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book report comanche Author of The Last Prince of the essay lesson, Mexican Empire, etc. Book Review by C.M. Mayo. THE COMANCHE EMPIRE. Yale University, 2008. Originally published in Marfa Mondays Blog, T he cover of Pekka Hämäläinen's The Comanche Empire , of a ghost-white warrior with a trio of blood-red slashes down his cheek, is as arresting as the argument that, as it opens, the Comanches' was an American empire that, according to scholarships conventional histories, did not exist. In the United States public discourse conflates wildly heterogenous groups into easy categories#151; Native American, white, black, and so on and so forth#151; and then, with school board-approved narratives as mortar, we construct colossal political edifices.
In their shadows, alas, many of us are blind to the complexities in our society and structure, history. The complexities are riotous. And when we shine a light on but one of them#151; as Finnish historian Hämäläinen has in this brilliant study of Comanche hegemony#151; suddenly our easy categories and well-worn narratives may look strange, deeply wrong. As those of you who follow this blog well know, I am at work on a book about Far West Texas, that is, Texas west of the Pecos River. Society? Anyone who heads out there, especially to the remote Big Bend, hears about essay structure, Comanches, e.g., they crossed the Río Grande here, they watered their horses there.
But the Comanches, an equestrian Plains people who hunted the buffalo, were latecomers to the Trans-Pecos. They did not settle there; they trekked through it on the Comanche Trail (more aptly, network of trails) on their way to raid in northern Mexico. They returned driving immense herds of horses and kidnapped Apache and Mexican women and a research, children in tow, for essay structure lesson, markets up north around Taos, New Mexico, and Big Timbers on the Arkansas, which garnered them metal tools, cooking pots, corn and other carbohydrates, textiles, and above all, guns and ammunition. The Comanche were raiding south of the Río Grande as early as the 1770s, but their large-scale raiding in northern Mexico commenced in the 1820s, plunging deep into Chihuahua, Coahuila, Tamaulipas, Durango, Zacatecas and, in a research the 1840s, as far as Jalisco and the major central market and manufacturing city of Querétaro. This systematic mass violence which left the northern realm of the Mexican economy crippled and its people demoralized, turned it into what Hämäläinen terms an extension of Greater Comanchería. Essay Lesson? Hence, by the late 1840s, when the U.S. Army invaded Mexico, what they were really invading was, to quote Hämäläinen, the shatterbelt of Native American power. The Edwardian Theatre On Performance? But this is to get ahead of the structure lesson, story. CIRCA 1750-1850: THE COMANCHE CENTURY. The imperialists of the 19th century: wouldn't that be Yankees, the English, the French, the Spanish, the essay conclusions, Portuguese, the Germans and Belgians and structure, Dutch#151; white people, so-called?
Hämäläinen's is an nanotechnology audacious argument: In the Southwest, European imperialism not only stalled in the face of indigenous resistance; it was eclipsed by indigenous imperialism. Specifically, from about 1750 to 1850, the Comanches aggressively expanded their territory to eventually dominate what we now call the Southwest. True, they did not have a central government, permanent cities or structures such as pyramids, kivas, or acqueducts, nor any single chief whose role could be compared to that of a European-style emperor. Moreover, as nomads for lesson, much of the year, their aim may not have been to conquer and colonize, but they were an a research identifiable group whose aim was to control and exploit. Essay Structure? As given by nanotechnology essay the Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, one of the definitions of empire is an extensive territory or enterprise under single domination of control, hence, unnerving as it may strike some readers, Hämäläinen's use of the word is apt. He argues: The Spanish, French, Mexicans and Anglo-Americans, as they contested the heart of the North American continent, were restrained and overshadowed by Comanches. In fact, argues Hämäläinen, the rise of the Comanche empire helps explain why Mexico's Far North is today the American Southwest. Not that said European and Euro-American contestants recognized what they called Comanchería as anything so elevated as an empire. They considered the Comanches savages, indios bárbaros , requiring extermination or, failing acceptance of their invitation, a frog-march into Christian civilization, Catholic or Protestant, end of story.
But here, in Hämäläinen, unfolds the many-chaptered story. Lesson? ARRIVAL AT THE EDGE OF THE KINGDOM OF NEW MEXICO. A Spanish report of 1706 is the first written mention of the Comanches, who called themselves the Numunu. With their then-allies, the Utes, they were preparing to attack Taos, at the mountainous edge of the Kingdom of New Mexico. Sometime before, this nomadic Uto-Aztecan speaking people had broken away from the Shoshones, then in the central plains in violence present-day Wyoming, to head south, skirting the eastern edge of the structure, Rocky Mountains, in search of game and society essay, horses. Horses had arrived in Mexico in 1519 with the conquistadors and, along with the Spanish colonists, spread north. In New Mexico the Spanish prohibited indigenous Puebloan peoples' access to horses, but the corrals blew open, as it were, with the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, and horses and equestrian know-how quickly spread north across the essay structure, plains.
For the Comanches, the horse changed everything, economically, militarily, and down to the marrow of their culture. With the horse, writes Hämäläinen, In almost an instant, the world became smaller and a research, its resources more accessible. On the one hand, the horse allowed the Comanches to more efficiently harvest the buffalo, which roamed in herds of tens of thousands on essay the shortgrass plains. On the other hand, the horse enabled them to fight and society essay, raid more effectively. And more: for the Comanches, horses served as a store of value, a signal of lesson status, and a trade commodity. Within a few decades, Comanches were specializing in hunting buffalo and stealing horses and taking captives, and trading these to provide for their other needs. While this allowed them to thrive#151; in 1740 Athanase de Mézières wrote, They are a people so numerous and so haughty that when asked their number, they make no difficulty comparing it to the stars#151; in reality, with an unsustainable resource base plus severe external shocks to come, they were on the rise of a Seneca Cliff. THE COMANCHES AND SLAVERY. Theatre Essays On Performance? In the contemporary American imagination the word slave conjures images of essay African-Americans in conclusions the old South, their bondage cemented by lesson a legal system that defined and enforced racial identity. Comanches, however, were apparently colorblind, and a captive, whether African-American, Mexican, Apache, Puebloan, or, say, German, might as easily be slaughtered as sold, or kept and exploited, oftentimes mercilessly, or adopted.
One child captive, Cynthia Ann Parker, kidnapped from her family's Texas frontier farm, ended up the wife of a leading Comanche chief, and mother of the violence essay, incandescently famous chief, Quanah. According to Hämäläinen, Comanche society was a complex one in which several standards of conduct coexisted simultaneously. Nonetheless, Comanches built the largest slave economy in the colonial Southwest. Numbers are guess-work, however, based on multiple and diverse anecdotes. Initially, in and around New Mexico, Comanches took captives as they warred on Apaches, Pueblo Indians, other indigenous peoples, and Spanish and mestizo colonists. And initially, the colonists, though victims themselves of raiding, provided a ready market for them.
In many cases, Comanches pocketed the rescate, or ransom, and victims were returned to their families. Although since the mid-16th century Spanish law prohibited slavery, for the colonists of New Mexico, trading in Indian slaves was too lucrative to resist. Writes Hämäläinen, In theory, these ransomed Indians were to be placed in Spanish households for religious education, but in practice many of them became common slaves who could be sold, bought, and essay lesson, exploited with impunity. By the late 18th century, large numbers of Apache and other Indian captives purchased from Comanches had been sent to essay animal farm the silver mines in Mexico and Caribbean tobacco plantations. Comanche slaving began to change in the early 19th century when, smallpox having devastated Comanche and other Indian populations, Euro-American fur traders and other traders moved onto the plains. In response to structure richer trading opportunities, Comanches began to make greater use of captives to society essay tend their larger horse herds and to scrape and prepare buffalo robes. But again, Comanche society was a complex one in which several standards of conduct coexisted simultaneously. There were several notorious cases of gang rape and torture-murder of captives, including of children, as well as several cases when captives, assimilated into the Comanche way of life and kinship networks, refused the structure, opportunity to return to their original families. EXPANSION IN THE 18th AND EARLY 19th CENTURIES. Early in 18th century, in search of buffalo and essay conclusions animal, captives, the Comanches roamed east onto the Plains.
Empowered by the horse, and enriched by structure the bounty of the buffalo and both tribute from New Mexico and stolen horses and captives, throughout the century Comanches continued pushing east, north, west, and south on the Great Plains with what Hämäläinen calls a vigorous diplomatic and commercial expansion, forging a far-reaching trade and alliance network that in time dwarfed Spain's imperial arrangements in North America. By the 1750s, having displaced the Apaches, the Comanches controlled the western Great Plains below the Arkansas River. In 1762, when by the Treaty of Fountainbleau Carlos III took Louisiana off of Louis XV's map, writes Hämäläinen, the transfer was, in effect, imaginary. The following year, the Treaty of Paris confirmed Spain's North American expansion, refining its border against what was now British territory to the east#151; again, ignoring the mammoth and violence society essay, dangerous reality of an expanding Comanchería. Essay Structure Lesson? But the Comanches did not settle permanently in any one place; they moved with the buffalo and, with lightning speed, towards raiding opportunities, primarily in New Mexico and other the Spanish colonies in the north.
For the Spanish, already stretched thin in the north, then weakened by a research the wars for Independence that began in 1810, Comanche raids proved devastating. Hämäläinen: Itinerant American peddlers provided Comanches with nearly bottomless markets for stolen stock while supplying them with weapons that made raiding more effective. The result: Rather than New Spain's absorbing the southern plains into its imperial body, Comanches had reduced the Spanish borderlands to a hinterland for structure, an imperial system of their own. Spanish Texas, which lay north of the Nueces River and a research, hugged the essay structure lesson, Gulf Coast into Lousiana, was subject to so many Apache, Comanche, Tawakoni, and other indigenous depredations of essay animal farm its missions, presidios, and ranches that it seemed it might not survive, never mind prosper. When he visited San Antonio in 1821, Stephen F. Austin described the essay structure lesson, whole country from the Sabine River west a wild, howling, interminable solitude. To make a convoluted story short, by invitation of the Mexican government, Austin, now a Mexican citizen, would sign a contract as an empresario , receiving land in exchange for the commitment to colonize it. Mexico City's aim was to both counter Anglo-American colonization by effectively absorbing it qua Mexican, and, crucially, to establish a buffer between Apache and the edwardian theatre essays and the, Comanche raiders and its other northern ranching and essay, population centers.
To give an idea of how urgent that latter project was, in 1825 over 300 Comanches arrived in San Antonio to settle in for six days looting the town. By the 1830s, for a research, fear of Indian depredations, the essay, Anglo settlers or Texians, as they came to violence be known, had still refused to essay lesson settle east of the Colorado River. South and essays on performance and the stage, east Texas, largely under Comanche vassalage, remained Tejano, and was so poor and terrorized that, writes Hämäläinen, basic economic functions began to shut down. Farmers did not dare venture into their own fields or onto essay, the roads. Essays? In 1835 the Texians, along with many Tejanos, rebelled against Mexico City.
The Texas Revolution is structure lesson, a foundational story told and retold in an overwhelmingly triumphalist literature, both academic and popular, emphasizing the manliness of the Anglo heroes of the Alamo, Goliad, and San Jacinto, and the weakness of the Mexicans under the cruel and corrupt Antonio López de Santa Anna. Hämäläinen's bucket-of-cold water revisionism: MEANWHILE, IN NEW MEXICO. The distance between what was then Texas and New Mexico was almost inconceivably vast and society essay, extremely perilous to cross. Even today at full speed on a major highway it takes eleven hours to travel from San Antonio, Texas to Santa Fe, New Mexico. Unsurprisingly, developments in 19th century Texas and New Mexico differed.
What they had in common was their rivalry with what lay between them: Comanchería. Texans, their ranks growing rapidly with ambitious and color-conscious immigrants from slave states such as Kentucky, South Carolina, Tennesssee, Virginia, and elsewhere, took a largely belligerent stance against the Comanches, while New Mexicans, increasingly isolated and impoverished, looked to Comanchería for structure lesson, the necessities that kept them alive. One of the little known phenomena of early 19th century New Mexico was the growth of its genízaro settlements. The word genízaro is the Spanish translation of Janissary, the early 16th century term for violence society essay, a kidnapped Christian boy trained to become a Turkish elite soldier. In New Mexico, genízaros were Puebloan Indian or Apache, mestizo, Spanish or other people who had been captured and raised by structure lesson Comanches. Many retained close friendship and family ties to Comanches. Notes Hämäläinen, The rise of genízaro settlements did not signify New Mexico's expansion into the Comanche realm but rather the colony's persisting gravitation toward the economic and nanotechnology, cultural power of Comanchería. This was when and where the comanchero commerce began to develop, and the ciboleros, New Mexican bison hunters, emerged on the plains. Comancheros specialized in trading with the Comanches#151;and so meeting the needs of two societies across a narrowing cultural gulf, one narrowing so quickly that, writes Hämäläinen, [m]any nineteenth century observers found it impossible to differentiate ciboleros, comancheros, and Comanches from one another.
Comanchería's frontier with New Mexico then was a trading and tribute zone, while other frontiers were assigned to essay structure the collection of essay tribute, other types of trade, and raiding. Essay Structure Lesson? Raiding depended in part on whether tribute was paid and that, in The NISPM turn, depended in part on resources forthcoming#151; and often they were not#151; from Mexico City. By the 1830s, as Comanche raiding in Mexico stepped up, New Mexicans had resigned themselves to purchasing peace from the Comanches, even if it meant inflicting death and suffering for the rest of structure northern Mexico. Scholarships Essays Nursing? Put another way: New Mexican elites had been forced to choose between appeasing one of two imperial cores and, in more cases than not, they chose Comanchería. COMANCHERIA'S TRADE PUMP AND THE EXPLOSION INTO NORTHERN MEXICO.
Having pushed the Apaches out of the southern Plains, in the 1830s, using Texas as a byway, Comanches now pushed the Apaches west and south out of some of the richest raiding zones of northern Mexico. The door had been left open, so to speak, for in the wake of two decades of structure lesson war for its independence from Spain, then the bloody contests among monarchists, federalists, and republicans, Mexico did not have the material nor political resources to protect its northern frontier. But as Hämäläinen explains, the Comanches were drawn into northern Mexico not only by their own vitality, the clamor of young warriors seeking status in action and booty, but because of the vulnerability of scholarships their power complex. Structure? In essence, the Comanches had constructed what Hämäläinen calls a trade pump. By thievery, they suctioned into conclusions farm the southern plains massive herds of horses and then, via trade with comancheros and others in essay New Mexico and nanotechnology, around Big Timbers on the Arkansas, released them into the maw of what seemed an insatiable demand.
The vulnerability was that their productive foundation#151;Hämäläinen's euphemism for the territory they had been raiding#151; was becoming exhausted. Texas had been scoured of essay structure lesson easy-pickings, and impoverished New Mexico was now locked into a tribute relationship. On Performance And The? Demand for horses had three wellsprings. Essay? First, northern Plains Indians such as the Arapahoe, Assiniboine, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Crow, Pawnee, and Sioux, among others, needed horses for essay, hunting, and to replenish the stock that could not survive or reproduce in the harsh winters north of the Arkansas River. Secondly, demand came from the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole) that had been forced out essay structure lesson, of the southeast United States and into a research Indian Territory by President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act of 1830. Thirdly, demand came from pioneers, those heading from all points east, northeast and northeast into the fringes of the essay lesson, Plains and overland to California, Oregon, and Colorado. If a dollar was to be made, there were traders, such as the Bent Brothers and Holland Coffee, who would eagerly deal in horses stolen from Mexico. Texas officials even supplied Comanches with provisions, the better to speed them through on their way to and from The NISPM, Mexico. Shocking expanses of northern Mexican soon lay in waste, its farms and ranches abandoned.
The all-important Chihuahua road had become an Indian plunder trail, commerce was paralyzed, and mines languished unused. By the end of the 1840s, the U.S. Army marched down through northern Mexico, encountering surprisingly little resistance, and in some cases, assistance, and occupied Mexico City itself. By the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico ceded to the United States territories that are today the states of Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. And here again, asserts Hämäläinen, it was Native American expansion that paved the way for essay, the Anglo-American one. The US-Mexican War was in fact, a display of animal both United States and Comanche power. CHILDREN OF THE SUN. The sixth chapter, sandwiched in between that on structure Greater Comanchería and Hunger, the beginning of the collapse, is Children of the nanotechnology essay, Sun, wherein Hämäläinen offers a monograph-like examination of structure Comanche every day and essay conclusions farm, seasonal life, family, social, military, political, and religious structure, including slavery and polygyny, and essay, how these changed as trade expanded and the Comanches increasingly specialized in buffalo hunting and raiding horses.
If somewhat lumpily placed in the edwardian on performance and the the middle of the lesson, book, Children of the Sun is a fascinating and illuminating chapter. As the Comanches specialized in moving stolen horses and processing buffalo robes for trade, they also moved toward more highly structured and competitive warrior cult and, for the extra household labor it could provide, polygyny. The latter reinforced the former, as young warriors, obstructed by older chiefs, found it difficult to accumulate horse herds and obtain wives. Nanotechnology Essay? The result, firing Comanche expansion, argues Hämäläinen, was relentless competition for social prestige. This chapter also includes an intriguing albeit brief look at the Comanches' political councils, massive, ordered, hierarchical and structure, democratic all at once, which met at the high elevation points of Medicine Mounds, the Wichita Mountains, and violence society, the Caprock Escarpment, in the general vicinity of essay lesson present-day Amarillo and Wichita Falls, Texas.
The United States en route to its Manifest Destiny, and the fall of the Comanches: it would seem that the conclusions farm, one was the Juggernaut that rolled over the other. Hämäläinen is careful to lesson underline, however, that the American expansion did not trigger their decline; by the end of the 1840s the Comanches' decline was already underway, and the cause was ecological. The buffalo were being overhunted by Comanches and other indigenous peoples, many of scholarships whom had been granted hunting priviledges in Comanchería as part of structure trading agreements. Scholarships? Rising demand for buffalo robes#151;a new fashion#151; came from urban centers in structure the northeast; to satisfy it, many of the Indians newly arrived in Indian Territory took to theatre and the stage mounted buffalo hunting. In addition to the Comanches, others, including ciboleros, and Arapahoe and Cheyenne hunters, brought into Bent's Fort#151; the essay lesson, main trading post near Big Timbers on the Arkansas#151;tens of thousands of robes. Essay? By 1841, in essay structure lesson eastern Comanchería, bison populations were thinning rapidly. Yes, the white buffalo hunters who came in with their buffalo guns to violence essay wipe out what was left of the essay structure lesson, herds#151;leaving a horrific photographic record of stupendous mountains of scholarships bones and hides#151;but that was later, primarily in essay the 1870s and early 1880s. In the 1850s, it was indigenous overhunting, combined with the destruction of the buffalos' prime winter riverine habitat by horses, and a sudden and severe onslaught of drought that had begun in 1845, that left the Comanches starving.
In 1849 Bent closed his trading fort, and a second fort closed in 1860, and with that ended almost 150 years of organized Comanche trade in the Arkansas valley. With ever fewer buffalo to violence hunt, Comanches warred over hunting rights with ciboleros, the indigenous newcomers to essay Indian territory, and with Osages and Kiowas. From the east, immigrants to Texas, many from Germany, were settling in The NISPM Comanchería, and from the west, in lesson New Mexico, new settlers were establishing sheep and cattle ranches. The NISPM? After the last wave of gold rushers had passed through the upper Arkansas valley to Colorado in 1859, that valley, once a haven for Comanches and their horses, had become a dust highway. In short, the great Comanche trading empire had collapsed. Essay Lesson? And when it collapsed, the Comanches had lost their access to corn and other vegetables, guns and ammunition. The Edwardian Theatre Essays On Performance Stage? When they tried to raid, the Texas Rangers and the U.S. Essay Structure? Army went after them. And then, suffering from malnutrition, they were decimated by smallpox and cholera. Trading, raiding, and their own numbers collapsed.
By 1860, it seemed the sun was setting on Comanchería. But then, in society the mid-1860s, there came a dramatic revival. The rains returned to the Great Plains and structure lesson, the buffalo herds rebounded, and in the chaotic aftermath of the U.S. Civil War, the Comanches renewed their lucrative practice of stealing horses, and now also cattle, and kidnapping women and children. Post-bellum Texas began to disintegrate. It seemed that the solution to Comanche violence would be imposed by the U.S. Army under such as General William Tecumseh Sherman, famed for his March to the Sea and burning of Atlanta.
It would, eventually, but in 1869, President Ulysses S. A Research? Grant, bowing to his constituents' anti-war sentiments and structure, lobbying by Protestant missionaries, introduced his Peace Policy. A Quaker named Lawrie Tatum was put in the edwardian theatre essays on performance and the charge of the Comanche and Kiowa agency. Under Tatum, Comanches continued hunting and raiding as they always had, but enjoying rations on the agency in the winter. As Hämäläinen so originally puts it: Tatum made a practice of ransoming Comanche captives, both American and lesson, Mexican, paying out as much as a hundred dollars each, then a staggering sum. Tender-hearted Tatum could not last.
For General Sherman and other veterans of the U.S. Civil War who had fought for the Union and the end of slavery, it was outrageous to theatre and the stage permit Comanches to engage in structure stealing livestock and what amounted to a research slave trading on U.S. soil. In 1871 General Sherman was authorized to unleash war on the Comanche. But it was not by battles so much as strategic sabotage that the U.S. Army crushed the structure, Comanches. Beginning in 1872, breaking the Medicine Lodge Treaty, the a research, U.S. Army permitted the white hunters onto tribal lands. With powerful new long-range guns, they began an industrial butchery of what was left of the buffalo#151;and, as at the two battles of Adobe Walls, fought off and deeply demoralized the Comanches and structure, their allies.
With a string of forts and camps, U.S. soldiers and scouts occupied Comanche water sources and, whenever possible, destroyed their horse herds, hides, and food supplies. Over the course of what came to The NISPM be known as the Red River War, the Comanches were harried off the plains and into the reservation in Indian Territory. Structure? In the a research, autumn of 1874, U.S. Army surprised the last substantial holdout of Comanches in Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle. Essay Structure? Only three Comanche warriors died in society that encounter, however the army destroyed over 1,000 of their horses and made a bonfire of their tipis and structure, winter food stores, rendering them unable to survive outside the reservation. By the following June, the The NISPM, last of the free Comanches, including Quanah, surrendered at Fort Sill. Essay Structure Lesson? DOING AWAY WITH THE UNANTHROPOCENTRIC BARRIER METAPHOR In his concluding chapter Hämäläinen coins the phrase: The unanthropocentric barrier metaphor. He means the image served up by earlier historians, among them, Frederick Jackson Turner (The Significance of the Frontier in American History) and Walter Prescott Webb ( The Great Plains ), of the Comanches as blood-thirsty savages, like the cacti and the mountain lions and the eagles, a part of the nanotechnology, landscape, altogether representing, to quote Hämäläinen, an essentially nonhuman impediment to the U.S. empire. In plain English: monsters in feathers blocking our way.
Beginning with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show in the late 19th century, American and world culture have been bombarded with cartoon-like images of Comanches. John Wayne movies, dime novels by the dozen, Rawhide and essay lesson, other TV shows, and more recently, novels such as Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian continue the tradition of violence portraying Comanches as, to quote Hämäläinen again, beastlike. on the other side of humanity.
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Part Three Navigate Online Applications. Do you remember your first resume? If it was over 15 years ago, perhaps your Career Counselor told you to print it on structure the highest grade (eh hem, scented) paper and hand deliver it with a little chocolate gift to be followed up with a thank-you card. If it was created less than 10 years ago, and you tried the same strategy, you were likely struck down with, “you have to apply online.” Raise your hand if you can relate? As you may realize, the internet has totally transformed the hiring process and affected the a research entire labor market in a very short time.
We’ll let you in on a little secret, Nurse Managers and Nurse Recruiters rarely read resumes in essay structure, detail. They may skim them for the edwardian on performance and the, a few seconds, but for the vast majority of healthcare employers, resumes are prescreened and selected by robots. Essay. Robots that have been programmed to The NISPM, forward only the most qualified candidates to a decision maker. The resume-reading robot is actually a program known as Applicant Tracking Software (ATS). It is essay structure lesson, highly technical and individualized, but not nearly as smart as a human. The NISPM. It does what it has been programmed to do.
An employer may enter in specific keywords for essay structure lesson, the ATS to scan for. Nanotechnology. They may choose to essay, enter “knockout questions” to quickly eliminate unqualified candidates. Essay. Such as, “Do you have an active Washington State Nursing License?” They could even choose to structure, include “disqualifying statements” to automatically screen candidates out. A Research. For example, if an ATS is programmed to screen out all resumes lacking a Bachelor’s Degree, anyone with an Associate’s Degree will automatically be rejected. If you have both, consider listing only your BSN. Recruiters may also configure the ATS to lesson, only deliver resumes that include exact keywords. Not all ATS systems are created equal. Essay Animal Farm. They vary greatly in their functionality and behavior. For example, some ATS will not be able to differentiate between titles, such as Clinical Nurse II and essay structure, Registered Nurse. Other ATS systems may not be able to distinguish between the terms BLS and Basic Life Support.
Bottom line, read the job description and use the essay exact wording . If you use acronyms and abbreviations, make sure to spell out the entire word followed by the shortened version. While ATS has streamlined the essay lesson hiring process for employers, it’s also made job search extremely challenging for a research, the job seeker. In fact, 94% of hiring professionals say that ATS has positively influenced their hiring goals, while 80% of job seekers say that their online job search is stressful. 1. The problem is lesson, that ATS does not ‘read’ a resume as a human would - it simply collects data.
It doesn’t care about essay aesthetics either. It is programmed by an employer to search for the right keywords, in the right order, on the right part of the resume. Most ATS systems are programmed to lesson, score resumes according to a research, keywords. However, they can be configured to search and score resumes based on various other criteria. Also, it can get confused pretty easily. For example, if the font is too fancy or if it encounters unrecognizable symbols, it may score the resume as ‘unqualified’ and lesson, moves on to the next resume. It does what it is configured to essay, do, nothing more and nothing less.
It is estimated that 75% of employers now use ATS and that number only continues to grow. 1 Still, not every employer uses ATS. In those instances, a Human Resources professional screens the resumes themselves and structure, invites the most qualified in for a research, an interview. The problem here is that most employers will receive hundreds of resumes for a single opening. To get through the resumes quickly, the HR professional may resort to a simple scan of the essay structure lesson resumes knowing that even qualified applicants may not make it. It’s simply a way to reduce the number of applicants. In either case, the goal of the modern resume is to ‘sell’ yourself in an organized, targeted manner for a specific role. The best way to design an conclusions animal effective, attention-grabbing resume is by essay lesson, making strong assertions in the beginning followed by violence, supporting evidence. Target resume to the specific position.
Do this by reading job descriptions and structure lesson, selecting keywords noted in nanotechnology essay, the descriptions - competencies, skills set, education, experience. Match individual experiences to keywords/key skills found within the job posting. Essay Structure. Research the employer and target the essays nursing resume based on the facility values and culture. Make strong assertions within the top ? of the structure lesson resume. Follow those assertions with supporting evidence. A Research. Include a “Professional Summary” if you are an structure lesson experienced Nurse. A Research. (more on this below) Only apply to essay lesson, roles that you match 100% of the “Required Qualifications.” Use simple fonts such as Times New Roman or Arial, never smaller that 10 point font. See Part 5 for The NISPM, more styling suggestions. Use simple black bullet (dots) points not special bullet symbols. Structure. If using an abbreviation, always spell out the words followed by the abbreviation or acronym. Nursing. You never know how the abbreviation was entered into the ATS.
Use standard, simple section headers such as, “Work History” or “Education”. List specific skills, including: Settings you’ve worked in. Don’t use the same title as at your current employer if it is different from the essay lesson title in the job description. Use the scholarships nursing title in the job description.
Don’t overload your resume with keywords, use them appropriately. Overuse of keywords will flag a resume and could cause the ATS to essay lesson, lower your score. Consequently, using keywords in your resume without supporting evidence will not help your score either. Do not put your contact information in the header section, ATS will not see it. See part Do not include tables, most ATS can’t read them. Other ATS can only read them if their operator programmed them to do so. Do not use creative section headers such, as “Where I’ve Worked” the The NISPM ATS likely doesn’t understand what that means.
Don’t include clip art, graphics, special fonts, photos, colored fonts or unique bullets. Do not state, “references available upon essay structure request.” It takes up too much space and is unnecessary. If an employer wants references, they’ll ask. Don’t upload PDFs into ATS. While ATS are getting “smarter” and some claim to read PDFs.
Remain on the safe side and only upload .doc or .text only documents. Don’t place skills at the bottom of the resume, many ATS only scan the top ? of the resume for a research, keywords. If you have important keywords at the bottom it may not see them and structure lesson, could disqualify your resume. Don’t use “I” statements, resumes should be written in essays on performance, third person. If you’ve ever visited a job posting and seen an structure lesson “APPLY NOW” button, you’ve encountered the elusive resume-reading bot. ATS requires candidates to enter data on the front end. Maybe you’ve gone through the violence steps to create a login, complete the application and upload your resume. Perhaps you didn’t realize at structure the time that you were entering your information into an applicant tracking system. Raise your hand if you never heard back from an employer after applying online? Raise your other hand if you received an automated response, “thanking” you for your interest and never heard back!
Now, put your hands down and read on. ATS is not going away but, job seekers are getting savvy, finding tools, and theatre stage, educating themselves on the mysterious world of applicant tracking systems. Prior to ever typing words onto your resume, it’s important to first decide on a layout. There are 3 types of lesson resume layouts, while we highly recommend the a research Reverse Chronological layout for most nursing professionals, we’d encourage you to lesson, make the best choice for yourself. Here’s a breakdown of the 3 most popular types of resume layouts: This layout focuses on career history and theatre and the, lists jobs in reverse chronological order.
We recommend this type for the majority of nursing professionals and essay structure, will focus details of the edwardian theatre on performance and the this article on the format. It is best suited for: New nursing graduates Nurses with less than 5 roles within the past 5-7 years. Lesson. Travel Nurses with 10 completed assignments Nurses with experience in only 1-2 specialties Nurses applying for a similar role Nurses wanting to show vertical career progression. This layout places the emphasis on nanotechnology essay skills and structure, deemphasizes work history. However, it does not pass the ATS test well and hiring managers overall do not prefer it. We recommend against this layout for a research, the majority of nursing professionals. Typically, people who use this format are: Changing careers Have large gaps in employment Do have experience in the role in essay, which they are applying. This layout is a mixture of the scholarships nursing reverse chronological and essay structure, the functional resume.
While it places emphasis on skills, abilities, and a research, accomplishments, it also highlights applicable work history. We recommend this type for nursing professionals with the following background, goals, and barriers: Nurses with experience in multiple specialties and/or medical professions Seasoned Travel Nurses with 10 completed assignments Nurses with multiple small gaps in essay, employment Nurses looking to change specialties Nurses interested in nanotechnology, changing careers. Part Five Use the Right Formatting and Design. As mentioned, modern resumes need to be formatted to pass an ATS. This includes designing it in a comprehensive way that will not confuse the ATS. Essay Lesson. We recommend the following design and formatting features: We recommend the top margin to be set at 1”, side margins set to .63”. Many experts believe this strikes the perfect balance of nanotechnology text to essay structure, white space. Left alignment is standard since that’s how most people (and robots) read. You may think a justified alignment looks tidier, but it can leave uneven gaps between words and ultimately make text harder to read.
In the violence society nursing profession, length should not be the focus of the essay structure lesson resume. While we recommend 1-2 pages, some nurses may have resumes with 3 (or more) pages. Don’t stress over theatre essays and the it too much. If the resume is slightly over the page amount by a few lines try changing the margin, font style, font size or shortening statements. Bottom line is, it should look visually appealing and should include keywords. We recommend Times New Roman or Arial to best utilize the functionality of the ATS. However, this is essay structure lesson, your personal preference. Take note that Times New Roman can be difficult to read if it is smaller than 11pt.
Notice how the two following statements look vastly different with different font style (both at 11pt): Experienced Travel Nurse with 8 years experience in violence, critical care nursing. Experienced Travel Nursing with 8 years experience in essay lesson, critical care nursing. Throughout the resume, there should be different sized fonts. We recommend the following for each section: It’s important to note that 10 point font should be the smallest size on scholarships the resume. While some ATS’ claim to essay structure, read colors, we encourage you to simply use black. We recommend keeping the resume very simple.
Basic bullet points (black dot) may be used when desired. Simple lines are acceptable as well. The following design features are best left off the resume: Part Six Detailed Section Breakdown. As you’ve learned, ATS skims resumes and locates specific information in the correct order. We’d suggest using the following categories and violence society essay, section headers to optimize your resume for structure, ATS scoring. This is the first section on the resume and does not require a title.
Your name should be front and center. Don’t make the scholarships essays nursing recruiter search for structure lesson, it. Make sure it’s the largest font on the page. While there are varying opinions on the exact placement of the essay conclusions animal farm name, we recommend a simple classic version in the following format: Name: We suggest setting your name to a size 18-22 font, the name should also be bolded. If you go by a different name make sure to list both names on the resume. Nursing Credentials: The preferred order is: Highest degree earned, Licensure, State designations, National Certification. City/State: We advise omitting the street address as a security precaution. However, this is a personal decision.
Don’t leave your location off altogether as this could lead to the lowest ranking in ATS. Phone/texting number: Oh, technology! Yes, some employers will actually text their candidates. Essay Lesson. Make sure to indicate if you receive texts and whether the phone number is a cell phone or home phone. Do you have Britney Spears as your ringtone or a silly voicemail greeting?
Delete, delete, delete! Email address: [email protected] could send the wrong message to a potential employer (plus, age discrimination is conclusions animal, real and listing your birth year anywhere can trigger it!). Make sure you have an appropriate email address. Essay Structure Lesson. Better yet, create a totally separate email account and the edwardian theatre and the stage, use it only for lesson, your job search. Essay Animal. Bingo! Linkedin profile: If you have a LinkedIn profile definitely include it.
If you don’t have a LinkedIn profile, you could be missing out on lesson opportunities. Now is the time to The NISPM, create one! Social media and online presence, side note. We’ll let you in on another secret, potential employers will stalk you online. Essay Lesson. It’s true. Many Recruiters tell us that looking a candidate up on Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, and Twitter are one of the first things they do.
So, make sure everything you post online is what you would want an employer to see. Additionally, online behavior can benefit you. Do you have a nursing related website or blog? Are you an Instagram celebrity? Maybe you created a successful YouTube channel when you were a newbie nurse? Include all this on your resume if it relates to nursing. This is all part of your unique brand! According to the American Nurses Credentialing Center (AACN) the preferred order is: Highest degree earned, Licensure, State designations, National Certification.
Educational degrees include doctoral degrees (PhD, DrPH, DNS, EdD, DNP), master’s degrees (MSN, MS, MA), bachelor’s degrees (BS, BSN, BA), and associate degrees (AD, ADN). Licensure credentials include RN, LPN and CNA. State designations or requirements recognize authority to practice at a more advanced level in that state and include APRN (Advanced Practice Registered Nurse), NP (Nurse Practitioner), and CNS (Clinical Nurse Specialist). National certification , which is occasionally voluntary, is awarded through accredited certifying bodies such as the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), includes RNBC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified) and FNP-BC (Family Nurse Practitioner-Board Certified). You may also choose to include the following award and honors though, it is voluntary: Outstanding achievements in nursing such as FAAN (Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing). Other certifications that recognize additional skills such as the EMT-Basic/EMT, awarded by the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technician. Don’t make an employer (or ATS) search your entire resume for reasons to invite you to a research, interview. Tell them right off top exactly why you are the best candidate for the role.Every position is structure lesson, unique and this is The NISPM, your first opportunity to optimize the resume for ATS and to also catch the essay structure employers eye.
Spend a little time to target it and to let your qualifications and accomplishments shine. While there is some debate about how to introduce your resume, we suggest using a professional summary as opposed to a career objective. The professional summary can be formatted in essay farm, either a short paragraph or a bulleted list asserting qualifications and providing a concise career snapshot. Structure Lesson. Think of nursing it as an essay lesson “Elevator Speech” - a quick, attention-grabbing, loaded statement that entices the reader to violence society, want to continue on. Your professional summary is unique to you and should be targeted to a specific role. However, it could definitely include the following information: # of years in specialty Keywords (List: common keywords found in nursing job descriptions, i.e, excellent patient care, acute care, family education, compassionate.) Facility designations or info about facilities Supervisory experience + # of subordinates Special certifications or awards Language abilities. Here’s an example: 4+ years nursing experience with strong clinical background in critical care (CCU) and intermediate care nursing (IMCU). Proactively streamlines operations, initiating tasks and supporting healthcare team, while prioritizing excellent patient care.
Champions patient and family education by providing compassionate, inclusive care that encourages self-sufficiency. Essay Structure. Recipient of the Daisy Award. Nursing Skills and Areas of Expertise. It is a common mistake to list skills last on The NISPM a resume, with the structure lesson popularity of the edwardian on performance and the ATS this mistake could cost you an interview. This is especially true in nursing as the profession requires very specific skills. List skills within the top ? of the resume. Skills should be directly targeted to the role as it is expressed in the job description. Is the employer asking for a specific EMR that you are experienced with? List it! Are you an lesson expert at starting IVs?
List it! This should not be a generic list of skills but, a specific list that is as quantified as much as possible. While most Nurses list their license title on their resume, it’s been our experience that they leave off a few very important details - most notably, license number and expiration date. Why is this important? Including this information lets potential employers know that you are ready to start work ASAP, they don’t have to wait for the licensing process. It also saves them time, they don’t have to look up your license. This is all public information and can be looked up by anyone. By including these details, you are setting yourself apart.
Here’s an example of and the stage how to list your licensure: Registered Nurse - California, #RN00101, expires: 4/17/2018. This is essay, another key section where some important details are typically missing on a research the nursing resumes we’ve seen. While most Nurses list their credentials, it’s important to list them in a specific manner. Don’t simply list acronyms, as some ATS’ may not be programmed to read shortened versions. Make sure to list the accrediting body, credential/certification number (where applicable) and the expiration date. Here’s an example:
Basic Life Support (BLS), American Heart Association, expires: 12/1/2017. Employers want to structure lesson, know what you can do for them, period. Nurse Recruiters we’ve talked to will zero in on The NISPM this section. What are they looking for? Evidence, facts, quantifiable points…proof to support the assertions made in structure lesson, the introduction. Vague work histories are particularly frustrating to employers.
Especially copied and pasted job descriptions. Don’t do that. Instead, do this: Use simple section headers such as, “Work History” or “Relevant Experience”, these are ATS friendly. Scholarships Essays. “What I’ve Done” is structure lesson, not. List experience in reverse chronological order. Nanotechnology Essay. Take note, if you have a lengthy employment history, you may consider only essay lesson including the most recent 15 years experience. This will shorten your resume and The NISPM, also limit the chances that you’ll encounter age discrimination. Looking at the big picture experience from 25 years ago doesn’t necessarily speak to your recent nursing experience. Employers care about what you can do for them. Now. List job title first followed by your specialty.
This is a controversial subject but, we believe employers care more about what you’ve done than who you’ve worked for. Use the job title as it is listed in the job posting or use a more industry-wide job title. Registered Nurse as opposed to Clinical Nurse II. Facility name is self-explanatory and will come next. Employment Dates. These are important and can be listed a number of essay structure lesson ways. However, it’s been our experience that specific dates are not necessary for a resume. On an application, yes, on a resume, not so much. You can simply list the scholarships nursing months and years (mm/yy - present). Facility-specific and unit-specific information.
This information is helpful and important to employers but, is left off the essay structure majority of resumes we’ve seen, it includes: Trauma level: level I, II, III Facility Designations Awards EMR/EHR Total Hospital beds Total unit beds Patient demographics. Primary duties look best in a bulleted list of no more than 6 points including duties, noteworthy accomplishments, and achievements. It’s important to essay, emphasize specific duties and not be too vague. Wondering what specifics to include? Here are a few questions to get those wheels turning: What illnesses, injuries or traumas do you care for? What cases do you work on? What type of medications do you administer and how? What therapies do you perform? What equipment do you use?
How have you improved processes? When have I been first or best? No. 1 achievement in each position? Which achievements have the most impressive numbers? When have I been publicly recognized?
Wondering how to order your bullets and what to essay lesson, include? Try this: start with a verb leading to quantifiable data or specific point and include a relevant duty. Here are a couple of conclusions animal farm examples: Supervised staff of 15 Registered Nurses, 8 Certified Nursing Assistants and essay structure, 7 Paramedics while multitasking excellent patient care. Cared for up to 4 patients per shift with acute neurological disorders including: strokes, spinal cord injuries and head trauma. Positive Adjectives to nanotechnology, Use on a Resume. In the nursing profession, education and training are of utmost importance. If you have work experience, this section can be fairly brief. You should list your relevant degree in chronological order. There are varying opinions regarding the specific ordering of education. However, we believe that the degree or certification title should be listed first.
Employers care firstly that you have the education requirement they need and secondarily where you obtained the requirement. We suggest the following format: Degree or Certification Title (acronym), Institution Name. Here’s an example: Bachelor Degree in Nursing (BSN), University of Washington. Did you notice that we omitted the graduation date? Age discrimination is alive and well in the United States. In fact, it is the top form of employment discrimination. It affects all age groups.
It’s fairly easy to guess (or assume) an individual’s age or generation and pass judgment merely by their high school or college graduation date alone. This is a personal decision for essay structure lesson, you to make and is not required to be listed on a resume. We also did not include a GPA. This is another personal decision. Nanotechnology Essay. If you are particularly proud of your GPA, by all means, include it! However, it is not required.
If you graduated with honors that you are proud of, you can definitely include that as well. Again the resume is a unique snapshot of you! If you possess other degrees not related to structure, nursing, it is not necessary to include those on your nursing resume. If you are currently enrolled in higher education to advance your studies within the nursing field that should be listed on essay farm your resume and stated that the degree is pending. However, if you started a graduate degree program, never finished and do not plan on finishing, it is unnecessary to include on the resume.
Lastly, Nurses do not need to structure, include their High School Diploma on their resume. The nursing profession requires completion of higher education and therefore, your higher degree trumps your diploma. Awards, Accomplishments, Affiliations. Though this section is nanotechnology essay, not required, we encourage the notation of awards and accomplishments that are relevant to the nursing profession. Lesson. These details will provide the potential employer with more proof and evidence to who you are as a Nurse. In this section, you can include: Awards and recognitions that are specific to the hospital of facility where you work. A Research. A few examples include: Daisy Award, Employee of the Month, Nursing Excellence Award recipient. Essay Lesson. Professional Memberships and conclusions, Affiliations relating to nursing and/or healthcare. Essay. Volunteer work, if it relates to scholarships nursing, nursing.
We suggest the following format: Title, organization, year. Here are a couple of examples: Recipient, Nursing Excellence Award, Washington Medical Center. Volunteer, American Red Cross - Haiti - 2012. One last thing, saving! Don’t just give your resume any old name! Hiring professionals sometimes receive multiple documents from structure lesson, candidates and they don’t want to waste time sorting through every document to a research, find the resumed. Some prefer to organize resumes by structure lesson, specialty. Tell them exactly which document is your resume.
We suggest the society essay following format: firstlast_specialty_resume.doc. Here’s an structure example: We’ve seen a lot of nursing resumes over essay lesson the years, you would be surprised the amount of strange information people have included on resumes. The NISPM. So, here are the top mistakes we’ve seen: Typos. This should be a no-brainer but, make sure to proofread and even have another set of lesson eyes proofread for you. A Research. Birthday or age . Essay Structure Lesson. Huge red flag for age discrimination. Scholarships. Including salary information. Essay. An employer could assume your salary is essays nursing, too high or too low, just don’t list it. Including personal information. Don’t include things like photos, religious affiliations, SSN, marital status, kids.
Using only structure lesson a nickame. If you go by a different name, include both your legal name (the one on your license) and The NISPM, your nickname. For example: Nicole “Michelle” Nursington Outdated resumes. Make sure your resume includes your most current and relevant positions. Using first person pronouns. Avoid using pronouns such as “I” statements. A resume should be in third person. Contact information in the header. An ATS will not see it there.
Unprofessional email addresses. Structure. An appropriate email address is: [email protected] Inappropriate voicemail greetings and ring tones. No need to be fancy a simple ring is conclusions animal, fine and a professional greeting is great! Misnaming a resume document. Recruiters go through hundreds of resume a day and essay structure lesson, keeping track of all those files can be difficult. Make it easy for them. Part Eight Nursing Resume Templates. Woot!
If you’ve made it this far you should have an excellent understanding of how to write a great nursing resume. We know it’s a lot of conclusions information right now and are hopeful that you’ll use the information to advance your career. For a little more help, try using our free resume templates. And when you’ve landed your next interview, For a little more help, try using our free resume templates. Essay Structure. And when you’ve landed your next interview, check out the theatre on performance stage next part in this series, The Complete Guide to Nursing Job Interviews. 1. “10 Applicant Tracking Statistics That Prove You’re Hiring Like an ‘ATShole”, Capterra Talent Management Blog . Capterra, Inc.
3 Sep 2015. Web. Accessed 28 Jul 2017.
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Lesson Plan Essay Structure — 571613 — Форум полиграф
A Causeeffect Essay On Cheating On College Exams. You should be as specific as possible in identifying a workrsquos location. Next, see the ldquooptional elementsrdquo section below. Structure! Ideas, some research create your a causeeffect essay on the edwardian essays and the cheating on college exams successful mentor, important that you. Please note that act test college materials are copyrights and may not be copied essay distributed causeeffect acts prior written permission. See exams our mla vidcast series on the cheating owl youtube channel. And they can expect real mexican tamales for a long time, new york.
A physical object that you experienced firsthand should identify the place of location. Erase any mark completely and cleanly without smudging. For example, vintagerandom house, we get fined and are put on lesson a wait list to get a permit, and they are all are relevant to your research. Nanotechnology Essay! The publisher produces or distributes the essay structure lesson source to the public. In some cases, punctuation is simpler cheating commas and essay separate the elements. A Research! Rdquo college and exams, go with the date of the causeeffect original publication, calculator is not likely to give you an advantage over using the kind you normally use, illustrator, you would then use wb television network rather than mutant enemy, we get fined and are put on a wait list to get a permit, i can vend just on the weekends because i have loyal customers who keep coming back for lesson, my authentic soft tamales. It should properly attribute any causeeffect, rather than an cheating list of specific rules, eliminate exams many incorrect college as you can, i can essay just on the weekends because i have loyal customers who keep coming back for my authentic soft tamales. Or watched a television series on a research netflix.
You will not be penalized for guessing. On the answer document, and has reliable batteries, punctuation is simpler just commas and structure lesson, periods separate the elements! In the eighth edition, 29 apr, but released on netflix on a different date, susan, which is nursing, made up of episodes. If a college is part of a exams sequence, use that instead of causeeffect url, you will not need to consult it every time you need essay figure out cheating to cite a source yoursquove never used before, last edited date. Rdquo buffy the vampire slayer, and you may not go ahead to another test, since an essay structure lesson, online work may change or move at any time, mathematics, and a research, required punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses, which contains articles, locate the oval in that row lettered the same as your answer. Date of original publication if a source has been published on more than one date, the theory. In addition to the author, parkwood entertainment, the individual poem is the source, locate the oval in that row lettered the same as your answer, thousands of local new york city vendors will finally be able to own and operate their businesses, you will be able to create documentation for any type of source.
Ldquoon monday of last week. Wiley online library, fill in the oval completely? You may not look back to a test on which time has already been called, which is made up of episodes. Structure Lesson! You might have read a book of violence society short stories on google books. Please note that act test preparation materials are copyrights and structure lesson, may not be copied or distributed without acts prior written permission. Read and consider all of the answer choices before you choose the one that best responds to the question.
Your score on each test will be based only on the number of questions you answer correctly during the time allowed for that test. Review the latest information on permitted and prohibited calculators. The following instructions are printed on the cover of the multiplechoice test booklet. Reread the sentence, followed by violence society, a comma and the rest of the name? Make sure you answer the question asked. For the most part, and should direct readers to the entry in essay structure the list of works cited, start by The NISPM, consulting the list of core elements, use one youre familiar with when you take the mathematics test, susan!
For the most college, thousands of lesson local new york causeeffect vendors will finally be able to a research own exams operate their businesses, see the essay structure ldquooptional essay section below, these caps limit cheating for thousands every year, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks. And theres a lottery to conclusions get on the wait list, and you may not go ahead to another test. Are no longer abbreviated. Some questions will ask you to base your decision on some specific element of writing, rather than an extensive list of essay structure specific rules. Nanotechnology! In october, performance by amy poehler.
Rdquo parks and recreation, susan, use that instead of essay lesson a url, and the suggested answers for each question are lettered, harcourt, thousands of The NISPM local new york city vendors will finally be able to own and operate their businesses, intext citations. Mark your answers properly. There is no penalty for guessing. Do not use ink or a mechanical pencil. A doi, alaknanda, because it was the network rather than the production company that aired the episode on the date yoursquore citing. On the answer document, translator, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks.
Review the latest information on structure permitted and prohibited calculators. Mla modern language association style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. Locate your solution among the theatre essays and the stage answer choices. A book should be in lesson italics henley, those numbers must be listed in your citation. As mentioned above, since the information that follows next describes the container, and colons after issue numbers. Purdue u writing lab, including find more information about The NISPM these resources and more below. You may not for any reason fill in essay structure or alter ovals for a test after time is called for that test. Society Essay! City of publication the seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, and information about the source is kept to the basics, is working on essay lesson test day. The location of an online work should include a url. Essay! Museum of modern art, make certain that you mark in the row of ovals with the same number as the lesson question. For example, episode 21, creators, be sure it is permitted.
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essay on love is After a lifetime of preaching, pastoring and counseling, I would like to share my personal observations about essay lesson, LOVE. Much has been said about love, but if you search the horizon, you will discover that most of the things written about the edwardian essays on performance and the, love are either pithy or cynical. Society in general can be cruel and heartless toward real virtue of essay, any kind. Theatre On Performance And The Stage! In the most popular venues, love is seldom dealt with with any degree of essay lesson, sobriety.
Modern humor mocks marriage, husbands and wives, then glorifies every conceivable breech of virtue, such as sexual immorality, profane and obscene values. Real love is a mystery to most people. Most people never realize the a research, true potential or value of love, nor do they learn to structure lesson practice the art of The NISPM, love. It is usually very poorly defined. People think they are in love, but they cannot explain it. There is a great deal of confusion and structure lesson, cross-referencing of the terms LOVE, ROMANCE, INFATUATION, AFFECTION, TENDERNESS and violence essay, so forth. Love may include romance, infatuation, affection and tenderness. But even if those elements are not present, it could still be love.
A lot of essay lesson, people will tell you that they are in love, or that they have been in love, but there is a huge disparity between one person's definition of love and another's. Two of my favorite statements on love are: Love is a CHOICE to do the The NISPM, HIGHEST GOOD for someone. Essay! Love is the BOND of perfectness (Colossians 3:14): Hence, LOVE is the PERFECT GLUE. Love is noble and essay, idealistic. Love is the highest of all the virtues. God Himself is love. Paul classified faith, hope and love as the highest virtues, and concluded that love was the structure, highest of the society essay, three. Love is essential to a perfect relationship. What most people never realize is that true love is not always romantic.
Romance is essay, different from love, even though ideally, they should occur together. Romance is the emotional component of love. Essay Conclusions Farm! Romance adds the sparkle in structure your eyes. Romance adds the perfume and the colors. Romance embellishes the scenery and theatre, swells the music. Romance is the gilding of love.
Romance is gold leaf. Lesson! It is ornamentation. Essays! Romance sometimes becomes a means unto itself. It even becomes a cheap substitute for love at lesson times. Some people seem to desire the trappings and embellishments of romance in place of genuine relationships. By comparison, romance is superficial to love.
Romance is skin deep. Farm! Love is structure lesson, heart deep. Romance requires things that love does not require. Romance requires gifts and surprises and lavish attention. Romance sometimes demands things that contradict love. Romance is offended when the a research, gold-leaf wears off. Romance condemns love that is essay structure lesson, not eye-pleasing. Romance often injures and a research, denigrates true love because love does not always appeal to romance's selfishness.
Love is for givers, not takers. Those who demand to be loved before they will love should not be surprised if no one gives them love. Genuine lovers live in lesson a world of essay, giving. The getters - the takers - the ones who expect to be loved first, live in structure lesson a different world. We have a duty to love, but we have no guarantees that we will be loved. We have it in our power to love, but we have no power to the edwardian essays and the stage force others to love us. Essay Structure Lesson! It is folly to the edwardian essays on performance and the stage spend life demanding love from others. If we are true lovers, our entire mindset is in a giving mode. There is no place for bemoaning the essay structure lesson, ways others neglect us. Love is fascinating inasmuch that it draws a person into an expression of caring and concern for nanotechnology essay, another. An entirely selfish person cannot love.
Anyone whose desires are only for self-satisfaction cannot manifest love. TRUE love will never encourage you to do things that God is not pleased with. Love requires the giving of ones' self to another. It involves an element of self-depletion, self-exhaustion. Love is empathic. It puts itself in someone else's shoes. Love seeks to understand. Essay Structure Lesson! Love cares. It does not pre-judge.
It does not pass sentences. Love does not jump to conclusions. Love does not throw down ultimatums. Love does not declare war on its object. Love is tender, it is kind, it is forgiving. Love is tuning into another's sensitivities. Love senses another's strengths and weaknesses. It uses the other person's measuring stick.
It suffers and rejoices on another's terms. Love seeks rapport. It seeks to interface with another at their level. Scholarships Essays Nursing! It seeks to relate emotionally, intellectually, physically and spiritually. Structure Lesson! Love compromises whenever possible. Love sacrifices personal whims if they are incompatible with the one who is theatre, loved. Love abandons pursuits that hurt the one who is structure lesson, loved. Love will do without. Nanotechnology! Love will dress in the color that another chooses.
Love bends. Love stretches. Love must sometimes keep silent. Love is a desire that someone will fare better than yourself. It is the willingness to spend yourself for the well-being of another.
Love will pay a debt the other cannot pay. It will bail them out for lesson, the sake of survival. Love wants the other to survive even if it means death to self. Love will die so someone else can live. Infatuation is sometimes mistaken for romance or love.
Infatuation is an extravagant passion or attraction to someone. Infatuation may or may not do the best it can for its object. (An example of the essays, downside of infatuation occurs when someone begins to stalk or threaten the one they are infatuated with.) Infatuation might just be physical passion. Passion is what you see in animal magnetism. Passion is structure lesson, driven by physical attraction, by chemistry, by the edwardian theatre on performance and the stage hormones, if you will. Essay! Passion causes animals to mate, to bear offspring. Passion will make a buck tear down a fence to get to a doe.
Extreme passion is sometimes the force behind date-rape and other kinds of physical abuse. Every healthy human will experience some kind of passion. Our physiology guarantees it. Every man and every woman manufactures chemicals in their bodies that attract the attention of other human beings. The forces of testosterone and theatre essays and the, estrogen and other pheromones create irresistible magnetism between humans. It is possible to be attracted to anyone at structure anytime where these hormonal forces are at work. It is the nature of every living creature to be attracted to those of its own species.
This physical passion, however, should never be confused with love. It is possible to feel passion for someone you do not love, and it is possible to love someone you do not feel passion for. Scholarships Essays! One of the biggest mistakes a person can make is to lesson get involved with another person on the edwardian theatre essays on performance stage the basis of passion alone. Lesson! If the essay conclusions animal, component of love is absent in structure a relationship, devastating things can happen. Just because someone is a great lover in bed does not mean that they will be easy to scholarships essays live with at all. A very passionate person is still capable of unspeakable cruelties, thoughtless sayings or even hateful abandonment. Even though they may express wild passions for structure, you on the spur of the moment, if there is a research, no love there, you will surely be hurt by them.
By the same measure, you will certainly hurt anyone else for whom you have passion, but no love. Stay away from passion that is not bounded by love. Love is essential to the success of lesson, any relationship. It is the force that holds two people together while they sort out their differences. Love is the C-clamp and it is the glue. If you love, you will be forced to nanotechnology be patient while the glue dries.
Love will not always hold things together, but if anything can, it will. Love is the last and best chance at sealing a relationship. Love will expose you to rejection and structure, hurts. Your attempts at The NISPM loving someone will not always be appreciated or received kindly. Lesson! Your motives may not be understood or believed. When you set forth to love someone, they may think you are acting out of ulterior motives. You may be accused of wrong doing or wrong motives. When you love you are your most vulnerable to on performance stage hurt.
Sharing your love is the most expensive thing you will ever do. It can either be the most rewarding effort or it can be the most devastating endeavor. Structure! Nobody is happier than a person in love. Nobody is sadder than one whose love has failed. If you invest yourself in someone, and The NISPM, give them your very best, and they respond positively to your love, you will experience unspeakable gratification. If, however, you invest in someone, and give them your very best, and they do NOT respond positively, perhaps they do not respond at essay all, or they respond negatively, it is likely to be one of the most painful experiences of your life. People who have failed at love often resist the the edwardian essays on performance and the stage, notion of structure lesson, loving again. To the person who has been hurt, love is perceived as the source of their great pain. Violence Essay! Rejection is structure, a deadly monster that nobody wants to scholarships live with. Loving people sometimes become self-destructive when they feel their love is lesson, being spurned.
But if you will be a real lover, you must confront the risk of rejection with a belief that love will not always fail. Love may fail with one person, but it will succeed with another. If the The NISPM, rejection is structure, coming from a spouse, then there must be a strong belief that love is a research, still the answer and that persistent love will eventually conquer all. When one person devotedly gives unselfishly to essay structure lesson another, if that effort is genuine and well-intended, it is virtually impossible that there will not be a positive result. Conclusions! If you persistently contribute to a person's well-being, the essay lesson, likelihood is that they will eventually become accustomed, if not addicted, to your positive contribution to their lives. If the one who is loved finally recognizes that you are only good for him or her, you have accomplished the real purpose of love. Love is the prerequisite to a research endearment. Love can build a bridge across great divides. Love is more powerful than any other force, because love stands for the best interest. Love will only do good.
Love will do no evil. Love is the most irresistible force known to humanity. Loving an adversary is like pouring fiery coals on their resistance. They must eventually respond in some way. Love does only good and thereby creates a debt of gratitude. If a person refuses your love, it may be that the reasons are irreparable.
It may be that they have chosen the love of another over your love. People who are in love develop a symbiotic relationship eventually. Each draws life force from the other. Essay! There is a mutual support system that emerges. If a person is substantially different from you in their values and lifestyles, they may resist your efforts to love them for the simple reason that they do not want to be engaged with you.
They do not want your values or your lifestyles imposing upon their own. In such a case, it is best to abandon the pursuit. Nanotechnology Essay! Be not unequally yoked with a person of radically different values or lifestyles. What is the essay structure, purpose of love? Love is the desire to enhance another.
God is love. God is the desire to a research improve the structure lesson, universe. He blesses all of creation. He builds, He strengthens, He helps - all the while He is essay farm, being resisted, rejected and ignored. God loves us. That means He wants to essay structure do us good. If we reject Him, it is because we do not want His ways or His lifestyles. It is because we have deluded ourselves into believing that our way is better than His way. Unfortunately, there is no way to prosper outside the blessing of God. To reject God's love is to reject life. If we do not handle love rightly, then everything else will be out of kilter.
If our lives are not motivated by love, we are certain to become corrupted, contaminated and violence, diseased by lesser forces. If we do not love our spouses, our children, our families, our fellowman, then we have given ourselves to their demise. The failure to love is a form of essay lesson, abandonment. It says I do not care how you turn out. It says your life is unimportant to me. It says I am selfish. I don't want to be involved in your well-being.
God requires us to love every man, because in doing so, we become partners with God in violence society the saving and redeeming of the structure lesson, human race. When we love our neighbors, we are allied with God in salvaging the human race. A Research! When we love our children, we are allied with God in the saving of our children. When we love our spouses, we are allied with God in the saving of our spouse. When we do NOT love others, we place ourselves at odds with God. We are neglecting or destroying what God is essay structure lesson, trying to build up. We are ignoring a cause that is uppermost in the mind of God.
Husbands should love their wives. Wives should love their husbands. Parents should love their children and children should love their parents. People who neglect their own under the guise of becoming benevolent or humanitarian toward the general public are failing to recognize that love must begin within the innermost circles of our lives. It is illogical to think that we can help society at large while we are neglecting our most fundamental responsibilities toward our own family and nanotechnology essay, friends. If the circle of love always began at essay home, the ripple effect would be enormous. Every loving couple is an inspiration to a research other couples within their circle of influence. Every dysfunctional couple is a detriment to their circle of influence - whether it be a detriment to the children of lesson, a divorce, or broken family ties, or the violence essay, impact on the community at large. It is foolish to think that we can show love in the public venue while neglecting love at home without getting caught in our hypocrisy.
Everybody on your job may love your smiley face and essay structure, your cheery ways, but if you are a monster at home, be sure your sins will find you out. Do you love someone? We should all love one another. We love our families, our friends, our brothers and farm, sisters in the church. How do we best love? Love begins to be expressed when it is formulated in the heart.
Love begins with a thought. Love looks at a subject and creates an interest. Essay Lesson! Love looks at essay a person and says, I like that person, and I want to be good to him or her. Love cannot function in an environment of prejudice. You cannot love someone for whom you feel antipathy or aversion or repugnance.
You cannot help someone you refuse to understand. You cannot help someone you have judged unworthy. You cannot love someone whom you disdain for their appearance. Essay! You cannot love someone whom you dislike because of their upbringing. You cannot love someone you resist because of their lack of grooming. You cannot love someone you are jealous of, whether you are jealous of their looks, their financial status, their popularity with others, their education or social standing, or any other reason. It is grossly unjust to limit your love to those with whom you get the best rapport. You must not limit yourself to loving only those who think like you, dress like you, act like you.
You must love all people of all kinds in spite of whatever distastes you may experience. What do you do when you love? When you love, you care. You show you care. You think caring thoughts. Nanotechnology! You commit yourself to caring. You refuse to stop caring even if they don't care if you care.
Love dwells where dislike would never go. Love penetrates hostile environments. Love reaches out. Love does favors that will never be repaid. Love shows appreciation for things that go unnoticed. Love runs errands. Love expects nothing in return.
Love's reward is to see others prosper. Love seeks not its own, but the good of others. Love makes a man build up his wife. Lesson! A loving man nourishes his wife, as a loving woman nourishes her husband. Love doesn't condemn or show harshness. Love doesn't seek to destroy.
Love is kind. Love is conclusions farm, tender. Love accentuates the positive. Love is not hate. Structure! Love does not hate. Love doesn't put a microscope on the edwardian on performance your faults; it puts a microscope on your potential. Love forgives faults. Love sometimes turns a blind eye. Love allows space for essay, improvement.
Love tolerates a lot of things that would otherwise be intolerable. Love bears with people that nobody else would bear with. Essay Conclusions Animal Farm! Love gives second chances. Essay Structure Lesson! Love gives third and fourth chances. A Research! Love leaves the essay lesson, door unlocked and the porch light on. Love will meet a prodigal half-way. Love will give up its own bed. Nursing! Love will celebrate a victory, even if it is a small one.
Love wants it all to work out, and will spend everything to make it happen. Love rejoices when others prosper. Love does not demand equal time. Love does not require equal pay. Love works for free if it has to. Love never gives up. Love clings to the ideal. Love persists through all adversity. Love believes in and hopes in things. Love tries really hard. To love is to be like Christ.
Not to love is contrary to Christ. There is essay structure, no greater love than to lay down your life for someone else. In your dying, they live. Animal! In your forfeiture, they win. In your passing they are sustained. In your deprivation, their needs are met. In your hunger, they are fed.
In your want, they are filled. Love will stay when self-preservation would leave the room. Essay! Others' needs compel love to stay on the job, when otherwise you would quit. Love compels a mother to cook dinner even though they complained about the last meal. Love compels a father to the job even though hostile forces are working against essays him. Love compels a preacher back to the pulpit even though his message has been rejected by 99 out of 100 people who have heard him preach. You can be religious. You can go to church. You can sing in the choir.
You can teach a Sunday School class. But if you don't live by love, you are a sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal. You can drive a nice car and live in a nice house, but if you don't love others, your life is a selfish disaster just waiting to happen. But if you are a master at essay lesson love, you will be happy even if life dishes you one trial after another. If you are a loving person - yes, if you are a LOVER - you are what God made you to be. He that loveth not, knoweth not God. If God were only hate, He would have no faithful followers. If God did not love us, we would not have pled His cause through the The NISPM, centuries and millennia.
It is the love of God toward us that has endeared Him to us. Structure Lesson! If He had not loved us while we were unlovable, we would have ignored him as soundly as we have all our other enemies. But God's love for us is the glue that holds us to Him. Every one of us will eventually pass from theatre on performance stage, this life. When we are gone, everything we have accumulated will be lost.
We can't take houses, land, cars, furniture, collections, art, money, or anything else. Most of the things we have stored in our attics and garages will probably be thrown away. Our clothes will be given away. Nobody will listen to our CDs or read our books. It won't take long until everything we ever were is gone and essay structure, forgotten - with one exception.
We will continue to The NISPM live in the hearts of those we have loved. If we have loved God, we will find ourselves forever in His bosom. And if we have loved others, we will be remembered fondly forever by those we have loved. If we have failed to love, we leave nothing behind. Daily MINI-LESSONS teach you the entire Bible! I am continually writing new content for this site. Please return often for essay structure lesson, more material, and tell your friends about www.kenraggio.com , too! And God bless you! ALL ARTICLES WRITTEN BY KEN RAGGIO, Copyright 1988-2010.
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