog owner and they are simple to follow. It is very. Cleanliness , Dog , Dog health 1202 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Topic: Pet Overpopulation Epidemic General Purpose: To persuade. College Application Essay Cover! Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience . that the public is to blame for essay perfect, the pet overpopulation epidemic. Essay! Central Idea: In order to control the overwhelming population of homeless pets , we need to stop throwing our “family friends” away.
There are 1.5 dogs and annotated bibliography essay cats put to sleep every second 4-6 million dogs and cover cats are euthanized every year, states the math problem games Humane Society. The pet overpopulation epidemic has. Animal shelter , Cat , Dog 1534 Words | 4 Pages. The global pet food industry has witnessed record growth highs over the past 10 years, reports Global Industry Analysts. College Application Cover Page! The pet . food sector is among the fastest-growing sectors within the food industry. Essay On My Future Husband! The pet food market will continue to record strong growth due to factors such as urbanization, rising levels of disposable incomes, particularly in developing countries, a growing pet population and evolving consumer attitudes.
Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the health benefits. 2007 pet food recalls , Association of application essay cover American Feed Control Officials , Food 700 Words | 3 Pages. Why should we have pets ? (More reasons) 1. What are the reasons why pets should be allowed in the Marco Polo building? * . Pets make loyal, lovable friends * Pets teach you how to take care of others * Pets teach you about responsibility * A pet can help you learn about animals * Playing with pets can make you feel happy * Having a pet can keep you from feeling lonely or depressed * Pets are good for your health * Your whole family can share the benefits of. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Cortisol , Dog 1688 Words | 5 Pages.
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How to write a 3,000 word essay in application essay cover page a day. Updated 30 August 2017. There's nothing like an corporate finance thesis, approaching deadline to application cover, give you the motivation (and fear) you need to get writing – don't stress though, we're here to help you out! We know – you had every intention of being deadline-ready, but these things happen! At some point during your time at university, you're bound to on my perfect future, find you've left coursework to the very last minute, with fewer hours than Jack Bauer to complete a 3,000 word essay. But don't sweat, cause 3,000 words in a day is totally doable! Not only this, but you can even produce an essay you can be proud of if you give it everything you got. Between nights out, procrastination and other deadlines to application, juggle, the time can easily creep up on you. However, the worst thing you can do in this situation is an essay paper panic, so keep calm, mop up the cold sweats and read on college application essay cover to find out how to nail that essay in problem games unbelievable time! Just to clarify – we're certainly not encouraging anyone to leave it all to the last minute, but if you do happen to college cover page, find yourself in a pickle, you're going to need some help – and we're the guys for the job.
Credit: Dimitris Kalogeropoylos – Flickr. Fail to plan and you plan to fail – or so our lecturers keep telling us. Reading this, we suspect you probably haven't embraced this motto up till now, but there are a few things you can do the morning before deadline that will make your day of frantic essay-writing run smoothly. First thing's first: Fuel your body and mind with a healthy breakfast, like porridge. Annotated Essay. The slow-release energy will stop a mid-morning slump over your desk, which is something you really can't afford right now!
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This will keep you going without having to take your eyes off the application essay cover screen (apparently dark chocolate is the best option for concentration). Try to avoid too much caffeine early on, as you'll find yourself crashing within a few hours. This includes energy drinks, by the way! Procrastination is every student's forte, so turn off your phone (or at games least switch notifications off) and refrain from application essay page checking Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, or any other social media channels you're addicted to. We mean it! A good tip is to corporate thesis, get a friend to change your Facebook password for you for application essay page 24 hours and make them promise not to corporate finance thesis, tell you it, even if you beg (choose a friend that enjoys watching you squirm). Otherwise, you can also temporarily deactivate your account. Time management is of utmost importance when you have 24 hours before deadline.
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When time is limited, it is essay important to choose to write about things you are confident in. Remember that it's your essay and as long as you relate your argument to the question and construct a clear, well supported argument, you can take it in any direction you choose. Math Problem. Use this to your advantage! You may need to cover, Google around the machinist research topic to get a clear idea of what's already been said on your chosen argument, but limit this research time to cover, 20 minutes or you could be there all day…and no checking facebook! Now, type out 3-5 key points that you'll aim to tackle in annotated essay your argument, and underneath these use bullet points to list all the information and college essay opinions, supporting arguments or quotes you have for each point. Start with the an essay paper most obvious argument , as this will provide something to link your other points back to – the key to college essay cover, a good essay. Once you've done this, you'll now find you have a detailed outline of the corporate finance master body of your essay, and it'll be a matter of college application essay cover, filling in an essay paper between the lines of each bullet point.
This method is perfect for college page writing against an essay paper, the clock, as it ensures you stay focused on your question and argument without going off in application essay cover any tangents. Credit: Steve Czajka – Flickr. Sometimes the introduction can be the most difficult part to write, but that's because it's also the most important part! Don't worry too much about making it sound amazing at this point – just get stuck into introducing your argument in response to your chosen question and telling the reader how you will support it. Math Problem Games. You can go back and college essay cover page make yourself sound smarter later on essay on my future husband when you're at the editing stage. Create something of a mini-outline in your introduction so you signpost exactly what it is college essay cover page you're planning to introduction essay, argue. Don't use the introduction as a space to throw in random references to things that are vaguely relevant. When in doubt, leave it out! Credit: Photo Monkey. Now it's time to cover, gather outside information and an essay paper quotes to support your arguments.
It's important to limit the college application essay cover page time you spend on this, as it is easy to get distracted when Google presents you with copious amounts of irrelevant information. However, you will find your essay easy to write if you're armed with lots of relevant info, so use your judgement on this one. Choose search keywords wisely and copy and paste key ideas and quotes into a separate 'Research' document. If using reference books rather than online, give yourself ten minutes to get anything that looks useful from the library, skip to chapters that look relevant and remember to use the index! Paraphrase your main arguments to give the bibliography essay your own voice and make clear to yourself which words are yours and which are someone else's. Plagiarism is serious and college application essay could get you a big fat F for your essay if you don't cite properly – after all this hard work! Alternatively, use Google Books to find direct quotes without spending time going through useless paragraphs. There's no time to read the full book, but this technique gives the impression that you did!
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Get typing! Now it's just a matter of beefing out your outline until you reach the word limit! Get all your content down and games don't worry too much about writing style. You can make all your changes later, and it's much easier to think about style once you have everything you want to say typed up first. More ideas could occur to college cover page, you as you go along, so jot these ideas down on a notepad – they could come in handy if you need to make up the master thesis word count later! Use the research you gathered earlier to support the key ideas you set out in your outline in a concise way until you have reached around 2,500(ish) words. If you're struggling to reach the word limit, don't panic.
Pick out college application cover page a single point in games your argument that you feel hasn't been fully built upon and head back to your research. Application Cover. There must be an additional quote or two that you could through in to persuasuve, make your point even clearer. Imagine your essay is a bit like a kebab stick: The meat is your essential points and you build on them and build around each piece of page, meat with vegetables (quotes or remarks) to make the full kebab… time for a dinner break? Ensure that all the points you wanted to explore are on paper (or screen) and explained fully. Persuasuve Essay. Are all your facts correct? Make things more wordy (or less, depending on your circumstance) in order to hit your word limit. You should also check that your essay flows nicely. Are your paragraphs linked? Does it all make sense? Do a quick spell check and make sure you have time for potential printer issues. We've all been there!
A lot of college essay cover, students overlook the importance of spelling and grammar. It differs from finance thesis uni to application cover, uni, subject to subject and tutor to tutor, but generally your writing style, spelling and grammar can account for up to an essay paper, 10-20% of your grade. Make sure you edit properly! If you take your time to nail this then you could already be 1/4 of the way to passing! While completing essays 24 hours before the deadline is far from recommended and unlikely to get you the best grades you've ever gotten (try our top tips for getting a first if that's your goal), this guide should at least prevent tears in the library (been there) and the need for any extensions.
Remember, this is a worst case scenario solution and not something you should be making a habit of! Now, why are you still reading? We all know you've got work to application cover, do! Good luck! Exams coming up?
Check out our guide on how to machinist research, revise in one day too. If you're starting to feel the pressure mounting up, we've also got some great tips for beating exam stress, too. If you have any great tips you think we've missed, we'd love to hear them – use the comments section below! Earn ?20 Amazon Vouchers. Win ?250 Nando’s Vouchers! Free* Domino’s pizza. Win a ?100 Ticketmaster voucher. 40 easy ways to make money quickly. How to start a website in 20 minutes. The best paid online survey websites. The Big Fat Guide to Student Finance 2017.
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03 October 2017. Essential Student Guide to Finance. Student loan calculator. Disclaimer: All content on an essay paper this website is application page based on machinist paper individual experience and journalistic research. It does not constitute financial advice. Save the college essay cover page Student and its authors are not liable for how tips are used, nor for content and services on paper external websites. Common sense should never be neglected! We sometimes use affiliated links which may result in a payment following a visitor taking action (such as a purchase or registration) on an external website.