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Causes of world war 1 dbq essay

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Hugh Lane Essay Plan for Gallery Question. On 16 January this year I visited the dbq essay, Dublin City Gallery Hugh Lane. The neoclassical building was designed by William Chambers and James Caulfield. The Cork born art dealer in 1908 opened the gallery to store both contemporary and modern art pieces. There has been a special wing added since then to injury case study, accommodate the gallery work, resources and restaurant. The layout of the causes, actual gallery is quite simple. The main exhibitions run through 4 wide long rooms. Pope Part? These are permanent collections themed together by era. Causes Dbq Essay? There are also small rooms off the main exhibits containing themed pieces. It is all mainly based on the ground floor and is wheelchair accessible. The layout sees large seated areas facing the main pieces in the big rooms with a few paintings spaced out at eye level on the walls behind.

The presentation of the Monet piece is exceptional. Placed on a cream wall with a gold frame it stands out and there are seats facing it as it’s housed alongside other impressionists pieces in a large room. With free entry to list for essay, the gallery and good lighting, the painting is well presented. There is also an information outlet to its lower left hand side, containing details about the war 1 dbq essay, painting to inform viewers. The Harry Clarke piece is also laid out psychosynthesis well in causes war 1 dbq essay its own separate room off the side entrance. It is in a blacked out room with contemporary glass stained pieces. There is a light behind the young, glass pieces so the causes war 1 dbq essay, full effect of the colours can be seen. It is housed in a much smaller room which makes the experience more enjoyable and personable. I would have liked to have a curtained door however to further blacken the room. The names of the exhibition were the Harry Clarke EVE of St.

Agnes and essay college, Claude Monet Waterloo bridge. Both are housed in the permanent collection at war 1, the Hugh Lane and paid guided tours of them are available. The first piece I will discuss is the Harry Clarke Eve of Agnes. It is a stained glass window so it is paint on glass in a variety of wide range of colours. It is also essential to have light shine from the back and be housed in a blacked out room. The subject matter is inspired by a poem by Yeats. The 14 panelled glass piece holds the 47 verses compacted into part 1, 14 panels which tell and significant part of the beautiful story line. The story is of the tradition of the Eve of St.

Agnes 20 th January where fair maidens are told to of world dbq essay, fast and wait for their lover to appear and rescue them during the night. Madelin in this story is follow this procedure when asleep her lover Porpheryo appears and whisks her away. Banned by on criticism Madelines father to enter the castle Madeline thought she was dreaming but infact she wasn’t and her lover captured her away and brought her free safe from the castle. Along with each panel elongated figures are accompanied by causes war 1 a quote form a verse of the poem in which it depicts. Acute Cord Injury Case Study? I thoroughly enjoyed visiting this piece.

Seeing it in person gave me an experience seeing in the text back didn’t. Causes War 1? The main colour purple and blue shone through the glass beautifully. The story was really loved also and I think it’s a wonderful subject matter. The tiny detail Harry Clarke managed to include was phenomenal. My favourite part was panel 7. We see in this panel a miniature portrayal of a stained glass window. The moon shines through this onto the bed of the sleeping Madeline like jewels on her bed cover. The wardrobe in her bedroom is in write a college admission 5 page fact based on a real one. Causes? The detail Clarke manages to get in is something that you couldn’t see on admission essay, the television or on a computer screen. The way the room was laid out was perfect to draw our attention to the symmetrical windows of of world war 1 dbq essay, hair in the darkened room. Seats in the room would have been preferable.

Overall it was an admission essay college, enjoyable experience. The second piece we went to view was the Waterloo Bridge by Claude Monet. Having studied other works by Monet I was very excited to see an original in person and get a real vision of thick impasto and the scale and causes war 1, texture of the drawing which cannot be seen in a text book or on homework grids, a projector screen. The material used by Monet in of world this painting in brown psychosynthesis his series (41) was oil paint on canvas. It is hung in a decorated gold frame. The subject matter is of the busy Waterloo Bridge filled with both pedestrians and automated vehicle traffic.

This is indicated by the foggy nature of the bridge. The horizontal bridge is causes of world contrasted by the vertical built up areas of the background. Techniques used are those typical to Monet like impasto general brushstrokes, it is painted en plein air capturing the busy fleeting moment and the hazy feel is gotten by the wet paint placed on molly young brown psychosynthesis, wet paint. I again loved going to see this piece as I felt I understand the whole of Monet’s paintings better than I did before. It was placed in a room alongside other contemporaries of his which I thought was an excellent idea to causes of world dbq essay, have a brightly lit, easily accessible room in which I was able to contrast and admission for community college, view other impressionists work. I got a great sense of the dbq essay, texture and scale of the painting also. There were seats available in an essay part the room so it made sitting and viewing the of world, painting comfortable and enjoyable. You need to login or register to bookmark/favorite this content. Van Gough (Self Portrait) Essay Plan Art History.

Macbeth Appearance Vs. Reality Essay Plan. Discuss ideas ask questions to your online community of teachers students. Post your revision notes, write for the blog get involved in the community. StudyNotes.ie is a free e-learning community where educational content can be shared discussed with other teachers and students across the country. We would love to hear your feedback, comments, ideas or anything else you'd like to say. Are you a teacher?

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MICROSOFT'S C# PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE. The C# language is an object-oriented language that is aimed at enabling programmers to causes of world war 1 dbq essay quickly build a wide range of applications for the Microsoft .NET platform. The goal of C# and the .NET platform is to shorten development time by freeing the developer from worrying about several low level plumbing issues such as memory management, type safety issues, building low level libraries, array boundschecking , etc. thus allowing developers to actually spend their time and essay for community college energy working on their application and business logic instead. As a Java developer the previous sentence could be described as a short description of the Java language and platform if the words C# and the .NET platform were replaced with words Java and the Java platform. What follows is an causes of world war 1, overview of similarities and an essay on criticism part differences between the language features and libraries of the causes of world war 1, C# and brown psychosynthesis Java programming languages based on my experience using both languages. All code snippets below were tested on Microsoft's .NET Framework version 2.0 for C# snippets and Java#8482; Platform, Standard Edition version 6 for the Java snippets. Just like Java, C# has a single rooted class hierarchy where all classes in C# are subclasses of System.Object the same way all Java classes are subclasses of java.lang.Object . The methods of the two languages' Object classes share some similarities (e.g.

System.Object's ToString() to java.lang.Object's toString()) and differences ( System.Object does not have analogs to wait(), notify() or notifyAll() in java.lang.Object ). War 1 Dbq Essay! There are a large number of syntactic similarities between Java and C#, similarly almost every Java keyword has a C# equivalent except for reference for essay, a few like transient, throws and strictfp. Below is a table of Java and C# keywords with the Java keywords in red while the equivalent C# keywords are in blue. NOTE: Although goto and const are Java language keywords they are unused in the Java language. Causes War 1! NOTE: The [NonSerialized] attribute in an essay on criticism part C# is equivalent to the transient keyword in Java. Just like Java is typically compiled to Java byte code which then runs in managed execution environment (the Java Virtual Machine or JVM) so also is C# code compiled to an Intermediate Language (IL) which then runs in the Common Language Runtime (CLR). Both platforms support native compilation via Just In Time compilers. Causes Of World War 1! In Java objects are created on list, the heap using the new keyword.

Most classes in C# are created on the heap by using the war 1 dbq essay, new keyword. Also just as the JVM manages the destruction of objects so also does the CLR via a Mark and Compact garbage collection algorithm. In languages like C and C++, each subarray of a multidimensional array must have the same dimensions. In Java and C# arrays do not have to be uniform because jagged arrays can be created as one-dimensional arrays of arrays. In a jagged array the how to write a college essay 5 page, contents of the of world war 1 dbq essay, array are arrays which may hold instances of a type or references to other arrays.

For this reason the rows and columns in a jagged array need not have uniform length as can be seen from the following code snippet: The above code snippet is valid for both C# and acute spinal cord injury Java. Just like Java and unlike C++, methods in C# have to be part of a class either as member or static methods. Causes War 1 Dbq Essay! C#, like Java, supports the concept of an homework grids, interface which is akin to a pure abstract class. Similarly C# and dbq essay Java both allow only single inheritance of classes but multiple inheritance (or implementation) of interfaces. C# has a System.String class which is analogous to molly brown psychosynthesis the java.lang.String class. Of World Dbq Essay! Both classes are immutable meaning that the values of the strings cannot be changed once the homework grids, strings have been created. In both instances methods that appear to modify the actual content of a string actually create a new string to return, leaving the original string unchanged. Thus the following C# and Java code does not modify the string in either case. To create a string-like object that allows modification in C# it is advisable to use the System.Text.StringBuilder class whereas in Java one would use the java.lang.StringBuffer class. Both Java and C# provide mechanisms to specify that a class should be the causes, last one in an inheritance hierarchy and list cannot be used as a base class.

In Java this is war 1 done by preceding the class declaration with the final keyword while in C# this is acute cord case done by preceding the class declaration with the sealed keyword. Below are examples of classes that cannot be extended in either language. NOTE: Although exceptions in both languages support methods for getting a stack trace, only causes dbq essay, Java exceptions have methods that allow one to acute spinal case alter the of world war 1, stack trace. Instance and static variables can be initialized at their point of homework grids, definition in both C# and Java. If the member variable is an instance variable, then initialization occurs just before the constructor is called. Static members are initialized sometime before the first usage of the member and before the first creation of an instance of the class. It is also possible to specify a block of code that should run before the class is used either via creation of an instance variable or invocation of a static method. These code blocks are called are called static constructors in C# and static initialization blocks in causes of world dbq essay Java. Static constructors are invoked before the first invocation of a static method in homework grids the class and before the dbq essay, first time an instance of the class is created. In situations where value types need to be treated as objects, the .NET and Java runtimes automatically converts value types to objects by wrapping them within a heap-allocated reference type in a process called boxing . The process of how to write essay 5 page, automatically convert an object to its corresponding value type such as converting an instance of java.lang.Integer to causes dbq essay an int is known as unboxing . Homework Grids! Below are examples of various situations where boxing occurs in both runtimes. It is of world typically recommended that one creates a main method for each class in an application to test the functionality of that class besides whatever main method actually drives the application.

For instance it is part possible to have two classes, A and B, which both contain main methods. Dbq Essay! In Java, since a class is the unit of compilation then all one has to do is invoke the specific class one wants run via the for essay, command line to run its main method. In C# one can get the same effect by compiling the application with the /main switch to specify which main should be used as the starting point of the application when the executable is created. Using test mains in causes dbq essay combination with conditional compilation via preprocessor directives is list for essay a powerful testing technique. So in of world Java's favor, one doesn't have to recompile to change which main is a college admission used by the application while a recompile is causes needed in admission essay 5 page a C# application. However, On the other hand, Java doesn't support conditional compilation, so the main method will be part of even your released classes.

C# uses C++ syntax for war 1 dbq essay, inheritance, both for class inheritance and interface implementation as opposed to the extends and implements keywords. Since C# is aimed at transitioning C++ developers the above syntax is understandable although Java developers may pine for the Java syntax especially since it is clear from looking at the class declaration in pope an essay on criticism 1 the Java version whether the class is causes war 1 dbq essay subclassing a class or simply implementing an interface while it isn't in the C# version without intimate knowledge of all the classes involved. Although it should be noted that in molly young brown .NET naming conventions, interface names have an upper-case I prepended to their names (as in IClonable), so this isn't an issue for programs that conform to dbq essay standard naming conventions. A C# namespace is a way to group a collection of classes and spinal cord case is used in a manner similar to Java's package construct. Users of C++ will notice the similarities between the C# namespace syntax and that in C++.

In Java, the package names dictate the causes, directory structure of source files in an application whereas in on criticism part C# namespaces do not dictate the physical layout of source files in directories only their logical structure. Examples below: C# namespace syntax also allows one to nest namespaces in of world war 1 the following way. The syntax and semantics for constructors in C# is identical to that in Java. Admission Essay For Community College! C# also has the concept of destructors which use syntax similar to dbq essay C++ destructor syntax but have the mostly the same semantics as Java finalizers. Although finalizers exist doing work within them is not encouraged for a number of reasons including the fact that there is no way to how to write a college control the order of finalization which can lead to interesting problems if objects that hold references to each other are finalized out of order. War 1 Dbq Essay! Finalization also causes more overhead because objects with finalizers aren't removed after the garbage collection thread runs but instead are eliminated after the finalization thread runs which means they have to be maintained in the system longer than objects without finalizers.

Below are equivalent examples in C# and Java. NOTE: In C#, destructors(finalizers) automatically call the base class finalizer after executing which is not the case in Java. Both C# and how to write essay 5 page Java support the concept of synchronized methods. Whenever a synchronized method is called, the war 1 dbq essay, thread that called the method locks the pope 1, object that contains the method. Thus other threads cannot call a synchronized method on the same object until the object is unlocked by the first thread when it finishes executing the synchronized method.

Synchronized methods are marked in Java by using the synchronized keyword while in C# it is done by annotating the method with the [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.Synchronized)] attribute. Examples of dbq essay, synchronized methods are shown below. Pope 1! Below is a table mapping C# access modifiers to of world Java's. C++ fans who were disappointed when Sun changed the semantics of the protected keyword in Java 2 will be happy to note that the C# protected keyword has the homework grids, same semantics as the causes war 1 dbq essay, C++ version. This means that a protected member can only be accessed by member methods in that class or member methods in derived classes but is inaccessible to any other classes. For Essay! The internal modifier means that the member can be accessed from other classes in the same assembly as the class. The internal protected modifier means that a member can be accessed from classes that are in dbq essay the same assembly or from derived classes. NOTE: The default accessibility of homework grids, a C# field or method when no access modifier is specified is private while in Java it is protected (except that derived classes from outside the package cannot inherit the field). One might notice from the above code samples that there is slightly more granularity in the C# Reflection API than the Java Reflection API as can be seen by the fact that C# has a ParameterInfo class which contains metadata about the parameters of a Method while Java uses Class objects for that which lose some information such as the name of the parameter.

Sometimes there is a need to obtain the metadata of a specific class encapsulated as an object. This object is the java.lang.Class object in Java and the System.Type object in of world war 1 dbq essay C#. To retrieve this metadata class from an admission for community, instance of the target class, the getClass() method is causes of world war 1 used in admission for community college Java while the GetType() method is used in C#. If the name of the class is known at compile time then one can avoid creating an instance of the causes of world war 1 dbq essay, class just to obtain the metadata class by doing the following. To declare constants in Java the final keyword is used. Final variables can be set either at compile time or run time. In Java, when the final is reference list for essay used on a primitive it makes the value of the causes of world dbq essay, primitive immutable while when used on object references it makes the reference constant meaning that the reference can only point to only one object during its lifetime. Final members can be left uninitialized when declared but then must be defined in essay for community the constructor. Causes! To declare constants in C# the const keyword is used for compile time constants while the how to admission 5 page, readonly keyword is of world used for runtime constants. The semantics of constant primitives and object references in C# is the same as in Java. Unlike C++, it is not possible to specify an immutable class via language constructs in either C# or Java.

Neither is it possible to create a reference through which it's impossible to modify a mutable object. NOTE: The Java language also supports having final parameters to a method. This functionality is non-existent in C#. C# and Java automatically call base class constructors, and both provide a way to call the constructor of the base class with specific parameters. Similarly both languages enforce that the call to the base class constructor occurs before any initializations in the derived constructor which prevents the derived constructor from using members that are yet to list for essay be initialized. The C# syntax for calling the base class constructor is reminiscent of the causes of world, C++ initializer list syntax. Both languages also provide a way to call a constructor from another which allows one to reduce the amount of young, code duplication that can occur in constructors. This practice is typically called constructor chaining.

In C and C++ it is possible to specify that a function takes a variable number of arguments. This functionality is used extensively in the printf and of world war 1 dbq essay scanf family of how to write a college, functions. Both C# and Java allow one to causes of world define a parameter that indicates that a variable number of arguments are accepted by a method. Molly Brown! In C#, the dbq essay, mechanism for specifying that a method accepts a variable number of admission, arguments is by using the params keyword as a qualifier to the last argument to war 1 dbq essay the method which should be an array. In Java, the same effect is achieved by appending the string . to the typename of the last argument to the method. Both C# and Java provide a mechanism for creating strongly typed data structures without knowing the homework grids, specific types at causes compile time. Prior to the existence of the Generics feature set, this capability was achieved by specifying the type of the objects within the data structure as Object then casting to specific types at runtime.

This technique had several drawbacks including lack of type safety, poor performance and code bloat. The following code sample shows how one would calculate the sum of all the integers in a collection using generics and using a collection of Objects so that both approaches can be compared. Although similar in concept to templates in C++, the Generics feature in C# and Java is not implemented similarly. In Java, the admission, generic functionality is of world dbq essay implemented using type erasure . Specifically the generic type information is present only at compile time, after which it is erased by the compiler and all the type declarations are replaced with Object . The compiler then automatically inserts casts in the right places. The reason for this approach is that it provides total interoperability between generic code and 1 legacy code that doesn't support generics. The main problem with type erasure is that the war 1 dbq essay, generic type information is not available at run time via reflection or run time type identification. Another consequence of this approach is that generic data structures types must always be declared using objects and not primitive types. Thus one must create StackInteger instead of homework grids, Stackint when working integers.

In C#, there is explicit support for generics in the .NET runtime's instruction language (IL). When the of world, generic type is compiled, the generated IL contains place holders for admission essay, specific types. At runtime, when an initial reference is made to a generic type (e.g. Of World War 1 Dbq Essay! Listint ) the system looks to see if anyone already asked for homework grids, the type or not. If the type has been previously requested, then the previously generated specific type is returned. Causes War 1 Dbq Essay! If not, the JIT compiler instantiates a new type by replacing the list for essay, generic type parameters in the IL with the specific type (e.g. replacing ListT with Listint ). It should be noted that if the requested type is a reference type as opposed to a value type then the generic type parameter is replaced with Object . Causes Of World War 1 Dbq Essay! However there is reference list for essay no casting done internally by the .NET runtime when accessing the type. In certain cases, one may need create a method that can operate on data structures containing any type as opposed to those that contain a specific type (e.g. Causes Dbq Essay! a method to print all the objects in a data structure) while still taking advantage of the homework grids, benefits of strong typing in generics. Causes Of World War 1 Dbq Essay! The mechanism for specifying this in admission C# is via a feature called generic type inferencing while in Java this is done using wildcard types . The following code samples show how both approaches lead to the same result. Both C# and Java provide mechanisms for specifying constraints on of world dbq essay, generic types. In C# there are three types of constraints that can be applied to generic types A derivation constraint indicates to list for essay the compiler that the generic type parameter derives from dbq essay, a base type such an interface or a particular base class A default constructor constraint indicates to the compiler that the generic type parameter exposes a public default constructor A reference/value type constraint constrains the generic type parameter to be a reference or a value type.

In Java, only the derivation constraint is supported. The following code sample shows how constraints are used in admission essay practice. C# also includes the default operator which returns the causes of world war 1 dbq essay, default value for a type. The default value for reference types is null , and the default value for write, value types (such as integers, enum, and structures) is a zero whitewash (filling the structure with zeros). This operator is very useful when combined with generics. The following code sample excercises the functionality of this operator. The for-each loop is an iteration construct that is popular in a number of causes of world, scripting languages (e.g. Perl, PHP, Tcl/Tk), build tools (GNU Make) and function libraries (e.g. for_each in algorithm in C++).

The for-each loop is a less verbose way to iterate through arrays or classes that implement the the System.Collections.IEnumerable interface in C# or the java.lang.Iterable interface in Java. In C#, the keywords foreach and in are used when creating the admission essay for community, for-each loop while in Java the keyword for and the causes of world dbq essay, operator : are used. Metadata annotations provide a powerful way to extend the capabilities of a programming language and the language runtime. These annotations can be directives that request the runtime to an essay on criticism part perform certain additional tasks, provide extra information about an item or extend the abilities of a type. Metadata annotations are common in a number of programming environments including Microsoft's COM and the Linux kernel. C# attributes provide a way to add annotations (i.e. metadata) to a module, type, method, parameter or member variable. Below are descriptions of a few attributes that are intrinsic to .NET and of world war 1 dbq essay how they are used to list for essay extend the capabilities of the war 1 dbq essay, C#. [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.Synchronized)] : is used to specify that a access to for essay a method by multiple threads is of world war 1 protected by a lock to prevent concurrent access to pope an essay on criticism part 1 the method and is similar to the synchronized in Java. It is possible to access the attributes of a module, class, method or field via reflection. This is particularly useful for seeing if a class supports certain behavior at runtime or for extracting metadata about a class for usage by others.

Developers can create their own custom attributes by subclassing the System.Attribute class. What follows is an example of using an of world war 1, attribute to how to write admission essay 5 page provide information about the author of a class then using reflection to access that information. Java annotations provide a way to add annotations (i.e. metadata) to an package, type, method, parameter, member or local variable. There are only three built-in annotations provided in causes of world dbq essay the Java language which are listed below. @Override : is used to specify that a method is intended to override a method in a base class. Acute Spinal Study! If the of world war 1, annotated method does not override a method in the base class then an error is issued during compilation. As in C# it is possible to homework grids access the annotations on of world, a module, class, method or field via reflection. Reference For Essay! However a key difference between C# attributes and Java annotations is that one can create meta-annotations (i.e. Of World Dbq Essay! annotations on annotations) in Java but can not do the same in C#. Developers can create their own custom annotations by creating an annotation type which is similar to college an interface except that the keyword @interface is used to define it.

What follows is an example of using an causes war 1, attribute to provide information about the author of a class then using reflection to access that information. Enums are used to pope an essay part 1 create and group together a list of user defined named constants. Although on the surface the enumerated types in C# and Java seem quite similar there are some significant differences in the implementation of enumerated types in causes of world both languages. In Java, enumerated types are a full fledged class which means they are typesafe and can be extended by adding methods, fields or even implementing interfaces. Whereas in C#, an spinal cord injury, enumerated type is simply syntactic sugar around an integral type (typically an war 1, int ) meaning they cannot be extended and are not typesafe. The following code sample highlights the differences between enums in both languages. In Java and C# it is possible to spinal cord case study nest class declarations within each other. In Java there are two kinds of of world war 1, nested classes; non-static nested classes also known as inner classes and static nested classes. A Java inner class can be considered as a one-to-one relationship between the inner class and reference list its enclosing class where for each instance of the enclosing class there exists a corresponding instance of the inner class that has access to the enclosing class's instance variables and contains no static methods. On the other hand a Java static nested class is a similar to nesting a class decaration within another where the nested class has access to the static members and methods of the enclosing class. C# has the equivalent of Java's static nested classes but has nothing analogous to Java's inner classes.

The following nested class declarations below are equivalent. NOTE: In Java a nested class can be declared in any block of code including methods, this is of world war 1 dbq essay not the case in C#. The ability to create nested classes in methods in Java may seem unnecessary but combined with anonymous inner classes can provide a means of creating powerful design patterns. Reference List! A thread is a sequential flow of control within a program. A program or process can have multiple threads running concurrently all of which may share data or run independently while performing tasks. Threads are powerful in that they allow a developer to perform multiple tasks at once in a single program or process. Advantages of threads include exploiting parallelism in multiprocessor architectures, reducing execution time by being able to perform tasks while waiting on a blocking system calls (such as printing or other I/O), and avoiding freezing in GUI applications. Java threads are created by subclassing the java.lang.Thread class and overriding its run() method or by implementing the java.lang.Runnable interface and implementing the run() method.

Whereas in C#, one creates a thread by creating a new System.Threading.Thread object and passing it a System.Threading.ThreadStart delegate which is initialized with the method that is to of world be run as a thread. Acute Spinal Case! Thus, in causes Java a method that shall run in a multithreaded context is designed up front specifically with that in mind. On the spinal case, other hand, in C# any method can be passed to causes war 1 dbq essay a ThreadStart object and run in a multithreaded scenario. In Java, every class inherits the wait(), notify() and notifyAll() from java.lang.Object which are used for thread operations. The equivalent methods in list C# are the Wait(), Pulse() and PulseAll() methods in the System.Threading.Monitor class. The example below shows a scenario where worker threads are dispatched in a specific order and must be processed in the same order upon return. Due to causes of world war 1 dbq essay the non-deterministic nature of spinal case study, threads, on some runs the causes of world war 1 dbq essay, threads finish working in the order they were dispatched in how to write a college essay and in other runs they appear out of order and thus each thread must wait until its turn comes up. Of World Dbq Essay! In many situations one cannot guarantee that the order of execution of a program will be the same as that in the source code. Reasons for the unexpected ordering of acute, program execution include compiler optimizations that reorder statements or mulitiprocessor systems that fail to causes store variables in global memory amongst others. To work around this, both C# and Java have the concept of the volatile keyword which is used to injury study tell the causes of world, language runtime that reordering instructions related to accessing such fields is prohibited.

There are major differences in the semantics of volatile in how to a college Java and of world war 1 dbq essay C# which are illustrated in the example below taken from The Double-Checked Locking is young Broken Declaration. Although the above code snippets seem identical save for the substitution of the synchronized keyword with the lock keyword, the Java version is not guaranteed to work on all JVMs. Currently the Java Memory Model does not prevent reordering of causes of world war 1, writes to volatile variables with writes to other variables so it is homework grids possible that the new object is dbq essay constructed before the helper reference is made to point at the newly created object meaning that two objects are created. Also it is possible that the helper reference is made to acute spinal cord injury case point at a block of memory while the object is still being created meaning that a reference to an incomplete object will be returned. In C#, the dbq essay, semantics of acute case study, volatile prevent such problems from occurring because reads and writes cannot be moved backward or forward across a volatile write. Causes Of World! Also in C#, being marked as volatile also prevents the Just In Time compiler from placing the variable in a register and also ensures that the variable is stored in global memory on multiprocessor systems.

For more information on the problems with the Java Memory Model and Double-Checked Locking, see the Double-checked locking: Clever, but broken article on Javaworld. Operator overloading allows standard operators in a language to be given new semantics when applied in the context of a particular class or type. Operator overloading can be used to simplify the syntax of certain operations especially when they are performed very often, such as string concatenation in Java or interactions with iterators and collections in the C++ Standard Template Library. Operator overloading is a point of contention for reference, many developers due to the fact that it provides a lot of flexibility and power which makes it prone to abuse. There is a tendency for developers to use it poorly by causes war 1 doings like overloading operators in an unintuitive manner (e.g. overloading ++ and -- to connect and disconnect from the network) , overloading operators in a manner inconsistent with their typical use (e.g. overloading [ ] to return a copy of an object at a particular index in a collection instead of a reference to the actual object) or overloading some operators and not others (e.g. overloading but not ). Overloading operators tends to be most useful when the class lends itself intuitively to using that operator. Examples of pope on criticism, situations that intuitively suggest that operator overloading would be beneficial are overloading [ ] for use with collections, overloading + and * for use with matrices, overloading mathematical operators for use with complex numbers, and overloading the == and != operators for classes that have some means to measure equality. War 1 Dbq Essay! Below is an example that shows how operator overloading works in C#. Admission! NOTE: Unlike C++, C# does not allow the overloading of the following operators; new , ( ) , || , , = , or any variations of compound assignments such as += , -= , etc.

However, compound assignment operators will call overloaded operators, for instance, += would call overloaded +. Of World War 1 Dbq Essay! C# assemblies share a lot in common with Java JAR files. An assembly is the fundamental unit of code packaging in the .NET environment. Assemblies are self contained and typically contain the intermediate code from pope an essay 1, compiling classes, metadata about the classes, and any other files needed by causes of world war 1 dbq essay the packaged code to perform its task. Since assemblies are the fundamental unit of code packaging, several actions related to interacting with types must be done at the assembly level. Spinal Study! For instance, granting of security permissions, code deployment, and versioning are done at the assembly level. Causes Of World War 1! Java JAR files perform a similar task in Java with most differences being in the implementation. Assemblies are usually stored as EXEs or DLLs while JAR files are stored in the ZIP file format. Brown Psychosynthesis! A number of popular programming languages contain a collections framework which typically consists of a number of data structures for holding multiple objects as well as algorithms for manipulating the objects within the aforementioned data structures. The primary advantage of a collections framework is that it frees developers from having to write data structures and sort algorithms every time one is causes of world war 1 dbq essay needed and instead frees them up to work on the actual application logic. A secondary benefit is that collections frameworks lead to consistency across projects which means the learning curve for college, new developers using applications that use a collections framework is less steep when compared to a situation where one was not used. The C# collections framework consists of the classes in the System.Collections and war 1 dbq essay the System.Collections.Generic namespaces . The Systems.Collections namespace contains interfaces and abstract classes that represent abstract data types such as IList, IEnumerable, IDictionary, ICollection, and CollectionBase which enable developers to manipulate data structures independently of admission essay 5 page, how they are actually implemented as long as the data structures inherit from the abstract data types.

The System.Collections namespace also contains some concrete implementations of data structures such as ArrayList, Stack, Queue, HashTable and SortedList. All four of the concrete data structure implementations enable one to obtain synchronized wrappers to the collection which allows for access in dbq essay a thread-safe manner. The System.Collections.Generic namespace has generic implementations of the spinal cord injury case, key data structures in the System.Collections namespace including generic ListT, StackT,QueueT, DictionaryK,T and SortedDictionaryK,T classes . The Java collections framework consists of a large number of the classes and interfaces in the java.util package. Instead of having a separate namespace for generic collections, the causes of world dbq essay, collections in the java.util package have been retrofitted to how to admission essay support generics. The Java collection framework is similar to that in C# except for the fact that it can be considered a superset of the C# collection framework since it contains a number of causes of world, extra features. The Java collection framework contains data structures that are missing from those in C# such as sets and linked lists. Also the Java collections framework not only how to write essay 5 page, has methods that enable one to access unsafe collections in a thread safe manner but contains thread-safe versions of most of the of world war 1, data structures as well.

Finally, the Java collections framework has a number of algorithms for homework grids, manipulating the elements within the data structures including algorithms that can do the following; find the largest element based on some Comparator, find the of world war 1, smallest element, find sublists within a list, reverse the contents of a list, shuffle the contents of cord case, a list, creates immutable versions of a colection, performs sorts, and binary searches. War 1! At the current time, the Java collections framework is more sophisticated than that available in .NET via C#. Unlike Java, C# contains the goto statement which can be used to jump directly from a point in the code to a label. Although much derided, gotos can be used in certain situations to reduce code duplication while enhancing readability. A secondary usage of the goto statement is the ability to mimic resumeable exceptions like those in Smalltalk, as long as the exception thrown does not cross method boundaries.

NOTE: In C#, one cannot jump into a statement block using the molly psychosynthesis, goto statement; One of the tenets of object oriented programming is polymorphism. Polymorphism enables one to interact with members of a type hierarchy as generic types instead of dealing with specific types. The means of implementing polymorphism typically involves having methods in a base class that may be overidden by derived classes. These methods can be invoked even though the client has a reference to causes of world a base class type which points to how to admission an object of the derived class. Such methods are bound at runtime instead of being bound during compilation and are typically called virtual methods. In Java all methods are virtual methods while in causes of world C#, as in C++, one must explicitly state which methods one wants to homework grids be virtual since by default they are not. To mark a method as virtual in C#, one uses the virtual keyword. Also, implementers of a child class can decide to either explicitly override the virtual method by using the override keyword or explicitly choose not to by using the new keyword instead. By default, in C#, the behavior of methods in a derived class that have the same signature as those in the base class is as if they were declared with the new keyword.

It is possible to mark methods as final in Java which means that the method cannot be overridden by derived classes. In C# this can be done by not marking the causes of world war 1, method as virtual . The major difference is that in C#, the class can still define the method but the base class version is the one that will be called if the object is used via a base class reference. Java disallows the derived class from containing a method that has the same signature as the final base class method. Below are examples that show the differences in virtual methods in both languages. The C# example can be made to produce the same output as the Java example by marking the DoStuff(string) method in the Parent class as virtual and admission essay for community college marking the DoStuff(string) method in causes war 1 the Child class with the override keyword. The above example can be made to pope an essay on criticism part 1 produce the original results by dbq essay altering the signature of the DoStuff(string) method in the Child class to. public new void DoStuff(string str) which states that although the DoStuff method is virtual in the base class, the child class would like to treat it as a non-virtual method. Both languages support performing I/O via Stream classes. The examples below copy the contents of a file named input.txt to another called output.txt.

Object Persistence also known as Serialization is the molly young, ability to read and write objects via a stream such as a file or network socket. Object Persistence is useful in of world situations where the for essay, state of an object must be retained across invocations of a program. Usually in such cases simply storing data in a flat file is insufficient yet using a Database Management System (DBMS) is overkill. Serialization is also useful as a means of transferring the representation of a class in an automatic and fairly seamless manner. Serializable objects in C# are annotated with the [Serializable] attribute. The [NonSerialized] attribute is dbq essay used to annote members of a C# class that should not be serialized by the runtime. Such fields are usually calculated or temporary values that have no meaning when saved. An Essay Part! C# provides two formats for serializing classes; either as XML or in a binary format, the causes of world war 1 dbq essay, former is more readable by humans and applications while the latter is more efficient. Reference List! One can also define custom ways an object is serialized if the standard ways are insufficient by implementing the ISerializable interface.

In Java, serializable objects are those that implement the of world war 1 dbq essay, Serializable interface while the transient keyword is used to mark members of a Java class as ones not to be serialized. By default Java supports serializing objects to a binary format but does provide a way of overriding the standard serialization process. Objects that plan to essay for community college override default serializations can implement methods with the of world war 1, following signatures. Since the above methods are private there is no interface that can be implemented to indicate that a Java class supports custom serialization using readObject and writeObject. For classes that need publicly accessible methods for custom serialization there exists the java.io.Externalizable interface which specifies the readExternal() and writeExternal() for use in customizing how an homework grids, object is read and written to a stream. Both C# and war 1 Java provide a mechanism for extracting specially formatted comments from source code and placing them in an alternate document. These comments are typically API specifications and are very useful way to provide API documentation to the users of a library. The generated documentation is also useful to share the specifications for an API between designers, developers and QA.

Javadoc is the tool used to extract API documentation from source code. Javadoc generates HTML documentation from the source code comment, an example of which is the Java#8482; Platform, Standard Edition API Documentation which was all generated using Javadoc. Acute Spinal Cord Case! Javadoc can be used to describe information at the package, class, member and method level. Descriptions of classes and member variables can be provided with the option to add references to other classes, class members and methods. Javadoc allows one to causes war 1 dbq essay document the part 1, following metadata about of world war 1 dbq essay a method: Description of the method.

Exceptions thrown by molly young brown the method. Causes War 1! Parameters the method accepts Return type of the method. Young Brown! Associated methods and members. Indication as to whether the API has been deprecated or not. Version of the API the method was first added. War 1! The deprecated information is also used by the compiler which issues a warning if a call to a method marked with the deprecated tag is encountered during compilation. Javadoc also provides the following information automatically: Inherited API List of derived classes List of implementing classes for interfaces Serialized form of the class Alphabetical class listing. Package hierarchy in a tree format. Since Javadoc generates HTML documentation, it is admission valid to use HTML in Javadoc comments. There is support for linking the generated documentation with other generated documentation available over the web.

Such linking is useful when one wants readers of the documentation to be able to read the API documentation from the related sources. An example of of world war 1 dbq essay, this is the following generated documentation which contains links to the Java 2 API documentation. How To Write Admission! If no such linking is specified then the generated documentation contains no links to other API documentation. Below is an example of war 1 dbq essay, how Javadoc comments are used. C# uses XML as the a college admission essay, format for the documentation.

The generated documentation is an XML file that contains the causes of world war 1 dbq essay, metadata specified by the user with very little additional information generated automatically. List For Essay! All the causes war 1 dbq essay, C# XML documentation tags have an analogous Javadoc construct while the same cannot be said for the Javadoc tags having C# XML documentation analogs. For instance, the default C# XML documentation does not have analogs to Javadoc's @author , @version , or @deprecated tags although such metadata can be generated by reflecting on the assembly, as Microsoft's documentation build process does. College! One could also create custom tags that are analogous to the Javadoc tags and more but they would be ignored by standard tools used for handling C# XML documentation including Visual Studio.NET. Also of note is that C#'s XML documentation when generated does not contain metadata about the class such as listings of inherited API, derived classes or implementing interfaces. Causes! Here is an example of an XML file generated from C# source code. The primary benefit of an for community, XML format is that the documentation specification can now be used in many different ways. XSLT stylesheets can then be used to convert the generated documentation to ASCII text, HTML, or Postscript files. Also of note is that the generated documentation can be fed to tools that use it for spec verification or other similar tasks.

It should be noted that C# currently does not have a tool analogous to Javadoc for converting the XML documentation into HTML. Microsoft is in causes of world war 1 the process of admission essay for community college, developing such a tool which is currently codenamed SandCastle. Below is an example of how C# XML documentation is used. Multiple classes can be defined in a single file in both languages with some significant differences. In Java, there can only be one class per war 1 dbq essay, source file that has public access and it must have the same name as the source file minus the file extension.

C# does not have a restriction on the number of public classes that can exist in a source file and neither is list there a requirement for the name of any of the war 1 dbq essay, classes in the file to match that of the source file. Using libraries in an application is a two-step process. First the molly brown psychosynthesis, needed libraries must be referenced somewhere in war 1 dbq essay the source file which is done via the using keyword in C# and the import keyword in Java. On Criticism Part! Secondly, there must be a way to tell the compiler where to find the location of the needed library. Causes Of World! Specifying the location of libraries that will be used by a Java program is done using the CLASSPATH environment variable or the -classpath compiler option. Assembly locations are specified with the /r compiler switch in write a college admission C#. Event-driven programming is a programming model where objects can register themselves to be notified of a specific occurrence or state change in another object. Event-driven programming is also referred to as the publish-subscribe model or the observer design pattern and is very popular in graphical user interface (GUI) programming. Java and C# both have mechanisms that support events but there are significant differences.

The typical publish-subscribe model has a one to many relationship between an object (publisher) and its event handlers (subscribers). A subscriber is registered by invoking a method on the publisher which then adds the subscriber to an internal collection of interested objects. When the state change that a registered subscriber is interested in occurs, a method is invoked in the publisher that cycles through the collection of subscribers and invokes a callback method on each one. Of World Dbq Essay! There is no general mechanism for event handling in Java. Instead there are design patterns that are used by the GUI classes which developers can take their cue from. An event is typically a subclass of the essay college, java.util.EventObject class, which has methods that enable setting or getting of the object that was the source of the event. A subscriber in the Java model usually implements an interface that ends with the word Listener (e.g. Causes War 1 Dbq Essay! MouseListener, ActionListener, KeyListener, etc) which should contain a callback method that would be called by reference for essay the publisher on the occurrence of the event.

The publisher typically has a method that begins with add and ends with Listener (e.g. addMouseListener, addActionListener, addKeyListener, etc) which is used to register subscribers. The publisher also has remove methods for unregistering the causes war 1 dbq essay, subscribers. Brown Psychosynthesis! The aforementioned components are the primary entities in an event-driven Java program. C# uses delegates to provide an explicit mechanism for creating a publish-subscribe model. An event is typically a subclass of the causes war 1, System.EventArgs class. Like all data classes, the event class should have a constructor that allows complete initialization without calling any other methods so that you can pass new YourEventArgs(inits) to the subscriber delegate. The publisher has a protected method preceded with the word On (e.g. OnClick, OnClose, OnInit, etc) which is invoked when a specified event occurs, this method would then invoke the delegate passing it the source and an instance of the EventArgs object. Making the method protected allows derived classes to call it directly without the need to register a delegate. The subscriber is a method that accepts the same argument and returns the young brown psychosynthesis, same type as the event delegate.

The event delegate usually returns void and accepts two parameters; an Object which should be the source of the event and the EventArgs subclass which should represent the event that occured. In C#, the event is used to automatically specify that a field within a subscriber is a delegate that will be used as a callback during an event-driven situation. During compilation the compiler adds overloaded versions of the += and -= operators that are analogous to the add and remove methods that are used in causes of world war 1 Java to register and unregister a subscriber. The example below shows a class that generates 20 random numbers and fires an event whenever one of the admission essay for community college, numbers is even. Cross language interoperability is the causes war 1 dbq essay, ability to access constructs written in one programming language from another. There are a number of ways cross language interoperability works in Java. For Community College! First of all, there is the Java Native Interface (JNI) which is a mechanism that allows Java programs call native methods written in C, C++ or assembly language. The C, C++ or assembly methods methods must be specifically written to be called from Java. Native methods can use JNI to access Java features such as calling Java language methods, instantiating and dbq essay modifying Java classes, throwing and catching exceptions, performing runtime type checking, and loading Java classes dynamically. To create a JNI program one performs the brown, following steps: Create a Java program that contains the declaration of the native method(s) marked with the native keyword. Write a main method that loads the library created in step 6 and causes war 1 dbq essay uses the native method(s).

Compile the class containing the acute cord, declaration of the native method(s) and the main with the javac compiler. Use the javah compiler with the -jni compiler option to war 1 dbq essay generate a header file for the native method(s). Write the native method in your language of choice (currently C, C++ or assembly). Compile the header file and native source file into a shared library (i.e. An Essay! a .dll on Windows or a .so file on causes of world war 1 dbq essay, UNIX). Java also has the ability to homework grids interact with distributed objects that use the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) via Java IDL.

CORBA is a technology that allows developers to make procedure calls on objects in a location and language agnostic manner. War 1! A CORBA application usually consists of an object request broker (ORB), a client and a server. An ORB is responsible for matching a requesting client to molly young brown the server that will perform the request, using an object reference to locate the target object. When the ORB examines the object reference and checks if the target object is remote or not. If the target of the call is local then the ORB performs an of world war 1 dbq essay, inter-process communication (IPC) call.

On calls to remote objects the ORB marshals the arguments and routes the invocation out over the network to admission for community college the remote object's ORB. The remote ORB then invokes the method locally and sends the results back to causes of world war 1 the client via the network. CORBA has a language-agnostic interface definition language (IDL) which for which languages that support CORBA have various mappings. Java IDL supports the mappings from Java objects to admission for community college CORBA IDL objects. Various ORBs support CORBA language bindings for a number of languages including C, C++, Java, Python, Lisp, Perl, and Scheme. The most seamless way to do cross language interop in Java is when the language is of world war 1 compiled directly to essay college Java byte code. This means that objects in that language are available to Java programs and Java objects are available to programs written in the target language.

A good example of this is the Jython scripting language which is causes a version of the Python programming language that is how to write a college essay 5 page integrated with the causes of world war 1, Java platform. Reference! Below is an example of an interactive session with Jython shows how a user could create an instance of the Java random number class (found in java.util.Random) and then interact with that instance which was taken from the Jython Documentation. There are a number of projects in various degrees of completion that are aimed at providing a similar degree of cross language interoperability within the confines of the Java Virtual Machine. A list of languages retargetted for the Java Virtual Machine is available on the webpage of Dr. Robert Tolksdorf. Currently, Sun Microsystems (creators of the Java language and platform) seems to be uninterested in this level of cross language interoperability and has decided to leave this to independent developers and researchers. With seamless cross langauge interoperability, objects can inherit implementation from other types, instantiate and invoke methods defined on other types, and otherwise interact with objects regardless of the language the types are originally implemented in. Also tools such as class browsers, debuggers, and profilers only need to understand one format (be it Java byte codes or .NET instruction language) but can support a multitude of languages as long as they target the appropriate runtime. Also error handling across languages via exceptions is possible. C# and the .NET runtime were created with seamless cross-language interoperability as a design goal. A language targeting the causes of world, .NET common language runtime (CLR) is able to interact with other languages that conform to the common type system and when compiled include certain metadata.

The common type system defines how types are declared, used, and for community managed in the .NET runtime thus creating a framework that allows for type safety and ensures that objects written in causes various languages can share type information. A College Admission Essay! Metadata is binary information describing the assemblies, types and attributes defined in the application that are stored either in a CLR portable executable (PE) or in memory if the causes of world war 1 dbq essay, assembly has been loaded. Molly Young Brown! Langauges that are currently being developed to target the .NET runtime include APL, C#, C++, COBOL, Component Pascal, Eiffel, Haskel#/Mondrian, Java, Mercury, Oberon, Perl, Python, Scheme, Smalltalk, Standard ML, and Visual Basic. Since it is very possible that certain features in one language have no analog in another, the .NET Framework provides the Common Language Specification (CLS), which describes a fundamental set of language features and defines rules for how those features are used. The CLS rules are a subset of the common type system that is aimed at ensuring cross-language interoperability by of world war 1 dbq essay defining a set of features that are most common in programming languages. The C# compiler is a CLS compliant compiler meaning that it can be used to admission college generate code that complies with the CLS. Causes Of World War 1! The C# compiler can check for CLS compliance and issues an acute spinal injury study, error when a program code uses functionality that is causes of world dbq essay not supported by the CLS.

To get the C# compiler to check for the CLS compliance of a piece of code, mark it with the [CLSCompliantAttribute(true)] attribute. Another aspect of cross language interoperability supported by C# is interaction with COM based objects. There are mechanisms that allow developers to use COM objects from C# code and vice versa. C# objects can utilize COM objects if a wrapper class is first created that defines the functions available in the COM object as well as some additional information. The wrapper class can then be used as if it were a regular C# object while the .NET runtime handles the complexities of marshalling arguments and the like. Creating the wrapper class can be done automatically using the tlbimp utility. If the utility is unable to create a type library then one must be written by hand with foreknowledge of the coclasses and interfaces being defined as well as the molly, type library-to-assembly conversion rules.

For a COM object to causes of world war 1 dbq essay utilize a C# object, a typelib must be created that describes the homework grids, C# object to COM aware applications. The tlbexp can be used to create a typelib that describes the C# object's interface in a COM-like manner. Causes Of World! Also the regasm utility can be used to write admission essay 5 page register an assembly so it is available to COM. When COM objects interact with the C# object, the runtime handles whatever marshalling of data that needs to occur between COM and causes war 1 dbq essay .NET automatically. Young Psychosynthesis! C# programs can also call almost any function in any DLL using a combination of the extern keyword and the DllImport attribute on the method declaration. A major advantage of this is war 1 that the method being called does not have to be specifically written to be called from C#, nor is pope an essay 1 any wrapper necessary-so calling existing code in DLLs is relatively simple.

To provide total control of releasing resources used by causes of world classes, C# provides the System.IDisposable interface which contains the Dispose() method that can be called by users of the class to release resources on completion of whatever task is at write admission essay 5 page hand. Classes that manage resources such as database or file handles benefit from being disposable. Being diposable provides a deterministic way to release these resources when the of world war 1 dbq essay, class is admission essay for community no longer in use, which is not the war 1, case with finalizers in Java or C#. It is typical to call the SupressFinalize method of the GC class in the implementation of the Dispose method since it is likely that finalization by an essay part 1 the runtime won't be needed since it will be provided explicitly via the Dispose method. C# also has some syntactic sugar via the using keyword that makes releasing the resources used by classes occur in a more deterministic manner via the Dispose method. Of World! If a class is disposable, it is best to make usage of the Dispose() method idempotent (i.e. multiple calls to Dispose() have no ill effects) which can be done by providing a flag that is checked within the Dispose() method to see if the class has already been disposed or not. The example below shows a program where a class keeps a file open up until the pope an essay, Dispose() method is called which indicates that the file no longer needs to be open. The above idiom is practically the same as having C++ style destructors without the worry of having to deal with memory allocation woes, making it the best of both worlds. The non-deterministic nature of finalization has long been bemoaned by Java developers, it is a welcome change to causes of world dbq essay see that this will not be the case when using C#.

Delegates are a mechanism for acute cord, providing callback functions. Delegates are akin to function pointers in C or functors in C++ and causes war 1 dbq essay are useful in young psychosynthesis the same kinds of situation. One use of delegates is passing operations to a generic algorithm based on causes war 1 dbq essay, the types being used in the algorithm. How To Admission! The C function qsort() is an example of this as are a variety of the C++ functions in algorithm like replace_if() and of world transform(). Another use of delegates is homework grids as a means to register handlers for a particular event (i.e. the publish-subscribe model). To get the of world dbq essay, same functionality as C# delegates in Java, once can create interfaces that specify the signature of the callback method such as is done with the Comparable interface although this has the drawback of forcing the method to be an instance method when it most likely should be static.

To use delegates, one first declares a delegate that has the return type and molly psychosynthesis accepts the same number of parameters as the methods one will want to invoke as callback functions. Secondly one needs to define a method that accepts an instance of the delegate as a parameter. Once this is done, a method that has the same signature as the delegate (i.e. accepts same parameters and returns the same type) or has covariant return types and causes of world war 1 dbq essay contravariant parameter types (i.e return type is derived from the a college, return type of the delegate and the parameter types are ancestors of the corresponding parameters) can be created and used to initialize an causes of world, instance of the delegate which can then be passed to the method that accepts that delegate as a parameter. Note that the same delegate can refer to homework grids static and causes war 1 instance methods, even at young brown psychosynthesis the same time, since delegates are multicast. The example below shows the process of creating and using instance delegates. A delegate can be passed as a parameter to a method in the same way that a function pointer is passed in languages like C and C++. The following code sample shows how this is done. In both Java and C#, items on the heap have to be garbage collected to reclaim the memory allocated to them when they are no longer in use while stack based objects are automatically reclaimed by the system. Memory on causes, the stack is typically faster to allocate than heap based memory.

In Java, all classes are created on the heap while primitives are created on acute cord injury study, the stack. This can lead to situations where objects that are used similarly to primitives in a program tend to hang around and of world wait for garbage collection thus adding overhead to pope an essay on criticism part the program. Causes Of World War 1! This can be bothersome, especially if the objects were used briefly and in a single location. To avoid the problem of young brown, allocating heap space for such classes and then having to garbage collect them, C# has a mechanism that allows one to specify that objects of a certain class should be stack based (In fact, C#'s built-in types such as int are actually implemented as structs in the runtime library). Unlike classes, value types are always passed by value and are not garbage collected. And arrays of value types contain the actual value type objects, not references to dynamically-allocated objects-a savings of both memory and time.

To specify stack based classes, one declares them using the keyword struct instead of class . To create C# structs (also known as value types) one uses the causes war 1, new keyword to create it as is done with classes. If the struct is instantiated with the default constructor syntax then a struct with its fields zeroed out is created. However, it is not possible to define a default constructor for a struct and override this behavior. The C# as operator is completely analogous to C++'s dynamic_cast construct. The semantics of the as operator are that it attempts to perform an pope an essay 1, explict cast to causes war 1 a type and returns null if the operation was unsuccessful. NOTE: The as operator cannot be used to convert to or from value types. Properties are a way to abstract away from for community, directly accessing the members of a class, similar to how accessors (getters) and modifiers (setters) are used in the Java world. A property is causes of world accessed by users of homework grids, a class as if it was a field or member variable but in actuality is a method call. Accessing a member via a property allows for side effects when setting values or calculations when generating values while being transparent to the user of the class. Properties thus provide an explicit way to decouple the implementation of the member access from how it is actually used.

It is possible to create, read-only, write-only or read-write properties depending on if the getter and setter are implemented or not. Causes Of World! In addition, it is possible to admission college create a property whose getter and setter have different visibility (e.g. a public getter but a private setter). The example below shows different kinds of properties. The use of properties as an of world war 1 dbq essay, abstraction away from whether a member access is a method call or not may fall apart if the property throws an exception. When this occurs users of the object must then treat operations that look like member accesses as if they were method calls which can lead to how to admission essay unintuitive looking code. The example below shows code that sets the causes dbq essay, values for the fields of a Clock class that where the setters throw an reference list, exception if the value is invalid. To avoid situations like the one in the above example it is best that one avoids throwing exceptions in properties and handle the exceptions that are thrown by methods used in the property. If throwing an exception is avoidable in some situations then the documentation for the property must adequately describe the causes of world dbq essay, exceptions that can be thrown and the circumstances that lead to them being thrown. C# makes the distinction between multidimensional and molly brown jagged arrays.

A multidimensional array is akin to a multidimensional array in C or C++ that is a contiguous block containing members of the same type. Of World War 1! A jagged array is akin to an array in Java which is an array of arrays, meaning that it contains references to other arrays which may contain members of the same type or other arrays depending on how many levels the an essay part 1, array has. The code snippets below highlight the differences between multidimensional and jagged arrays. The lack of true multidimensional arrays in Java has made it problematic to use Java in certain aspects of technical computing which has lead to various efforts to improve this position including research efforts by IBM which involved writing their own Array class to get around the shortcomings in Java arrays. The following code snippet emphasizes the differences between using multidimensional arrays and jagged arrays in C#. An indexer is a special syntax for overloading the causes dbq essay, [] operator for a class. An indexer is useful when a class is homework grids a container for war 1 dbq essay, another kind of object. An Essay 1! Indexers are flexible in that they support any type, such as integers or strings, as indexes.

It is also possible to create indexers that allow multidimensional array syntax where one can mix and match different types as indexes. Finally, indexers can be overloaded. C# includes a preprocessor that has a limited subset of the functionality of the C/C++ preprocessor. The C# preprocessor lacks the ability to #include files or perform textual substitutions using #define . The primary functionality that remains is the ability to #define and #undef identifiers and also the ability to causes of world select which sections of code to compile based on pope an essay on criticism, the validity of certain expressions via #if , #elif , and #else . The #error and #warning directives cause the errors or warnings messages following these directives to be printed on compilation. Causes Of World War 1! The #pragma directive is used to homework grids supress compiler warning messages. Finally, there is the #line directive that can be used to specify the source file and line number reported when the compiler detects errors. The using keyword can be used to alias the fully qualified name for a type similar to the way typedef is used in C and C++. This is useful in of world war 1 dbq essay creating readable code where the fully qualified name of a class is needed to resolve namespace conflicts. The Reflection.Emit namespace contains classes that can be used to generate .NET instruction language (IL) and use it to build classes in molly memory at runtime or even write portable executable (PE) files to disk.

This is analagous to a Java library that would allow one to create Java classes at runtime by war 1 dbq essay generating Java byte codes which could then be written to disks or loaded and used within the program. It is expected that the primary users of the Reflection.Emit namespace will be authors of compilers and script engines. For instance, the regular expression classes in System.Text.RegularExpressions use the Reflection.Emit library to generate a custom matching engine for each regular expression compiled. Although core C# is like Java in that there is no access to a pointer type that is analogous to molly psychosynthesis pointer types in C and C++, it is of world dbq essay possible to have pointer types if the C# code is executing in an unsafe context. When C# code is executing in an unsafe context, a lot of runtime checking is disabled which means that the program must have full trust on the machine it is pope an essay on criticism 1 running on. Certain situations call for causes dbq essay, the use of unsafe code such as when interfacing with the underlying operating system, during interactions with COM objects that take structures that contain pointers, when accessing a memory-mapped device or in situations where performance is critical. The syntax and semantics for writing unsafe code is similar to the syntax and semantics for using pointers in C and homework grids C++. To write unsafe code, the unsafe keyword must be used to specify the causes, code block as unsafe and the program must be compiled with the /unsafe compiler switch.

Since garbage collection may relocate managed (i.e. safe) variables during the execution of a program, the fixed keyword is provided so that the address of a managed variable is essay for community pinned during the execution of the parts of the program within the fixed block. Without the fixed keyword there would be little purpose in being able to of world war 1 assign a pointer to the address of admission college, a managed variable since the runtime may move the variable from causes of world, that address as part of the mark compact garbage collection process. In Java the an essay 1, arguments to a method are passed by value meaning that a method operates on copies of the items passed to it instead of on the actual items. In C#, as in C++ and in a sense C, it is war 1 possible to specify that the arguments to a method actually be references to pope an essay part 1 the items being passed to the method instead of copies. This feature is particularly useful when one wants to create a method that returns more than one object. In Java trying to return multiple values from a method is not supported and leads to interesting anomalies like the fact that a method that swaps two numbers which has been the hallmark of freshman computer science classes for years is causes dbq essay impossible to do in Java without resorting to coding tricks. The C# keywords used to specify that a parameter is being passed by reference are ref and out . The difference between the homework grids, keywords is that parameters passed using ref must be initialized to some value while those passed using out do not have to be. A more detailed explanation of causes of world, Java's lack of Pass By Reference semantics is available in the Javaworld article, Does Java pass by reference or pass by value? Why can't you swap in Java? by Tony Sintes. C# provides the ability to avoid the homework grids, usage of escape sequences within string constants and instead declare strings literally.

Thus backslashes, tabs, quotes and newlines can be part of a string without using escape sequences. The only caveat is war 1 that double quotes that appear within verbatim strings should be doubled. Verbatim strings are specified by prepending the @ symbol to string declarations. C# provides the option to explicitly detect or ignore overflow conditions in expressions and type conversions. Overflow conditions detected in code throw a System.OverFlowException . Since overflow detection causes a performance hit it can be explicitly enabled by using the /checked+ compiler option. One can also mandate code that must always be checked for overflow conditions by placing it in a checked block or that must always be ignored with regards to overflow detection by placing it in an unchecked block. Sometimes when a class implements an interface it is molly young possible for there to be namespace collisions with regards to of world war 1 dbq essay method names. Brown! For instance, a FileRepresentation class which has a graphical user interface may implement an IWindow and an IFileHandler interface. Both of these classes may have a Close method where in causes of world war 1 dbq essay the case of IWindow it means to close the GUI window while in the case of IFileHandler it means to close the file. In Java, there is no solution to this problem besides writing one Close method that does the same thing when invoked via an IWindow handle or an IFileHandler handle. C# gets around this problem by allowing one to bind method implementations to specific intefaces.

Thus in the aformentioned example, the FileRepresentation class would have different Close methods that would be invoked depending on whether the class was being treated as an IWindow or an IFileHandler. NOTE: Explicit interface methods are private and can only pope an essay on criticism, be accessed if the object is cast to the required type before invoking the method. The friend assembly feature allows an internal type or internal member of an assembly to be accessed from another assembly. To give one assembly access to causes of world another assembly's internal types and members, the [InternalsVisibleToAttribute] attribute is used. The following code sample shows 2 source files which are compiled into friend_assembly_test.dll and friend_assembly_test_2.exe which utilize the friend's assembly feature. The larger a project gets, the more likely it is that namespace collisions will occur. C# has the :: operator which is used for specifying at what scope a namespace should be resolved.

The left operand indicates the scope at for community which to resolve the name while the right operand is the name to resolve. The left operand can either be the keyword global which refers to the global scope or a namespace alias as shown below. NOTE: The extern alias statement can be used to attach an causes of world, alias to an assembly which can then be used as the left operand of the :: operator. When this is done the scope used for name resolution is the top level namespace(s) within the assembly. For a data structure to support being a target of the foreach loop it must implement or return an instance of System.Collections.IEnumerable . However writing an Enumerator can be somewhat cumbersome which is a college admission 5 page where the yield keyword comes in. The yield keyword enables one to convert any method or property into an iterator. In an iterator, one simply traverses the data structure and returns its contents one by one using the yield return statement and indicates the causes war 1 dbq essay, end of the admission essay for community college, sequence of values with the causes of world dbq essay, yield break statement.

The method or property must return one of molly brown, IEnumerable, IEnumerableT, IEnumerator or IEnumeratorT. A partial class is specified by prefixing the causes war 1 dbq essay, keyword partial to the class declaration. The following code sample shows a partial class that is defined across two source files. Note how methods and how to 5 page properties from one source file can reference members defined in another. It should be noted that all of the class attributes are merged across all definitions of a class. This means that contradictory attributes (e.g. class declared as private in causes war 1 dbq essay one file and public in another) are disallowed. A static class is a class that has no instance members, no instance constructors and cannot be used as a base class. A static class should be used to define types for which instances don't make sense such as the System.Environment and System.Math classes. A static class is admission essay for community specified by prefixing the class declaration with the causes of world, keyword static . A nullable types is an instance of the System.Nullable type. A nullable type can represent the normal range of write a college admission essay, values for an underlying value type as well as the null value.

For example, the type Nullablebool can represent the values true , false and null . A nullable type can be declared by causes of world dbq essay appending the operator '?' to the name of a value type when declaring the variable. This means that bool? is equivalent to Nullablebool . Each nullable type has a boolean HasValue property which indicates whether it represents a valid value type or the value null . Homework Grids! The actual value of the nullable type is stored in its Value property. There is also the GetValueOrDefault() method which either returns the value of the nullable type or the causes of world dbq essay, default value of the underlying value type if it is null . Nullable types are particularly useful when mapping C# objects to admission essay for community college relational database schemas since null is a valid value for all data types in SQL databases. The ?? operator is of world war 1 called the null coalescing operator and is used for admission essay, testing the value of a nullable type and returning its value or an alternate if its value is null. Thus x ?? y is equivalent to x == (null ? y : x) . Anonymous methods are a companion feature to delegates.

An anonymous method is a code block that can be used where a delegate method is expected. This simplifies code that uses delegates by not requiring a separate method to implement the causes, delegate's functionality. The following code sample compares the anonymous method approach to using a named delegate. There are a number of restrictions to anonymous methods that must be kept in a college mind. For one, jump statements like break , goto and continue cannot be used o jump into an anonymous method from causes of world war 1 dbq essay, outside the admission essay for community college, code block or vice versa. Also anonymous methods cannot refer to ref or out parameters that are defined outside the scope of the method. Before the advent of exceptions, most error handling was done via return codes. There are many advantages of exceptions over return codes that are typically touted including the of world dbq essay, fact that exceptions. provide a consistent means to handle errors and other exceptional conditions. enable an error to propagate up the call stack if not handled in the current context. allow developers to seperate error handling code from general application logic. Java creates an additional wrinkle by possessing both checked and write essay 5 page unchecked exceptions.

Checked exceptions are exceptions that the calling method must handle either by catching the exception or declaring that the exception should be handled by its calling method via the throws clause. On the other hand, unchecked exceptions (also called runtime exceptions) do not have to be caught or declared in the throws clause. In a sense unchecked exceptions are similar to return codes in causes of world war 1 dbq essay that they can be ignored without warnings or errors being issued by the compiler. Although if an exception is ignored at runtime, your program will terminate. Checked exceptions are typically used to indicate to a calling method that the callee failed in its task as well as pass information as to admission for community how and why it failed. Dbq Essay! One must either catch a checked exception or declare it in the throws clause of the method or the Java compiler will issue an pope on criticism part, error. The reasoning behind the fact that the exception must be declared in the throws clause is war 1 dbq essay that handling whatever errors that can occur when the method is used is just as important as knowing what parameters it accepts and the kind of type it returns. Unchecked exceptions are typically exceptions that can occur in reference for essay most parts of the program and thus the overhead of explicitly checking for causes of world war 1, them outweighs their usefulness due to the massive code bloat that would ensue. Examples of situations that throw unchecked exceptions are accessing a null object reference, trying to access an out of bounds index of an array or a division by zero.

In all of the aforementioned cases it would be cumbersome to put try. catch blocks around every the code (for instance a try. catch block around every object access or every array access) and they are better off as unchecked exceptions. In C#, all exceptions are unchecked and there is no analog to the throws clause. Homework Grids! One major side effect of this is causes that unless the creator of the API explicitly documents the exceptions thrown then it is not possible for the users of the API to how to write a college admission know what exceptions to catch in their code leading to unrobust applications that can fail unexpectedly. Thus users of C# are reliant on causes of world dbq essay, the documentation skill of programmers as their primary error handling mechanism which is a less than optimal situation. For instance in the following code snippet, the only way to know what exceptions can be thrown by the method below is to either have the source code for all the methods called within it or if the homework grids, developer of the of world dbq essay, method documents all the exceptions thrown by all the methods called within it (meaning that the developers of those methods must have done the same ad infinitum). The above code snippet is from the .NET Framework Beta 2 documentation for the Socket class. Note how there no exceptions caught in the code. Case! If this was a method in a real application as opposed to causes war 1 dbq essay a sample, it would be impossible for the users of this method to know what exceptions to catch without access to the source code or without the author of the method painstakingly checking what exceptions are thrown by every single method called and then documenting them.

Below is the acute spinal cord, list of exceptions that could be thrown within the war 1, method according to their entries in the Microsoft .NET framework Beta 2 documentation. If the author of the method does not have time to homework grids document the exceptions that may be thrown from this method or happens to leave out an important one, such as the SocketException in this case, then the users of the method could have their applications fail unexpectedly without an elegant means of recovery in place. In the above case, the main exception of causes of world dbq essay, interest to users would probably be the SocketException since the how to essay 5 page, others are all related to the internal workings of the method and don't really have anything to do with the caller and in war 1 fact would probably be unchecked exceptions if they existed in Java. In practice the GetMessageFromServer method would check the validity of its string parameter and throw ArgumentNException or one of its subclasses depending the results of the check. The rationale for list, excluding checked exceptions from C# has never been fully explained by dbq essay Microsoft but this message from Eric Gunnerson of the C# team sheds some light on the reasoning behind this decision. The primary reason for this choice according to acute case study Gunnerson is of world war 1 that examination of small programs led to molly the conclusion that using checked exceptions could both enhance developer productivity and enhance code quality. On the other hand experience with large software projects suggested that using checked exceptions decreased productivity with little or no increase in code quality. The lack of checked exceptions in C# will be very unsettling for Java developers and causes war 1 may lead to program designs which are flawed. Young Brown Psychosynthesis! One only causes, has to list for essay remember the anecdote about how originally a considerable amount of the of world dbq essay, exceptions in the Java API were unchecked but upon write admission 5 page, changing them to checked exceptions a number of bugs and design flaws were found in the API. Hopefully this will be remedied in later versions of C# or a third party could develop a static source code analysis tool such as lint. Meanwhile C# developers must take care to document all exceptions thrown from their methods that callers should be aware of as a matter of consideration.

This is not to say that documentation should not typically exist but since it is the only means to ensure exception safe C# code then its importance is now a much greater. A major selling point of Java#8482; technologies is causes of world dbq essay that applications written in Java are portable across a number of reference, operating systems and platforms. Of World Dbq Essay! Sun officially supports Linux, Windows and Solaris but other vendors have implemented Java on a large range of platforms including OS/2, AIX and MacOS. Binary compatibility across platforms using similar Java versions is the norm except for situations involving bugs in various VM implementations. At the time of this writing C# is reference for essay only available on Windows. Efforts are currently in place to port it to causes other platforms, including Linux and for essay FreeBSD. Linux porting is being done as part of the Mono project developed by Ximian while the FreeBSD implementation is a Microsoft project codenamed rotor. The Java extension mechanism enables developers to causes extend the abilities of the core Java platform. Developers can create classes and homework grids packages which are treated by causes the Java runtime as if they are core Java classes and packages like java.lang, java.util, java.net, etc.

This means that extensions do not have to admission be placed on the class path since they are treated as if they are part of the core libraries such as those in the Java runtime library, rt.jar . Of World War 1 Dbq Essay! Extensions are contained within JAR files and once installed are available to all applications running on the target platform. A C# parallel would be the ability to create assemblies that are treated as if they are part of the molly psychosynthesis, System namespace contained in dbq essay the System.dll assembly. In the admission for community, above example the value printed by calling halfOfSquareFP() will be Infinity regardless of what JVM the application is run on. This is because Java enforces left-to-right evaluation of arguments and causes of world war 1 6.6e+307 multiplied by acute spinal cord injury study 4.0 exceeds the maximum value for a double thus leading to all subsequent operations yielding Infinity. Causes Of World War 1 Dbq Essay! On the other hand the value printed on calling halfOfSquareNFP() may not be the same on different JVMs depending on whether the target platform and JVM implementation support storing intermediate values in an extended format that has a larger range than that of doubles.

Thus on some platforms the value 1.32E308 is printed as the value returned by halfOfSquareNFP() while on others Infinity is printed. Section 4.1.5 of the C# specification covers floating point numbers and states that due to the excessive performance costs of enforcing that certain architectures perform operations with less precision than is 1 possible, there is no way to enforce FP-strictness in C#. The ability to dynamically load classes at runtime in Java is a very powerful feature especially when combined with a remote procedure call mechanism. Dynamic class loading enables Java applications to download the class files (i.e. byte codes) of classes that do not exist on the target machine. An object type that only exists on one machine can be transferred to other machines in a seamless and transparent manner. Thus new types can be introduced on a remote machine which allows the causes of world dbq essay, behavior of remote applications to be significantly extended at runtime. The following example shows an example of a remote application that accepts types that implement a certain interface, IStockTicker. The obtainName() remote method in the above class accepts types that implement the IStockTicker interface. It is possible for this method to be invoked from a remote client which then passes a type that implements IStockTicker, for example NASDAQStock, that does not exist on the server where the MyRMIServer class lives.

In this case the entire code needed for NASDAQStock class is transmitted from the client to the remote server automatically. C# and a college essay the .NET Remoting mechanism also enable remotely downloading classes from one machine to causes war 1 the other but the client has to publish the assembly and the server can then load it via a URL. For information on admission essay, Java Remote Method Invokation (RMI) read the Java tutorial on RMI. Information on of world war 1, .NET Remoting with C# is explained in this introduction to write admission essay .NET remoting and this technical overview on MSDN. In Java it is possible for constants to causes of world dbq essay be declared in interfaces which are then available to implementing classes while in write a college admission essay C# this is not allowed. This may not be a big issue in C# since the primary usage of causes war 1, constants declared in interfaces is as a poor emulation of enumerations. An anonymous inner class is a class declaration that occurs at reference for essay the same point where an instance of that class is created. Anonymous inner classes are typically used where only one instance of a type will exist in the application. The most popular usage of anonymous inner classes is for specifying callbacks especially in the Java GUI libraries but there are other situations where anonymous inner classes are beneficial as well.

Below is an example of using anonymous inner classes to implement the State Design Pattern. The static import feature makes it possible to access static members of causes, a class without having specify the class name. An Essay Part 1! This feature is intended to reduce the verbosity of code that frequently access the static members of a particular class (e.g. constants defined in war 1 a particular helper class). A static import similar to a regular import statement except that the brown, keyword static is used and instead of importing a package, a specific class is imported. Most developers, especially those with a background in C or C++, would probably agree that features like operator overloading, pointers, preprocessor directives, delegates and deterministic object cleanup make C# more expressive than Java in a number of cases. Similarly, Java developers who learn C# will be pleasantly surprised at features that are missing in Java that will seem glaring in their absence once one uses them in C#, such as boxing, enumerations and dbq essay pass by reference. On the pope on criticism part 1, other hand the lack of checked exceptions, inner classes, cross platform portability or the causes, fact that a class is not the smallest unit of homework grids, distribution of code makes the choice of causes of world war 1, C# over Java not a clearcut case of choosing more language features without having to make any compromises.

It is my opinion that both languages are similar enough that they could be made to pope an essay mirror each other without significant effort if so required by either user base. In this case, C# would have it easier than Java in that C# has less to borrow from Java than Java would have to borrow from causes of world, C#. However, the how to 5 page, true worth of of world war 1 dbq essay, a programming language that is intended for use outside of academia is molly psychosynthesis how quickly the of world war 1, language evolves to adapt to the changing technological landscape and what kind of community surrounds the language. Some programming languages are akin to the French language under the Les Immortels of the Acad¨¦mie Française in France. Homework Grids! Les immortels are charged with dictating what constitutes the causes war 1, official French language but they have been slow to adapt to the information age thus their edicts on what constitutes the proper French versions of homework grids, new words, especially those related to technology, are usually ignored especially since they either conflict with what the general French public would rather call them and show up long after the of world, unsanctioned words have already entered the lexicon. C++ is an example of a language that has undergone a process of balkanization closely resembling the French language under the Les Immortels of the Acad¨¦mie Française while Java under Sun Microsystems can be considered to how to a college admission 5 page be a language that has evolved with the times similar to how the English language has done. Thus the question really becomes, which of these languages looks like it will evolve with the causes of world war 1 dbq essay, times and be easiest to adapt to new situations as they arise? So far, Sun has done a great job with Java although a lack of versioning support and the non-existence of a framework that enables extensibility of the language built into the platform makes drastic evolution difficult.

C# with its support for versioning via the .NET framework and the existence of attributes which can be used to extend the features of the language looks like it would in the long run be the more adaptable language. Only time will tell however if this prediction is accurate. As predicted in the original conclusion to this paper, a number of features have become common across both C# and Java since 2001. These features include generics, foreach loops, enumerations, boxing, variable length parameter lists and metadata annotations. However after years of convergence it seems that C# and Java are about to go in radically different directions. The current plans for C# 3.0 are highlighted in how to a college admission essay the Language Integrated Query (LINQ) Project which encompasses integrating a number of data oriented features including query, set operations, transformations and type inferencing directly into the C# language. Of World War 1 Dbq Essay! In combination with some of C#'s existing features like anonymous methods and nullable types, the differences between C# and Java will become more stark over the next few years in contrast to reference list the feature convergence that has been happening over the past few years. Eckel, Bruce. Thinking In Java. Prentice Hall, 2000.

The following people helped in reviewing and proofreading this article: Paul Johns, David Dagon, Dr. Yannis Smaragdakis , Dmitri Alperovitch, Dennis Lu and war 1 dbq essay Sanjay Bhatia.

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We collect information about You and computer(s) You use when You use our Services or otherwise interact with us. “Personal Information” means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc.). “Client”, “User”, “You” and “Your” refers to you, the person accessing this Website and accepting these Privacy Policy. Any use of the causes of world, above terminology or other words in the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and therefore as referring to for essay, same. HOW INFORMATION ABOUT YOU IS COLLECTED.

We collect information about You in three primary ways: Information You Provide. We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for dbq essay, and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information.

When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on reference list for essay our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for Services, we may also collect Personal Information and of world dbq essay, other information. We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of our Services. Each time You visit the an essay part, Website, Personal Information is causes war 1 automatically gathered. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of list, automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available).

For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and similar technologies. A “cookie” is causes of world war 1 dbq essay a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in pope an essay on criticism order, for example, to collect information about Your activities on the Website. The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. We need to use cookies on the Website to enhance the causes of world, user experience and pope an essay on criticism, avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests.

We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and of world, features of our Website are popular, and improve our Website and Your experience. Depending upon molly brown, Your computer, You may be able to of world dbq essay, set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of homework grids, some functionality on causes the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to an essay part 1, monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on our Website, and other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from causes war 1 dbq essay, third-party sources before initiating Your service.

We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for homework grids, Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to of world war 1 dbq essay, You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance; To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about current and future Service offerings;

To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and reference list for essay, that of causes, our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of spinal cord case, fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and causes war 1 dbq essay, offers that We believe You may find of an essay on criticism part, interest. We may contact You by war 1 dbq essay, telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from molly young, other companies.

This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. Of World? However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. Pope An Essay Part? We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about causes of world war 1 dbq essay, You to admission for community, third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of of world, disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password.

To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and write a college essay 5 page, partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about of world dbq essay, You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of admission essay, company assets, or in war 1 the unlikely event of pope an essay 1, insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in causes war 1 which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of essay for community, such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and of world war 1, collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and reference list for essay, services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to causes of world war 1, third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU.

Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to list for essay, be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of causes of world war 1 dbq essay, Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow.

When we dispose of write essay, Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to dbq essay, erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by admission essay college, a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to of world war 1, the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the homework grids, Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance.

A Partner can transfer the money to of world war 1 dbq essay, the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is brown possible to war 1 dbq essay, transfer the sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).