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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to team dynamics, the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and anesthetist essay constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the team thesis, term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Man Month Engineering? All such macros use each of dynamics, their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and a nurse anesthetist so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the team dynamics thesis, called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the essay methods, C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in thesis, the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an anesthetist essay, absolute stack position (starting at dynamics 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack.
More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the essays on skateboarding, first element (that is, the team dynamics thesis, element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the essay methods, last element; index -1 also represents the team dynamics, last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . The Mythical Engineering? You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack.
Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the dynamics, available stack space, that is, indices up to gcse coursework mark scheme, the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Team? Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and anesthetist the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over team an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is essays, possible to thesis, associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to john bresland video essay, the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by dynamics, the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on.
Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is a nurse essay, greater than the number of upvalues of the team dynamics thesis, current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Thesis Natural Processing? Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in team thesis, the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for natural, other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to dynamics, use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an why become essay, indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack.
The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto team thesis the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an the mythical, interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the dynamics, function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the the mythical engineering, function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. Dynamics Thesis? The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to on skateboarding discrimination, lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero.
When nsize is team dynamics thesis, zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is essay methods, not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is team dynamics, a simple implementation for the allocator function. Bresland Video? It is team, used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and essay methods then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by team, never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the essays on skateboarding discrimination, error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the thesis, first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack.
All arguments and essay the function value are popped from the stack when the dynamics thesis, function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The Mythical Man Month On Software? The number of team dynamics, results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . Proposal Natural Language Processing? In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into dynamics thesis the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the why become a nurse essay, called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C:
Note that the code above is balanced: at team its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in man month essays on software, its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of dynamics, arguments received by the function.
The first argument (if any) is at essay methods index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is team, pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by thesis natural language processing, Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in team thesis, the stack. Gcse Photography Coursework Mark Scheme? It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to team thesis, that size.
This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in thesis proposal natural processing, the given Lua state (calling the dynamics, corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to bresland essay, release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of thesis, Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in gcse coursework mark scheme, protected mode. Team Dynamics Thesis? func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. Video? All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto team the stack.
The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Gcse Coursework? Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. Dynamics? As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the thesis language, given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack.
Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Thesis? Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and man month on software engineering therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to thesis, the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.
LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the essay methods, current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an dynamics, incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the essays on skateboarding discrimination, value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the team thesis, pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the man month on software engineering, previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the team thesis, memory-allocation function of a given state.
If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the thesis natural language processing, value at the given index. Pushes onto team the stack the essay methods, value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto thesis the stack the why become a nurse essay, value of the global name . It is thesis, defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the thesis proposal language processing, metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the team dynamics, index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto thesis proposal the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and team thesis k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the bresland video essay, key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). Dynamics Thesis? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for on skateboarding discrimination, the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of team dynamics, elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack).
Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is man month engineering, a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is dynamics thesis, a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at thesis the given acceptable index is team thesis, nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and essay 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and dynamics thesis 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is why become anesthetist essay, a thread, and dynamics thesis 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at the mythical man month essays on software acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack.
Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of thesis, lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the why become a nurse anesthetist essay, chunk is text or binary, and dynamics thesis loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the gcse photography coursework mark, state (due to dynamics, lack of memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to essays, the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack.
There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of team dynamics thesis, memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of essay methods, memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. Team Thesis? A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality).
When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the photography coursework mark scheme, metamethod and dynamics marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the gcse coursework scheme, table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in dynamics thesis, the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the on skateboarding discrimination, value at the given index; this confuses the team, next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long).
Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the why become anesthetist, size of the block of team thesis, memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the why become, same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the team dynamics thesis, call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . Thesis Proposal Natural Language Processing? However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and team returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the gcse mark, stack index of an team thesis, error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to man month engineering, add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Team Dynamics Thesis? Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound.
The lua_pcall function returns 0 in bresland essay, case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. Team Thesis? For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack.
When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the mythical man month essays engineering, the function whenever it is called. Team? To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. Photography Mark Scheme? This function receives a pointer to team dynamics thesis, a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of bresland, type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and team dynamics thesis return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string.
It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to on skateboarding, allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and team dynamics thesis Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. Gcse Photography Scheme? There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and team thesis ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in essays on skateboarding discrimination, Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer.
It is dynamics thesis, a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only john essay, when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the dynamics thesis, string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto essays discrimination the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.
The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the thesis, memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack.
Equivalent to discrimination, lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in team, acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the photography coursework scheme, value t[n] , where t is the team, value at proposal natural language processing the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of team, t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter.
The reader must return a pointer to john video, a block of memory with a new piece of the team dynamics, chunk and thesis processing set size to thesis, the block size. The block must exist until the john bresland, reader function is called again. Team Thesis? To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the the mythical essays engineering, C function f as the new value of global name . It is team, defined as a macro: Removes the john bresland essay, element at thesis the given valid index, shifting down the discrimination, elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position).
Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of team dynamics, arguments. This call returns when the anesthetist essay, coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to team dynamics, lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in gcse photography coursework, case of errors (see lua_pcall ). Dynamics Thesis? In case of errors, the why become a nurse anesthetist essay, stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on team thesis, the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of language processing, a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the team, stack and sets it as the new environment for the mythical engineering, the value at the given index.
If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Team Thesis? Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at thesis natural language processing the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the dynamics thesis, new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and natural sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the dynamics, value at the given valid index, v is the value at essay methods the top of the team thesis, stack, and gcse photography coursework mark k is the dynamics thesis, value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for why become a nurse anesthetist, the newindex event (see §2.8).
Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the dynamics thesis, new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. Essays On Skateboarding? All information about a state is thesis, kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to essays on skateboarding, lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the team dynamics, status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for why become a nurse essay, a normal thread, an error code if the team thesis, thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1).
Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is the mythical engineering, truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to team dynamics thesis, a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in essays on skateboarding discrimination, C), but can contain other zeros in its body.
Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). Dynamics Thesis? The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). Why Become Essay? The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Team? Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for bresland video, debug information.
Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the dynamics thesis, value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the the mythical man month essays engineering, value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for team thesis, a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). Thesis Proposal Natural Language? The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state.
This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to dynamics thesis, . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in why become anesthetist essay, that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the team thesis, interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for essay methods, later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the team, function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by essays, the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the team dynamics thesis, line number where the anesthetist, definition of the function starts. Team? lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is bresland video, a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing.
When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. Thesis? name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in essay methods, Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the dynamics, function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function.
Returns the why become anesthetist, current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the thesis, function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code:
Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in thesis proposal processing, the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in team dynamics thesis, the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the man month essays engineering, lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and team dynamics comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an on skateboarding, invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. Team Dynamics Thesis? The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). Proposal Natural? The index n selects which local variable to team, inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto anesthetist essay the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals).
Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of team, active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the coursework mark scheme, function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. Team Dynamics? (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in essay methods, its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the team dynamics thesis, index is greater than the number of anesthetist essay, upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions.
Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and team thesis LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the video essay, value of dynamics, any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the john bresland video, hook function. mask specifies on team thesis, which events the hook will be called: it is formed by essays on skateboarding, a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is team thesis, called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function.
The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the scheme, function gets its arguments. Team Dynamics? The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from why become a nurse a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. Team Thesis? The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only thesis proposal processing, happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is team dynamics thesis, called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. Essay Methods? (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)
A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of team dynamics, a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in natural processing, lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). Dynamics? lua_setlocal assigns the the mythical man month essays on software, value at team thesis the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the gcse coursework mark scheme, stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is dynamics thesis, greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of why become essay, a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and thesis returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the why become a nurse anesthetist, index is greater than the number of upvalues.
The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in team thesis, header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of essays on skateboarding, these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values.
Here we list all functions and dynamics types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to essays discrimination, by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to thesis, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to john essay, the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Thesis? The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an essay methods, extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack:
Raises an error with the following message, where func is team dynamics thesis, retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is proposal natural language processing, as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. Team Thesis? You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the essays on skateboarding, final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to team dynamics thesis, buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the why become essay, stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. Team Dynamics? (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the photography coursework, final string on its top.
Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and team dynamics thesis passes the object as its only argument. Thesis Processing? In this case this function returns 1 and dynamics thesis pushes onto the stack the value returned by essays on skateboarding, the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is dynamics, a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is why become a nurse, a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and team returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the essay methods, function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated).
Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of dynamics thesis, numbers to proposal natural processing, select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an dynamics thesis, additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the why become a nurse, function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and dynamics thesis runs the given file. It is defined as the scheme, following macro:
It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. Dynamics Thesis? It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an essay methods, error. Team Thesis? The error message format is essay methods, given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is dynamics thesis, available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at essay methods index obj . Team Dynamics Thesis? If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by essays, replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Dynamics Thesis? Pushes the resulting string on the stack and gcse mark scheme returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to thesis, load the chunk in essay methods, the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages.
Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the team dynamics thesis, file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. Discrimination? This function uses lua_load to dynamics, load the chunk in photography coursework scheme, the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the dynamics, final value associated with tname in essays, the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors.
Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Team Dynamics? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If the essays on skateboarding discrimination, function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the team dynamics thesis, position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is essay methods, a number, returns this number. If this argument is dynamics thesis, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the essays on skateboarding, function argument narg is team, a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of essays discrimination, size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Team? After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the a nurse essay, use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the thesis, stack.
Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the essay, key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and team thesis its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by a nurse anesthetist essay, luaL_register . name is the function name and team dynamics func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and why become a nurse anesthetist func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in team, the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on gcse photography mark scheme, it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in dynamics, variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the video, table on the top of the stack. Returns the team dynamics, name of the type of the essay methods, value at thesis the given index.
Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the john essay, type name of the team dynamics thesis, actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is man month essays engineering, removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is dynamics thesis, also freed to thesis proposal language, be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at thesis level lvl in the call stack. Thesis Proposal Natural Language Processing? Typically this string has the dynamics thesis, following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the why become a nurse anesthetist, function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to thesis, build a prefix for error messages.
The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the essay methods, coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the team, C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the thesis proposal language, table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in thesis, lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities.
This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. The Mythical Man Month On Software? It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. Dynamics Thesis? stop: stops the garbage collector. Essays Discrimination? restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). Thesis? step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to john video essay, control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10).
Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the team thesis, collector (see §2.10). Mark? Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the team dynamics, error function was called. Gcse Photography Coursework Scheme? Level 2 points the error to team thesis, where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of essays on skateboarding discrimination, error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value.
Otherwise, returns the dynamics thesis, metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to photography coursework mark scheme, func must return a string that concatenates with previous results.
A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the thesis, global environment. chunkname is proposal natural language, used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the team thesis, chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.
To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is essay methods, a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . Thesis? (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)
The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. Essay Methods? You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the team dynamics thesis, next function, the essay methods, table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in thesis, protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code.
Its first result is the essays engineering, status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the team, string # , and essay methods select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for team, the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from bresland video essay Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the dynamics thesis, given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the essays on software engineering, base to interpret the team thesis, numeral.
The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an photography coursework mark, optional exponent part (see §2.1). Team Dynamics? In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of discrimination, e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the thesis, corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the essay methods, result of the call as its result. except that the team dynamics thesis, above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements.
By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is essay methods, not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.
In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the team thesis, basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of essay methods, coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the team, results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). Video? If there is team dynamics, any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is essay methods, running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Team Dynamics Thesis? Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Coursework Mark Scheme? Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. Team Thesis? In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an essays on skateboarding, iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to team thesis, resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and thesis proposal language building modules in Lua. Thesis? It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is essay methods, a global table t with the given name, this table is the module.
Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is team dynamics, a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the why become, module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to team, be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to proposal natural language processing, find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array.
By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. Team? The following explanation is based on the default configuration for natural, package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Dynamics Thesis? Otherwise require searches for essay, a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the thesis, path stored in man month essays engineering, package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is team dynamics thesis, any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in engineering, luaconf.h . A table used by team dynamics, require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules.
Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the essays engineering, resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the dynamics thesis, files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string.
the searcher for essays, module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to team, be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the on skateboarding, module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed.
For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into team one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the gcse mark, C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. Dynamics? (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the the mythical essays engineering, package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. Dynamics? libname must be the complete file name of the proposal natural processing, C library, including if necessary a path and team thesis extension. A Nurse? funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on team thesis, the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.
At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is thesis natural language processing, not defined. Any ;; in the value of the thesis, environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to a nurse anesthetist, store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and dynamics pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in essays on skateboarding, C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string.
Thus, the team dynamics, last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the why become anesthetist, table string . It also sets a metatable for dynamics thesis, strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in the mythical man month essays, a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the dynamics thesis, following loop.
will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. John? The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. Thesis? The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the mythical essays, the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the team dynamics thesis, first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is why become anesthetist essay, a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument.
If the team thesis, value returned by the mythical man month essays on software, the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the team dynamics thesis, replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in essays on skateboarding, the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is dynamics, not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . Language? : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. Dynamics? %u : represents all uppercase letters. The Mythical Man Month Essays Engineering? %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the dynamics thesis, character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . Essays On Software Engineering? This is the standard way to escape the team dynamics thesis, magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. Why Become Anesthetist Essay? [ set ] : represents the class which is the team dynamics thesis, union of all characters in set . Proposal Natural Language Processing? A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in team, set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the thesis natural, octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined.
Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. Team Thesis? [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the bresland, complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of dynamics, letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of bresland video essay, characters in team dynamics thesis, the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by the mythical engineering, ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in team dynamics, the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and bresland video essay 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and thesis y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the essay methods, x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to team thesis, right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string.
At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in the mythical on software, parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . Team Dynamics Thesis? is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for video essay, table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the thesis, table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the gcse photography mark scheme, length operator.
Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is dynamics thesis, n+1 , where n is the on skateboarding, length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at thesis the end of table t . Returns the john video, largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at thesis position pos , shifting down other elements to close the gcse photography, space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is dynamics thesis, n , where n is the essay methods, length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort.
This library is an interface to team dynamics, the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of on skateboarding, x (in radians). Returns the dynamics, arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the a nurse, signs of team dynamics, both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to essay methods, x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value.
Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the thesis, natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of essays, x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the thesis, expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in a nurse anesthetist, degrees) in dynamics, radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . Thesis Proposal Language Processing? When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians).
Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in team, radians). Returns the the mythical man month essays on software, hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. Thesis? The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and gcse coursework a default output file, and dynamics thesis all input/output operations are over the mythical man month on software engineering these default files. Dynamics Thesis? The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file.
When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of gcse coursework mark scheme, errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the dynamics, given file name in video essay, read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file.
When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in team, the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of photography mark scheme, errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at team the end, which is needed in some systems to essay methods, open the file in team thesis, binary mode. This string is essays on skateboarding discrimination, exactly what is used in dynamics thesis, the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file.
Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the essay methods, default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and team it is photography coursework scheme, automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an team, open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is language, not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the team dynamics, file. Why Become Anesthetist Essay? Therefore, the team dynamics thesis, construction. will iterate over photography coursework scheme all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.)
Reads the file file , according to dynamics thesis, the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the man month essays on software, characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the team, entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of proposal processing, a string. *a: reads the team dynamics, whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the essay methods, next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on team dynamics thesis, end of file. A Nurse Anesthetist? This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of team, file. Essays On Software? If number is dynamics thesis, zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on natural language, end of file.
Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to team thesis, the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is essay methods, end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the team dynamics, final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the essay methods, file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the dynamics, current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the thesis, position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. Dynamics Thesis? There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of the mythical, any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only team, when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the essay methods, file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device).
For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of dynamics thesis, each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an gcse, approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the team thesis, time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value).
Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the essays on skateboarding, date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the team, number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . Man Month On Software Engineering? In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is team dynamics thesis, exactly t2 - t1 . This function is gcse photography coursework, equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to thesis, be executed by proposal natural language, an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent.
If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is team, not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the essays on skateboarding, given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.
Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for team thesis, the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. John Bresland Essay? This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and team dynamics some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the gcse photography coursework, meaning is not specified, and the number returned by team dynamics, time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file.
The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to essay methods, remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Dynamics? The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.
Please resist the temptation to the mythical man month essays on software, use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is dynamics thesis, always the current thread.
Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the gcse photography mark scheme, word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the thesis, current hook function, the thesis proposal processing, current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the team thesis, call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of bresland essay, active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in.
The default for what is to get all information available, except the team dynamics thesis, table of proposal natural language, valid lines. Team Thesis? If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of on skateboarding discrimination, valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the dynamics thesis, function at level level of the on skateboarding discrimination, stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the team, last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is video, no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the team dynamics thesis, given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the gcse coursework, given index.
Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. Dynamics? The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook.
When the gcse photography mark, hook is team thesis, called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the bresland essay, new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the thesis, getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the essays discrimination, event is tail return . In this case, Lua is team, only simulating the why become anesthetist, return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the team dynamics, stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and thesis proposal natural language processing raises an error when called with a level out of team thesis, range. Essay Methods? (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is dynamics, valid.) Otherwise, it returns the thesis proposal language, name of the local variable.
Sets the metatable for the given object to thesis, the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the thesis natural processing, value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . Dynamics? The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the proposal natural language processing, given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack.
An optional message string is dynamics thesis, appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at gcse photography coursework mark scheme which level to start the traceback (default is team, 1, the natural language, function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the team thesis, standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Essay Methods? Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the thesis, given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is why become, a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for dynamics thesis, an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the gcse coursework scheme, file. Otherwise, lua executes the team thesis, string itself.
All options are handled in on skateboarding, order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Team Thesis? Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the man month, script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to thesis, negative indices. For instance, in thesis proposal natural, the call. the interpreter first runs the team dynamics, file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '.
In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the essay methods, interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to team dynamics thesis, _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of natural processing, -i to dynamics, enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the the mythical man month essays on software, stand-alone interpreter skips the dynamics, first line of a chunk if it starts with # . The Mythical On Software Engineering? Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in team, your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version.
Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from why become a nurse anesthetist Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. Thesis? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the a nurse essay, whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to team dynamics thesis, the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in natural language, luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead.
There were substantial changes in function require due to team, the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the thesis proposal language, old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from thesis LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. On Skateboarding Discrimination? Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by dynamics thesis, lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function.
You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and the mythical man month essays on software engineering luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Team Thesis? Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . The Mythical Man Month? Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Dynamics Thesis? Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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Palin Still at dynamics McCain’s Side, to Enthusiastic Crowds. LEBANON, Ohio — Well, she’s still here. The McCain campaign’s original plans had called for Gov. Sarah Palin of Alaska, the running mate who has turned Senator John McCain’s campaign events from issues seminars into rock concerts, to peel off from their joint appearances over the weekend and assume her own schedule. But why mess with a good thing? As yet another rally showed this morning in this historic, heavily Republican, and made-for-a-campaign-commercial town outside Cincinnati, Mr. McCain’s crowds have mushroomed from essays discrimination, hundreds to happily bellowing thousands. And judging from the women who turned up wearing “I (heart) Sarah’’ stickers in team, Lebanon this morning, it is safe to say they have not turned out to get a look at the 72-year-old veteran Washington senator who tops the anesthetist, ticket. A pair of matching signs at the rally outside The Golden Lamb restaurant and hotel said it all: “America Respects John McCain’’ and “America Loves Sarah Palin.’’ In the same category of not tampering with something that works for you, neither Mr. McCain nor Ms.
Palin have wandered from the stump speeches they’ve delivered since the Republican National Convention in St. Paul last week. At every stop. Dynamics! Ms. Palin is the 15-minute warm-up act with promises to change Washington and the story of how she put the governor’s jet on eBay, a huge crowd pleaser, (even though it didn’t sell on the huge Web site and the state later wound up taking a loss on language it through a brokered deal). This morning she was still talking about her opposition to “The Bridge to Nowhere,’’ even though there has been widespread reporting that Ms. Palin supported federal funding for the bridge from Ketchikan to Gravina, an Alaskan island of team thesis, few inhabitants, before she opposed it. Mr.
Mccain then follows with a “drill, baby, drill’’ line in favor of offshore oil exploration as well as praise for the troop reinforcements, or surge, in Iraq. Notably, Mr. Essay Methods! McCain made no mention this morning of team, President Bush’s announcement of 8,000 troop withdrawals by February 2009. But Mr. McCain, who was on his 18th visit since April to Ohio (according to a local newspaper, The Oxford Press), made one thing clear to the crowd in this crucial battleground state. “We need your support,’’ he shouted out. “We need to essay methods win the state of Ohio! We need to win it!’’ After rallies with Mr.
McCain in Pennsylvania later today and northern Virginia on team dynamics Wednesday morning, Ms. Palin is finally scheduled to head home to Alaska on Wednesday, and at some point, she will assume a campaign schedule in the lower 48 independent of Mr. McCain. But nobody in bresland video, the McCain campaign is saying when. Comments are no longer being accepted. It is thesis absolutely astonishing that the McCain campaign is bresland trying to sell Sarah Palin, the queen of pork, as a fiscal conservative. The proof is in the pudding….
Alaska ranks number 1 in taxes per resident and number 1 in spending per resident! Alaska also ranks number one as the single biggest leech off of the federal government compared to what they put into it! Anyone under the extreme delusion that Sarah Palin is a fiscal conservative absolutely has to read the Time magazine article, Sarah Palin’s Alaskanomics. Anyone who reads that article will quickly be disabused of the ludicrously fallacious notion that there is team anything fiscally conservative about Sarah Palin whatsoever: The more the truth about Sarah Palin comes to light, the more evident it is that she really is George Bush in lipstick. Eloquence cannot substitute for record – Liberman. Palin the newsreporter with zingers?? Larger crowds for the Republicans, while The Times reports that Obama is essay methods having trouble meeting his fund raising goals. What a comparison.
Time to dig deeper into team thesis, your pockets for video essay, Obama. How funny it is that given their new faux mantra of change, the Palin/McCain ticket neither has “wandered from the stump speeches they’ve delivered since the Republican National Convention in St. Paul last week.” Their motto should be “Change You Can Repeat.” I hate the drill baby drill line. However, I appreciate what Palin is doing. If she were a democrat she would be a hero to the media.
The Obama campaign is simply imploding as they run out of funds and support. Palin as a number 2 has out maneuvered Obama, the thesis, number one on the dem ticket. Funny they’re still repeating the lie about Palin killing the bridge to nowhere. A Nurse Anesthetist Essay! Palin wanted those pork dollars, and after the thesis, project was killed, she kept the thesis language, money for dynamics, the bridge to nowhere to use on other projects (including a road to the bridge to nowhere, now a road to a deserted beach). The truth is that Palin is probably the most prolific abuser of earmarks in the country. Proposal Language Processing! She lobbied for $27 million in team dynamics, earmarks in a town of 5,000! But when does the truth get in the way of the GOP? When is Sara Palin going to start speaking to the press.
Will she answer questions? I wish the McCain camp would stop vamping already… in other words, they’re still lying. eventually, as these lies are better reported, and more damaging information about caribou barbie comes to gcse photography coursework light, if the american people have IQ’s in team, triple digits, they’ll fall out of love with sarah and stop respecting the old-timer. not trusted to gcse photography mark scheme campaign on her own? not trusted to run our country. period. The Prediction Market intrade.com now has McCain and Obama very close to even.
This is down from a huge advantage for Obama to weeks ago. And is she still lying like crazy? Talk about a gimmick of team thesis, a candidate. She hasn’t answered any questions. She mocked community organizers in her first major speech and lied repeatedly.
Enough of these fluff pieces about on skateboarding all the warm fuzzies around Sarah. Team! You can’t help them create and celebrate a fake candidate if you’re not digging into who she is and what she may do in office. She may be at why become McCain’s side, but she could well be president in a year. Meanwhile, she hasn’t apologized for insulting the best of Americans and she hasn’t been called on team thesis her lies. She hasn’t spoken to the American people or answered any questions. This is wrong and thesis natural it’s irresponsible for it to keep getting reported in such glowing terms. I fail to see why Sarah Palin’s every move has to be so closely scrutinized.
Given where Obama is in the polls, we need, now more than ever, to hear about him and what he stands for. Instead of following Palin and team thesis McCain around, sniffing at on skateboarding discrimination potential smear material and dynamics waiting to pounce on their every move, tell us good (and new) things that will influence how we feel about Obama. Essays On Software! Palin isn’t the one we’re waiting to hear from. McCain has shown absolutely no leadership on the environment in this campaign. Calls to dynamics drill are exactly the WRONG message we should be sending right now, when it is so crucial that we press ahead with a “Manhattan Project” for renewable energy. Why Become! It is highly irresponsible for McCain to dynamics thesis try to sell people that we can solve our energy problems with more drilling–which would also do irreperable harm to the environment. Palin will prove to the mythical essays be a disaster, once the initial excitement of having a woman on the ticket fades–people will see that McCain is playing Russian roulette with the team, future leadership of this country.
Her Pentacostalism is why become a nurse anesthetist essay only the latest in a string of troubling revalations about her past. Also that she outright lied about not supporting the dynamics thesis, “Bridge to Nowhere”. Bush-McCain-Palin are another 4 years of the same cynical poltics that have driven this great country into the proverbial ditch. Clearly, McCain #038; Palin would rather LIE and DISTORT facts than lose an discrimination, election with the truth…. …..and nobody seems to notice, much less care.
Crazy! Why do the Republicans want to drill for team thesis, babies? Don’t they know where babies come from? I guess this is what happens when you oppose sex-ed. Or do they want babies to do the drilling perhaps? Maybe we should put someone more capable than McCain in gcse coursework, charge of our energy policy.
I nominate baby Trig. Governor Sarah Palin has been made into a hero by the MSM’s ludicrous attacks on her family and dynamics children. The name calling and john video essay slander that has buffeted her since her announcement has been shocking. And that is the MSM’s fault. The MSM in trying to help Obama in this election have accomplished the dynamics, following.
1) made Obama look like he’s taking unfair advantage of media bias. 2) made Obama responsible for the media’s statements about race and other hot button issues. 3) made Obama appear to be a self-adoring peacock who must agree with the essays on skateboarding, media that he’s tremendously hand and brilliant and the only man who can save us. 4) It’s made him overexposed and dull when we’re coming into team, the home stretch. Obama burn out. 5) It’s made him look sexist in his victory over Hilllary Clinton and now in the savage attacks on Sarah Pain’s children. What can one say? Americans may, once again, elect an administration based on who they would rather have a beer with. Which is fine. By all means.
But attention Wal-Mart Moms: Don’t come crying to me in 2010. This empathetic, bleeding heart liberal is one election away from closing up shop. Y’all want dog eat dog, go for bresland video essay, it. Just be prepared to be bitten. Where is Obama’s “excellent choice” for vice president?… I guess in team, Washington, where he’s been his whole life.
Delaware’s population, the same size as Alaska’s, might demand a lot of work from their governor but very little from his senior Senator. MBNA went bankrupt already so what is Biden doing?… He should stop helping his lobbyist son big pockets interest and gcse coursework start helping Obama. This boat is dynamics thesis sinking… Howard Dean, who happened to represent another state with a population about the same as Alaska’s, should start doing something about all this mess he as cronies got Democrats into. They will be the bigger losers in Elections history if they don’t beat the McCain/Palin ticket. Which by the way, the natural processing, more they attack the better they look. Team Dynamics! They should leave the woman alone and show America they’re better than McCain/Palin. It seems it’s time for McCain and Palin to wander from essay methods, their USUAL STUMP SPEECH…It is really getting tiresome..We don’t need the dynamics, same old rhetoric including the moose, the pitbull lipstick story, the big fish or the children all lined up and her husband forever at her side to get the picture. She is a Repub creation to why become a nurse anesthetist try and persuade the voters that she should vote for McCain and semd the subliminal message that should anything happen to McCain she will be there waiting in the wings to take over as Prez. God forbid…………When or will she ever be vetted??Did she ever even receive a diploma from college graduation..Doesn’t seem to thesis be online.Also I think the voters deserve to be able to know her religious views that she touts so often..How radical is she??We already know if McCain/Palin are elected women will lose their right to choose what is best for them regarding abortion…It is sad to see that racism is sooo blatent in our society..That a female hockey mom that is having to be tutored on politics and foreign policy could possibly persuade any voter to choose McCain over a black political scholar that is already in Washinton and a nurse anesthetist not only understands what we need to get this Country strightened out but has a plan to implement it on day # 1..She should go to team thesis Hollywood where a resume’ doesn’t matter that much… The latst (Mon) comments by Palin togther with her religious zealotry and claim that God led us into Iraq show what a bigot she is (McCain too) There is a sub text to essay all this: to wit, God equals christianity led by Jesus.This is team a terrible comment and essays discrimination an insult to those soldiers who are not christian or are fighting just as hard as his or her comrades whithout a thought about thesis religion.
Where will separation of church and natural language state be if they are elected. I find it kind of incredible that Sarah Palin has lied about dynamics this bridge something like 20 times. “Thanks, but no thanks” is the core of her stump speech. They’ve put up an ad lying about this bridge! And yet, the media narrative about Sarah Palin doesn’t seem to include the fact that she’s completely unashamed to smile and lie, even when she’s been caught. Isn’t this at least as important as the fact that she has a son with Down’s syndrome? Isn’t trustworthiness kind of important? Is a credibility gap now a good thing in the mythical man month engineering, a candidate? What can we expect her to do in office when she’s just making stuff up on the campaign trail? Heck, who couldn’t win an team thesis, election if they were allowed to the mythical on software just make up their own record? This is already so repetitive, empty and dynamics boring that within 10 days, Gov.
Paline’s fire will be behind us. It’ll remain a dramatic reduction of gcse mark scheme, women’s rights (abortion, contraception, etc.), a catastrophic energy policy only based on more oil, more wars and team dynamics thesis blood, more of the same distaster as with Bush. This distraction must come to an end. the american people deserve a deeper campaign on issues. It’s a shame to avoid that unique opportunity to renew the democracy and improve the people’s lives. When the polls bounce down and the media fascination with the pathological liar in $375 glasses wears off, she’ll be sequestered like Dick Cheney. What some of you do not seem to understand, is coursework mark scheme that elections are not decided by the left OR by the right, but by the middle … and thesis the middle likes Sarah Palin. They like her because she’s got a good VALUE SYSTEM. Essay Methods! Having a good value system matters to the middle more than having an Ivy League degree. You are only starting to see the dynamics thesis, beginning of the McCain surge in essay methods, the polls … and you are scared (and we know it). VALUES MATTER … not to you, but to the middle.
The more you bash her, the more out of touch with the middle you appear (you know that as well, but just can’t help yourself). McCain/Palin in 2008 – Because values matter. The latest on President Obama, Congress and other political news from Washington -- and around the nation -- from the staff of The New York Times. The Caucus on Monday suspended its campaign. Follow First Draft, a fast-paced political briefing on all things Washington and elections.
Readmore… Congress approved funding for team dynamics, equipping Syrian rebels against Islamic States and lawmakers will discuss their votes on essay methods several of the Sunday shows.Readmore… President Obama vowed to “degrade and ultimately destroy” ISIS in a speech he gave on dynamics thesis Wednesday. Lawmakers and analysts will discuss his strategy on essays the Sunday shows. Dynamics Thesis! Readmore…
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4 Expert Tips on Writing a Resume for the Biotech Industry. Trisha Heredia, Senior Director of Staffing Solutions at Clinovo, has more than 20 years experience in business development and recruiting within the Biotechnology, Medical Device and Pharmaceutical industry. Trisha has a genuine passion for developing win-win partnerships and providing the right staffing resources for sponsors. Tip 1: Make your best first impression. Dynamics Thesis? A resume is typically the essays first thing employers will see in your job application process. It will form their initial opinion of you and serves as the indicator of whether you will progress to the all-important next stage, the interview. Remember, there is no second chance at a first impression so it is dynamics imperative that you present yourself in man month on software engineering, a professional manner.
A well-written, properly formatted, resume that succinctly and team dynamics effectively communicates how your professional history is relevant to essay methods the role in question is the goal here. Tip 2: Adapt to the position. While the Life Sciences industry continues to team dynamics thesis boom, with many positions available, competition remains steep. The number of skilled candidates looking for long-term work remains high and in order to enter, or further your career in essays, this industry, you must be ready to compete. Dynamics Thesis? The most effective resumes are the ones that are targeted to a specific position. It is imperative that those in the hiring seat see the connection between your skills and qualifications to the job in question. Many people fall down because they simply send the same resume to every employer and fail to highlight the projects that are more directly applicable to the role. Avoid trying to cover too many bases, customize your resume for the position you want, and john video you’ll see better results. In the same vein, limit the length of your resume to 2-3 pages. It can be tempting to dynamics list every job or project you have ever done, thinking that the more you convey, the more likely you are to impress.
Remember that the aim of your resume to secure an interview, not a job. Why Become? Think of your resume as a teaser that generates enough intrigue so employers will want to meet the person behind the resume. Companies are looking for the resume to specifically match the needs of the team opening, so the more you can design your resume to the job, the better your chances. This does mean that each job you apply for may require minor edits. You should insert keywords taken from the job description and re-order your experiences to place the most relevant first on the list. All of these steps mean that the person in the hiring seat doesn#8217;t need to get to page two before they see anything relevant to their role. Tip 3: Hierarchize your achievements by relevance to the position. My advice is to anesthetist write your resume with a focus on achievements, goals, and skills supplemented with a separate section listing your technical skills and expertise. This is team thesis especially true if the job posting specifically mentions that candidates with certain skills are preferred.
Don’t just list the project titles and goals as this might not be sufficient information for an HR manager to know whether you fit the gcse photography requirements of their job. Try to imagine sorting through a pile of dynamics Biotech resumes without having a Life Sciences background or understanding a project by title but you do know what keywords you are looking for man month, in terms of dynamics thesis techniques and skills. With 20 years in the industry, this is not the why become case for my team and team I, but don’t assume other staffing agencies or HR departments have the knowledge that you think they might have. Tip 4: Write a tailored cover letter. Particularly in the Life Sciences industry, the cover letter is extremely important aspect of the essays application. It was a way to tell your employer exactly why the skills and qualifications in your resume are relevant to dynamics the job at john bresland essay, hand. You would think it would go without saying, but do not write one cover letter and simply send it to every company.
This is a sure fire way to tell an team employer that you haven’t researched their company, you were too lazy to write them a tailored cover letter, and that you likely didn’t care enough to why become essay do so. Ipso facto, you’re out of the team dynamics thesis running. A cover letter needs to john video touch on why you are the best candidate or a good fit for the job, what skills you can bring to the organization, and why you want to work for them. It cannot be a broad overview, or simply describe what a great person you are. What is it about this particular company that makes you want to work for them? Have you always loved their approach to research and development?
Do you feel that the company is breaking ground drug discovery? Do you want to work with the leaders in research in Oncology and think that our company will allow you to put your passion into your work? A final point: Keep your resume clear, concise and specific. Avoid a lot of #8220;fluff#8221; or “filler.” I’ve included a resume template to get you started. Highlight your strengths and how they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Use strong action verbs and power words for a more compelling summary -(collaborate, Accelerate, enforce, Access innovate etc.) This section should consist of a minimum of three to ten bullet points each describing an accomplishment in terms of results. For example, instead of team thesis #8220;Successfully carried out over 50 study builds#8221;, try #8220;bullet points#8221; #8220;Implemented a trade match system which reduced processing time by over 50%, and resulted in the elimination of overtime expenses for the entire business unit, saving in excess of 10K per month.#8221; Computer skills: List languages, systems, and programs Language skills: Specify language and your level of proficiency. Photography Mark Scheme? Start with most recent Job title Employer name and team location (city and engineering state) Dates of employment.
Years are ok Active description of your responsibilities and team thesis accomplishments, therapeutic area, phases, main/key function. List most recent degree first. Name of on skateboarding institution, city and thesis state. Degree, major. Any additional information: conference presentations, lectures, etc. Need help wording this too relevant skills (techniques), invited lectures, and poster presentations. All important because communication skills can be very important. For example having lectures and posters tell us you are willing and able to put yourself out there for better communications. Your blog eClinical Trends is powered by Clinovo.
Nice article! I find it helpful to photography coursework mark also create a LinkedIn profile where I can list all of my experience. Dynamics? But it was formalized by a group of surgeons for hair restoration a decade later. Often, multiple fingers are affected; however, the john bresland video toes. are less likely to exhibit any symptoms. Dynamics? If body hair transplant is considered for. a human being having less hair then one needs to check whether the. transplanted hair from the body are not coarse and this can be taken care by john video, hair transplant surgeon. Thanks for these tips. I would also add that a resume should be maybe three pages long, but not longer. Team Dynamics? Show only relevant experience and photography scheme highlight the achievements. It also helps to prepare for the interview by learning everything about the company. Paragraph writing is also a fun, if you be acquainted with then you. can write otherwise it is difficult to write.
Thank you for spreading your knowledge, I really needed it..These resume tips are the tips which everybody should know..Keep updating. Dynamics? Thanks for gcse photography coursework mark, your article! I find writing resumes extremely hard, that#8217;s why every time for me is dynamics like the first time and I find myself browsing through countless pages with tips. My friends even recommended me to essay methods use , but I#8217;m still considering this option. Do you have any tips on how to prevent yourself from being stuck?
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Essays of Schopenhauer, by Arthur Schopenhauer. Ignorance is degrading only when it is found in company with riches. Want and penury restrain the poor man; his employment takes the place of knowledge and occupies his thoughts: while rich men who are ignorant live for their pleasure only, and resemble a beast; as may be seen daily. They are to dynamics thesis, be reproached also for essay methods not having used wealth and leisure for that which lends them their greatest value. When we read, another person thinks for dynamics us: we merely repeat his mental process. It is the same as the pupil, in learning to essay methods, write, following with his pen the lines that have been pencilled by the teacher. Accordingly, in dynamics, reading, the work of thinking is, for the greater part, done for us. This is why we are consciously relieved when we turn to reading after being occupied with our own thoughts. But, in reading, our head is, however, really only the arena of some one else’s thoughts.
And so it happens that the person who reads a great deal — that is to john bresland essay, say, almost the whole day, and recreates himself by spending the intervals in thoughtless diversion, gradually loses the ability to think for himself; just as a man who is always riding at last forgets how to walk. Such, however, is the case with many men of learning: they have read themselves stupid. For to read in every spare moment, and to team dynamics thesis, read constantly, is more paralysing to the mind than constant manual work, which, at any rate, allows one to follow one’s own thoughts. Just as a spring, through the continual pressure of a foreign body, at last loses its elasticity, so does the mind if it has another person’s thoughts continually forced upon it. And just as one spoils the stomach by overfeeding and thereby impairs the whole body, so can one overload and choke the essay mind by giving it too much nourishment. Dynamics. For the more one reads the fewer are the traces left of what one has read; the mind is like a tablet that has been written over essay methods, and over. Hence it is impossible to reflect; and it is only by reflection that one can assimilate what one has read if one reads straight ahead without pondering over it later, what has been read does not take root, but is for the most part lost. Indeed, it is the same with mental as with bodily food: scarcely the fifth part of what a man takes is assimilated; the remainder passes off in evaporation, respiration, and the like. From all this it may be concluded that thoughts put down on paper are nothing more than footprints in the sand: one sees the road the man has taken, but in order to know what he saw on the way, one requires his eyes.
No literary quality can be attained by reading writers who possess it: be it, for example, persuasiveness, imagination, the gift of drawing comparisons, boldness or bitterness, brevity or grace, facility of expression or wit, unexpected contrasts, a laconic manner, naivete, and the like. Dynamics. But if we are already gifted with these qualities — that is to the mythical on software engineering, say, if we possess them potentia — we can call them forth and bring them to consciousness; we can discern to team thesis, what uses they are to why become anesthetist essay, be put; we can be strengthened in our inclination, nay, may have courage, to use them; we can judge by examples the thesis effect of their application and so learn the correct use of them; and it is only after we have accomplished all this that we actu possess these qualities. Why Become A Nurse Anesthetist Essay. This is the only way in which reading can form writing, since it teaches us the use to which we can put our own natural gifts; and in order to do this it must be taken for granted that these qualities are in us. Without them we learn nothing from reading but cold, dead mannerisms, and we become mere imitators. The health officer should, in the interest of one’s eyes, see that the smallness of print has a fixed minimum, which must not be exceeded. When I was in Venice in 1818, at which time the genuine Venetian chain was still being made, a goldsmith told me that those who made the catena fina turned blind at thirty.
As the strata of the earth preserve in rows the beings which lived in former times, so do the shelves of a library preserve in a like manner the errors of the past and dynamics thesis expositions concerning them. Like those creatures, they too were full of life in their time and made a great deal of noise; but now they are stiff and fossilised, and proposal language processing only of dynamics interest to the literary palaeontologist. According to Herodotus, Xerxes wept at the sight of his army, which was too extensive for him to on skateboarding, scan, at the thought that a hundred years hence not one of team thesis all these would be alive. On Skateboarding Discrimination. Who would not weep at thesis the thought in john essay, looking over a big catalogue that of all these books not one will be in existence in ten years’ time? It is the same in literature as in life. Wherever one goes one immediately comes upon team the incorrigible mob of essay methods humanity. It exists everywhere in legions; crowding, soiling everything, like flies in summer. Hence the numberless bad books, those rank weeds of team dynamics literature which extract nourishment from the corn and choke it. They monopolise the time, money, and essays on skateboarding discrimination attention which really belong to good books and their noble aims; they are written merely with a view to team dynamics thesis, making money or procuring places. They are not only useless, but they do positive harm.
Nine-tenths of the whole of our present literature aims solely at photography mark scheme taking a few shillings out of the public’s pocket, and to team thesis, accomplish this, author, publisher, and reviewer have joined forces. There is a more cunning and worse trick, albeit a profitable one. Litterateurs , hack-writers, and productive authors have succeeded, contrary to good taste and the true culture of the age, in bringing the world elegante into thesis natural language, leading-strings, so that they have been taught to read a tempo and all the same thing — namely, the newest books order that they may have material for conversation in their social circles. Bad novels and dynamics thesis similar productions from the pen of writers who were once famous, such as Spindler, Bulwer, Eugene Sue, and so on, serve this purpose. But what can be more miserable than the fate of bresland video a reading public of team this kind, that feels always impelled to read the thesis proposal latest writings of extremely commonplace authors who write for money only, and therefore exist in numbers? And for the sake of this they merely know by name the works of the rare and superior writers, of all ages and countries. Literary newspapers, since they print the team dynamics daily smatterings of commonplace people, are especially a cunning means for robbing from the aesthetic public the time which should be devoted to the genuine productions of art for the furtherance of culture.
Hence, in regard to our subject, the art of not reading is highly important. This consists in not taking a book into one’s hand merely because it is interesting the great public at the time — such as political or religious pamphlets, novels, poetry, and the like, which make a noise and reach perhaps several editions in their first and last years of existence. Remember rather that the man who writes for fools always finds a large public: and only read for a limited and definite time exclusively the works of great minds, those who surpass other men of all times and john bresland essay countries, and whom the team dynamics voice of fame points to as such. These alone really educate and bresland instruct. One can never read too little of bad, or too much of team dynamics good books: bad books are intellectual poison; they destroy the mind. In order to read what is essay methods, good one must make it a condition never to read what is bad; for life is team dynamics, short, and both time and strength limited. Books are written sometimes about this, sometimes about that great thinker of former times, and the public reads these books, but not the works of the man himself. Essay Methods. This is because it wants to read only what has just been printed, and because similis simili gaudet , and it finds the shallow, insipid gossip of some stupid head of team thesis to-day more homogeneous and agreeable than the thoughts of great minds. I have to thank fate, however, that a fine epigram of A.B. Schlegel, which has since been my guiding star, came before my notice as a youth: “Leset fleizig die Alten, die wahren eigentlich Alten.
Was die Neuen davon sagen bedeutet nicht viel.” Oh, how like one commonplace mind is to another! How they are all fashioned in one form! How they all think alike under similar circumstances, and never differ! This is why their views are so personal and petty. And a stupid public reads the worthless trash written by these fellows for no other reason than that it has been printed to-day, while it leaves the works of great thinkers undisturbed on the bookshelves. Incredible are the folly and perversity of a public that will leave unread writings of the noblest and why become anesthetist rarest of minds, of all times and all countries, for the sake of reading the writings of team dynamics commonplace persons which appear daily, and breed every year in john, countless numbers like flies; merely because these writings have been printed to-day and are still wet from the press.
It would be better if they were thrown on one side and rejected the day they appeared, as they must be after the lapse of a few years. They will then afford material for laughter as illustrating the team thesis follies of a former time. It is because people will only coursework scheme read what is the newest instead of what is the best of all ages, that writers remain in the narrow circle of prevailing ideas, and dynamics thesis that the age sinks deeper and deeper in its own mire. There are at all times two literatures which, although scarcely known to each other, progress side by side — the one real, the essays on skateboarding discrimination other merely apparent. The former grows into thesis, literature that lasts . Pursued by people who live for john bresland essay science or poetry, it goes its way earnestly and quietly, but extremely slowly; and it produces in Europe scarcely a dozen works in a century, which, however, are permanent . The other literature is pursued by team people who live on science or poetry; it goes at a gallop amid a great noise and shouting of those taking part, and brings yearly many thousand works into the market. But after a few years one asks, Where are they? where is the mythical man month essays on software, their fame, which was so great formerly? This class of dynamics literature may be distinguished as fleeting, the man month on software other as permanent. It would be a good thing to buy books if one could also buy the team time to read them; but one usually confuses the gcse photography coursework mark scheme purchase of books with the acquisition of thesis their contents. To desire that a man should retain everything he has ever read, is the same as wishing him to essay methods, retain in team dynamics thesis, his stomach all that he has ever eaten. The Mythical Man Month On Software Engineering. He has been bodily nourished on what he has eaten, and mentally on what he has read, and through them become what he is. As the body assimilates what is team thesis, homogeneous to it, so will a man retain what interests him; in other words, what coincides with his system of thought or suits his ends.
Every one has aims, but very few have anything approaching a system of thought. This is why such people do not take an objective interest in anything, and why they learn nothing from what they read: they remember nothing about john bresland it. Repetitio est mater studiorum . Any kind of important book should immediately be read twice, partly because one grasps the matter in its entirety the second time, and only really understands the beginning when the end is known; and partly because in reading it the team thesis second time one’s temper and mood are different, so that one gets another impression; it may be that one sees the matter in another light. Works are the quintessence of a mind, and are therefore always of by john bresland essay far greater value than conversation, even if it be the conversation of the greatest mind. In every essential a man’s works surpass his conversation and leave it far behind. Even the writings of an ordinary man may be instructive, worth reading, and entertaining, for the simple reason that they are the quintessence of that man’s mind — that is to say, the writings are the team dynamics thesis result and fruit of his whole thought and study; while we should be dissatisfied with his conversation. Accordingly, it is possible to read books written by people whose conversation would give us no satisfaction; so that the mind will only by degrees attain high culture by finding entertainment almost entirely in books, and not in men. There is nothing that so greatly recreates the mind as the works of the old classic writers.
Directly one has been taken up, even if it is gcse photography coursework mark scheme, only for half-an-hour, one feels as quickly refreshed, relieved, purified, elevated, and strengthened as if one had refreshed oneself at dynamics thesis a mountain stream. Is this due to the perfections of the old languages, or to the greatness of the minds whose works have remained unharmed and untouched for centuries? Perhaps to both combined. On Skateboarding Discrimination. This I know, directly we stop learning the old languages (as is at thesis present threatening) a new class of literature will spring up, consisting of writing that is more barbaric, stupid, and worthless than has ever yet existed; that, in the mythical man month essays, particular, the German language, which possesses some of the beauties of the old languages, will be systematically spoilt and stripped by team these worthless contemporary scribblers, until, little by little, it becomes impoverished, crippled, and reduced to a miserable jargon. Half a century is always a considerable time in the history of the universe, for the matter which forms it is always shifting; something is always taking place. Thesis Language. But the same length of time in literature often goes for nothing, because nothing has happened; unskilful attempts don’t count; so that we are exactly where we were fifty years previously. To illustrate this: imagine the progress of knowledge among mankind in the form of a planet’s course. The false paths the team dynamics thesis human race soon follows after any important progress has been made represent the epicycles in the Ptolemaic system; after passing through any one of them the planet is just where it was before it entered it. Thesis Natural Language Processing. The great minds, however, which really bring the team dynamics race further on its course, do not accompany it on the epicycles which it makes every time. This explains why posthumous fame is got at john essay the expense of contemporary fame, and vice versa . We have an instance of such an epicycle in team, the philosophy of Fichte and Schelling, crowned by Hegel’s caricature of bresland video essay it.
This epicycle issued from the limit to which philosophy had been finally brought by Kant, where I myself took it up again later to carry it further. In the dynamics interim the false philosophers I have mentioned, and some others, passed through their epicycle, which has just been terminated; hence the people who accompanied them are conscious of being exactly at the point from discrimination, which they started. This condition of things shows why the scientific, literary, and artistic spirit of the thesis age is declared bankrupt about every thirty years. Proposal Language. During that period the errors have increased to such an extent that they fall under the weight of their absurdity; while at the same time the opposition to them has become stronger. At this point there is a crash, which is team thesis, followed by natural language processing an error in the opposite direction.
To show the course that is taken in its periodical return would be the true practical subject of the history of literature; little notice is taken of it, however. Team Dynamics. Moreover, through the comparative shortness of such periods, the data of remote times are with difficulty collected; hence the matter can be most conveniently observed in one’s own age. An example of this taken from physical science is found in essay methods, Werter’s Neptunian geology. But let me keep to the example already quoted above, for it is nearest to team, us. In German philosophy Kant’s brilliant period was immediately followed by discrimination another period, which aimed at dynamics thesis being imposing rather than convincing.
Instead of being solid and clear, it aimed at being brilliant and hyperbolical, and, in particular, unintelligible; instead of seeking truth, it intrigued. Under these circumstances philosophy could make no progress. Ultimately the whole school and its method became bankrupt. For the audacious, sophisticated nonsense on the one hand, and the unconscionable praise on the other of Hegel and his fellows, as well as the apparent object of the whole affair, rose to engineering, such a pitch that in the end the charlatanry of the thing was obvious to dynamics thesis, everybody; and discrimination when, in consequence of certain revelations, the protection that had been given it by the upper classes was withdrawn, it was talked about by everybody. This most miserable of all the thesis philosophies that have ever existed dragged down with it into the abyss of discredit the systems of Fichte and Schelling, which had preceded it. So that the absolute philosophical futility of the first half of the century following upon Kant in Germany is obvious; and yet the language Germans boast of their gift for philosophy compared with foreigners, especially since an English writer, with malicious irony, called them a nation of dynamics thinkers . Those who want an video essay, example of the general scheme of epicycles taken from the history of art need only look at the School of Sculpture which flourished in the last century under Bernini, and especially at its further cultivation in France. This school represented commonplace nature instead of antique beauty, and the manners of a French minuet instead of antique simplicity and team dynamics thesis grace. It became bankrupt when, under Winckelmann’s direction, a return was made to the antique school. Another example is supplied in the painting belonging to the first quarter of this century. Art was regarded merely as a means and video essay instrument of mediaeval religious feeling, and consequently ecclesiastical subjects alone were chosen for team thesis its themes.
These, however, were treated by painters who were wanting in earnestness of faith, and in their delusion they took for examples Francesco Francia, Pietro Perugino, Angelico da Fiesole, and others like them, even holding them in greater esteem than the truly great masters who followed. In view of this error, and because in poetry an analogous effort had at the same time met with favour, Goethe wrote his parable Pfaffenspiel . This school, reputedly capricious, became bankrupt, and was followed by a return to nature, which made itself known in essay methods, genre pictures and scenes of life of every description, even though it strayed sometimes into vulgarity. It is the same with the progress of the human mind in thesis, the history of literature , which is for the most part like the catalogue of a cabinet of deformities; the spirit in which they keep the longest is gcse photography, pigskin. We do not need to look there for the few who have been born shapely; they are still alive, and we come across them in every part of the world, like immortals whose youth is ever fresh. Team Thesis. They alone form what I have distinguished as real literature, the history of which, although poor in persons, we learn from our youth up out of the mouths of educated people, and not first of all from compilations. Essay Methods. As a specific against the present prevailing monomania for reading literary histories, so that one may be able to chatter about everything without really knowing anything, let me refer you to team dynamics, a passage from Lichtenberg which is well worth reading (vol. ii. Processing. p. 302 of the team thesis old edition).
But I wish some one would attempt a tragical history of literature , showing how the greatest writers and artists have been treated during their lives by gcse photography mark the various nations which have produced them and team dynamics whose proudest possessions they are. It would show us the endless fight which the good and genuine works of all periods and countries have had to why become a nurse, carry on against the perverse and bad. It would depict the team dynamics martyrdom of almost all those who truly enlightened humanity, of almost all the great masters in every kind of art; it would show us how they, with few exceptions, were tormented without recognition, without any to man month essays, share their misery, without followers; how they existed in dynamics, poverty and misery whilst fame, honour, and riches fell to the lot of the worthless; it would reveal that what happened to them happened to Esau, who, while hunting the deer for john bresland video essay his father, was robbed of the blessing by Jacob disguised in team dynamics, his brother’s coat; and how through it all the love of their subject kept them up, until at last the trying fight of such a teacher of the human race is ended, the immortal laurel offered to him, and the time come when it can be said of him.