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Sun Tzu The Art of War essays
book review articles Byline: By MARGARET ATWOOD; Margaret Atwood is the war by author of ''The Handmaid's Tale,'' ''Bluebeard's Egg'' and the forthcoming ''Selected Poems II.'' Lead: LEAD: BELOVED By Toni Morrison. 275 pp. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. $18.95. College Board Ap Government! BELOVED By Toni Morrison. Essay On The! 275 pp. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. $18.95. ''BELOVED'' is Toni Morrison's fifth novel, and another triumph. Indeed, Ms. Morrison's versatility and technical and review, emotional range appear to know no bounds. If there were any doubts about her stature as a pre-eminent American novelist, of her own or any other generation, ''Beloved'' will put them to rest. In three words or less, it's a hair-raiser. In ''Beloved,'' Ms.
Morrison turns away from the essay war by sun tzu contemporary scene that has been her concern of late. This new novel is set after the end of the Civil War, during the period of so-called Reconstruction, when a great deal of college essay questions random violence was let loose upon blacks, both the slaves freed by Emancipation and others who had been given or had bought their freedom earlier. But there are flashbacks to essay sun tzu, a more distant period, when slavery was still a going concern in the South and the seeds for the bizarre and homework 2011, calamitous events of the novel were sown. The setting is similarly divided: the countryside near Cincinnati, where the central characters have ended up, and a slave-holding plantation in Kentucky, ironically named Sweet Home, from essay war by which they fled 18 years before the novel opens. There are many stories and review, voices in this novel, but the central one belongs to Sethe, a woman in her mid-30's, who is living in an Ohio farmhouse with her daughter, Denver, and her mother-in-law Baby Suggs. ''Beloved'' is such a unified novel that it's difficult to discuss it without giving away the plot, but it must be said at the outset that it is, among other things, a ghost story, for essay war by the farmhouse is also home to a sad, malicious and angry ghost, the homework 2011 spirit of Sethe's baby daughter, who had her throat cut under appalling circumstances 18 years before, when she was 2. We never know this child's full name, but we - and Sethe - think of her as Beloved, because that is what is on her tombstone. Sethe wanted ''Dearly Beloved,'' from the funeral service, but had only enough strength to pay for one word.
Payment was 10 minutes of sex with the tombstone engraver. This act, which is recounted early in essay sun tzu the novel, is call for research papers, a keynote for essay art of war by sun tzu the whole book: in the world of slavery and poverty, where human beings are merchandise, everything has its price, and price is tyrannical. ''Who would have thought that a little old baby could harbor so much rage?,'' Sethe thinks, but it does; breaking mirrors, making tiny handprints in cake icing, smashing dishes and manifesting itself in how to an original essay pools of blood-red light. As the on the art of war by sun tzu novel opens, the fired fuzzy gas thesis ghost is in full possession of the house, having driven away Sethe's two young sons. Old Baby Suggs, after a lifetime of slavery and a brief respite of freedom - purchased for her by the Sunday labor of her son Halle, Sethe's husband -has given up and died. Sethe lives with her memories, almost all of on the sun tzu them bad. Denver, her teen-age daughter, courts the baby ghost because, since her family has been ostracized by the neighbors, she doesn't have anyone else to play with. The supernatural element is treated, not in an ''Amityville Horror,'' watch-me-make-your-flesh-creep mode, but with magnificent practicality, like the homework 2011 ghost of Catherine Earnshaw in ''Wuthering Heights.'' All the war by sun tzu main characters in the book believe in ghosts, so it's merely natural for this one to be there.
As Baby Suggs says, ''Not a house in the country ain't packed to its rafters with some dead Negro's grief. We lucky this ghost is call for research, a baby. My husband's spirit was to come back in here? or yours? Don't talk to me. You lucky.'' In fact, Sethe would rather have the essay sun tzu ghost there than not there. It is, after all, her adored child, and any sign of it is call papers, better, for her, than nothing. This grotesque domestic equilibrium is disturbed by the arrival of Paul D., one of the ''Sweet Home men'' from Sethe's past.
The Sweet Home men were the male slaves of the establishment. Their owner, Mr. Garner, is essay sun tzu, no Simon Legree; instead he's a best-case slave-holder, treating his ''property'' well, trusting them, allowing them choice in fired gas thesis the running of his small plantation, and essay on the art of, calling them ''men'' in defiance of the neighbors, who want all male blacks to be called ''boys.'' But Mr. Garner dies, and how to create title for an, weak, sickly Mrs. Garner brings in her handiest male relative, who is known as ''the schoolteacher.'' This Goebbels-like paragon combines viciousness with intellectual pretensions; he's a sort of art of war by sun tzu master-race proponent who measures the heads of the slaves and tabulates the results to demonstrate that they are more like animals than people. Accompanying him are his two sadistic and to kill a mockingbird essay atticus, repulsive nephews. From there it's all downhill at Sweet Home, as the slaves try to escape, go crazy or are murdered. Sethe, in a trek that makes the essay on the ice-floe scene in ''Uncle Tom's Cabin'' look like a stroll around the call papers block, gets out, just barely; her husband, Halle, doesn't. Paul D. does, but has some very unpleasant adventures along the way, including a literally nauseating sojourn in a 19th-century Georgia chain gang. THROUGH the different voices and memories of the on the war by sun tzu book, including that of Sethe's mother, a survivor of the infamous slave-ship crossing, we experience American slavery as it was lived by homework 2011, those who were its objects of exchange, both at essay art of war by its best - which wasn't very good - and at its worst, which was as bad as can be imagined.
Above all, it is college ap government essay, seen as one of the essay on the art of most viciously antifamily institutions human beings have ever devised. The slaves are motherless, fatherless, deprived of their mates, their children, their kin. It is a world in which people suddenly vanish and control fired gas thesis, are never seen again, not through accident or covert operation or terrorism, but as a matter of everyday legal policy. On The! Slavery is control fired, also presented to us as a paradigm of how most people behave when they are given absolute power over essay other people. To Kill Thesis Atticus! The first effect, of course, is that they start believing in their own superiority and justifying their actions by essay sun tzu, it. The second effect is that they make a cult of the inferiority of those they subjugate. It's no coincidence that the first of the deadly sins, from which all the others were supposed to board, stem, is Pride, a sin of which Sethe is, incidentally, also accused.
In a novel that abounds in black bodies - headless, hanging from trees, frying to a crisp, locked in woodsheds for purposes of rape, or floating downstream drowned - it isn't surprising that the ''whitepeople,'' especially the essay art of men, don't come off too well. Horrified black children see whites as men ''without skin.'' Sethe thinks of them as having ''mossy teeth'' and is ready, if necessary, to bite off their faces, and worse, to avoid further mossy-toothed outrages. Resume Blast Review! There are a few whites who behave with something approaching decency. There's Amy, the young runaway indentured servant who helps Sethe in childbirth during her flight to freedom, and incidentally reminds the on the reader that the to kill a mockingbird essay 19th century, with its child labor, wage slavery and widespread and accepted domestic violence, wasn't tough only for blacks, but for all but the most privileged whites as well. There are also the essay on the war by abolitionists who help Baby Suggs find a house and homework 2011, a job after she is freed. But even the decency of these ''good'' whitepeople has a grudging side to it, and even they have trouble seeing the essay art of sun tzu people they are helping as full-fledged people, though to show them as totally free of resume blast their xenophobia and sense of superiority might well have been anachronistic. Toni Morrison is careful not to make all the art of war by sun tzu whites awful and all the blast review blacks wonderful. Sethe's black neighbors, for instance, have their own envy and scapegoating tendencies to answer for, and Paul D., though much kinder than, for on the art of war by sun tzu instance, the woman-bashers of Alice Walker's novel ''The Color Purple,'' has his own limitations and flaws.
But then, considering what he's been through, it's a wonder he isn't a mass murderer. If anything, he's a little too huggable, under the resume circumstances. Back in the present tense, in chapter one, Paul D. and Sethe make an attempt to establish a ''real'' family, whereupon the baby ghost, feeling excluded, goes berserk, but is essay on the war by, driven out by Paul D.'s stronger will. So it appears. But then, along comes a strange, beautiful, real flesh-and-blood young woman, about 20 years old, who can't seem to remember where she comes from, who talks like a young child, who has an odd, raspy voice and no lines on her hands, who takes an board essay, intense, devouring interest in Sethe, and who says her name is Beloved. Students of the supernatural will admire the way this twist is handled.
Ms. Morrison blends a knowledge of folklore - for art of sun tzu instance, in many traditions, the dead cannot return from the homework 2011 grave unless called, and on the war by sun tzu, it's the passions of the fired furnace fuzzy gas thesis living that keep them alive - with a highly original treatment. The reader is essay war by, kept guessing; there's a lot more to Beloved than any one character can see, and fired, she manages to be many things to on the art of, several people. She is a catalyst for revelations as well as self-revelations; through her we come to know not only how, but why, the to kill essay thesis original child Beloved was killed. And through her also Sethe achieves, finally, her own form of self-exorcism, her own self-accepting peace. Art Of! ''Beloved'' is written in an antiminimalist prose that is by to kill, turns rich, graceful, eccentric, rough, lyrical, sinuous, colloquial and very much to on the war by, the point. Here, for instance, is Sethe remembering Sweet Home: ''. . . suddenly there was Sweet Home rolling, rolling, rolling out call for research before her eyes, and although there was not a leaf on that farm that did not want to make her scream, it rolled itself out before her in shameless beauty. It never looked as terrible as it was and it made her wonder if hell was a pretty place too. Fire and brimstone all right, but hidden in lacy groves. Boys hanging from the most beautiful sycamores in essay on the sun tzu the world. It shamed her - remembering the wonderful soughing trees rather than the boys. Try as she might to make it otherwise, the sycamores beat out the children every time and she could not forgive her memory for that.'' In this book, the other world exists and magic works, and the prose is up to it.
If you can believe page one - and Ms. Morrison's verbal authority compels belief - you're hooked on the rest of the control fuzzy gas thesis book. THE epigraph to ''Beloved'' is from the Bible, Romans 9:25: ''I will call them my people, which were not my people; and her beloved, which was not beloved.'' Taken by itself, this might seem to favor doubt about, for instance, the extent to which Beloved was really loved, or the extent to which Sethe herself was rejected by her own community. Art Of Sun Tzu! But there is more to it than that. The passage is from a chapter in which the Apostle Paul ponders, Job-like, the ways of call papers God toward humanity, in particular the evils and inequities visible everywhere on essay on the art of, the earth. Paul goes on to talk about the resume review fact that the on the sun tzu Gentiles, hitherto despised and outcast, have now been redefined as acceptable. The passage proclaims, not rejection, but reconciliation and how to title essay, hope.
It continues: ''And it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are not my people; there shall they be called the children of the living God.'' Toni Morrison is too smart, and too much of a writer, not to on the art of war by sun tzu, have intended this context. Here, if anywhere, is her own comment on the goings-on in her novel, her final response to the measuring and dividing and excluding ''schoolteachers'' of this world. Call For Research! An epigraph to a book is essay, like a key signature in music, and ''Beloved'' is written in fired furnace fuzzy major. 'OTHER PEOPLE WENT CRAZY, WHY COULDN'T SHE?' Sethe opened the front door and sat down on the porch steps. The day had gone blue without its sun, but she could still make out the black silhouettes of trees in the meadow beyond. She shook her head from side to side, resigned to her rebellious brain. Why was there nothing it refused? No misery, no regret, no hateful picture too rotten to accept?
Like a greedy child it snatched up everything. Just once, could it say, No thank you? I just ate and can't hold another bite? I am full God damn it of two boys with mossy teeth, one sucking on my breast the other holding me down, their book-reading teacher watching and writing it up. I am still full of that, God damn it, I can't go back and add more. Add my husband to it, watching, above me in the loft - hiding close by - the one place he thought no one would look for him, looking down on essay on the art of sun tzu, what I couldn't look at at all. And not stopping them - looking and letting it happen. But my greedy brain says, Oh thanks, I'd love more - so I add more. How To Create An Original Title For An! And no sooner than I do, there is no stopping.
There is also my husband squatting by the churn smearing the butter as well as its clabber all over his face because the milk they took is on his mind. . On The War By! . . And if he was that broken then, then he is also and resume, certainly dead now. And if Paul D saw him and could not save or comfort him because the war by sun tzu iron bit was in his mouth, then there is still more that Paul D could tell me and my brain would go right ahead and take it and never say, No thank you. I don't want to know or have to remember that. I have other things to do: worry, for example, about tomorrow, about Denver, about fuzzy gas thesis Beloved, about age and sickness not to war by sun tzu, speak of love. But her brain was not interested in the future. Loaded with the past and hungry for more, it left her no room to imagine, let alone plan for, the board next day. . . . Other people went crazy, why couldn't she?
Other people's brains stopped, turned around and went on to something new, which is what must have happened to Halle. And how sweet that would have been. From ''Beloved.''
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Sun Tzu The Art of War essays
Love Medicine Louise Erdrich - Essay. Love Medicine Louise Erdrich. (Born as Karen Louise Erdrich; has also published under pseudonyms Heidi Louise and Milou North) American novelist, poet, memoirist, children's writer, and historian. The following entry presents criticism on Erdrich's novel Love Medicine (1984; expanded, 1993) through 2000. See also, Louise Erdrich Criticism . In the novel Love Medicine, Erdrich draws upon her Chippewa heritage to essay on the war by sun tzu, examine complex familial and sexual relationships among Native Americans and their conflict with white communities. Her comically eccentric characters attain mythic stature as they struggle to overcome isolation, abandonment, and exploitation.
Although Erdrich's work often deals with issues of blast concern to Native Americans, critics have noted the universality of her themes, the poetic quality of her literary voice, and her engaging authorial presence. On The! Initially published in 1984, Erdrich released a revised and expanded version of Love Medicine in 1993 to clarify events and relationships between characters, as well as strengthening links to her later works such as Tracks (1988) and The Bingo Palace (1994). Love Medicine remains critically and commercially popular and college board ap government questions has earned a notable position in the canon of American literature. Plot and on the Major Characters. Love Medicine features fourteen interconnected stories related by seven different members of the Kashpaw and Lamartine families of the Turtle Mountain Chippewa community. The first chapter of the novel, “The World's Greatest Fishermen,” opens with the death of June Kashpaw, who freezes to death as she tries to create an original for an, walk back to on the sun tzu, her reservation following a meaningless sexual encounter with a white oil worker. For Research! As the chapter progresses, Erdrich relates the reactions of June's relatives, children, and the Turtle Mountain community to her death, establishing the foundation for the rest of the art of war by narrative. Create An Original! The subsequent chapters are not arranged chronologically, but rather follow significant moments in the lives of her characters between the art of years of review 1934 and sun tzu 1984. The chapters “Saint Marie” and “Wild Geese” follow Nector and Marie Kashpaw, who at times act as June's parents following the death of her mother.
Nector was sent to public school while his twin brother Eli stayed home on the reservation and, as a result, Eli has been unable to fully integrate himself into white culture. In Marie's early adolescence, she attempted a social climb by board becoming a nun in a convent near the reservation. After battling with the sadistic Sister Leopolda, who believes that Marie is possessed by the Devil, Marie leaves the convent and marries Nector. Their marriage is tumultuous, and Nector later begins an affair with Lulu Nanapush, whose past is related in on the art of sun tzu, “The Island,” a chapter added to the 1993 expanded edition. “The Beads” opens in board essay, 1948 with June in her childhood just after Marie and Nector took her into their home. The chapters “Lulu's Boys,” “The Plunge of the Brave,” and on the art of sun tzu “Flesh and homework 2011 Blood” all take place in 1957, primarily focusing on on the sun tzu the strained relationships between Nector, the promiscuous Lulu, and the overly socially conscious Marie. “A Bridge” and blast review “The Red Convertible” take place between 1973 and 1974 and follow Henry Lamartine, the son of Lulu and her former brother-in-law, Beverly. Henry is on war by sun tzu his way back to the reservation, returning after being released from a Vietnam prisoner-of-war camp, when he meets Albertine, a niece of June's who is running away from home. The bonds between Nector, Lulu, and Marie are further explored in “Love Medicine” and “The Good Tears.” Lipsha Morrissey, who was raised by Marie, tries to heal the for an essay breach between Marie and Nector caused by Nector's attraction to essay art of war by sun tzu, Lulu in the retirement center in which they live.
Unwittingly, as Marie tries to get Nector to eat the control furnace fuzzy gas thesis turkey hearts prepared by Lipsha as a “love medicine,” Nector chokes to death. “The Good Tears” ends with Lulu and Marie's reconciliation, with Marie acting as Lulu's nurse, putting the on the art of war by “tears” in her eyes following Lulu's cataract surgery and Nector's death. Control Fired Furnace Gas Thesis! The final three chapters—“The Tomahawk Factory,” “Lyman's Luck,” and “Crossing the Water”—follow Lyman Lamartine, Nector and art of Lulu's son, and to kill essay Lipsha, who discovers that June was his birth mother. The stories in Love Medicine examine the essay on the art of war by lives of individuals in the Turtle Mountain community, tracking both their physical moves to stay or leave the college ap government essay reservation and their spiritual moves to essay on the, accommodate a pervasive American culture or remain true to blast review, the lifestyle of their Chippewa ancestors. In part, the linked sections chart the health and success of the on the art of war by characters who are in the process of this movement. To Kill A Mockingbird Essay Thesis Atticus! Chapters such as “The World's Greatest Fishermen” and “The Island” concentrate on a variety of thematic concerns such as abandonment, promiscuity, alienation, the devastating effects of alcoholism and suicide in Native American communities, and vicissitudes of familial relationships. Characters like Eli and Lyman reflect the displacement and isolation of Native Americans within American cultural, socioeconomic, and essay sun tzu political landscapes. Eli isolates himself on the reservation, not acknowledging the presence of white culture, while Lyman dreams of building a casino to attract white gamblers to the area.
However, the how to create an original title essay novel also focuses on essay war by more positive aspects of the tribal community, including the healing power of humor, familial and cultural bonds, compassion, hope, and redemption. Despite their lifelong struggle surrounding Nector—who tries to balance himself between white and questions Native American culture—Marie and Lulu are able to reconcile their differences and live together in the Native American retirement community. Critics have explored the archetypal image of the Native American trickster in Love Medicine, which Erdrich embodies in the characters of Lulu and Lipsha. Commentators have additionally noted that Erdrich's use of multiple narrators illustrates the complex relationships amongst the characters while also recreating the form of the on the war by sun tzu Native American oral narrative. Love Medicine has received an overwhelmingly positive critical assessment since its initial publication, earning several accolades and honors, including the to kill atticus National Book Critics Circle Award in essay art of war by, 1984. The majority of the reviews and critical commentary on the novel have focused on Erdrich's unique narrative technique, which employs multiple narrators, overlapping themes, and nonlinear chronology. This nontraditional structure has earned Love Medicine favorable comparisons to William Faulkner's As I Lay Dying and Absalom, Absalom! Erdrich's continuing use and development of characters in the Turtle Mountain region has also been praised for its similarity to Faulkner's creation of Yoknapatawpha County, Mississippi. Some critics have complained that Erdrich's use of create alternating narrators interrupts the narrative flow and makes the text needlessly confusing, while others have lauded Erdrich's characterization and the thematic links between the art of war by narrators. Fired Furnace! Placing Love Medicine within a specific literary genre has been widely debated among scholars and sun tzu academics, with some alternately referring to the story as a novel, a collection of for research papers stories, or a short story sequence.
Although Erdrich refers to each section as a “chapter,” reviewers have noted that many of the essay on the art of war by sections originally appeared in other publications as short stories. Homework 2011! Hertha D. Wong has asserted that the structure of Love Medicine constitutes a “short story cycle,” noting that, “[a]lthough each of the short stories in Love Medicine is inextricably interrelated to a network of other stories beyond its covers, the essay on the art of sun tzu sequence of stories within the book has its own coherence, just as each story has its own integrity.” Access our Love Medicine Study Guide for Free. Jacklight (poetry) 1984. Love Medicine (novel) 1984; expanded edition, 1993.
The Beet Queen (novel) 1986. Baptism of Desire (poetry) 1989. The Crown of Columbus [with Michael Dorris] (novel) 1991. The Bingo Palace (novel) 1994. The Blue Jay's Dance: A Birth Year (memoir) 1995.
Grandmother's Pigeon [illustrations by Jim LaMarche] (juvenilia) 1996. Tales of Burning Love (novel) 1996. The Antelope Wife (novel) 1998. The Birchbark House (juvenilia) 1999. The Last Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse (novel) 2001. Master Butchers Singing Club (novel) 2002. Books and Islands in Ojibwe Country (memoir and history) 2003. Original Fire: Selected and New Poems (poetry) 2003. Ruth Doan MacDougall (review date 27 November 1984) SOURCE: MacDougall, Ruth Doan. “Engaging First Novel Records 50 Years on a Chippewa Reservation.” Christian Science Monitor 77, no. 3 (27 November 1984): 33.
[ In the following review, MacDougall praises Erdrich's characterizations in Love Medicine, calling the work “a funny, mystical and down-to-earth” novel. ] I grew up with [my mother] in an aqua-and-silver trailer, set next to college board ap government essay, the old house on the land my great-grandparents were allotted when the government decided to turn Indians into farmers. … The main house, where all of my aunts and uncles grew up, is one big square room with a cooking shack tacked onto essay, it. The house is a. (The entire section is 540 words.) Get Free Access to fired furnace fuzzy, this Love Medicine Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and essay on the art of war by thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and control fired furnace gas thesis essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and on the art of sun tzu characters so you can understand them on your first read-through.
Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for control fired fuzzy, free. Linda Taylor (review date 22 February 1985) SOURCE: Taylor, Linda. “On- and essay war by sun tzu Off-Reservation.” Times Literary Supplement, no. Board Ap Government! 4273 (22 February 1985): 196. [ In the following review, Taylor compliments Erdrich's narrative structure and examination of issues relevant to Native Americans in art of sun tzu, Love Medicine.] Set in North Dakota and depicting the homework 2011 lives of the sometimes loosely connected, sometimes over-connected members of the Kashpaw and on the Lamartine families. (Chippewa Indians interbred with white trash), Love Medicine is a novel about survival, about going home (both locally and metaphysically), about true and false spirits (gods, demons, powers).
With seven narrators and an occasional word from the. (The entire section is 925 words.) Get Free Access to questions, this Love Medicine Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: Gleason, William. “‘Her Laugh an Ace’: The Function of Humor in Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine. ” American Indian Culture and Research Journal 11, no. On The War By Sun Tzu! 3 (1987): 51-73. [ In the following essay, Gleason examines how humor is used as a metaphor and as a tool for emotional growth in Love Medicine.]
We have one priceless universal trait, we Americans. That trait is our humor. What a pity it is fired furnace gas thesis that it is not more prevalent in our art. Many early reviewers of essay on the war by sun tzu Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine treat the novel as though it were at heart a tragic account of. (The entire section is 8744 words.) Nora Barry and resume blast review Mary Prescott (essay date winter 1989) SOURCE: Barry, Nora, and Mary Prescott. “The Triumph of the Brave.” Critique 30, no. 2 (winter 1989): 123-38. [ In the following essay, Barry and Prescott examine gender and essay on the sun tzu social roles within Native American communities in Love Medicine, contending that “Erdrich challenges the romantic vision of Native Americans as destined for cultural oblivion.” ] In Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine, winner of the National Book Critics Circle Award in 1984, native American Nector Kashpaw recalls modeling for the painting Plunge of the Brave. “There I was, jumping off a cliff, naked of course, down into a rocky river.
Certain death.” The painting. (The entire section is 7955 words.) Louise Flavin (essay date fall 1989) SOURCE: Flavin, Louise. “Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine : Over Time and Distance.” Critique 31, no. 1 (fall 1989): 55-64. [ In the create an original title following essay, Flavin asserts that Love Medicine is a novel about “disintegration and breaking connections, and of bonding and restoration.” ] Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine appeared in on the war by sun tzu, 1984, just fifteen years after the Pulitzer Prize was awarded to N. Scott Momaday for his novel of contemporary Indian American life, House Made of thesis Dawn. Momaday's novel is generally recognized as setting off the renaissance of written imaginative native American works that followed in on the, the next two decades. Homework 2011! This span of. (The entire section is 4977 words.) SOURCE: Magalaner, Marvin. Essay Art Of Sun Tzu! “Louise Erdrich: Of Cars, Time, and the River.” In American Woman Writing Fiction: Memory, Identity, Family, Space, edited by Mickey Pearlman, pp. 95-108.
Lexington: The University Press of fired furnace fuzzy Kentucky, 1989. [ In the following essay, Magalaner maintains that Erdrich's primary focus in Love Medicine is on on the art of her characters and their relationships within the Turtle Mountain community. Atticus! ] Love Medicine marks a new approach to the treatment of the American Indian in fiction. Louise Erdrich's Chippewa families on on the war by sun tzu a twentieth-century reservation in the West bear no resemblance to fuzzy, the solemn “braves and squaws” of cowboy and Indian. (The entire section is 5882 words.) SOURCE: Silberman, Robert. On The Art Of Sun Tzu! “Opening the Text: Love Medicine and the Return of the how to create title Native American Women.” In Narrative Chance: Postmodern Discourse on essay art of sun tzu Native American Indian Literatures, edited by Gerald Vizenor, pp. 101-20.
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1989. [ In the following essay, Silberman places Love Medicine within the context of late twentieth-century Native American literature, arguing that Erdrich's novel signals a break with traditional modern Native American narratives. ] Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine opens with June Kashpaw, middle-aged Chippewa woman, wasting time in the oil boom town of essay Williston, North Dakota. (The entire section is 8044 words.) Lydia A. Schultz (essay date October 1991) SOURCE: Schultz, Lydia A. “Fragments and Ojibwe Stories: Narrative Strategies in Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine. ” College Literature 18, no. 3 (October 1991): 80-95. [ In the following essay, Schultz explores the war by sun tzu function of multiperspectivity in Love Medicine.]
In the early part of the twentieth century, multiperspectivity in fiction was seen as elitist and experimental. Many modernist works—T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land (1922), Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway (1925), William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury (1929)—use multiperspectival narration to depict the world as fragmentary, disrupted, and chaotic. Modernist uses of.
(The entire section is an original essay 7703 words.) SOURCE: Owens, Louis. “Erdrich and Dorris's Mixedbloods and Multiple Narratives.” In Other Destinies: Understanding the American Indian Novel, pp. 192-224. Norman: University of on the war by Oklahoma Press, 1992. [ In the an original following excerpt, Owens discusses the dominant thematic concerns of Love Medicine, particularly the novel's examination of race and religion. ] Despite the importance of N. Scott Momaday's Pulitzer Prize for House Made of Dawn in art of sun tzu, 1969, no American Indian author has achieved such immediate and enormous success as Louise Erdrich with her first novel, Love Medicine. A best-seller, Love Medicine not only outsold any previous novel by an. (The entire section is 6036 words.) SOURCE: Sarris, Greg. “Reading Louise Erdrich: Love Medicine as Home Medicine.” In Keeping Slug Woman Alive: A Holistic Approach to American Indian Texts, pp.
115-45. Berkeley: University of to kill thesis California Press, 1993. [ In the following essay, Sarris offers a critical reading of Love Medicine, using Erdrich's text to explore aspects of Native American literature. ] “Your grandmother didn't want to be Indian,” my Auntie Violet remarked as she put down the photograph of essay my grandmother I had given her. She leaned forward in her chair, as if for a closer inspection, one last look at the picture, then sat back with resolve. “Nope,” she said, “that. (The entire section is 13883 words.)
Jeanne Marie Zeck (essay date fall 1995) SOURCE: Zeck, Jeanne Marie. “Erdrich's Love Medicine. ” Explicator 54, no. 1 (fall 1995): 58-60. [ In the following essay, Zeck examines the sensual relationship between the characters of Eli and Marie in Love Medicine.] In the chapter of Louise Erdrich's novel Love Medicine entitled “The Beads,” Eli plays the role of the father to Marie's children when Nector is absent. Review! Erdrich suggests, through a brief scene dense with sexual imagery, that Eli and Marie are June's spiritual parents. Essay War By! In a subtle, tender scene, they make love without touching, and June is the fruit of their union. On one particular evening in 1948, Eli stays late.
(The entire section is 1145 words.) Barbara L. Pittman (essay date December 1995) SOURCE: Pittman, Barbara L. “Cross-Cultural Reading and to kill thesis Generic Transformations: The Chronotope of the Road in Erdrich's Love Medicine. ” American Literature 67, no. Essay On The Art Of War By Sun Tzu! 4 (December 1995): 777-92. [ In the following essay, Pittman explores how Erdrich uses time and space to create a narrative world in homework 2011, Love Medicine, noting that “ [ d ] iscovering the literary and cultural features essential to essay sun tzu, a creative understanding of Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine means recognizing the literary and cultural chronotopes present in the work.” ] Writing from within two literary traditions, as all Native American writers do, Louise Erdrich writes both.
(The entire section is 6523 words.) Jeanne Rosier Smith (essay date 1997) SOURCE: Smith, Jeanne Rosier. An Original Title For An Essay! “Comic Liberators and World-Healers: The Interwoven Trickster Narratives of Louise Erdrich.” In Writing Tricksters: Mythic Gambols in American Ethnic Literature, pp. 71-110. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. [ In the following excerpt, Smith investigates Erdrich's use of the art of war by sun tzu Native American trickster archetype in Love Medicine.] The trickster's constant chatterings and antics remind us that life is homework 2011 endlessly narrative, prolific and openended. —William Hynes Mythical Trickster Figures. From the first publication of essay on the war by sun tzu Love Medicine in 1984. (The entire section is 4954 words.)
Susan Farrell (essay date winter 1998) SOURCE: Farrell, Susan. “Erdrich's Love Medicine. ” Explicator 56, no. 2 (winter 1998): 109-12. [ In the following essay, Farrell provides an how to create an original title for an essay interpretation of the symbolism behind June's death in essay on the art of, the “The World's Greatest Fishermen” chapter of homework 2011 Love Medicine.] Set mostly on a Chippewa reservation in North Dakota, Louise Erdrich's first novel, Love Medicine, opens on the morning before Easter Sunday with the death of June Kashpaw, an event that sets into motion both memories and actual returns to essay war by, the reservation by the other characters. Erdrich's Easter setting is create essay important, as is the title of the war by sun tzu first section. Fired Gas Thesis! “The World's Greatest Fishermen,”. (The entire section is 1624 words.) Karen Janet McKinney (essay date winter 1999) SOURCE: McKinney, Karen Janet. “False Miracles and Failed Vision in Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine. ” Critique 40, no.
2 (winter 1999): 152-60. [ In the following essay, McKinney explores the negative influence of Catholic missionaries on the Chippewa people and the impact of Catholicism in Erdrich's Love Medicine.] In the last decade of the art of sun tzu twentieth century, American culture seems increasingly at war with itself; racial and cultural divisions appear to be at once more marked and more insidious than ever before. We read the endless essays in homework 2011, “liberal” journals, listen to reactionary shoutings on the radio, and turn with disgusted disbelief from the. (The entire section is on the war by sun tzu 4125 words.) Brian Sutton (essay date spring 1999) SOURCE: Sutton, Brian. “Erdrich's Love Medicine. ” Explicator 57, no.
3 (spring 1999): 187-89. [ In the following essay, Sutton discusses the recurring image of the red convertible in Love Medicine.] Literary critic Marvin Magalaner has stated that in Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine, “water is the all-pervasive symbolic link with the past […] and review with the natural environment,” whereas “the unnatural present is epitomized by the automobile” (101). But in art of sun tzu, the chapter of Love Medicine entitled “The Red Convertible”—a chapter often anthologized separately as a short story—just the opposite a mockingbird essay atticus is the essay art of war by case: The automobile is associated. (The entire section is 1273 words.)
Karah Stokes (essay date summer 1999) SOURCE: Stokes, Karah. “What about the Sweetheart?: The ‘Different Shape’ of Anishinabe Two Sisters Stories in Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine and homework 2011 Tales of Burning Love. ” MELUS 24, no. 2 (summer 1999): 89-105. [ In the following essay, Stokes explores the role of essay on the art of war by sun tzu Anishinabe culture, mythology, and storytelling in Love Medicine.] Even though she grew up off-reservation speaking English, and writes a novel, a European form, Louise Erdrich's work is informed and ordered by review elements of on the Anishinabe as well as of German-American, Catholic, and Midwestern cultures. To Kill A Mockingbird Essay Thesis Atticus! These elements tantalize non-Anishinabe readers by sun tzu lending a different shape to her fiction. (The entire section is 7223 words.) SOURCE: Gish, Robert F. “Life into Death, Death into create title for an, Life: Hunting as Metaphor and Motive in Love Medicine. Essay War By Sun Tzu! ” In The Chippewa Landscape of Louise Erdrich, edited by Allan Chavkin, pp. 67-83. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 1999. [ In the following essay, Gish identifies how hunting functions as a central motif in Love Medicine.]
Now therefore take, I pray thee, thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow, and college board go out to the field, and take me some venison; And make me savory meat, such as I love, and bring it to me, that I may eat; that my soul may bless thee before I die. (The entire section is art of sun tzu 6357 words.) SOURCE: Chavkin, Allan. “Vision and Revision in Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine. ” In The Chippewa Landscape of Louise Erdrich, edited by Allan Chavkin, pp. 84-116. A Mockingbird Thesis Atticus! Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 1999. [ In the essay war by sun tzu following essay, Chavkin compares and board questions contrasts Erdrich's original version of Love Medicine with the 1993 expanded edition, noting similarities and differences throughout the text. ] Love Medicine (1984) made Louise Erdrich famous almost overnight.
This novel prompted an unusual amount of essay on the art of sun tzu critical attention, won the to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus National Book Critics Circle Award, and has since become a work frequently anthologized and taught in on the art of war by, college. (The entire section is 12250 words.) SOURCE: Ratcliffe, Krista. “A Rhetoric of Classroom Denial: Resisting Resistance to Alcohol Questions While Teaching Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine. ” In The Languages of how to create an original for an essay Addiction, edited by Jane Lilienfeld and Jeffrey Oxford, pp. 105-21. New York: St. Essay On The War By Sun Tzu! Martin's Press, 1999. [ In the following essay, Ratcliffe considers Erdrich's portrayal of addiction in blast review, Love Medicine and discusses some of the difficulties she had teaching the novel—a problem she refers to on the war by sun tzu, as “classroom denial.” ] In pedagogy scholarship, the term “resistance” functions as an antanaclasis; that is, the term has two very different definitions that emerge from competing.
(The entire section is 6012 words.) Jason P. Mitchell (essay date spring 2000) SOURCE: Mitchell, Jason P. “Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine, Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian, and the (De)Mythologizing of the resume review American West.” Critique 41, no. 3 (spring 2000): 290-304. [ In the following essay, Mitchell explores the ways in which Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian and Erdrich's Love Medicine debunk the mythology of the American West. ] “Fighting; his way with knife and gun,” the Texas cowboy was evolved, a fearless rider, a workman of sublime self-confidence, unequaled in the technique and essay on the art of sun tzu tricks of call for research “cowpunching,” the most accurate on the trigger and essay war by sun tzu the last to leave untasted the control furnace gas thesis glass which the. (The entire section is 6998 words.) SOURCE: Sands, Kathleen M. “ Love Medicine : Voices and Margins.” In Louise Erdrich's “Love Medicine”: A Casebook, edited by Hertha D. Sweet Wong, pp. 35-42. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
[ In the following essay, Sands considers stylistic aspects of essay on the art of sun tzu Love Medicine, maintaining that “ultimately it is a novel, a solid, nailed-down, compassionate, and homework 2011 coherent narrative that uses sophisticated techniques toward traditional ends.” ] Love Medicine by Louise Erdrich is a novel of hard edges, multiple voices, disjointed episodes, erratic tone shifts, bleak landscapes, eccentric characters, unresolved antagonisms, incomplete memories. It. (The entire section is essay art of sun tzu 3344 words.) Beidler, Peter G. “Three Student Guides to Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine. ” American Indian Culture and Research Journal 16, no. 4 (1992): 167-73.
Beidler presents three guides for the teaching and understanding of Love Medicine. Reid, E. Shelley. “The Stories We Tell: Louise Erdrich's Identity Narratives.” MELUS 25, nos. 3-4 (fall-winter 2000): 65-86. Reid discusses the function of Erdrich's “identity narratives,” drawing particular attention to Love Medicine. Wong, Hertha D. “Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine : Narrative Communities and the Short Story. (The entire section is 262 words.) Love Medicine Homework Help Questions. Since Lipsha Morrissey narrates chapter thirteen of Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine and undergoes a kind of moral and physical change, he can properly be called the protagonist of this chapter. . Chapter thirteen of college ap government essay Love Medicine by Louise Erdrich is told from the point of view of Lipsha Morrissey; he was adopted by the Kashpaws, whom he calls grandma and grandpa and whom he loves. We learn. In my mind, I think that a dominant theme in both works is the idea of exploring how the individual experience is on the art of war by sun tzu one that needs to be revered in all of its different forms.
Hughes' poem is quite. Louise Erdich's Love Medicine, and Langston Hughes' Theme for English B, are written about people who are searching for an identity—where they are equals. In both poems there is board ap government essay a theme of. The resolution of chapter thirteen of Love Medicine by Louise Erdrich is on the probably everything that happens after the funeral and Nector Kashpaw's reappearance at his wife's bedside and after.
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Troubleshooting VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP) View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices. This document provides information on how to troubleshoot VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP). There are no specific requirements for this document. This document is not restricted to specific software and hardware versions. Refer to Cisco Technical Tips Conventions for war by sun tzu more information on to kill essay atticus document conventions. This section discusses some common troubleshooting situations for VTP. Unable to See VLAN Details in the show run Command Output. Configuration changes in CatOS are written to NVRAM immediately after a change is made. In contrast, Cisco IOS ® Software does not save configuration changes to NVRAM unless you issue the copy running-config startup-config command.
VTP client and server systems require VTP updates from other VTP servers to be immediately saved in NVRAM without user intervention. The VTP update requirements are met by essay sun tzu the default CatOS operation, but the Cisco IOS update model requires an furnace fuzzy alternative update operation. For this alteration, a VLAN database was introduced into essay war by sun tzu, Cisco IOS Software as a method to a mockingbird essay thesis immediately save VTP updates for VTP clients and servers. Art Of War By! In some versions of software, this VLAN database is in the form of a separate file in NVRAM, called the homework 2011, vlan.dat file. You can view VTP/VLAN information that is stored in the vlan.dat file for the VTP client or VTP server if you issue the show vtp status command. VTP server/client mode switches do not save the entire VTP/VLAN configuration to the startup config file in the NVRAM when you issue the copy running-config startup-config command on essay art of war by sun tzu these systems. It saves the configuration in to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus the vlan.dat file. This does not apply to systems that run as VTP transparent. VTP transparent systems save the essay art of, entire VTP/VLAN configuration to the startup config file in to kill NVRAM when you issue the copy running-config startup-config command. For example, if you delete vlan.dat file after the configuration of the VTP in server or client mode and reload the switch, it resets the VTP configuration to default settings.
However, if you configure VTP in transparent mode, delete the vlan.dat and reload the switch. This retains the art of, VTP configuration. This is an example of a default VTP configuration: You can configure normal-range VLANs (2 through 1000) when the switch is in either VTP server or transparent mode. However, you can only how to create an original title for an, configure extended-range VLANs (1025 through 4094) in essay on the war by sun tzu VTP transparent switches. In order to display all the VLAN configurations, the VLAN ID, name, and so forth, that are stored in the binary file, you must issue the show vlan command. You can display the VTP information, the mode, domain, and so forth, with use of the show vtp status command. The VLAN information and the VTP information are not displayed in the show running-config command output when the switch is in the VTP server/client mode. This is blast review, normal behavior of the switch. Switches that are in VTP transparent mode display the VLAN and VTP configurations in the show running-config command output because this information is also stored in the configuration text file. Note: Extended-range VLANs are not supported by 3500XL . The 2900XL and 3500XL can use only essay art of, VLANs in college board essay the range of 1 to 1001, and they do not support extended-range VLANs.
If you upgrade the on the, software of the switch, it does not bring an enhancement to support the configuration of an original title extended-range VLANs. Catalyst Switches Do Not Exchange VTP Information. VTP allows switches to advertise VLAN information between other members of the on the art of sun tzu, same VTP domain. VTP allows a consistent view of the switched network across all switches. There are several reasons why the VLAN information can fail to homework 2011 be exchanged.
Verify these items if switches that run VTP fail to exchange VLAN information: VTP information only passes through a trunk port. Make sure that all ports that interconnect switches are configured as trunks and are actually trunking. Make sure that if EtherChannels are created between two switches, only on the art of sun tzu, Layer 2 EtherChannels propagate VLAN information. Make sure that the VLANs are active in all the how to create an original title essay, devices. One of the essay, switches must be the VTP server in a VTP domain. All VLAN changes must be done on create an original for an this switch in order to have them propagated to the VTP clients. The VTP domain name must match and essay on the art of war by sun tzu, it is case sensitive. CISCO and cisco are two different domain names. Make sure that no password is set between the server and client. If any password is set, make sure that the college board ap government questions, password is the essay on the sun tzu, same on both sides.
Every switch in the VTP domain must use the same VTP version. VTP V1 and VTP V2 are not compatible on switches in the same VTP domain. Do not enable VTP V2 unless every switch in the VTP domain supports V2. Note: VTP V2 is disabled by homework 2011 default on VTP V2-capable switches. When you enable VTP V2 on a switch, every VTP V2-capable switch in the VTP domain enables V2. You can only configure the version on switches in VTP server or transparent mode. Switches that operate in transparent mode drop VTP advertisements if they are not in the same VTP domain.
The extended-range VLANs are not propagated. Therefore, you must configure extended-range VLANs manually on each network device. Note: In the future, the Catalyst 6500 Cisco IOS Software switches support VTP Version 3. This version is able to transmit extended-range VLANs. So far, VTP Version 3 is only supported on CatOS. Refer to the Understanding How VTP Version 3 Works section of Configuring VTP for more information on VTP Version 3. The Security Association Identifier (SAID) values must be unique. SAID is a user-configurable, 4-byte VLAN identifier. The SAID identifies traffic that belongs to a particular VLAN. On The Art Of! The SAID also determines to which VLAN each packet is switched. The SAID value is 100,000 plus the VLAN number.
These are two examples: The SAID for VLAN 8 is 100008. The SAID for VLAN 4050 is 104050. The updates from a VTP server do not get updated on fired furnace a client if the client already has a higher VTP revision number. Essay On The! Also, the homework 2011, client does not allow these updates to flow to its downstream VTP clients if the client has a higher revision number than that which the VTP server sends.
Catalyst Switch Automatically Changes VTP Mode from Client to Transparent. Some Catalyst Layer 2 and Layer 3 fixed configuration switches change the VTP mode automatically from client to transparent with this error message: Either of these two reasons can cause the automatic VTP mode change in these switches: More VLANs run on the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) than the switch can support. Catalyst Layer 2 and Layer 3 fixed configuration switches support a different maximum number of sun tzu instances of STP with the use of papers per-VLAN spanning tree+ (PVST+). For example, the Catalyst 2940 supports four instances of STP in PVST+ mode, while the on the art of war by sun tzu, Catalyst 3750 supports 128 instances of STP in PVST+ mode. If more than the maximum number of resume VLANs is defined in essay on the the VTP, the VLANs that remain operate with STP disabled. If the number of instances of STP that is already in how to create an original title for an essay use is greater than the maximum number, you can disable STP on one of the VLANs and enable it on the VLAN where you want STP to run. Issue the no spanning-tree vlan vlan-id global configuration command in on the order to disable STP on a specific VLAN.
Then, issue the spanning-tree vlan vlan-id global configuration command in order to enable STP on a mockingbird essay thesis atticus the desired VLAN. Note: Switches that do not run STP still forward the on the art of war by sun tzu, bridge protocol data units (BPDUs) that they receive. In this way, the other switches on the VLAN that have a running STP instance can break loops. Therefore, STP must run on enough switches in order to break all the essay thesis atticus, loops in essay war by the network. For example, at least one switch on each loop in the VLAN must run STP. College Ap Government Questions! You do not need to run STP on all switches in the VLAN. Art Of War By Sun Tzu! However, if you run STP only on a minimal set of switches, a change to the network can introduce a loop into the network and can result in a broadcast storm. Reduce the number of VLANs that are configured to a number that the switch supports.
Configure the board ap government essay questions, IEEE 802.1s Multiple STP (MSTP) on the switch in essay on the order to map multiple VLANs to a single STP instance. Use switches and/or images (Enhanced Image [EI]) which support a greater number of VLANs. The switch receives more VLANs from a connected switch than the control fired fuzzy gas thesis, switch can support. An automatic VTP mode change also can occur if the switch receives a VLAN configuration database message that contains more than a set number of VLANs. This normally happens in Catalyst Layer 2 and Layer 3 fixed configuration switches when they are connected to a VTP domain that has more VLANs than are supported locally. Configure the allowed VLAN list on the trunk port of the connected switch in essay art of war by order to restrict the number of VLANs that are passed to the client switch. Enable pruning on the VTP server switch. Use switches and/or images (EI) which support a greater number of VLANs. Data Traffic Blocked between VTP Domains.
Sometimes it is papers, required to on the connect to switches that belong to two different VTP domains. For Research! For example, there are two switches called Switch1 and essay war by, Switch2. Switch1 belongs to homework 2011 VTP domain cisco1 and Switch2 belongs to VTP domain cisco2. When you configure trunk between these two switches with the Dynamic Trunk Negotiation (DTP), the trunk negotiation fails and the trunk between the switches does not form, because the DTP sends the art of sun tzu, VTP domain name in how to create title for an a DTP packet. Because of this, the data traffic does not pass between the switches.
It is possible that you can also see this error message. Note: Some of the switches do not show this error message. The solution for this issue is to manually force the trunking instead in order to rely on the DTP. Configure the trunk ports between the switches with the switchport mode trunk command. CatOS Switch Changes to VTP Transparent Mode, VTP-4-UNSUPPORTEDCFGRCVD: A recent change in essay art of war by sun tzu CatOS incorporated a protective feature that causes a CatOS switch to go into VTP transparent mode in order to prevent the possibility of a switch reset because of a watchdog timeout. This change is documented in homework 2011 these Cisco bug IDs: How Do I Determine If My Switch Might Be Affected? The watchdog timeout can occur if these two conditions are met:
The Token Ring VLAN (1003) is essay sun tzu, translated to VLAN 1. You make a change in VLAN 1. Issue the show vlan command on board the Catalyst in order to essay on the art of observe the a mockingbird essay atticus, Token Ring VLAN translation. This is an example of sun tzu show vlan command output: How Does CatOS Version 6.3(3) Protect My Switch from a Watchdog Timeout? There is a mockingbird thesis, a protective feature in order to on the sun tzu prevent a watchdog timeout in this CatOS version.
The Catalyst switch switches from VTP server or client to VTP transparent mode. How Do I Determine If My Switch Has Gone to VTP Transparent Mode in Order to Protect Against a Watchdog Timeout? Your switch has gone to VTP transparent mode if the logging level for how to an original title for an essay the VTP is raised to 4. You see this message when the essay on the art of war by sun tzu, switchover occurs: What Are the Negative Effects When the Switch Goes to VTP Transparent Mode? If pruning is enabled, the fired furnace fuzzy gas thesis, trunks go down. If the trunks go down and no other ports are in that VLAN, the VLAN interface in the installed Multilayer Switch Feature Card (MSFC) goes down. If these effects occur, and this switch is in the core of your network, your network can be negatively affected. Where Does the Unsupported VTP Configuration Come From? Any Cisco IOS Software-based switch, such as the switches in this list, can supply the unsupported VTP configuration:
A Catalyst 2900/3500XL. A Cisco IOS Software Catalyst 6500. A Cisco IOS Software-based Catalyst 4000. These products translate the 1003 VLAN to VLAN 1 by default. The solution in CatOS-based switches enables the switches to handle this translated information properly. The solution for the Cisco IOS Software-based switches is to remove this default translation and match the behavior of the CatOS-based switches. These are the integrated fixed versions that are currently available: If you cannot upgrade to images that have these fixes integrated, you can modify the configuration in the Cisco IOS Software-based switches. Use this procedure if the switch is sun tzu, a VTP server: The 1002 VLAN can be translated, but you can also remove it if you include this in your configuration: When Exactly Does My Switch Change to VTP Transparent Mode?
Some confusion exists about when this switchover to VTP transparent mode occurs. The scenarios in this section provide examples of when the switchover can happen. These are the initial conditions: Both the Catalyst 6500 and the Catalyst 3500XL are VTP servers with the same VTP configuration revision number. Both servers have the same VTP domain name and create an original essay, the same VTP password, if the password is configured. The Catalyst 3500XL has the translated Token Ring VLAN. You start the servers while they are disconnected. If you connect these two switches, the Catalyst 6500 goes to VTP transparent mode.
Of course, this also happens if the Cisco 3500XL has a higher VTP configuration revision number than the Catalyst 6500 configuration revision number. Moreover, if the switch to VTP transparent mode occurs when you physically connect the two switches, you can reasonably assume that the change would also occur if you booted the Catalyst 6500 for the first time while the switch was already connected. These are the initial conditions: The Catalyst 6500 is a VTP server. The Catalyst 3500XL is a VTP client. The Catalyst 3500XL has a higher VTP configuration revision number than the Catalyst 6500 configuration revision number. Both switches have the same VTP domain and the same VTP password, if the on the art of sun tzu, password is resume blast review, configured. The Catalyst 3500XL has the translated Token Ring VLAN.
You start the on the sun tzu, servers while they are disconnected. If you connect these two switches, the Catalyst 6500 goes to VTP transparent mode. In this scenario, if the Catalyst 3500XL has a lower configuration revision number than the Catalyst 6500 configuration revision number, the Catalyst 6500 does not switch to VTP transparent mode. Gas Thesis! If the Catalyst 3500XL has the same configuration revision number, the Catalyst 6500 does not go to VTP transparent mode. However, the translation is still present in the Catalyst 3500XL. What Is the Quickest Way to Recover After I Notice the Translation in My Network? Even if you correct the Token Ring VLAN information in one switch, such as the switch that malfunctioned, the information can propagate throughout your network. You can use the show vlan command in essay on the art of order to determine if this occurred. Therefore, the quickest way to homework 2011 recover is to perform these steps: Take a Cisco IOS Software-based switch, such as a Catalyst XL that is essay sun tzu, connected to the network, and homework 2011, change the essay art of war by sun tzu, switch to a VTP server.
Remove the resume, translated VLANs. After you apply the on the sun tzu, change in the switch, reconnect the switch to how to an original for an essay the network. The change should be propagated to all the other VTP servers and essay art of sun tzu, clients. You can use the college, show vlan command in order to verify that the translation is gone in the network. At this point, you should be able to on the war by sun tzu change the affected CatOS 6.3(3) switch back to a VTP server. Note: The Catalyst XL switches do not support as many VLANs as the Catalyst 6500s support. Ensure that all the VLANs in the Catalyst 6500 exist in the Catalyst XL switch before you reconnect them. For example, you do not want to connect a Catalyst 3548XL with 254 VLANs and a higher VTP configuration revision number to a Catalyst 6500 that has 500 VLANs configured. How a Recently Inserted Switch Can Cause Network Problems. This problem occurs when you have a large switched domain that is all in the same VTP domain, and you want to add one switch in the network.
This switch was previously used in the lab, and a good VTP domain name was entered. The switch was configured as a VTP client and was connected to the rest of the network. Then, you brought the ISL link up to the rest of the network. In just a few seconds, the whole network was down. How did this happen?
The configuration revision number of the college board ap government, switch that you inserted was higher than the configuration revision number of the VTP domain. Therefore, your recently introduced switch, with almost no configured VLANs, erased all VLANs through the essay art of sun tzu, VTP domain. This occurs whether the switch is a VTP client or a VTP server. Blast! A VTP client can erase VLAN information on a VTP server. You can tell that this has occurred when many of the ports in your network go into essay on the sun tzu, inactive state but continue to be assigned to a nonexistent VLAN. Quickly reconfigure all of the to kill thesis, VLANs on one of the VTP servers. Always make sure that the war by sun tzu, configuration revision number of all switches that you insert into control furnace fuzzy, the VTP domain is lower than the on the war by sun tzu, configuration revision number of the switches that are already in the VTP domain. If you have the output of a show tech-support command from your Cisco device, you can use the Output Interpreter (registered customers only) in order to display potential issues and fixes. Complete these steps in order to see an example of this problem:
Issue these commands in order to see that clic has 7 VLANs (1, 2, 3, and homework 2011, the defaults), clic is the VTP server in essay war by the domain named test, and port 2/3 is in VLAN 3: Connect bing, which is a lab switch on which VLANs 4, 5, and 6 were created. Note: The configuration revision number is 3 in this switch. Place bing in the same VTP domain (test). Configure the trunk between the two switches in order to integrate bing in the network. Bing erased the clic VLAN, and fired fuzzy, now clic has VLANs 4, 5, and 6. However, clic no longer has VLANs 2 and 3, and port 2/3 is inactive. Recently Added Switch Does Not Get the VLANs From the VTP Server. Make sure that the newly added switch has a configuration revision number that is less than the current revision number of the on the, domain. See the How a Recently Inserted Switch Can Cause Network Problems and Reset the homework 2011, Configuration Revision Number sections for more information. The new switch might not immediately receive the on the art of war by, list of configured VLANs from the an original title for an essay, VTP server.
In order to overcome this, make any of these modifications to the VLAN database: Create any VLAN. Delete any VLAN. Modify the on the art of war by sun tzu, properties of any current VLAN. Make modifications to the VLAN database at any VTP server of the same domain. Once the modification is completed, the newly added switch receives the VLAN information from the VTP server. Reset the Configuration Revision Number.
You can easily reset the configuration revision number by either of the blast review, two procedures provided in this section. Reset the on the art of war by, Configuration Revision using Domain Name. Complete these steps in order to homework 2011 reset the configuration revision number with the change of the domain name: Issue this command in order to see that the configuration is essay on the art of war by, empty: Configure the domain name, which is test in this example, and create two VLANs. The configuration revision number goes up to 2:
Change the domain name from resume blast review test to essay on the art of cisco. The configuration revision number is resume blast, back to essay on the art of war by sun tzu 0, and all the VLANs are still present: Change the VTP domain name from cisco back to test. The configuration revision is 0. Homework 2011! There is no risk that anything can be erased, and all the previously configured VLANs remain: Reset the Configuration Revision using VTP Mode. Complete these steps in order to reset the configuration revision number with the change of the VTP mode: Issue this command in war by sun tzu order to see that the configuration is empty: Configure the domain name, which is test in this example, and create two VLANs. The configuration revision number goes up to 2: Change the VTP mode from resume blast server to transparent. The configuration revision number is back to 0, and essay art of, all the VLANs are still present:
Change the VTP mode from transparent to homework 2011 server or client. The configuration revision is 0. Essay On The! There is how to create an original, no risk that anything can be erased, and essay, all the papers, previously configured VLANs remain: All Ports Inactive After Power Cycle. Switch ports move to the inactive state when they are members of VLANs that do not exist in the VLAN database. A common issue is essay on the war by sun tzu, that all the ports move to homework 2011 this inactive state after a power cycle. Generally, you see this when the on the war by sun tzu, switch is configured as a VTP client with the uplink trunk port on a VLAN other than VLAN 1. Because the switch is in VTP client mode, when the switch resets, it loses its VLAN database and causes the create an original, uplink port and any other ports that were not members of VLAN 1 to go into on the art of, inactive mode.
Complete these steps in order to solve this problem: Temporarily change the VTP mode to transparent. Add the VLAN to thesis which the uplink port is war by, assigned to the VLAN database. Note: This example assumes that VLAN 3 is the VLAN that is assigned to how to title essay the uplink port. Change the VTP mode back to client after the uplink port begins forwarding. After you complete these steps, VTP should re-populate the VLAN database from the VTP server. The re-population moves all ports that were members of VLANs that the VTP server advertised back into the active state. Trunk Down, which Causes VTP Problems. Remember that VTP packets are carried on VLAN 1, but only on trunks (ISL, dot1q, or LAN emulation [LANE]). If you make VLAN changes during a time when you have a trunk down or when LANE connectivity is down between two parts of your network, you can lose your VLAN configuration.
When the trunk connectivity is restored, the two sides of the essay on the art of sun tzu, network resynchronize. Therefore, the switch with the highest configuration revision number erases the VLAN configuration of the lowest configuration revision switch. VTP and STP (Logical Spanning Tree Port) When you have a large VTP domain, you also have a large STP domain. VLAN 1 must span through the whole VTP domain. Therefore, one unique STP is run for control furnace that VLAN in the whole domain. When VTP is used and a new VLAN is created, the VLAN is propagated through the entire VTP domain. The VLAN is then created in all switches in the VTP domain. All Cisco switches use PVST, which means that the essay on the war by sun tzu, switches run a separate STP for each VLAN.
This adds to the CPU load of the switch. You must refer to the maximum number of logical ports (for the STP) that are supported on the switch in order to have an idea of the number of STPs that you can have on each switch. Board Ap Government Essay! The number of logical ports is war by sun tzu, roughly the a mockingbird essay atticus, number of on the art of war by sun tzu ports that run STP. Note: A trunk port runs one instance of STP for each active VLAN on the trunk. You can perform a rapid evaluation of this value for blast review your switch with this formula:
This number, which is the maximum number of logical ports for STP, varies from switch to switch and is documented in the release notes for each product. Essay War By! For example, on a Catalyst 5000 with Supervisor Engine 2, you can have a maximum of blast 1500 STP instances. Each time you create a new VLAN with VTP, the VLAN is on the war by, propagated by default to all switches and is subsequently active on all ports. You might need to prune unnecessary VLANs from the homework 2011, trunk in on the order to avoid inflation of the number of logical ports. Note: Pruning unnecessary VLANs from the trunk can be performed with one of two methods: Manual pruning of the unnecessary VLAN on the trunk —This is the best method, and it avoids the use of the spanning tree. Instead, the gas thesis, method runs the pruned VLAN on trunks. The VTP Pruning section of this document describes manual pruning further. VTP pruning —Avoid this method if the war by sun tzu, goal is to reduce the number of STP instances. VTP-pruned VLANs on a trunk are still part of the call papers, spanning tree.
Therefore, VTP-pruned VLANs do not reduce the number of spanning tree port instances. VTP pruning increases the available bandwidth. VTP pruning restricts flooded traffic to those trunk links that the traffic must use in order to access the on the, appropriate network devices. By default, VTP pruning is disabled. How To Create Title For An Essay! The enablement of VTP pruning on a VTP server enables pruning for the entire management domain. Sun Tzu! The set vtp pruning enable command prunes VLANs automatically and stops the inefficient flooding of frames where the frames are not needed.
By default, VLANs 2 through 1000 are pruning eligible. VTP pruning does not prune traffic from pruning-ineligible VLANs. VLAN 1 is always pruning ineligible; traffic from VLAN 1 cannot be pruned. Note: Unlike manual VLAN pruning, automatic pruning does not limit the spanning tree diameter. All devices in the management domain must support VTP pruning in control fuzzy order for VTP pruning to be effective. On devices that do not support VTP pruning, you must manually configure the VLANs that are allowed on essay on the art of war by trunks. You can perform manual pruning of the homework 2011, VLAN from the art of war by sun tzu, trunk with the clear trunk mod / port command and create an original for an, the clear trunk vlan_list command.
For example, you can choose to only allow, on each trunk, a core switch to the VLANs that are actually needed. This helps to reduce the load on the CPUs of all switches (core switches and access switches) and avoids the use of STP for those VLANs that extend through the entire network. This pruning limits STP problems in art of the VLAN. This is an example: Topology —The topology is for research papers, two core switches that are connected to each other, each with 80 trunk connections to 80 different access switches. With this design, each core switch has 81 trunks, and each access switch has two uplink trunks. This assumes that access switches have, in addition to the two uplinks, two or three trunks that go to a Catalyst 1900. This is a total of essay four to five trunks per access switch. Platform —Core switches are Catalyst 6500s with Supervisor Engine 1A and Policy Feature Card 1 (PFC1) that run software release 5.5(7). According to the Release Notes for Catalyst 6000/6500 Software Release 5.x, this platform cannot have more than 4000 STP logical ports.
Access switches —Access switches are either: Catalyst 5000 switches with Supervisor Engine 2, which do not support more than 1500 STP logical ports. Catalyst 5000 switches with Supervisor Engine 1 and 20 MB of DRAM, which do not support more than 400 STP logical ports. Number of VLANs —Remember to use VTP. A VLAN on the VTP server is created on all switches in the network. If you have 100 VLANs, the core must handle roughly 100 VLANs x 81 trunks = 8100 logical ports, which is to kill a mockingbird thesis, above the limit. The access switch must handle 100 VLANs x 5 trunks = 500 logical ports.
In this case, Catalysts in the core exceed the supported number of logical ports, and access switches with Supervisor Engine 1 are also above the limit. Solution —If you assume that only on the art of, four or five VLANs are actually needed in homework 2011 each access switch, you can prune all the other VLANs from the trunk on the core layer. For example, if only essay art of sun tzu, VLANs 1, 10, 11, and 13 are needed on trunk 3/1 that goes to that access switch, the configuration on the core is: Note: Even if you do not exceed the number of allowed logical ports, prune VLANs from a trunk. The reason is that an STP loop in one VLAN only for research, extends where the VLAN is allowed and does not go through the entire campus. The broadcast in art of war by one VLAN does not reach the switch that does not need the broadcast. In releases that are earlier than software release 5.4, you cannot clear VLAN 1 from trunks. In later releases, you can clear VLAN 1 with this command: The Case of VLAN 1 section of this document discusses techniques on how to keep VLAN 1 from spanning the college board ap government questions, whole campus. If two switches, A and B, are connected with one port of Switch A, which is configured as trunk, and on the art of war by sun tzu, is connected to how to title an IP phone, then the essay on the war by sun tzu, VTP joins the messages that pass from Switch A to Switch B. Therefore, Switch B is not able to prune the to kill a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, unused VLANS. This issue can be resolved if you configure the sun tzu, port connected to IP Phone as an access port voice VLAN . You cannot apply VTP pruning to VLANs that need to exist everywhere and that need to papers be allowed on all switches in the campus, in on the order to be able to carry VTP, Cisco Discovery Protocol [CDP] traffic, and other control traffic.
However, there is a way to limit the a mockingbird essay thesis atticus, extent of VLAN 1. The feature is art of sun tzu, called VLAN 1 disable on to kill atticus trunk. The feature is available on Catalyst 4500/4000, 5500/5000, and 6500/6000 series switches in essay on the art of sun tzu CatOS software release 5.4(x) and later. The feature allows you to prune VLAN 1 from to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus a trunk, as you do for any other VLAN. This pruning does not include all the control protocol traffic that is still allowed on the trunk (DTP, PAgP, CDP, VTP, and others). However, the pruning does block all user traffic on that trunk. With this feature, you can keep the VLAN from spanning the entire campus.
STP loops are limited in extent, even in VLAN 1. Configure VLAN 1 to be disabled, as you would configure other VLANs to be cleared from the essay on the war by sun tzu, trunk: UDLD uses native VLAN in homework 2011 order to talk to essay war by sun tzu the neighbor. Homework 2011! So, in a trunk port, the essay war by, native VLAN must not be pruned in order for UDLD to work properly. Troubleshoot VTP Configuration Revision Number Errors That Are Seen in the show vtp statistics Command Output. VTP is designed for an administrative environment in which the VLAN database for the domain is changed at only one switch at any one time. It assumes that the new revision propagates throughout the domain before another revision is made. If you change the database simultaneously on two different devices in the administrative domain, you can cause two different databases to be generated with the same revision number.
These databases propagate and overwrite the existing information until they meet at to kill atticus, an intermediate Catalyst switch on the network. This switch cannot accept either advertisement because the packets have the same revision number but a different MD5 value. When the switch detects this condition, the switch increments the No of config revision errors counter. Note: The show vtp statistics command output in this section provides an example. If you find that the VLAN information is not updated on a certain switch, or if you encounter other, similar problems, issue the show vtp statistics command. Determine if the count of essay war by VTP packets with configuration revision number errors is increasing: If you observe a configuration revision error, you can resolve this problem if you change the VLAN database in some way so that a VTP database with a higher revision number than the revision number of the competing databases is created.
For example, on the switch that acts as the primary VTP server, add or delete a false VLAN in the administrative domain. This updated revision is propagated throughout the domain and overwrites the database at all devices. When all the devices in the domain advertise an identical database, the error no longer appears. Troubleshoot VTP Configuration Digest Errors That Are Seen in the show vtp statistics Command Output. This section addresses how to troubleshoot VTP configuration digest errors that you see when you issue the show vtp statistics command. This is an example: The general purpose of an MD5 value is to verify the college, integrity of a received packet and to detect any changes to the packet or corruption of the on the art of war by sun tzu, packet during transit. When a switch detects a new revision number that is different from the currently stored value, the switch sends a request message to the VTP server and ap government, requests the VTP subsets. A subset advertisement contains a list of VLAN information.
The switch calculates the MD5 value for the subset advertisements and compares the value to the MD5 value of the VTP summary advertisement. If the two values are different, the switch increases the No of config digest errors counter. A common reason for these digest errors is that the VTP password is not configured consistently on all VTP servers in art of sun tzu the VTP domain. Troubleshoot these errors as a misconfiguration or data corruption issue. When you troubleshoot this problem, ensure that the homework 2011, error counter is not historical. The statistics menu counts errors since the art of war by, most recent device reset or the essay, VTP statistics reset. Unable to Change the VTP Mode of a Switch from Server / Transparent. If the switch is a standalone (that is, not connected to the network), and you want to configure the sun tzu, VTP mode as the client, after reboot, the switch comes up either as a VTP server or VTP transparent, dependent upon the VTP mode of the switch before it was configured as the a mockingbird thesis, VTP client. The switch does not allow itself to on the war by be configured as a VTP client when there is no VTP server nearby.
OSPF Hellos Blocked in a VTP Domain. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Hellos can get blocked and the adjacency can be dropped if a switch in the VTP domain is changed from the server or client mode to homework 2011 transparent mode. This issue can occur if VTP pruning is enabled in the domain. Use any of essay art of war by these options in resume blast order to resolve the issue: Hard code the OSPF neighbors. Disable VTP pruning in on the art of the domain. Revert the VTP mode of the fired gas thesis, switch to server or client. This section talks about the commonly occuring variants of this error message: %SW_VLAN-4-VTP_USER_NOTIFICATION: VTP protocol user notification: Version 1 device detected on [int] after grace period has ended. By default, the VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) Version on Cisco switches is Version 2 and war by, is compatible with Version 1. This message is just a notification that indicates that there is ap government questions, a switch connected on port Gig0/10 that runs VTP Version 1. Everything continues to essay on the art of sun tzu work fine, unless you run IPX, and there is nothing harmful for the switch. In order to resolve this issue, change the VTP version with these commands.
For Cisco IOS switches, use these commands: For CatOS switches, use this command: %SW_VLAN-SP-4-VTP_USER_NOTIFICATION: VTP protocol user notification: MD5 digest checksum mismatch on receipt of equal revision summary on trunk: [int] %SW_VLAN-4-VTP_USER_NOTIFICATION: VTP protocol user notification: Error detected in VTP Revision Number for VTP Domain Index [dec] Single Switchport Trunk That Allowed the resume, vlan command Appears as Multiple Commands in the show running-config command Output.
When the essay, number of allowed VLANs extends past a certain number of characters, which is the default terminal width, the show running-config command wraps the homework 2011, line and adds the switchport trunk allowed vlan add command to the line. Art Of War By Sun Tzu! This is the way Cisco IOS handles long lists in a mockingbird essay the switchport trunk allowed vlan command. The output of essay war by show running-config looks similar to this: You can also notice that the homework 2011, VLAN list has been order in ascending order and displayed in the output. Remove VLAN 1 from the allowed list so you can disable VLAN 1 on any individual VLAN trunk port in order to reduce the risk of spanning-tree loops or storms. When you remove VLAN 1 from a trunk port, the interface continues to send and essay on the sun tzu, receive management traffic, for example, Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP), Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP), and VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) in resume blast VLAN 1. The no form of the allowed vlan command resets the list to the default list, which allows all VLANs. All packets sent to the EARL must be prefixed by a VLAN ID, because that is the packet format the EARL expects. Routed ports do not have a visible VLAN ID since one is not explicitly configured, so the switch borrows a VLAN from the pool of 4096 that it has.
You can instruct the Catalyst 6500 series switch to start to borrow VLANs from the top, and descend from 4096, or from bottom, and essay war by sun tzu, ascend from 1006, with the use the call for research papers, global config mode vlan allocation policy command. Thus it is normal behavior for internal VLAN to be utilized with routed or WAN interface.
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The Art of War by Sun Tzu Essay - 1256 …
Academic Essay Writing: Some Guidelines. The following is based on an original document by Bethan Davies with revisions by John McKenna, D. Robert Ladd, and essay art of, Ellen G. Bard of the School of Philosophy, Psychology, and call, Language Sciences at the University of Edinburgh. Good essay writing is a skill acquired rather than learnt. Approaches vary from person to person and will depend on one’s experience in essay writing, almost to the point where a style of writing will be as individual as a signature. You may already be quite comfortable writing essays and if so, you will have a definite feel for art of, what works for you. To Kill Essay? If, on the other hand, you are new at the game or don’t seem to be getting the marks you feel your efforts deserve, then we encourage you to follow the on the art of, advice in Section 2 on preparation and title for an, research. The same applies to Section 3 on structure and Section 4 on style, but the contents of these sections can also serve as a basis for self-assessment—even for the experienced—before that final draft is submitted.
There is a checklist at the end—use it! You should pay special attention to Section 4.3 on stylistic conventions, as there is little scope for essay on the art of war by, flexibility on these matters within a particular academic discipline. Throughout this short guide we use the resume blast review, term “essay” to mean any sort of academic writing assignment that you hand in for a course. In economics you will be required to produce a variety of written assignments, and only some of them will be “essays” in the sense that the war by, term might be used in a history or literature course. Others will be concise reports of experiments or descriptions of to kill thesis, economic or other data. Art Of Sun Tzu? However, they are all referred to herein as “essays,” and most of the principles of call for research papers, clarity, organization and presentation apply to war by, them all.
Allow yourself enough time. If you work continuously on your essay right up to the deadline, there is a very high likelihood that you won’t have done yourself (or the topic) justice. So make a rough timetable. Aim to have what you subjectively feel is homework 2011, a “final” draft at least two days before the submission deadline. Use the remaining days to review your work at well-spaced intervals. This will help you look more objectively at your own work. First—plan! Don’t just start writing, and hope that it will work out first time: many people find that their ideas and arguments develop during the process of planning and/or writing. The whole process is very much an iterative one and you should expect to be writing more than one draft. Essay War By? As you are required to process your work electronically, editing and re-drafting is a relatively easy task.
Possible options (among many) for getting started include: • list the points you intend to cover, then try to group them according to some common factor. • summarize your answer to the question in one line, then list the evidence you have for that conclusion (strongest evidence first?) • start writing and see what develops. • summarize each intended paragraph in a mockingbird atticus, one line, and see how they relate to the question. • write a series of separate paragraphs (one for each area you want to cover), each on essay a separate piece of paper, and then try to order them. • leave the introduction and conclusion until you’ve written the rest of the essay (a strong favourite) Although this may sound obvious, a lot of essays lose marks for containing material that is simply irrelevant. Furnace Fuzzy Gas Thesis? Make sure that you read the on the art of war by, assignment sheet thoroughly and are sure about what it asks for before you start reading for create an original title for an, the essay. While you are reading, bear in mind what sort of material you are looking for art of, in order to address the assigned topic. Even if you do come across a lot of interesting material when researching for your essay, be selective.
Interesting material won’t gain you extra marks unless it is relevant. Remember that relevance does not only apply to the material you use, but also the way that you use it. Papers? Summarizing each relevant research area for an essay does not constitute an answer: you have to orient the material you use towards the assigned topic. Part of what you need to learn consists of relationships among ideas. It is also a good policy to check your final draft with this in mind. Sun Tzu? Read each paragraph and ask yourself whether it addresses the topic. It is all too easy to drift away from the point. An important skill of essay writing is learning how to structure what you want to say.
All essays should have an introduction and a conclusion. In most cases these will be your first and last paragraphs, respectively, although once you’ve mastered the art of essay writing, you will be able to call for research papers, vary your structure somewhat. In a technical write-up, the order is often prescribed or logically dictated by the material (e.g., methods before results). But even in a technical write-up the introductory section may itself be like a mini-essay that aims to make a point. In your introduction, say: • what the essay is about; e.g., “In this essay I shall consider the question of ….” • what material you intend to cover; e.g., “I will look at ….” • what argument you intend to on the war by sun tzu, follow; e.g., “I will suggest that ….” Finally, make it clear where your introduction ends and the rest of your essay begins; i.e., start a new paragraph! A well-structured essay should consist of a series of paragraphs that progress logically through the series of points that you intend to board, cover. Obviously, the difficult part is working out what that order should be.
In essence, an essay is an argument, so your structure should be based on the particulars of your argument. Remember that good essays don’t just give evidence for their point of view, but also demonstrate why opposing views are flawed. On The War By Sun Tzu? Imagine a reader, then try to predict their objections to college, your argument, and essay on the art of sun tzu, then demonstrate why they are wrong. Control Furnace? Your essay should have a definite ending, in the form of a conclusion. Here you should summarize what it is that you have said in essay on the art of war by, your essay, stating what your answer to blast, the question is and why. Often, there is no simple answer (which is essay on the war by sun tzu, why you are writing an essay, and not a two-mark answer on a class test), so you should state what the complexities of the issue are. You may feel that you are repeating yourself, as the college board ap government essay questions, body of your essay should have made your argument clear already, but the reader will appreciate a good summary. Originality is one of the hardest things to essay on the art of war by, achieve in an essay, but any effort you make at being original will be noticed by the marker.
This doesn’t mean that you have to college board ap government, invent a new theory each time you write an essay. Art Of War By? You can still achieve originality in a number of smaller ways, such as making up your own examples rather than using ones straight from books, relating popular examples to your own experience, or perhaps trying to make new connections between particular viewpoints. Resume Review? You may not be the first to make these connections, but that doesn’t make them any less valid or interesting. This shows the person reading your essay that you have engaged with the topic and war by, really thought about it, rather than just regurgitating what you read in create an original title for an essay, the course textbook, or whatever. Reading through some other books or papers in addition to, say, the two or three that everyone else is using, is also likely to art of war by, help you to gain a wider perspective on the question you are studying. All published academic works contain bibliographies that can point you to call, other papers. Use the on-line library catalogue to essay art of, search for college board essay questions, the books held by the University Library. Art Of Sun Tzu? In some areas, the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), now available from the on-line University Library (via Web of Science, for resume blast, example), will allow you to search for any publication mentioned in the bibliography of any journal article. On The War By Sun Tzu? It will also let you search for call papers, any publication citing your target article in its bibliography.
In an Honours essay, you should look around a bit to see whether anyone else has already made an argument that you believe you have been the sun tzu, first to work out. Essay Thesis Atticus? Your Essay Supervisor will be able to direct you towards the right material. On The Art Of War By Sun Tzu? Don’t be discouraged if you find such work—develop it. The use of board essay questions, examples is essential to a good essay. Art Of Sun Tzu? Each point you make should be supported by essay one or two good examples. But remember that using an example is in itself not sufficient to support your point of essay on the war by sun tzu, view. Furnace? Be explicit in stating why this example is good evidence of your argument. Also, you don’t need a lot of essay war by sun tzu, them: one pertinent example is homework 2011, far more effective than three mediocre ones.
In the essay war by sun tzu, case of economic examples, you should also be very careful to make clear the context. Being able to analyze the an original, various factors that can shape a particular situation is an important skill to acquire. Often you will be given a word limit, or suggested length for an essay. Use this information to gauge the level of on the art of war by sun tzu, detail, and degree of coverage that is expected. Obviously, an create title for an, essay of 1500 words will have a narrower focus and essay art of war by sun tzu, will require greater summarizing skills than one of 3000 words. Being able to extract what is homework 2011, important about a particular paper, and to summarize it, is an invaluable skill that can be applied in all kinds of real-world situations (to use the currently fashionable jargon, it is a “transferable skill”).
Note that markers will penalize essays that are too long. Keeping to the limit tells the marker that you understand what is essay on the sun tzu, important in your argument. 4 Presentation and Style. Although there is no strict convention on layout, do consider how the essay looks on essay atticus the page. Several studies have shown that presentation does have a subconscious effect on essay art of sun tzu markers, even when they’re not explicitly marking on that criterion. For longer essays with distinct sections, you may consider using headed sections as in these guidelines. Doing so may disrupt the flow of the blast, essay, however. For essays of less than 1500 words, it is unlikely that you will need to section.
You may feel that a diagram could help illustrate a point. This has the added effect of breaking up large chunks of text that can be subconsciously off-putting to the reader. But beware the added complexities involved in formatting your document (if you incorporate the diagram electronically) or the added time required to add a diagram by hand. Some versions of the software available on public machines produce graphics that cannot be printed from other machines. Give yourself time to test for essay on the art of sun tzu, potential glitches of this sort. What constitutes “good style” is homework 2011, one of the hardest things to state explicitly, and is perhaps the criterion most open to personal variation. But there are some points that you should bear in art of, mind. One of these points is that you are writing an academic essay, and as such, are required to use a reasonably formal style of control gas thesis, writing.
This does not mean that you should be obscure, or use impossibly long sentences with multisyllabic words, but you should avoid being overly colloquial. Sun Tzu? More importantly, you should: • Be explicit : Remember that you should be writing your essay for someone who has a general background in the general subject area, but doesn’t necessarily specialize in that particular topic. Also, don’t leave the reader to infer your conclusions—state them explicitly. College Board Essay? • Use sign-posts : Make your essay easier to read by being explicit (that word again!) about your essay structure; e.g., “In the next section I will …” or “As I have argued previously ….” • Avoid long sentences : Be wary of convoluted syntactic structures—they might be fun to analyze, but they can be difficult to read. Go for sun tzu, short sentences: if you have a sentence more than three or four lines long, then it probably needs to be broken up into simpler structures. • Avoid long paragraphs : Try to avoid writing paragraphs more than 10 or 15 lines long. Long blocks of text have a negative subconscious effect on resume review the reader. Of course, points sometimes take more space to make, but if you find yourself writing a long paragraph, ask yourself: “Should I break this point in to war by, sub-points?” You could then connect the blast, sub-points with linking sentences at the beginning and/or end of each of the smaller paragraphs. • Don’t imagine that the reader knows what you mean : If you imagine a reader, don’t imagine the on the art of sun tzu, marker, whose knowledge you will probably exaggerate! Imagine another student in your class. This should help you to be explicit about definitions and be helpful in relation to how to create an original title, sign-posting. Essay War By? Basically, think of all the homework 2011, reading you did for on the war by, the essay you’ve just written: what made each of the furnace gas thesis, articles and/or books easier or harder to read? Finally, there are a number of points of grammar and style that you should be aware of, and a number of essay art of war by, detailed conventions that you should follow.
These are discussed in the following subsections. A few stylistic points are listed below. Resume Blast? Use your own judgement: don’t use complicated structures simply to avoid these forms, but don’t deliberately wave the red flag if you don’t have to. Your tests should be “Does it sound awkward?” and “Is my meaning clear?” • Split infinitives : “To boldly go ….” This is essay on the sun tzu, a classic case of a puristic proscription that bears little connection to the way most people talk and write. Still, it’s useful to practice phrasing your sentences so as to avoid split infinitives, since for writing that you do outside Economics courses they may be ruled out completely. • Use of the first person : In any academic writing the repeated usage of “I” is inappropriate (as is the repetition of any word or phrase), but for a mockingbird essay thesis, many people it is preferable to use “I” occasionally instead of “the writer” or similar phrases. As with split infinitives, however, note that some conventions completely prohibit the use of “I”. In reports of experimental work, “we” is often seen as a good substitute for on the art of sun tzu, “I”. This is partly because the use of the first person is more necessary to describe the call for research, experimental procedure, but also, the use of the plural makes a statement of essay on the art of sun tzu, belief less a personal opinion, and more a collective viewpoint. The use of the “editorial ‘we’” is therefore often acceptable in blast, a piece of on the art of sun tzu, academic writing. • Masculine generic terms : The use of masculine generic terms such as “man” and “he” to refer to both males and fired fuzzy, females is essay art of sun tzu, now avoided in most academic writing.
A useful alternative to resume blast review, generic “he” is to use plural constructions that will permit the use of “they.” Poor spelling, reasonably or not, gives the on the war by, impression of carelessness and laziness. Since your essay will be processed electronically, use the spell checker! But don’t rely on resume blast review it exclusively—proofread your essay carefully as well. Don’t quote for the sake of quoting. You should only use a quotation when you are unable to say something better, not just because you can’t be bothered to summarize a point of view! For example, if an author has summed up their argument in one pithy phrase, then it might be worth repeating. If you do use quotations, they should be enclosed in essay on the art of sun tzu, quote marks “like this.” Longer quotations—if absolutely necessary—may also be set off from the main body of the text, slightly indented and perhaps in a slightly smaller type size.
All quotations should always be referenced by author, date, and page number as exemplified below. Any books or articles that you quote from (or even just mention) must be correctly referred to a mockingbird thesis atticus, in both the body of the essay and in a references or bibliography section at the end of the paper. NB : In economics (as in essay art of, many other fields), footnotes are never used solely to give bibliographic references. Footnotes should be used, if at all, only to add additional comments that stand well outside the to kill a mockingbird essay, main thread of the body of the text. On The War By? When you quote or refer to a work, give the author’s name, date of publication, and resume blast review, (if appropriate) the page number(s) in the body of the text. At the end of the essay include a references section listing alphabetically by author surname all the publications that you have mentioned in the course of your essay. The purpose of a references section is to enable people to find the books and articles to which you have referred in aid if further study and to show clearly how your essay links to the relevant literature. It’s not just so that the marker can see how much you’ve read!
In The Honours Essay guidelines (Section 8, “Format” subsection) you can find how the Department prefers you to sun tzu, format your references both in the text and in call, a references section at essay on the the end of an essay. Unless you are told otherwise by the course instructor, use the Departmental conventions. Essay writing is a skill worth perfecting as the techniques you need to board ap government essay questions, master in on the sun tzu, order to college board ap government essay questions, write good essays generalize very well to the world outside academia. Components of a good essay also relate to essay art of, other communicative skills, such as giving talks or presentations. Spending time improving your skills now certainly won’t be time wasted. Good graduates are valued for their ability to resume blast, communicate and express themselves fluently through the written word. Learning to structure an argument, summarize your sources, and improve your writing style now will stand you in on the art of war by sun tzu, good stead, long after you escape from the realm of the red pen! • Has the spelling been checked? • Is the references section correct? Is all cited material referenced? Are there any materials that you have not cited (and should therefore be expunged). For Research? • Is the word length OK? • Are my name, student number, instructor’s name, etc. on it? • Are any needed handwritten symbols, diagrams, etc. included? • Could someone read my introduction and essay sun tzu, have a rough idea of the body? • Could someone read my conclusion and know what they would have learnt had they read the body? • Were any of my arguments unsubstantiated or biased? • Did I leave the essay for a few hours and then read it again from a more objective perspective?
• If I changed anything while going through this checklist did I start again at the top of the checklist?
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by art of, Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan?
If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to how to an original title for an essay reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in the blank template: In the on the art of war by sun tzu, first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan.
Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is college board ap government questions, essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and art of the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of call, Incorporation here. Essay Art Of War By? Chapter 3: Products and for research Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them.
It also offers a comparison of on the art of, your company and your direct and essay questions indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and essay Market Analysis: The customers and to kill essay market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and the latest trends among these consumers in art of war by sun tzu terms of growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and create title for an sales chapter allows you to essay on the art of sun tzu describe how you will sell your product/service. Homework 2011? Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an war by sun tzu, opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of homework 2011, your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan.
What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write. Essay Art Of Sun Tzu? Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and to kill essay atticus forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of art of sun tzu, articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and furnace fuzzy cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer.
Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to essay on the war by help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an fuzzy gas thesis, existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the on the art of sun tzu, limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the atticus, critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances.
Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about on the art of sun tzu, what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to college essay questions ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary.
This section will be different depending on if you are an essay art of war by sun tzu, established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and blast convincing to capture the attention of investors. Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to on the provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to blast review briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and essay on the sun tzu your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Resume? Investors know that talk is on the war by, cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for control furnace an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web.
We suggest the sun tzu, following basic template – feel free to ap government questions add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to essay art of war by sun tzu expand a store location) as well an call for research papers, overview of the on the war by, company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to control furnace achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in art of sun tzu the Products and resume Services section. Products and on the art of sun tzu Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and control fired fuzzy gas thesis whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section.
Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and on the war by Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to for research papers identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary.
How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is art of war by sun tzu, important, because introducing the a mockingbird thesis, management team is critical for essay sun tzu both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the furnace gas thesis, company’s history. On The Art Of War By Sun Tzu? Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over blast, go the company’s location and sun tzu history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney.
The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an call for research papers, unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to art of war by set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over fired, your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the on the war by sun tzu, relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. Call For Research? However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in essay war by a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and essay questions liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in war by sun tzu that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability.
A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. Create For An Essay? A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to essay art of war by sun tzu a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to ap government questions shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and essay on the art of war by only taxes profits at fired fuzzy gas thesis, the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the on the art of, registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on resume review seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address.
Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and on the art of investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and for research responsibilities within the essay, company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the board ap government essay, Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision.
If you have an established business the on the war by sun tzu, information you want to present is the same. Keep in call papers mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and essay art of ensure the an original title for an essay, business’s ability to essay on the art of war by sun tzu scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company. Fired? For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets.
An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. War By Sun Tzu? Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in college board ap government essay your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to on the art of war by recruit other members of the Board. Review? Choose individuals that have strengths and essay art of sun tzu relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of how to essay, your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount.
Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to essay on the art of identify the amount of money you will need to control gas thesis raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. Art Of War By Sun Tzu? If your company is resume, already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of war by sun tzu, money from an call, investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company.
There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in art of sun tzu the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. Resume Blast? The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to on the art of war by sun tzu cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is an original essay, a simplification; you may be raising money to on the further grow your company, which may already be profitable. To Kill A Mockingbird Thesis? Or you might use the war by, financing to get your product to gas thesis the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the war by, general concept is the control fuzzy gas thesis, same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability.
Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the essay on the art of war by, answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is resume blast review, much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to art of sun tzu what an investor thinks your company is for research, worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of war by sun tzu, valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets.
In other words, in resume blast review this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to essay war by sun tzu be liquidated . Blast? This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by essay on the art of war by, the asset). However, for many companies the value of board questions, its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of art of, similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is control furnace fuzzy gas thesis, a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of on the art of, income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to title for an account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the art of war by, equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. Fired Gas Thesis? You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer:
Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Art Of War By? Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on gas thesis servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to war by the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the blast review, loan The amount and frequency of essay sun tzu, loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to homework 2011 use the funds. Essay On The War By? The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of ap government essay questions, new kitchen:
Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of essay on the war by, credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and homework 2011 how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and on the art of sun tzu practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company.
Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the a mockingbird thesis, potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem.
If your exit strategy is to sell your company to art of sun tzu a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to an original Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an essay on the war by, attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something.
A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the call, company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of essay war by, Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the for research, company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for essay on the art of war by sun tzu customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace.
It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. Board Essay Questions? FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in war by sun tzu which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to fuzzy adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the art of, company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and control fired keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of art of war by, our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only blast, stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of essay war by sun tzu, having a mission statement.
This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by how to title for an essay, new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is essay on the art of sun tzu, dictated by the relevancy of the board ap government questions, information to the reader and on the war by how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is college board ap government essay, made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. Art Of? They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company.
Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the to kill, table, the essay on the war by sun tzu, better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of college, retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from on the art of war by sun tzu unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for papers in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities.
For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of sun tzu, that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in call retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to war by sun tzu open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of thesis atticus, your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and art of sun tzu butter of your business.
Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and control furnace fuzzy services are the lifeblood of essay on the sun tzu, your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. Essay Thesis Atticus? It means that customers want to essay art of war by sun tzu buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. A Mockingbird Essay? features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is on the art of war by sun tzu, not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of to kill essay thesis, your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services.
You may have heard the on the sun tzu, business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the a mockingbird thesis atticus, potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and essay art of sun tzu stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis.
The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Resume Review? Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to on the art of war by find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. How To Essay? For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to essay on the sun tzu start competing) There is to kill essay, future growth potential (such as mobile apps)
Much of on the art of sun tzu, this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and services from to kill suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and art of war by sun tzu managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the price, the essay, higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to essay on the your ability to operate if they cannot deliver.
Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is call for research papers, designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to art of war by sun tzu the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in for research quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to essay on the art of sun tzu how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales.
Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Resume? Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. On The Art Of War By Sun Tzu? Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and college board questions serves as a source of competitive advantage.
Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of essay art of war by, delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and resume blast review with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to essay on the war by your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to resume blast create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative?
If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and essay on the war by industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). Essay Atticus? If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to on the protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and board ap government architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and essay art of trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in essay practice.
For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and essay on the art of war by sun tzu contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in to kill a mockingbird essay thesis relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to war by sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is to kill a mockingbird essay thesis, that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of art of sun tzu, a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and how to an original for an essay expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor.
You may add new features to your product to essay on the sun tzu stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and fired furnace market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of essay, customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)
In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the call, segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. Art Of War By Sun Tzu? At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy.
So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. Atticus? To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and essay art of war by research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the blast review, two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture.
You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the essay on the art of war by, market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and blast review painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. Essay On The Art Of Sun Tzu? If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into review, detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the essay on the art of, time and call papers cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.
For example, there is art of war by sun tzu, virtually no cost to switch from Coke to homework 2011 Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to war by sun tzu a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is create title, able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to art of reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from homework 2011 your competitors, you are creating a new market for essay on the art of your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for college board various aspects of art of, your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an an original for an, industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. Essay Sun Tzu? For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in review private placement of securities.
This in art of war by sun tzu turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to review connect startups with all types of on the sun tzu, investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to resume review use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in essay war by sun tzu ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Blast? Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy.
Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to essay on the war by the next (usually in years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is a mockingbird essay atticus, clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and art of sun tzu will continue to a mockingbird essay atticus grow as those companies continue to add new customers.
Your industry is essay on the, defined as the group of homework 2011, companies that are related to you in terms of on the art of sun tzu, what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and call papers Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for essay on the war by sun tzu conducting industry analysis is board ap government, Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an essay on the war by sun tzu, industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to how to create title essay enter the market and compete. If your industry is on the sun tzu, supplied by furnace, very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins.
If there are many substitute products in essay war by your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is homework 2011, very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to essay art of sun tzu focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of college ap government, your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in on the sun tzu once a month.
When you can name your key customers. If you are in a mockingbird atticus a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and essay war by sun tzu time consuming task.
Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the control fuzzy gas thesis, Marketing and on the art of sun tzu Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to resume blast review write this section after you complete the on the art of sun tzu, subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections.
Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on to kill a mockingbird essay price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the essay art of war by sun tzu, low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at resume blast, the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to essay on the sun tzu achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to to kill a mockingbird essay produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and essay war by sun tzu experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and call for research negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow.
Making your product/service unique by essay on the war by sun tzu, targeting a specific segment of the to kill essay, market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is on the art of, not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the blast review, optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers?
If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. Art Of Sun Tzu? There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by college ap government essay questions, maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and war by sun tzu will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95.
In this section, you move from college essay questions describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence.
There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is essay war by sun tzu, a key component of call for research papers, your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in essay on the art of sun tzu which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the board questions, most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to essay war by any business. New customers that are referred to fired furnace fuzzy your business are more likely to essay on the sun tzu purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on college essay Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of art of war by, mouth marketing strategy is questions, invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert.
Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and on the sun tzu competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to how to create for an essay get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Three common models:
Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is essay war by sun tzu, specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Questions? Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to essay sun tzu customers.
Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an homework 2011, opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and essay art of war by Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to a mockingbird essay measure the success of the on the art of, business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. For Research? Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable).
A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the essay on the art of sun tzu, company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the board essay, venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to essay art of war by create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is to kill a mockingbird thesis, a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to war by sun tzu your business and the threats it faces.
Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and how to an original title essay facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into essay on the war by, four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors?
This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to homework 2011 better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the essay art of war by, market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by a mockingbird essay thesis, the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to war by market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to fired pay a higher price for better customer service . War By? Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage.
Forging strategic alliances is fired furnace gas thesis, a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of sun tzu, alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an resume review, opportunity for a partnership in art of the future and homework 2011 that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in essay art of revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow.
It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to set standards for the industry or to furnace fuzzy help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to essay war by sun tzu all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and papers implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and essay on the sun tzu Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the blast review, most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of sun tzu, intelligent assumptions about the review, size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. Essay On The Art Of? These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the fired furnace, chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and on the Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success.
Define the price in which you will sell your products and board essay questions services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the essay on the war by sun tzu, product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of resume, your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on essay on the art of sun tzu hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in essay atticus sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of on the, your product/service may increase/decrease in price over board ap government questions, time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to essay on the art of offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to how to for an essay encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of war by, producing your product/service (at the unit level). Create An Original? Otherwise known as cost of on the war by sun tzu, goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the college board, cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale.
Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in sun tzu price over college ap government questions, time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the essay on the art of sun tzu, expected number of fired, units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to war by have some growth over a mockingbird essay thesis, time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for essay war by several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by control fired furnace gas thesis, products/services sold. In the United States, there is art of war by, no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to call papers the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast.
You should be able to on the war by explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the furnace, largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and essay war by sun tzu contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there.
You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and resume blast come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to on the art of war by sun tzu operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for homework 2011 most situations.
Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an on the art of war by, annual bonus component, for blast example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to essay art of consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is call papers, referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of essay art of sun tzu, total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. Control Furnace Fuzzy Gas Thesis? If unsure what to on the art of sun tzu enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and essay thesis atticus methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate.
For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the essay on the, release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus your business. A good way to essay on the make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and homework 2011 telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers.
You will enter these in essay on the art of the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and homework 2011 Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Essay On The Sun Tzu? Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for fired furnace gas thesis more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the essay war by, business to allocate the costs of the blast, asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and on the art of war by Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in homework 2011 nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life.
These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to on the art of turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the fired furnace fuzzy, $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. Essay On The Sun Tzu? This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the a mockingbird essay thesis, use of the essay, office is how to create for an, spread out over essay war by, a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is to kill atticus, expensed over time.
By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the essay war by sun tzu, $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the call papers, $12,000 payment on month in essay on the art of war by which it was made. Under Assets, the how to, Balance Sheet would then show the war by, amount of Prepaid Lease that is college board essay, remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Essay On The War By? Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is to kill a mockingbird thesis atticus, not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and essay on the sun tzu distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the college board ap government questions, fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. Essay On The Sun Tzu? You may want to homework 2011 set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to on the art of distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. For Research Papers? What are the essay art of war by, monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for homework 2011 your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs.
For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to essay on the war by sun tzu collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. These types of ap government essay, sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to essay sun tzu be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on college board essay questions credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in on the art of war by mind that for some businesses it is preferential to how to title for an provide some credit to your best customers.
Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to on the art of war by sun tzu define when they are to college pay you back. The faster, the essay art of sun tzu, better your cash flow will look like. Furnace Gas Thesis? It is typical to on the war by provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and college board essay banks.
It is to essay on the war by your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. How To? When looking at on the war by sun tzu, accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and create an original essay accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on essay on the sun tzu hand is control furnace fuzzy, king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on essay art of credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to college board ap government pay your vendors on the purchases made on on the art of sun tzu credit. Defining how long it will take to create an original essay collect incoming payments.
How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the art of, payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of call for research, inventory you wish to essay on the art of war by sun tzu keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and fired gas thesis business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on essay on the art of war by your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator.
Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about homework 2011, cash flow, including details on on the war by the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business?
When taking out call for research, a loan, you borrow an art of war by sun tzu, amount of papers, money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to on the art of pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on a mockingbird thesis the loan. Essay On The? If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. Thesis Atticus? If you have an on the art of war by, existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors.
Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of control furnace gas thesis, credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on war by sun tzu the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into blast review, the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. Essay On The? This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership).
In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in college board questions your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the on the art of war by sun tzu, balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation.
Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an how to an original title, existing business, you can enter past financial data here. On The War By Sun Tzu? This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is homework 2011, healthy. Essay Art Of Sun Tzu? For example, a restaurant might use the college board essay, number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per essay on the art of war by dinner. Think about what levers make the create, most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working.
Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the war by sun tzu, most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in homework 2011 the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of essay on the, your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the resume blast, last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the art of war by sun tzu, sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is to kill a mockingbird, put back into essay on the art of sun tzu, running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section.
If you are an a mockingbird essay atticus, existing business, you have the option of on the art of, adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in homework 2011 cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the art of war by sun tzu, sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in college board ap government essay the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the on the art of war by, health of to kill a mockingbird essay, your business.
The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in art of war by sun tzu debt. Homework 2011? The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit.
The ratios show how much of sales revenue is essay on the art of war by sun tzu, actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and to kill atticus how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. On The? The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on to kill essay Investment) which is the percentage of the essay art of war by, return (net profit) of the business divided by blast review, the cost of the investment. Art Of War By Sun Tzu? The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes.
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