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Le traitement litteraire du conte africain : deux exemples chez Bernard Dadie et Birago Diop. 1 Parmi les tres nombreux types de relation que la culture orale africaine a pu entretenir avec la production ecrite, notamment la fixation des ?uvres qu’elle execute oralement en des livres de langues africaines comme europeennes, il est un cas sur lequel nous aimerions nous arreter un instant dans ce volume. Intro To Logic Thinking Salmon. C’est celui de la transposition en francais ecrit, par un ecrivain reconnu et ayant des pretentions litteraires, d’?uvres orales dites originellement dans une langue africaine. Essay. Dans l’histoire litteraire de l’Afrique francophone, une telle pratique a surtout concerne deux genres : d’une part, l’epopee (par exemple, celle de Soundjata librement adaptee pour l’ecrit respectivement par Djibril Tamsir Niane et par Camara Laye1), d’autre part, le conte, c’est-a-dire deux genres essentiellement narratifs. To Logic Thinking. Il est bien entendu que dans un cas comme dans l’autre, l’operation dont nous parlons ne consiste pas en une traduction, fut elle enjolivee. My Playground Essay. Il s’agit bien plutot d’une veritable creation d’auteur a partir de la connaissance de classiques que cet auteur a de sa propre culture et qu’il recompose librement d’apres son souvenir. Intro Thinking Salmon. Il est interessant, a la lumiere des acquis de la narratologie des quarante dernieres annees, depuis au moins Genette et le fameux n° 8 de Communications sur l’analyse structurale du recit en 1966, de voir ce qui, au cours de ce processus de transposition, evolue dans l’appareil narratologique en termes de catalyses, de fonctions indicielles relatives au decor ou a la psychologie des personnages. 2 Compte tenu des dimensions limitees de la presente communication, nous avons choisi de ne nous interesser ici qu’au cas du conte, c’est-a-dire a un genre de recit bref a propos duquel il est plus facile de proposer une analyse en un volume reduit. Glitter Paper. Parmi les exemples relativement nombreux qui pouvaient s’offrir a nous, nous avons choisi de retenir deux contes extraits de deux recueils tres connus et toujours disponibles en librairie : il s’agit de « Le b?uf de l’araignee » dans Le pagne noir (Presence Africaine, 1955), de l’ecrivain ivoirien Bernard Dadie et de « Les mamelles » dans Les contes d’Amadou Koumba (Presence Africaine, 1961) de l’ecrivain senegalais Birago Diop.

Nous allons confronter la version ecrite en francais de ces deux contes, connus dans la culture traditionnelle de chacun des deux auteurs, avec une de leurs versions orales, recueillie par des chercheurs et publiee chacune dans un recueil de contes d’orientation plus ethno-folkloriste (on trouvera ces versions en annexe). 3 Avant d’aborder l’analyse comparee des versions de chacun de ces deux contes, il convient de resituer la pratique de la transposition litteraire ecrite et en francais des contes oraux africains dans un certain contexte socio-litteraire. To Logic And Critical Salmon. Les deux recueils concernes datent des annees cinquante/soixante et de fait, c’est a cette epoque, c’est-a-dire en pleine periode de triomphe du mouvement de la « Negritude » que cette pratique s’epanouit. Read. Il s’agit pour beaucoup d’ecrivains et d’intellectuels africains (J. And Critical Salmon. Malonga, J. Essay. Brahim Seid, Boubou Hama, etc.) de faire, par le moyen d’une langue de large diffusion, la promotion exogene de la culture orale traditionnelle en Afrique, a partir de leurs repertoires ethniques, a une epoque ou l’ignorance et l’arrogance de l’Occident pouvait encore donner a croire qu’une telle culture n’existait qu’a peine ou que de telles pratiques ne pouvaient etre qualifiees de « culturelles » que par indulgence condescendante.

Il est, de ce point de vue, assez significatif de constater que ce type de transposition litteraire des contes oraux sous forme de recueils s’est assez vite eteint et n’a guere survecu au mythe de la « Negritude ». To Logic And Critical Thinking. C’est donc sans oublier un tel contexte ideologique que nous allons examiner nos deux recueils, puis entreprendre la comparaison des deux versions des contes retenus. 4 Le recueil de Dadie s’intitule Le pagne noir , titre qui est aussi celui d’un conte du volume (le deuxieme), comme il est d’usage courant dans ce type d’ouvrage. My Playground. Cela dit, le choix de ce titre pour l’ensemble du recueil est significatif. Intro. Le pagne est, avec le boubou, un vetement emblematique du continent africain tel qu’il est vu par l’Occident, comme le sari peut par exemple l’etre pour l’Inde. Franny Statement. Sa qualite meme d’objet textile renvoie en outre par metaphore a l’idee de texte – on and critical thinking salmon sait qu’il s’agit de la meme etymologie – d’autant qu’il existe aussi en plusieurs cultures locales des analogies symboliques entre le deroulement de la parole et le tissage. Mental Essay Questions. Ce n’est d’ailleurs sans doute pas par hasard si de son cote Birago Diop, dans sa preface, a recours lui aussi a la metaphore textile, qu’il file justement avec dexterite : Dans la trame solide de ses contes et de ses sentences, me servant de ses lices sans bavures, j’ai voulu, tisserand malhabile, avec une navette hesitante, confectionner quelques bandes pour coudre un pagne (souligne par nous) sur lequel grand-mere si elle revenait, aurait retrouve le coton qu’elle fila la premiere ; et ou Amadou Koumba reconnaitra, beaucoup moins vifs sans doute, les coloris des belles etoffes qu’il tissa pour moi naguere. 5 Quant a l’adjectif « noir » du titre de Dadie, il renvoie implicitement a l’ensemble du continent subsaharien suggere comme etant un ensemble culturellement homogene : le monde noir. And Critical Salmon. Il s’agit bien entendu d’un mythe, meme si le conte est un genre qui voyage beaucoup et dont on resume glitter retrouve souvent les types et les motifs d’une societe a une autre. To Logic Salmon. Alors que precisement le repertoire de culture orale a un tres fort ancrage ethnique, celui-ci se trouve gomme dans le titre. Dissertation Read Online. Et, dans la mesure ou il n’y a pas de preface chez Dadie, rien n’indique quelle est la source culturelle precise de ces contes qui sont presentes au lecteur. Thinking Salmon. Il faut attendre la quatrieme de couverture pour induire qu’il s’agit d’un repertoire baoule : Avec evidence, ces textes manifestent la rencontre heureuse d’un ecrivain avec son monde, cette Afrique du pays Baoule (sic) recreee a travers le merveilleux de la fable […]

6 Une recherche ethnolinguistique un peu serieuse permet pourtant d’attester qu’il s’agit bien la d’un repertoire typiquement agni-baoule, mais cet aspect est en l’occurrence occulte au profit d’une pretendue universalite continentale : l’Afrique noire. 7 La mise en page de la couverture du recueil de Birago Diop est elle aussi interessante par rapport a la visee de l’ouvrage. Essay Questions. Sur un dessin colorie representant des habitations villageoises africaines (toits coniques en chaume) et des animaux « anthropomorphises », le texte se presente ainsi : en haut de page, la mention « Les contes d’Amadou Koumba » sur deux lignes, le nom d’Amadou Koumba se trouvant sur la deuxieme ligne ecrit en gros caracteres et en rouge. Intro To Logic Thinking Salmon. En bas de page, dans la meme couleur mais en caracteres plus petits et sans majuscules, figure la mention de l’auteur du recueil : birago diop. Thesis. Du point de vue semiotique, une telle politique n’est pas innocente. Intro To Logic Thinking Salmon. Lorsque le lecteur apprend dans la preface qu’Amadou Koumba est un « griot », c’est-a-dire un artiste de la parole, sorte de pendant symbolique de l’ecrivain dans la culture ecrite, et que c’est lui qui, apres sa grand’mere, a raconte a l’auteur les contes qui figurent dans le recueil, on franny and zooey thesis statement comprend mieux la relation entre les deux noms, de meme couleur qui figurent sur la couverture.

En haut, en gros caracteres et avec des majuscules, Amadou Koumba, en bas, en lettres plus petites et sans majuscules, birago diop, qui apparait ainsi comme le modeste disciple du premier. And Critical Thinking. Toujours est-il que, par ce biais, les contes ainsi presentes se trouvent marques d’une double authentification auctorale. 8 Or, tout chercheur ayant quelque peu travaille sur les litteratures orales africaines sait bien que, meme si un griot, l’artiste des grandes societes ouest-africaines, peut affectionner de dire des contes, c’est rarement sa fonction premiere et que le conte, a l’oppose de beaucoup d’autres genres de l’oralite, est par excellence un genre dont tout le monde peut s’approprier l’enonciation. Read Online. C’est bien d’ailleurs ce que suggere la preface de Diop qui reconnait avoir d’abord entendu ces contes chez sa grand-mere et les avoir retrouves ensuite un peu partout, dans diverses bouches, au cours de ses peregrinations de medecin veterinaire en Afrique de l’Ouest. Intro. Il y a donc un tres fort parti pris dans la presentation de la realite culturelle telle qu’elle apparait sur la page de couverture d’un livre publie en francais, chez un editeur, Presence Africaine, dont la denomination met elle aussi en evidence l’Afrique comme continent culturellement homogene et dont le siege se trouve en outre a Paris. Mental Questions. Dans l’optique de promotion culturelle que nous avons evoquee a cette epoque, une telle strategie semble viser d’abord un public occidental, de culture ecrite, pour qui une production verbale n’a de statut culturel veritablement valorise qu’a partir du moment ou on intro and critical lui reconnait un createur identifiable.

C’est pourquoi ici les contes sont les contes d’Amadou Koumba avant d’etre ceux de Birago Diop. Franny Thesis. Ils sont presentes comme ayant deja le label d’une sorte d’auteur reconnu dans la culture orale avant meme de passer a l’ecrit par les soins de l’ecrivain. 9 C’est dans un tel contexte qu’il convient d’analyser l’evolution subie par nos deux contes entre leur version orale originelle et leur version litteraire ecrite. Intro Thinking. Commencons par « Le b?uf de l’araignee » de Dadie qui est a examiner en regard de la version orale de ce conte-type, recueillie en pays agni, transcrite et traduite par Marius Ano N’Guessan sous le titre « Araignee et Bosse » ( Contes agni de l’Indenie , Abidjan, Imprimerie nationale, 1976). How To A Psychology. Il est evident que la structure des deux histoires est suffisamment similaire pour qu’on puisse reconnaitre sans aucun doute un meme conte-type dont on to logic thinking salmon peut donner un resume sous une forme susceptible de rendre compte des deux versions dont nous disposons : 10 Dieu a un champ plein de broussailles inextricables et decide de le faire defricher.

Personne ne se presente sauf Araignee2 a qui Dieu promet un b?uf en cas de succes. Thesis. Araignee s’acquitte de la tache et recoit le b?uf en recompense. Intro And Critical. Il veut manger son b?uf seul, refusant de le partager meme avec une mouche. My Playground Essay. Pour parvenir a ses fins, il s’enfonce dans la brousse et defeque regulierement jusqu’a ce que plus aucune mouche ne vienne se poser sur ses crottes. To Logic And Critical. C’est la qu’il abat et prepare son b?uf. A Psychology. C’est alors qu’un hote surnaturel lui tombe du ciel et lui demande de le porter au lieu du festin. And Critical Thinking Salmon. Araignee refuse d'abord mais l’autre le rend bossu quand il cherche a fuir. Read Online. Il l’emmene donc et se prepare ensuite a manger son b?uf mais l’autre en reclame la totalite qu’Araignee se voit contraint de lui ceder sous peine de devenir bossu.

A la suite de quoi Araignee met au point un stratageme pour eliminer son adversaire. And Critical Salmon. En bon decepteur, il s’arrange ensuite pour qu’un tiers (le mouton chez Dadie, le toucan dans la version orale) subisse les consequences nefastes engendrees par sa vengeance. 11 Au-dela d’un tel archetype, il y a d’importantes variantes qui sont significatives du statut culturel de chacun de ces deux recits. Franny Statement. Il serait evidemment tout a fait interessant, de ce point de vue, de s’interesser a l’evolution de la langue d’une version a l’autre mais nous ne sommes pas en mesure de le faire avec les donnees dont nous disposons. Intro To Logic And Critical Thinking. La version originelle produite oralement est en effet deja traduite en francais et, pour fidele qu’elle soit (toutes les phrases dites dans l’enonce oral s’y trouvent), il est evident que le traducteur a adopte un style tres ecrit, assez peu conforme semble-t-il d’ailleurs a la tradition poetique du conte. Resume Paper. Le debut du recit, avec l’expression « herbes urticantes » qui releve plutot du vocabulaire medical que de celui du conte, avec l’accord de concordance aboutissant a l’imparfait du subjonctif, indice d’une langue savante ou precieuse, enfin avec l’emploi du terme « Sire », trop connote dans une culture, est tres significatif a ce propos. Intro To Logic Thinking. Nous laisserons donc de cote cet aspect pour nous interesser a la structure du recit. 12 On peut remarquer d’emblee que la version de Dadie est sensiblement plus longue. Health Essay Questions. Cette augmentation du volume tient a l’addition d’un certain nombre de motifs mais aussi a l’expansion de la fonction descriptive, presque absente de la version orale. Intro. La ou celle-ci disait simplement « Dieu avait un champ plein d’herbes urticantes ( i. Essay. e . Intro And Critical Thinking Salmon. de mauvaises herbes), le texte de Dadie nous decrit ce champ sur pres de deux pages, avec une accumulation d’adjectifs expressifs et de metaphores qui temoigne d’une recherche d’ecriture selon une conception – certes assez scolaire – du beau style comme on resume glitter paper pouvait encore en avoir a l’epoque : Dieu avait un champ plein de ronces et de broussailles. To Logic And Critical Thinking. Ronces et broussailles etaient si emmelees que les serpents eux-memes fuyaient le lieu. Online. […]Les epines dressees dans le ciel ressemblaient a de grosses pointes effilees.

Et ronces et broussailles, sous le soleil et la pluie croissaient sans cesse […].Dans ce champ poussait un fromager peu commun, un gros, gros fromager qui devait etre l’ancetre des fromagers, tant il etait biscornu, manchot, tordu, boudineux, epineux, massif. Intro To Logic And Critical Salmon. Quelque chose d’effrayant, de hideux comme arbre. My Playground Essay. Les oiseaux sur ce champ jamais ne se posaient. To Logic And Critical Thinking. Le soleil meme glissait tandis que la brise le contournait (p. Questions. 51). 13 De meme, la recherche de quelqu’un qui veuille bien se charger de la tache proposee, qui tient en une phrase dans « Araignee et Bosse », s’etale sur pres d’une page (54-55) chez Dadie. Intro Thinking Salmon. Plus loin, la rencontre entre Dieu et Araignee (7 lignes dans « Araignee et Bosse », 2 pages dans « Le b?uf de l’araignee »), puis le defrichage (2 lignes contre 2 pages) sont egalement beaucoup plus developpees dans la version « litteraire » qui, en outre, multiplie les indications psychologiques et les modalites indicielles dans les comportements des personnages : chez Dadie, Kacou Ananze (l’araignee) cogne avec force et furie (p.57), l’enfant de Dieu pleure (p.58), etc. Glitter. Alors que la version orale, sobre dans le decor comme dans la psychologie, ne connait essentiellement que des « noyaux », pour reprendre la terminologie de Barthes, la version litteraire multiplie, sous forme de catalyses, les digressions qui ne sont nullement indispensables a l’economie de l’intrigue comme, entre autres cette conversation entre Araignee et Dieu sur la condition humaine (p. To Logic And Critical Thinking. 55).

14 On va retrouver exactement le meme phenomene entre « Les coepouses bossues », conte wolof recueilli par Momar Sall et publie dans Contes et mythes du Senegal (CILF/EDICEF, 1986) et « Les mamelles », texte tire des Contes d’Amadou Koumba de Birago Diop. How To Write A Psychology Paper. Le conte populaire oral fait moins de deux pages la ou la version de l’ecrivain en fait dix. Intro. La non plus, pas de doute cependant qu’il s’agit bien du meme conte-type dont un resume commun peut etre fait aussi facilement que dans le cas precedent : 15 Deux coepouses sont bossues. Resume Glitter Paper. L’une d’elle tombe par hasard sur des genies a la danse desquels elle s’associe, a la suite de quoi ils lui prennent sa bosse. Intro Salmon. La seconde, instruite par la premiere, veut faire pareil, mais loin de lui retirer sa bosse, les genies lui ajoutent celle laissee par sa coepouse la fois precedente. 16 Dans la version litteraire, les indications physiques et psychologiques notamment, presque absentes de la version orale, sont tres developpees pour caracteriser les heroines du recit ; la mauvaise : Envieuse, Khary, la premiere femme de Momar l’etait.

Elle aurait pu remplir dix calebasses de sa jalousie et les jeter dans un puits, il lui en serait reste encore dix fois dix outres au fond de son c?ur noir comme du charbon. Franny. Il est vrai que Khary n’avait peut-etre pas de grandes raisons a etre tres, tres contente de son sort. Intro Thinking Salmon. En effet Khary etait bossue. Thesis. Oh ! Une toute petite bosse de rien du tout qu’une camisole bien empesee ou un boubou ample aux larges plis pouvait aisement cacher. And Critical Thinking Salmon. Mais Khary croyait que tous les yeux du monde etaient fixes sur sa bosse (p. Online. 33). 17 comme la bonne : Cependant Koumba etait bossue elle aussi, mais sa bosse depassait vraiment les mesures d’une honnete bosse. Salmon. On eut dit, lorsqu’elle tournait le dos, un canari de teinturiere qui semblait porter directement le foulard et la calebasse poses sur sa tete.

Koumba, malgre sa bosse, etait gaie, douce et aimable. Thesis Of Lawvere. Quand on to logic thinking se moquait de la petite Koumba-Khoughe du temps ou elle jouait, buste nu, en lui demandant de preter un instant le bebe qu’elle avait sur le dos, elle repondait en riant plus fort que les autres : « Ca m’etonnerait qu’il vienne avec toi, il ne veut meme pas descendre pour teter. My Playground Essay. » Au contact des grandes personnes plus tard, Koumba qui les savait moins moqueuses peut-etre que les enfants, mais plus mechantes, n’avait pas change de caractere. And Critical. Dans la demeure de son epoux elle restait la meme (p. Thesis. 35). 18 Ces exemples montrent bien comment le recit proprement dit est interrompu par ces longues digressions descriptives dont nous n’avons donne qu’un abrege et qui nous font entrer avec l’imparfait dans une epaisseur temporelle qui est plus le fait de la narration romanesque que de celle du conte qui, en principe, ne sort que rarement et brievement du temps du recit. Intro Salmon. On remarquera en outre que les personnages qui etaient anonymes dans le conte d’origine orale ont tous recu des noms dans la version de Birago Diop, trait qui lui aussi caracterise plutot un recit de type romanesque. 19 Outre ces phenomenes d’expansion indicielle, dans « Les mamelles », le recit se trouve egalement interrompu par des considerations generales, selon l’opposition desormais classique entre discours et recit, et qui, linguistiquement parlant, sont reperables par le present gnomique comme temps principal. Essay Questions. Ces parentheses discursives, generalement inconnues des contes oraux, donnent au texte de Diop une sorte de dimension philosophique par la portee generale de ce qui est avance : Lorsqu’il s’agit d’epouses, deux n’est point un bon compte. Intro To Logic Salmon. Pour qui veut s’eviter souvent querelles, cris, reproches et allusions malveillantes, il faut trois femmes ou une seule et non pas deux. Thesis. Deux femmes dans une meme maison ont toujours avec elles une troisieme compagne qui non seulement n’est bonne a rien, mais encore se trouve etre la pire des mauvaises conseilleres. Intro And Critical Thinking Salmon. Cette compagne, c’est l’Envie a la voix aigre et acide comme du jus de tamarin (p.33 ).

20 On retrouvera de meme plus loin (p.36) de longues considerations sur les vertus et les dangers du tamarinier qui nous font sortir completement de l’histoire et qui ne trouvent leur justification que parce que, dans l’intrigue, c’est aupres d’un tamarinier que Koumba recevra d’une vieille femme-genie la revelation de ce qu’elle doit faire pour perdre sa bosse. 21 « Les mamelles » revelent aussi un autre procede qui est celui de l’enchassement du recit, en l’occurrence le conte, dans un contexte enonciatif plus vaste qui renvoie a d’autres lieux et qui justifie la convocation de ce conte particulier. Resume Paper. Le premier de ces lieux est la France en hiver d’ou le narrateur est cense parler, alors qu’il est plein de nostalgie. To Logic And Critical. Le fait que ce soit dans un tel contexte affectif que remontent a lui les contes de son pays est une facon de mettre en evidence la puissance emotionnelle de cette culture orale et son efficacite. Health Essay. Dans cette evocation on to logic and critical retrouvera dans l’ecriture, avec l’abondance des adjectifs et le recours aux images, la meme recherche de « beau style » que nous avions deja notee chez Dadie, indice probable, pour l’auteur, du parler litteraire : Quand la memoire va ramasser du bois mort, elle rapporte le fagot qu’il lui plait…3 L’horizon bouche m’encercle les yeux. Essay. Les verts de l’ete et les roux de l’automne en alles, je cherche les vastes etendues de la savane et ne trouve que les monts depouilles, sombres comme de vieux geants abattus que la neige refuse d’ensevelir parce qu’ils furent sans doute des mecreants… Mauvais tisserand, l’hiver n’arrive pas a egrener ni a carder son coton ; il ne file et tisse qu’une pluie molle. To Logic And Critical Thinking. Gris, le ciel est froid, pale, le soleil grelotte ; alors, pres de la cheminee, je rechauffe mes membres gourds… Le feu du bois qu’on a soi-meme abattu et debite semble plus chaud qu’aucun autre feu…Chevauchant les flammes qui scintillent, mes pensees vont une a une sur les sentiers qui bordent et envahissent les souvenirs (p. My Playground. 31).

22 Alors donc que, dans ce premier lieu, il regarde les flammes de la cheminee, va surgir un souvenir. Intro To Logic And Critical Thinking. Le narrateur se rappelle un voyage en bateau tandis qu’il revient au Senegal. Of Lawvere. Sur ce bateau, il rencontre une Francaise qui fait la moue en apercevant les « Mamelles », deux petites montagnes de la pointe des Amaldies, ainsi baptisees parce qu’elles ressemblent a des tetons emergeant de l’eau. Intro To Logic And Critical Salmon. C’est ce souvenir qui appelle le conte comme le lecteur le comprendra retrospectivement. Franny And Zooey Thesis. En effet, chez Birago Diop, ce recit a une valeur etiologique, puisqu’il est cense expliquer l’origine de ces deux minuscules montagnes : elles seraient l’emergence des deux bosses de la coepouse depitee qui s’est jetee de honte dans la mer. Intro To Logic And Critical. Ce procede d’emboitement successif qui fut tres en vogue au XVIIIe et au XIXe siecle (voir, entre autres, Maupassant) est encore un indice typique de litterarite, totalement ignore du conte populaire et qui, en l’occurrence, permet en outre a Birago Diop de dedier son conte a cette Francaise qui devient ici en quelque sorte la metonymie de son lectorat occidental : Ma memoire, ce soir au coin du feu, attache dans le meme bout de liane mes petites montagnes, les epouses de Momar et la timide et blonde Violette pour qui je rapporte, en reponse, tardive peut-etre, a son ironique question, ceci que m’a conte Amadou Koumba (p. Resume. 33). 23 Mais precisement, on intro to logic and critical thinking salmon voit bien, chez Dadie comme chez Diop, que beaucoup de procedes stylistiques (syntaxe recherchee, adjectifs, metaphores…) ou rhetoriques (longues descriptions du decor, du physique et de la psychologie des personnages, alternance du recit et du discours, procedes d’emboitement) correspondent a des strategies d’ecriture consistant a habiller le conte oral africain selon des normes litteraires de la scripturalite qui le rendent plus consommable et qui le valorisent aux yeux d’un lectorat occidental cense etre habitue a certaines conventions propres a la litterature romanesque. 24 Cette evolution, impliquee par le passage de l’oral a l’ecrit litteraire ne consiste d’ailleurs pas seulement a multiplier les indices de litterarite romanesque, dans le style comme dans la morphologie narrative, mais elle modifie aussi la fonction culturelle de ces contes, changeant assez radicalement ce qu’on appelle generalement leur « morale ». Mental Health Essay. Si, par exemple, on and critical revient sur le conte-type mettant en scene Araignee et Bosse, on resume glitter paper peut s’arreter sur plusieurs differences notables qui en changent la perspective.

25 Dans la version populaire orale, Dieu n’a pas mis de condition particuliere au defrichage de son champ et Araignee ne triche pas en accomplissant sa tache. To Logic And Critical Salmon. Il semble donc avoir legitimement merite le b?uf promis. How To Write A Psychology Thesis Paper. En revanche, dans la version de Dadie, Dieu met une condition a l’abattage de l’arbre monstRueux. Intro To Logic And Critical. Il ne faut pas l’abattre avec une hache ni un quelconque objet tranchant, mais avec « ca » que le lecteur, compte tenu des suggestions contextuelles appuyees, n’a aucun mal a identifier comme etant le sexe masculin. How To Write A Psychology. Le motif de l’arbre que le heros doit abattre avec son penis existe bien en de nombreux repertoires de contes africains, mais il est en principe associe a un autre conte-type, celui de la quete d’une epouse, et c’est une epreuve proposee par le beau-pere aux pretendants. And Critical Thinking Salmon. On comprend d’ailleurs mieux dans ce contexte le sens d’une telle exigence puisque l’epreuve apparait alors comme un moyen de garantir la virilite du futur epoux. My Playground Essay. En outre, cette condition est generalement formulee de facon beaucoup plus directe et crue : le texte du conte dit tout simplement et sans ambage que le pretendant doit abattre l’arbre avec sa verge. Intro And Critical Salmon. Les raffinements et les jeux euphemiques de Dadie dans le recit qu’il a lui-meme redige, indices d’un souci de bienseance, sont donc typiquement lies a l’idee qu’il se fait d’une certaine culture occidentale ou les themes galants sont a l’occasion apprecies dans la bonne litterature a condition d’etre plaisamment allusifs.

Cette formulation euphemique, dans le cadre d’une sorte de jeu subtil avec le lecteur, a peut-etre aussi pour fonction de contribuer a contredire le stereotype colonial selon lequel le negre, souvent associe a une sexualite primaire et grossiere, est incapable de telles finesses. 26 Dadie semble donc avoir amalgame ici des elements de deux contes-types pour n’en faire qu’un seul. Glitter. Il a d’ailleurs emprunte d’autres motifs classiques de contes ouest-africains comme celui du decepteur qui, pour accomplir un mefait ou une tricherie, envoie sa dupe naive puiser de l’eau dans une corbeille tressee, tache impossible qui permet de l’eloigner pour un bon moment et de donner tout son temps au decepteur pour arranger sa duperie. To Logic. Il n’est certes pas impossible que Dadie ait lui-meme entendu une version orale de ce conte-type qui presentait de tels elements, dans la mesure ou l’oralite est soumise a la variabilite et ou il ne faudrait pas commettre l’erreur grossiere de considerer la version orale dont nous disposons comme un modele fige. Franny And Zooey Thesis. Dans toutes les cultures, le conte est un « meccano », selon l’expression de Georges Jean, et les contes-types peuvent s’accommoder de plusieurs variantes, dont il n’est pas possible de dire qu’une est plus legitime que l’autre. To Logic Thinking. Cependant, celui qui connait un peu le repertoire des contes ouest-africains et en particulier agni, ne peut pas ne pas avoir le sentiment d’une tendance, dans « Le b?uf de l’araignee », a proposer un conte enrichi d’elements de plusieurs autres, afin de presenter un texte plus dense, offrant en quelque sorte une synthese culturelle. 27 En outre, cette addition d’une condition mise par Dieu au defrichage du champ modifie le sens de la mesaventure vecue ensuite par Araignee. Health Essay. Dans la version populaire orale, si Araignee a acquis son b?uf de facon legitime, sa punition ne peut venir que de son comportement posterieur a cette acquisition. Intro Thinking. Il ne veut partager son b?uf avec quiconque, pas meme avec une mouche.

Et c’est cet egoisme foncier, symptomatique d’une ideologie individualiste contraire aux valeurs communautaires de partage et de solidarite pronees dans la societe agni-baoule comme en beaucoup de societes africaines, qui semble la cause du chatiment transcendant (Bosse tombe d’en haut) qu’il recoit, sous forme de la privation du festin tant convoite. How To Write A Psychology. Et, bien sur, comme Araignee est le decepteur dans ce repertoire de contes, il se venge a son tour de celui qui l’a depouille de son b?uf et il fait subir a un autre les consequences de son mefait. 28 Une telle lecture est toujours possible dans la version de Dadie ou Ananze (Araignee) manifeste le meme comportement individualiste, toutefois elle est concurrencee par une autre interpretation qui relativise la premiere et la fait passer au second plan. Intro And Critical Thinking. Ananze a triche pour obtenir son b?uf, puisque, au lieu de l’abattre avec son sexe comme le voulait la prescription de Dieu, il l’a tranche a la hache, mystifiant l’enfant de Dieu delegue pour le surveiller. Write Thesis Paper. S’il est donc par la suite prive de sa recompense, c’est aussi a cause de la tricherie et de la tricherie a l’egard de Dieu, ce qui motive singulierement le caractere transcendant du chatiment dont le texte nous precise la encore qu’il « tomba du ciel » (p.60) et qu’il est bien interprete par le heros comme un envoi de Dieu. To Logic Salmon. Une telle lecture est encore favorisee par le chant qu’entonne Ananze apres s’etre vu remettre le b?uf : Dieu, dieu, mais on glitter paper peut le tromper. Il suffit d’avoir du cran. Intro And Critical Salmon. […] (p.59). 29 La lecon du conte populaire, liee a une morale ethnique et peut-etre plus largement africaine, pronant des valeurs de solidarite communautaire et condamnant l’individualisme, s’elargit donc, dans la version litteraire en francais, a une morale plus universelle sur l’honnetete (« Bien mal acquis ne profite jamais ») et prend une coloration nettement metaphysique puisqu’il est plus precisement question de bonne foi vis a vis de la transcendance. Resume Paper. Le fait que, dans cette version, l’agent du chatiment soit justement la Mort (avec une majuscule) au lieu de simplement « Bosse » comme dans la variante d’origine orale, renforce evidemment cette lecture metaphysique du conte.

Le texte de Dadie voit donc s’accentuer, pour un lectorat plus vaste, sa portee philosophique generale. 30 Le conte des deux coepouses offre la meme possibilite de glissement interpretatif, avec, semble-t-il, les memes objectifs. Intro Thinking Salmon. Dans la version d’origine orale, il n’est pas question d’une bonne et d’une mauvaise coepouse et rien n’est dit sur leurs qualites morales respectives. Thesis Of Lawvere. Si l’une reussit sa quete implicite en perdant sa bosse et si l’autre echoue en se voyant ajouter a la sienne la bosse de la premiere, ce ne peut donc en aucun cas etre interprete comme une recompense de la bonte de la premiere et une sanction de la mechancete de la seconde. Intro To Logic Salmon. La seule chose qui differe entre les deux, c’est leur comportement lorsqu’elles participent a la danse des genies. Dissertation Online. La premiere reprend tres scrupuleusement les paroles de leur chant, qui d’ailleurs consiste essentiellement a repeter en wolof le mot de « mardi » (talaata, terme emprunte a l’arabe), jour de leur reunion, comme l’indiquent les propos de la premiere coepouse lorsqu’elle revele son secret a la seconde : « Si tu te rends la nuit du mardi du cote des toilettes, tu trouveras les djinns en train de jouer dans une vaste cour. And Critical Thinking. ». Thesis. La seconde, en revanche, prolonge a sa fantaisie le chant en enumerant les autres jours de la semaine : mercredi, jeudi, vendredi (Allarba, Alxames, Aljuma). And Critical. Et le contexte montre de facon tres explicite que c’est cette invention personnelle de la femme qui conduit les genies a lui ajouter a sa bosse celle de sa coepouse, abandonnee a la seance precedente : Les djinns affoles s’interrogerent : « Qui a l’audace d’allonger notre chanson sans notre autorisation ? » Les autres ponctuaient : « C’est cette etrangere, c’est cette etrangere ; nous nous devons donc de lui doubler sa bosse. Mental Essay Questions. » Ils prirent la bosse de la coepouse qu’ils collerent a la sienne en lui disant : « Deguerpis ! Tu n’as rien a ajouter a notre chanson sans notre autorisation ! » 31 On comprend que nous sommes en presence d’un conte initiatique indiquant que l’initie doit se conformer scrupuleusement aux indications de ses maitres initiateurs. Intro And Critical. La premiere reussit son initiation parce qu’elle agit ainsi, tandis que la seconde echoue du fait qu’elle n’a pas une attitude suffisamment respectueuse ni docile. Dissertation Online. Pas de lecon ici autre qu’initiatique. 32 En faisant de ses deux coepouses une bonne et une mauvaise, Birago Diop modifie considerablement la signification du conte, d’autant que, dans la rencontre entre Koumba et la vieille femme sous le tamarinier (p.

37), le texte insiste par prolepse sur le fait que ce qui va arriver a Koumba est une recompense meritee de sa grande bonte : Koumba, reprit la vieille femme, je connais ton bon coeur et ton grand merite depuis que tu reconnais ta droite de ta gauche. To Logic And Critical. Je veux te rendre un grand service car je t’en sais digne. Of Lawvere. Vendredi, a la pleine lune, sur la colline d’argile de N’Guew, les filles-genies danseront. To Logic. Tu iras sur la colline lorsque la terre sera froide. Resume Paper. Quand le tam-tam battra son plein, quand le cercle sera bien anime, quand sans arret une danseuse remplacera une autre danseuse, tu t’approcheras et tu diras a la fille-genie qui sera a cote de toi : -Tiens, prends-moi l’enfant que j’ai sur le dos, c’est mon tour de danser. 33 Quant a Khary, la mechante coepouse, lorsqu’elle se rend a son tour a la danse des filles-genies, elle ne semble pas commettre d’erreur particuliere dans le deroulement du rite. Intro And Critical Thinking. Par consequent, si elle se voit affublee de la deuxieme bosse, cela ne peut apparaitre que comme une punition transcendante de sa mechancete intrinseque, qui la conduit d’ailleurs finalement a la mort, de rage, episode qui ne se retrouve pas dans la version orale. Mental Essay. Le conte est donc passe d’une lecon essentiellement initiatique a une morale plus ou moins universelle qui veut que les bons soient recompenses et les mechants punis, ce qui gomme l’identite wolof et plus largement africaine du conte au profit de valeurs beaucoup plus familieres au lectorat occidental. 34 A propos de cet episode de la rencontre avec les genies, on salmon notera aussi, chez Diop, le meme souci de bienseance et d’effacement du trivial au profit du poetique.

Alors que dans la version populaire elle a lieu a cote des toilettes4, dans le conte de Diop, elle se deroule « a la pleine lune, sur la colline d’argile de N’Guew (…), lorsque la terre (est) froide ». 35 En outre, dans la version wolof authentique, la presence des deux coepouses est une donnee de depart du conte : « Il y avait une fois deux coepouses bossues », precision qui ne requiert aucun besoin de justification dans la societe agni-baoule ou la polygamie est une pratique normale et courante. 36 En revanche Birago Diop se sent oblige, dans son conte ecrit directement en francais, de presenter les choses un peu differemment. Dissertation. Dans « Les mamelles », si Momar prend une seconde epouse, c’est parce qu’il est en quelque sorte contraint a le faire : sa premiere femme, Khary est absolument epouvantable et ne remplit pas son office d’epouse. Intro To Logic Thinking Salmon. Il a somme toute une « excuse » pour prendre une seconde femme et, en creux, le lecteur est invite a comprendre que si Khary n’avait pas ete si mauvaise, jamais il n’aurait eu l’idee de prendre Koumba : Las de travailler tout le jour et de ne prendre que le soir un repas chaud, Momar s’etait decide (souligne par nous) a prendre une deuxieme femme et il avait epouse Koumba. 37 Ce souci, dans la version litteraire, d’excuser la polygamie, en lui trouvant une justification circonstancielle, temoigne encore de la conscience de l’auteur d’avoir a s’adresser – au moins partiellement – a un lectorat qui voit dans la polygamie une pratique de « sauvage » ou en tout cas une pratique culturellement inferieure. 38 Cette breve analyse de nos deux contes aura donc montre qu’en passant de la culture orale de leur terroir a une production ecrite en francais, dans le contexte d’une certaine epoque, ils ont subi une transformation profonde qui, derriere une apparente fidelite aux grandes lignes de l’histoire, est presque une trahison de leur personnalite originelle, tant du point de vue de la morphologie du recit que de la moralite des contes. Mental. Affirmer ainsi qu’il s’agit d’une trahison ne signifie nullement de notre part prononcer une condamnation de l’entreprise des deux ecrivains.

Notre propos n’est pas ici de nous poser en censeur ni de prendre parti pour louer ou condamner. Intro And Critical Thinking Salmon. La litterature n’a pas a s’accommoder de dogme et toute l’histoire de la creation litteraire est faite, dans l’intertextualite, de trahisons parfois geniales. Mental Essay. Il s’agit seulement de constater que ces contes « litteraires », s’ils sont bien des ?uvres africaines – il n’y a aucune raison de leur denier cette qualite -, sont des produits d’epoque (les annees soixante) marques par le mouvement de la negritude et le souci de promotion exogene de la culture africaine dont les intellectuels du continent voulaient montrer l’appartenance au patrimoine culturel universel. To Logic Thinking Salmon. Pour ce faire, les auteurs les presentaient d’abord comme partageant les memes canons et les memes valeurs que celles qui avaient cours en Occident. Essay. De telles productions, apres le traitement qu’elles ont subi, n’ont evidemment plus grand chose a voir avec les contes oraux qui en ont ete la source. CAMARA Laye (1978), Le maitre de la parole, Kouma Lafolo Kouma, Plon. DADIE Bernard (1955), Le pagne noir. KOUMBA Amadou, « Les coepouses bossues », in thinking Contes et mythes du Senegal, CILF, Fleuve et Flamme, 1991. NGUESSAN M.A., Araignee et bosse.

NIANE Djibril Tamsir (1960) Soundjata ou l’epopee mandingue, Presence Africaine. SALL Momar, Contes et mythes du Senegal, Fleuve et Flamme, EDICEF, 1991.

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TOP TEN COMICS CRITICISM MISTAKES. Used, often as a headline, with popular variant “Comics Aren’t Just For Kids Anymore.” This line is salmon so notorious amongst comics folk that it is often referred to in acronym form (CAFKA). Here’s the resume glitter paper thing: comics haven’t just been for kids since, oh, the 1960s. Underground comics (“comix”) combined counterculture subject matter (sex, drugs, rock and roll, etc.) with some of the artistic techniques from syndicated newspaper cartoons, mid-century horror comics and animation. Virtually none of it is to logic and critical thinking salmon “kid-safe,” although I’m sure many contemporary cartoonists owe their vocations to surreptitious perusal of mental essay questions Mom and intro thinking salmon, Dad’s poorly concealed collections of R. My Playground? Crumb and RAW . Furthermore, the to logic salmon sorts of comics that contemporary English-speakers often associate with “kid-friendly” reading – superhero comics – have veered towards an thesis of lawvere adult audience since the mid-1980s. Intro To Logic? Did you see The Dark Knight?

The Batman movie where Heath Ledger drives a pencil into a guy’s eye-socket by slamming his head onto write the table? That sort of thing happens in superhero comics all the time. “Kid-friendly” titles are the salmon exception, not the rule, and it’s been that way since I wore Osh Kosh B’Gosh overalls in size 3T. So. Stop leading with this phrase; your news story is my playground essay decades out of date. As a related sub-genre, I sometimes encounter the critic who gives a comic book a bad review because the intro to logic and critical thinking salmon comic is (deep breath of resume smelling salts here) not for children . Intro Thinking? They are tripping along reviewing this strange little children’s picture-novel when OH MY LORD AND SAVIOR, violence (or worse yet, boobs )! Certainly, some adult humans will be shocked to learn that they cannot simply pick up a comic book and hurl it at the nearest child.

But you’re smarter than that, more sophisticated than that, and resume glitter paper, you don’t want to waste your precious critical energy on intro and critical these people. They are too busy being upset about the internet. In short: some comic books are for kids; some are just for adults. Plenty more will appeal to resume glitter just about anybody. Intro And Critical Salmon? Comics are a medium, not a toy. The content – not the my playground essay package – will tell you who should be reading. Often used in conjunction with “Comics Aren’t For Kids Anymore.” Other, equivalent sound effects are common (SOKK! etc.), and variant headlines or leads include “Holy [insert word] , Batman!” These phrases seem to derive from the 1960’s Adam West Batman TV show, which superimposed lettered “sound effects” during campy fight scenes; the and critical “Holy [whatever], Batman!” was the dissertation online Robin line that Burt Ward was forced to and critical thinking salmon utter in endless variance. How To Write Thesis Paper? Neither of intro to logic and critical these phrases have much relevance to actual comic books ( Batman or otherwise), and the datedness of the TV show reference is justification alone for thesis avoiding these moldy chestnuts. And, lest you cling to intro and critical this language for some illusion of originality or catchiness, a quick Google search for “biff pow zap” turns up ALL of these headlines:

Bang! Pow! Zap! HEROES ARE BACK! – Time Magazine, 1986. Biff! Pow! Using comics to sell health law – Associated Press, 2011. Pow. Franny? Zap. Bang.

How God makes your action-packed life like a superhero’s. –, 2010. Pow! Zap! Physics? Prof. Jim Kakalios Spices Up Science with a Colorful Teaching Tool –, 2011. and, perhaps most horrifying: Biff!

Pow! Judge Gives Jack Kirby Heirs One In The Kisser In Marvel Characters Ruling – Wall Street Journal, 2011. Likewise, I encourage you to avoid harping on these tired cliches: people who dress up in costume at conventions (they’re normal people having fun on their day off) the Comic Book Guy from The Simpsons anything along the line of “pale guys who live in Mom’s basement” any and all unbidden Star Trek or Star Wars references. Don’t go there, friends. We’ve already been. EXAMPLE: “With the box-office success of and critical The Avengers, comic books haven proven their appeal to a wide audience.”

In its most painful incarnation, this sentence will kick off a review of, say, an autobiographical memoir about the artist’s childhood in the slums of dissertation read online Bangladesh. The point is: movies based on comic book properties are not necessarily relevant to all of comics. (Shocking though it may seem, many comic books have no direct relevance even to other comic books ) . To Logic And Critical Thinking? Would you start a review of mental health essay a literary novel with the intro and critical salmon sentence “With the box-office success of Twilight , novels have proven their appeal to mental a wide audience”? No, you wouldn’t, because (a) it’s patently silly and (b) it doesn’t say anything about the actual work you’re supposedly addressing. If you must reference the intro to logic salmon recent blockbuster, a better approach might be something like “while Marvel Comics has sought out a wider audience by adapting its characters for blockbuster flicks like The Avengers , Publisher X has focused on fostering mature, original voices in non-fiction memoir.” Give it your own spin. #4. Thesis? “Non-fiction graphic novel” OR “this isn’t a comic book. It’s a graphic novel.” This confusion was probably inevitable.

The way people talk about to logic and critical salmon comics has changed a great deal in the last thirty years. Let us try to set the record straight! God help us. Comics (generally singular , despite the s ) is the medium. You may also (though much less frequently) hear sequential art. A comic is any complete work in the comics medium, regardless of genre or length. Read Online? Rather like “film” or “poem.”

A comic book is, for the sake of definition, any complete work made in the comics medium that is long enough to involve several pages of salmon material or have a collective title. If it were printed, would you have to staple it to keep it all together? Great. Let’s call it a comic book, then. A graphic novel is a complete work of essay questions fiction in the comics form which, if printed, is salmon long enough to be bound as a trade volume, so with a glued or sewn spine. (How’s that for arbitrary?) It is a novel, just as Jane Eyre is a novel, but it is told in comics, not prose. “Graphic novel” is basically a very clever marketing term that allows booksellers, librarians, and thesis, other nervous adults to have a shorthand for intro and critical salmon “book-length thing of comics that we can sell for how to write a psychology thesis over ten dollars and to logic, doesn’t make you look like a pedophile for mental questions reading in public.” Unlike many people in thinking salmon, the comics business, I don’t mind the (fairly new) term, because it’s done great things to convince people who aren’t avid comics readers that it’s okay to pick up a comic book now and again without fearing their book group’s scorn. When people ask me what the difference is between a comic book and a graphic novel, I say that all graphic novels are comic books, but not all comic books are graphic novels. Then they look confused, and we change the subject. Hitch #2 inherent to the term “graphic novel” – the word “novel” implies “fiction” which is to say “stuff that didn’t actually happen to anybody.” While I have no sacred commitment to “novel” (since it originally connoted “sordid fad that is corrupting our women and dissertation online, children”), it is rather awkward and confusing to and critical refer to something as a “non-fiction graphic novel” since this translates to “book-length work of non-fiction comics fiction.” Even more awkwardly, thanks to the multiple meanings of the word “graphic”, if you remove the term “novel” and read online, swap in a more accurate genre description, like “memoir”, you get embarrassing locutions like “ graphic memoir ” which can be mistaken to to logic mean “ prose memoir which involves lots of intense sex and violence .” (The Toronto Comic Arts Festival famously instructs its American guests to avoid using the my playground term “graphic novels” at the border, since many customs agents hear “graphic” and think “pornography.”)

I have no good solution for this one, and intro, nobody else has come up with a consistent reference. Eventually I’d love to hear “comics” replace “graphic” and thus hear about “comics novel” or “comics memoir,” but only dissertation read online time will tell. In the meantime, tread with caution and consult the intro to logic and critical thinking salmon oracles. These words are frequently used, in comics criticism and in criticism in general, as stand-ins for “dumb,” “wacky,” “brightly-colored,” “outlandish,” and my playground, “lurid and thinking salmon, kinetic with no intellectual or emotional core.” Friends: I challenge you to read David Mazzucchelli’s masterpiece novel Asterios Polyp and apply any of those descriptive terms to it. (Well, it is brightly colored, but there’s symbolism , so it doesn’t count.) I think it’s fine to use “cartoonish” to describe a simple and exaggerated portrayal. That’s been in use for quite some time, since the heyday of illustration. And obviously the term is also acceptable to explain where on the spectrum of stylization an artist’s work falls – Persepolis by Marjane Satrapi is drawn in a style that is mental health much more “cartoony” than, say, The Killing Joke (drawn by Brian Bolland, written by Alan Moore), which is far more “realistic .” It’s also fine to use “comic-book-y” to describe a work that intentionally emulates a type of comics work; Lichtenstein, for example, was grabbing directly from comics sources, and there are plenty of movies that draw story and style inspiration from certain kinds of comics. But it’s foolish to assume that the and critical thinking readers knows WHICH kind of comics you’re talking about.

What you really mean is “this work is thesis reminiscent of intro and critical thinking salmon my personal stereotypes about a medium with which I’m obviously not overly familiar.” And you don’t want to resume glitter paper write that, do you? Call out a specific type of comic – “reminiscent of and critical thinking salmon Golden Age Marvel comic books, bright and punchy” or find another descriptor. In the meantime, if you’d like a more in-depth discussion of the aesthetics and function of visual style in comics, pick up a copy of Scott McCloud’s landmark book Understanding Comics . Would you describe brushstrokes as “paint patches” or a song bridge as “transition verse?” Would you call a fictional plot an “event structure” or a pas de deux a “two-person dance?” No, you would not, because you’re a professional, and read online, you make it a point to understand the terms that define the medium you are concerned with. Nor would you spend overmuch time in a review defining these terms for readers, since it behooves you to assume that they are already interested in intro salmon, what you are talking about (and are capable of looking up terms they don’t recognize). One of the most common errors is to mis-refer to the visual/textual device by which characters in resume paper, comics traditionally “speak.” These are word balloons. A contiguous chunk of thinking salmon narrative text not uttered directly by a character but instead superimposed over the imagery is typically called a caption . Thesis? Closed, discrete image units, which generally depict a distinct chunk of time or space – are panels. The spaces between panels are gutters. (Please, no puns; they’ve already been made.)

There are plenty of to logic and critical salmon other terms – including many that are shared with prose and film – but those are the thesis statement most essential. And Critical Salmon? No neologisms required. If you’re looking for some further reference on mental essay comics vocabulary (and you are), I recommend browsing the following widely-published titles, all of which are appropriate for a general audience: Understanding Comics , Scott McCloud. Drawing Words and Writing Pictures , Matt Madden and Jessica Abel. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Creating a Graphic Novel , Nat Gertler and Steve Lieber. #7.

This muffin is so good that it’s actually a bagel. Oh, I do love this one, and by and critical thinking, love I mean that it can induce me to hurl an otherwise a respectable publication across the room. In this case, the reviewer has been sentenced to read and then write about a comic book. There are two varieties, one seen mostly in smaller, local publications and blogs, and the other in resume, publications of intro to logic and critical thinking salmon a hoity-toity bent. VARIANT #1: I Don’t Come Here Often, But… The first kind of reviewer undertakes her task with a great deal of foot-dragging and exculpatory phrases about franny and zooey statement how they aren’t “big graphic novel boosters.” Here’s a classic example, from a recent issue of the and critical Seattle Times: I, like many other rampant bibliophiles, am a reluctant reader of graphic books. Yet, a few pages into Alison Bechdel’s latest memoir, “Are You My Mother?” (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 290 pp., $22), I was hooked despite the online comic-book format. To me, all this paragraph says is “I’m reluctant to try anything that challenges my arbitrary habits, and I’m probably not qualified to review this book in a larger cultural context.” Or maybe (even less charitably) “Oh my gosh, I’m SO not that kind of annoying nerd!

Please don’t dismiss my intellectual seriousness for liking this one comic book. To Logic? If I convince other people to like it, then maybe I won’t feel so uncomfortable!” I appreciate what the writer is trying to essay do – reach out to other reluctant readers. (Because that’s what you are in this case, kids: reluctant readers. Not “rampant bibliophiles.”) There’s really something to and critical be said for a “come on mental health essay questions in, the water’s fine” approach to convincing the status-anxious to pick up a new kind of book. And Critical Thinking Salmon? But you’re not doing yourself or those readers any favors by wincing your way through your appraisal of the work at hand. The most “rampant bibliophiles” I know don’t dismiss a potentially great book just because of its format or genre.

So instead of making yourself look narrow-minded, why don’t you just open your review with praise of the book, as you would for any other title of my playground merit? Then, if you’re worried that people will be hesitant to to logic thinking read on, emphasize that the thesis material has the potential to be both accessible and appealing to prose readers. Not all writers are well-intentioned, of course. Intro Thinking? Some of them see themselves as arbiters of high culture and comics as a party crasher. This sort of person seems to look forward to writing a vicious takedown.

He opens with some flippant references to my playground a legacy newspaper strip like Hagar the Horrible or a sniffy description of the manga collections that his teenaged niece reads in a corner at Thanksgiving while the grown-ups quaff sherry and to logic thinking salmon, discuss matters of international diplomacy. Now that the read critic has safely established that he’s not one of “those” people, he brings up the actual comic book he’s been paid to read. Intro And Critical Thinking? To his infinite horror, he finds that it is pretty good. There will be a few stumbling paragraphs of praise – why, this is essay reminiscent of salmon fine literature! The pictures and the words combine to create meaning beyond what each individually represents! And then there will be a stunning piece of rationalization. Because this comic book is really good, it must not ACTUALLY be a comic book.

(Or, this comic book is thesis of lawvere so good, it doesn’t seem RIGHT to to logic and critical thinking salmon call it a comic book. A Psychology Thesis? ) There are certainly examples of work that exists to comment on its own form or genre – deconstruction, meta-commentary, appropriation, satire; pick your Trojan horse. Intro To Logic And Critical? It it work that takes on resume a form just to intro and critical piss on that form. Every medium has its anarchists, and being able to recognize that intention is a valuable critical skill. But just because something is better (in your opinion) than many of its peer works does not mean that it is a commentary on its medium, or that the of lawvere medium ceases to apply. The critic’s assumption that “comic book” connotes “low culture” doesn’t make the intro work at hand any less of a comic book, or any less of an my playground artistic achievement. All you’re doing with this kind of rationalization is intro and critical salmon revealing your own discomfort about liking something you don’t think you’re supposed to. Which is dissertation read online ridiculous. This is comic books, not heroin or blood diamonds or Celine Dion. #8. Comics: A Bold Artistic Choice for intro to logic a Cartoonist.

The reviewer observes that the read online cartoonist in question has, in intro to logic salmon, fact, produced something very good, and perhaps not typical of the reviewer’s notion of what a comic book is like. The reviewer acknowledges that the comic book creator is, in fact, a first-rank talent – somebody whose abilities could potentially shine through in other media, as well. Dissertation Online? (She’s not comic book pretty…she’s literature pretty!) From this, the critic concludes that the creator is, in fact, making a bold artistic choice by composing her work in intro to logic thinking, this medium. How brave of her – and what does it mean? What is the dissertation significance of this choice for the story? Why isn’t it a novel, or a screenplay, which are things that grownups make? If David Mitchell took up macrame the critic would hardly be less perplexed. The critic will think all these things in apparent ignorance of the fact that the creator in question has been making comics – exclusively comics – for intro and critical thinking salmon her entire career . She is not a prose novelist in thesis of lawvere, a cartoonist suit for an evening. She is, in fact, a cartoonist. She might be making bold artistic choices within her chosen medium, but comics aren’t a “choice” any more than it’s a “choice” for intro and critical thinking Steven Spielberg to make a movie. There are indeed cases where a creator works in several media, and essay, chooses to work in comics for to logic and critical specific story or audience reasons.

This is more often true of creators who provide just the writing or just the art and create comics as part of a collaborative team. And some creators genuinely do “moonlight” in comics, as a side venture within a career focused elsewhere. There’s a simple way to determine which kind of creator you’re dealing with: Google them. Look up their work. Figure out what the comics-to-other-stuff ratio is. Then decide if what this creator is doing really constitutes a “bold artistic choice,” or merely what she was born to do . #9. The Unbearable Lightness of Word Balloons. A related genre of thesis critical overreaching. The critic encounters standard elements of comics work – word balloons, square panels, standard layouts – and to logic and critical thinking, immediately interprets them as meaningful to the content of the work. This is another example of the critic’s own ignorance coming out to play. Imagine if a critic wrote (of a prose novel) that “the straightness of the mental health questions lines of text reflect the narrator’s matter-of-fact perception of the world, and the ordering of the letters from to logic thinking, left-to-right functions as a subtle reference to his growing political conservatism as he comes of age over the course of the essay questions novel.”

This would be silly. Likewise, a painting executed on a rectangular canvas is not automatically assumed to be commenting on the nature of the rectangle. There are plenty of formalist experimenters in comics (pick up a Chris Ware title and watch him go). To Logic And Critical Salmon? However, the odds are that the mental essay book you’re reading is one of the other 95%, the intro thinking kind of thesis of lawvere work that uses standard formal elements as a vehicle for subject matter beyond the borders of the medium itself. And Critical? The form is meant to dissertation become invisible, or at least not draw more attention to itself more than is necessary to enjoy and understand the and critical thinking work. The only essay cure for a critic prone to over-analysis is to read enough comic books that it becomes clear when a formal element is routine, and when it’s being used more creatively. Tough break, right? But, in comic books as in everything, you have to walk before you can run. Another error bred by too narrow a reading list. A critic reads a comic book (“Book A”) and to logic and critical thinking, finds some aspect of it striking. The critic has only read one other comic book (B).

The critic then adds two and two and glitter, gets seventeen: clearly, Book A is deeply influenced by Book B. This leads to a lot of bizarre attributions that seem less like comparing apples to oranges and more like comparing apples to to logic salmon Kevin Bacon. Mental Health Questions? Surely you must see the clear influence that Spider-Man has had on MAUS! Alternatively, the critic can’t stomach the thought of referencing other comic books at all, or can’t remember even a single one (I once met a graphic arts professor so impressed with himself that he claimed not to have heard of Garfield ). So she spends the entire review talking about nothing but prose work and fine art, etc., as if the to logic and critical thinking salmon cartoonist had invented an entire new medium from the leavings of greater art forms. Comics in their current form are a tradition dating from the 19th century – like film and my playground, the modern novel – but static- words-and-pictures-telling-a-story-in-sequence are as old as words and thinking salmon, pictures and nearly as old as sequences. A culture critic expressing wide-eyed surprise that the two things can be combined is kind of like a restaurant reviewer being surprised by sandwiches. So, yes, Alison Bechdel was very much informed by themes from Proust’s writing when she created her memoir Fun Home . But she also took a lot from franny thesis, Charles Addams, the cartoonist of The Addams Family; she even mentions it in the book itself. Cartoonists are, in intro to logic and critical, general, not very prejudiced when it comes to their influences. Most of my peers are voracious readers, watchers, lookers, listeners, and players, mostly unconcerned with labels of of lawvere “high” or “low” so long as the stuff on the menu is good. We don’t collectively put much stock in work that preens over its own elite inaccessibility (having too often been the victims of snobbery in academic settings), but nobody is going to be shunned for liking something and making use of thinking salmon it in their own work.

You will quite possibly see the influence of Star Wars and franny and zooey thesis, the influence of Ezra Pound sharing a table at your local convention. But we also come from a rich artistic tradition with plenty to say for itself, and intro salmon, we all owe an explicit debt to the comics creators before us. Their work is our inspiration; their rules and essay, expectations are our challenge. So you don’t get to thinking salmon pick and choose Alison Bechdel’s influences; Bechdel already did that for herself. The same goes for every other comics creator who strives for original expression.

If you can’t acknowledge our full creative heritage, you can’t fully appreciate our work. Now go forth, to love and serve good books! If you’re reviewing a comic book, you need to review it in the context of works that are relevant to the one at hand, and you need to resume glitter make sure that the story you’re telling about it is up-to-date . If you have trouble with this – you haven’t read anything even faintly like this book before and to logic and critical salmon, have no idea where it came from, then you need to essay put in a few hours of research . Magical secret #1: comic books are a really quick read. Reading “Great Expectations” will take you twice as long as it would take you to intro to logic and critical get a quick, serviceable survey of the underground comix movement. My Playground Essay? Librarians, the intro to logic internet, your twelve year-old neighbor, and comics retail professionals – to say nothing of the creators themselves, who often have websites and give interviews – will all gladly help in ridding you of that certain je ne sais quoi I’m talking about. Magical secret #2: comic books can be truly wonderful. They can also suck . A (very earnest) librarian once asked me how you can tell if a comic book is “good.” I was briefly dumbstruck by the question. I had to tell her that you figure it out the franny and zooey same way as you do with a prose book – you read it, or you read reviews of it, see if it’s won awards or been recommended by intro to logic and critical salmon, organizations, ask friends, see what’s circulating.

If you pick up a comic book and you don’t like it – think first “ this is my playground probably a bad comic book. ” Not “ comic books are probably bad . ” Can you imagine if a professional acquaintance of yours grabbed a novel at and critical, random from the Goodwill book bin and judged all of literature by it? You wouldn’t be a paid critic if such minor roadblocks as a new genre or a bad book got in the way of resume glitter your reading habit. It’s your job to tell us, the clueless schmoes of the reading public, if something is intro to logic worth picking up or not. When I read a negative review, I want to know what’s wrong with the book, not what’s wrong with your relationship to the medium. Likewise, in glitter paper, a positive review, I’m not looking for a blow-by-blow account of your realization that comic books can have cultural value. I already know that they do; I’m hoping you’ll tell me why this particular comic book has cultural value. All I want is for thinking you to write a review that I can respect. You can do that by health essay questions, writing a review that respects me, as a reader and intro thinking, a creator. Because I really need some new reading material. And I’m hoping you can help. September 18 2012 / 11:55 am.

This article is great. Read Online? I’ve encountered a lot of these cliches just talking to people about comics. Intro And Critical Salmon? I’ve found it very difficult trying to explain to people what “graphic novel” actually means. September 18 2012 / 12:06 pm. This is a fantastic article, but now I’m committed to spreading the use of the thesis of lawvere term “table dagger” everywhere I go from here on out. I learned it from watching you! September 18 2012 / 12:17 pm. September 18 2012 / 12:47 pm. Useful and cautionary advice – thanks! As someone who tries to write intelligently about intro and critical salmon comics, some of these landmines are more familiar than is of lawvere comfortable #128578; . Quick note on point 2: writers don’t usually write the intro to logic and critical salmon headlines that appear with their stories. Franny Thesis Statement? “Zap!

Bam! Pow!” is thinking salmon usually the thesis of lawvere affectation of a lazy editor and can be as cringe-inducing for the bylined writer as for the readers. September 18 2012 / 12:57 pm. Indeed – I’ve been the intro salmon victim of essay Bad Editor Headline Syndrome myself. My hope is that this will discourage bloggers and other folks who write their own headlines from using the title, and will give publication writers ammunition for saying “Here’s the piece on intro Alan Moore; p.s. Resume Glitter? my sources say “pow biff zap” is a no-go for lead, thx”, and will likewise give annoyed readers/commenters something to point at to discourage publications from intro to logic thinking salmon, using it. September 18 2012 / 12:49 pm. I’m kind of glad to dissertation online read something like this, though it makes me sad that it’s a prevalent enough issue that the article needs to exist.

Most of the points listed apply not just to comics writing, but any kind of writing. It just feels like common sense. I run into this all the time as I also write about figures/statues/collectibles, and have to try and be fair even if I don’t particularly dig the source material (anime, comic, movie, game in question). Either way, I found it helpful since I blog books and things in my own time, and am preparing to write about the comics I’ve been picking up as well. Granted, my scope is rather limited as I used to to logic and critical thinking salmon read much more comics when I was younger, but New 52 titles got me back into and zooey statement it now and I like the idea of sharing the to logic and critical experience. Of course, I’m reading other books that aren’t necessarily New 52, but they essentially pulled me back into being a regular subscriber at my local comic shop. Thanks for my playground essay writing this — I’m glad to know that I could be one less writer asserting herself as a “big, responsible grown-up who’d never go for comics as they’re for kiddos and read fancy literature instead” by simply following a few hard rules. September 18 2012 / 1:03 pm. This essay is both informative and intro thinking salmon, enjoyable. Thank you very much. September 18 2012 / 1:14 pm.

Brilliant write up here. Its quite often to see content like such be dismissed solely due to “lowly” qualities such as illustration. But here’s me hoping we’re slowly phasing that out. Again, good write up, and good read. September 18 2012 / 1:30 pm. While I thoroughly enjoyed the article, I severely cringed at the line “je ne sais quoi I’m talking about” – what is it even supposed to mean? September 18 2012 / 1:36 pm. Hi Dainty!

It’s just my little joke about how people sometimes think they’re being sophisticated by demonstrating their ignorance about something, but really it only makes them look silly. September 18 2012 / 1:55 pm. Ah, it feels good to read that. Mental Questions? Now there needs to be a companion article explaining some of those same things to fans who say they’re fans of and critical thinking salmon comic-books, but actually are only fans of mental health questions superheroes. They think they’ve read a lot of issues of Spider-man, so they’re an authority on comic books, as opposed to what they actually are, a person obsessed with Spider-man. A lot of those people write for comic-book websites, and they think they can comment on anything with words and to logic salmon, pictures in it, including things in the world of visual arts that aren’t comics. It’s like somebody who has only ever read Sherlock Holmes novels in their life deciding to teach a class on thesis Tolstoy- “I’ve read a novel before, I can talk about that!” September 19 2012 / 2:29 pm.

I took a “Graphic Narrative” class in college from a professor who had only been reading comics for two years, and still suffered from many of the intro and critical thinking mental blocks that Dylan addresses above. September 20 2012 / 9:02 am. Did/do you go to school in a grey northern city? I attended a lecture by thesis of lawvere, a similar professor and had to walk out before the and critical thinking salmon QA. September 20 2012 / 9:49 am.

I went to Wesleyan University; I will leave the culprit unnamed. He was a real dragon! September 18 2012 / 2:08 pm. This is awesome. Thank you! September 18 2012 / 2:44 pm. Wonderfully written, very informative article. Thanks for taking the time to (hopefully) give future reviewers the ammunition with which to write useful reviews. September 18 2012 / 3:01 pm.

Do you have a favourite comics reviewer? I’d like to of lawvere read (and encourage!) good reviewers. September 18 2012 / 3:05 pm. I’m a big fan of my friend Douglas Wolk and intro to logic thinking, his writing; he is smart, omnivorous and fair. September 18 2012 / 3:07 pm. This article is basically perfect, and of lawvere, really sums up a lot of problems people clearly have with discussing comics in general, let alone specific ones.

Bookmarking this for re-reading later, because this definitely seems like an salmon article worth memorising and pointing out to others. September 18 2012 / 4:40 pm. Incredible Piece. Resume Paper? Thank You! September 18 2012 / 4:55 pm.

I feel like another common trope in comics critique, similar but distinct from #1, is intro someone saying “Yes, it’s a good story, but it’s not funny and of lawvere, comics are supposed to be funny.” September 18 2012 / 5:20 pm. This is and critical great! As someone who is just starting to my playground essay read graphic novels I’m glad to see I haven’t been guilty of salmon any of these. A note on #4: I work at a library and my playground, any nonfiction comics we have are labeled “graphic nonfiction”. I think that term works pretty well, given that other books are split by fiction/nonfiction…these are just either fictional or nonfictional works told through graphics. September 18 2012 / 6:26 pm.

I like it! I’m always excited when I see libraries whose comics collections are thoughtfully categorized and displayed. September 21 2012 / 2:15 am. I despair when i go to my local library – all of the ‘graphic novels’, ‘trade collections’ etc are in intro and critical, the humour section. They obviously have no idea of the content of of lawvere some of the books on intro salmon that shelf – i think i have only seen one book that they have that i would classify as humourous. Essay? They do have work by and critical, Maus, Warren Elis, Garth Ennis, Ed Brubaker etc – so a lot of ‘graphic’ violence, sex and swearing – i’m just waiting on and adult picking up a ‘humourous comic’ for their kid and all hell breaking loose when they get it home. I have spoken to the librarians but deaf-ears prevail. Excellent article – i will be passing it around. September 18 2012 / 6:47 pm. In 1980, our local newspaper somehow decided to do a story on my roommate and me and all the dissertation comics we had collected.

Using your guidelines, they creatively titled it “[#2] [#1].” It felt like a cliche even then. (I managed a comic shop from to logic and critical thinking, 1975 to 1976. Maybe I heard it all then.) September 18 2012 / 7:15 pm. After doing countless mainstream press interviews about the business that wound up printed under the CAFKA or “Biff, Pow” headline — I greatly appreciate this column. Franny And Zooey Statement? And the to logic salmon movies-to-comics thing is the topic of franny every other call I get from a reporter these days. Intro To Logic Thinking Salmon? I think it’s just such an easy assignment for an entertainment desk to make.

On the terminology style, for a long time at resume, Comics Buyer’s Guide, we tried to maintain a distinction between original graphic novels and collected editions; I have continued that at my Comichron research site, though I admit that ship has sailed. The reader doesn’t need to know that Watchmen came out as individual monthly chapters, but it’s good for intro to logic thinking would-be publishers to be aware of. Several prose outfits in the 2000s jumped into a psychology thesis publishing original graphic novels, not realizing that serialization is built into intro salmon the profitability model for essay most comics. There’s a business reason more than 90% of the books on to logic salmon the “graphic novel” shelf are collected editions. Thesis Of Lawvere? So the distinction has relevance — but probably not to intro thinking the mainstream audience most of these reporters are talking to. On a similar score, for what it’s worth, our stylebook at CBG for more than 30 years held that “comic” should never be used as a singular, unless you’re referring to franny and zooey Jerry Seinfeld.

Something was either a comic book or a comic strip; “comics” is and critical salmon what appears on thesis the page. But “webcomic” blurred that, and I think that’s another ship that’s put out to sea. September 18 2012 / 8:14 pm. That was great. No one who has read one or even ten novels would be allowed to review literary novels – a proper reviewer should be totally familiar with the medium. September 18 2012 / 8:38 pm. I can count the number of printed comics I’ve read on salmon both hands, but I totally agree with everything above. Read Online? Especially the bit about being able to like and draw influence from intro thinking salmon, both the “high” and “low” arts. I have George Orwell sitting next to Star Wars novels on my bookshelf. September 18 2012 / 10:23 pm.

Brill as usual my dear. Also very humorous. I personally have gotten to where I can’t stand the “low” and “high” art thing. It just makes me want to slap whoever is franny thesis going on about it in to logic thinking salmon, their tightly pursed little pretentious mouth. Grr. September 18 2012 / 10:54 pm. Shaenon and I were talking to Mo Willems once, and he said that he disliked the term “graphic novel,” since it’s so rarely applied to something that he’d consider a novel. Lots of read memoirs, lots of genre fiction, but rarely novels. I think the most accurate term we settled on and critical thinking was “fat comics,” but I don’t think that’s going to dissertation online catch on anytime soon.

September 18 2012 / 11:49 pm. You are making the world a better place. September 18 2012 / 11:51 pm. Lovely article, hopefully more reviewers and critics come around and read it. September 19 2012 / 1:22 am. Shitty articles about intro to logic and critical comics, usually spurred by essay, a successful superhero movie, is a relatively small casualty in intro and critical salmon, the overall decline and franny and zooey thesis, corruption of jouralism. Thinking? That said, the resume Batman sound effects are still annoying. Thanks. September 19 2012 / 1:37 am. Great read! I particularly appreciated the non-fiction graphic novel conundrum.

On the other hand (sorry – this is going to be a bit long), as a long time comic fan I have to respectfully disagree with what ultmately you settle upon for the definition of graphic novels: “A graphic novel is a complete work of intro and critical thinking salmon fiction in the comics form which, if printed, is long enough to be bound as a trade volume, so with a glued or sewn spine.” You yourself identify that nowadays “graphic novel” is really more of a marketing term. My Playground? A collection of and critical previously released, single issues of comic books bundled into a larger grouping is a “trade paperback,” really. To qualify as an franny and zooey thesis actual graphic novel, the intro and critical work in question needs to mental health questions have aways been always intended as a single, standalone piece of work. The Watchmen for thinking instance has been consumed in its trade paperback format so exclusively that most of its readers are unaware it initially existed as a limited, monthly comic book series. I’d even object when people described it as a graphic novel. It does seem like the “comics” description you outline could have considerable utility in this area. Thanks for thesis of lawvere a great article! September 19 2012 / 2:54 pm. That’s a little what I was going for when I said “a complete work of fiction” – a unified piece of storytelling with a beginning/middle/end. I thought about discussing “collections” as well, but when I got two paragraphs in intro to logic and critical salmon, and found myself talking about the serialization of Dickens novels I made an executive decision to thesis of lawvere leave that debate for another day. I think most reviewers who have to tackle a comic book and intro thinking, feel out of a psychology paper their depth are going to to logic be reviewing “literary” (oy) or youth market volumes, or collected works with a unified story like “Watchmen” (or, say, “Box Office Poison”) that, in bound form, are going to be indistinguishable from essay, one-off graphic novels to thinking salmon the average reader.

How much does distribution system matter vs. authorial intent and my playground, does anybody really care if all they want is to be able to and critical read the whole story between two covers (or in thesis of lawvere, one download)? Either way, it’s clear that “graphic novel” is a very poor term for taxonomic purposes, but a great PR tool. Like how everybody sells prunes as “dried plums” these days. September 19 2012 / 8:08 pm. Whenever I get into the “graphic novels are not necessarily novels” discussion, I always point out that most comic books are neither comic nor books. Misleading terminology is our heritage! A good piece, Dylan, and I wish you luck in having it seen (and understood) by the people who should see it. September 19 2012 / 8:49 am. Like many other comics lovers, I read prose only infrequently #128521; But holy moley, this is a cogent, well-written, much-needed, light-hearted, informed, enjoyable essay. Wow. Intro To Logic? Gonna go share this on resume FB now.

September 22 2012 / 8:49 am. This written article is in fact SO GOOD that I’m tempted to say it’s actually a comic! September 19 2012 / 11:43 am. “All you’re doing with this kind of rationalization is revealing your own discomfort about liking something you don’t think you’re supposed to. And Critical Thinking? Which is ridiculous. Essay? This is comic books, not heroin or blood diamonds or Celine Dion.” Critic Carl Wilson wrote a fascinating book about the concept of taste and why we’re not supposed to like Celine Dion. Well worth investigating. (GREAT piece, by the by.) September 19 2012 / 4:24 pm. “I once met a graphic arts professor so impressed with himself that he claimed not to have heard of intro and critical thinking Garfield”

That was my figure drawing professor in college. Would that I had been as articulate in my defense of comics then as I am now, or as you have been here. In any case, I love this post so much I just want to dissertation read hug it and thinking salmon, feed it cookies. September 19 2012 / 4:56 pm. Is “Word Balloon” really the only common standard? I’ve heard “speech bubble” from a *lot* of sources who seem like they’d know. September 19 2012 / 5:27 pm. I’d say speech bubble is an resume acceptable alternative, but word balloon is more common. John Scialli MD (forensic psychiatrist)

September 19 2012 / 6:23 pm. Off topic, however people may like the follow-up to Fig. 1 above: Gallant died at age 52 of autoerotic asphyxiation following his 4th divorce and intro to logic thinking, 3rd coronary. His two sons, although united in hatred for a psychology paper the old perfectionist, remain in litigation over ownership of his liver the intro to logic and critical fat content of which is glitter paper said to rival that of the gavaged geese of Strasbourg. Goofus and thinking, his wife of 43 years, the mental health essay questions former Mabel Timbertoe, are retired and spend part of the year with each of to logic and critical salmon their six children and multiple grandchildren, while distributing the earnings of their charitable Foundation. Goo’s numerous patents reflect his flair for resume innovation and open-mindedness, which as a child were mistaken to intro to logic be signs of impulsiveness and thoughtlessness. He has forgiven his late brother Gallant for health questions the murder attempt. September 20 2012 / 12:17 am. Absolutely brilliant article! So many of to logic and critical these cliches aggravate me to no end (especially the “biff bam pow” nonsense).

As both a fan and thesis statement, writer of comics, I hate that the thinking medium is still perceived this way by read, many people. For all the progress it’s made over the years, it still gets treated like the red-headed stepchild of literature. I only hope that this article reaches the critics and casual readers that it’s intended for. September 20 2012 / 7:57 am. I like the piece is general, but it seems a little too perfectly symptomatic that your defense of the smartness and depth of comics against and critical thinking people who use “comic-bookish” to mean “dumb” is illustrated with a panel from health essay, Asterios Polyp that *misspells* Nietzsche’s name. September 20 2012 / 9:55 am. I might argue that it reflects worse on the copyeditor at Pantheon. September 20 2012 / 8:55 am. I really like “This muffin is so good it’s actually a bagel.” I see this happen not just with comics but sci fi all the time and it drives me crazy. September 20 2012 / 9:11 am. This is great.

I really love the illustrations, too. #1 and intro to logic, 2 aren’t as common as they used to be, I don’t think. But I see, or hear, number 8 all the time. Resume Glitter? “So why comics?” the to logic and critical salmon interviewer asks perplexed. Because I’m a duck and ducks do swim. Along the problem with the word “graphic” in graphic novel, I once made the mistake of telling someone I created comics books for adult readers. She immediately thought I made porn. September 20 2012 / 9:17 am.

Not that I necessarily disagree with any of your points, but this article would have been dramatically improved by the inclusion of dissertation read online more direct quotes and links. As it stands, it feels a little bit straw man-y. September 20 2012 / 10:58 am. A fine point, and to logic and critical salmon, one I struggled with in writing this. Of Lawvere? I had to thinking ask myself whether the a psychology priority of the post was to vent my own frustration and nail specific writers or publications for biffing it (and give readers a weapon with which to bludgeon future transgressors), or to to logic and critical thinking salmon provide a snarky-but-instructional guide to how to write thesis paper the writers who want to write well about comics.

After sending drafts to a few readers whose livelihoods DON’T depend on the comics industry, I decided that it was more important to extend a hand than slap wrists; particularly when so many of the articles which drove me crazy in the first place were written by people of fundamentally decent intention. It’s not always easy to sell a feature article about a funny-book in a media environment that increasingly demands pandering conformity from its content authors, and I didn’t want to piss on people without knowing the story behind any individual feature. As a creator and reader, it benefits me nothing to give any specific author the impression that their first, imperfect foray into writing about comics was WRONG and that they should therefore NOT WRITE ANOTHER WORD until THEY ARE SURE THEY CAN GET IT RIGHT. And, more cravenly, I fear the possibility of to logic and critical thinking salmon inadvertently burning a bridge with a writer or publication who might have otherwise considered my own creative work as subject matter someday. If somebody reads a flawed article and replies to how to write a psychology thesis paper it with a note saying “This seems like #8 from this widely-circulated post about intro thinking problems in comics criticism. Consider avoiding this language next time” rather than posting a snotty one-liner or sighing glumly and clicking on the next link, then huzzah. But, in the interest of further discussion: here are links to a psychology paper two articles that I find both interesting and frustrating, and that partially inspired me to write this essay; the writers clearly put much thought into writing them and had a fair amount of editorial leeway. I will leave it to readers to form their own opinions about thinking salmon how these pieces could have been improved in ways I discuss in this post.

Not Funnies, Charles McGrath, New York Times , July 11, 2004. And I more than welcome links from readers here in the comments that might serve as handy examples. September 20 2012 / 9:33 am. ahahaha, this is so awesome, Dylan. I remember having a conversation at a party about how to talk to dissertation read online people about the comic you’re reading and making when they have no idea about intro to logic salmon comics outside of superheros and online, funny animals. And Critical Salmon? My solution was just to follow the dissertation word “comics” with the word “about.” “I’m reading a great comic book about intro and critical salmon French-Canadian history, and I’m working on one about anthropologists in resume glitter, Papua New Guinea.” Thus you preempt a whole chunk of the to logic thinking inevitable conversation. When I write about thesis comics for intro to logic and critical thinking salmon, which is fairly often, this is the method I use to bring non-comics readers along with me, too.

September 20 2012 / 11:07 am. That is resume paper super aikido! LET THE MOMENTUM OF HOW INTERESTING THIS IS BRING YOU ALOOOOOOOOONG. September 20 2012 / 12:19 pm. Superb article Dylan. Can i make a Translation of this to spanish?

With total credit for you, obviusly. There are some things that need massive spread and being in a country, yet young on to logic and critical thinking the comic medium but willing to embrace it (Colombia) this comes in as very useful. Un abrazo. September 20 2012 / 3:47 pm. Of course! Post a link when you finish.

September 20 2012 / 1:58 pm. I live in Switzerland and have been in France and Belgium as well… these have to be the mental health essay questions most obvious mistakes anyone can make, you’d never read anything like that over to logic and critical salmon here. Essay? I’m actually shocked to hear these cliches still exist. September 20 2012 / 4:25 pm. This is fantastic, Dylan, and all of it needed saying. Intro And Critical Thinking? Thanks for being the one to say it. September 20 2012 / 7:14 pm. Thanks for this. A friend (not Sara Ryan, surprisingly) read it and said “Hey we should write one of these about thesis of lawvere librarians” and so I did. September 20 2012 / 7:23 pm.

What a great article! LIBRARY LOVE. September 21 2012 / 12:11 am. Well said–you’ve hit several nails on the head. Nails that needed hitting. September 21 2012 / 8:02 pm. Great article. I’ve seen these same reviewers’ prejudices against my field of science fiction, including some who have argued that science fiction is bad by definition, therefore any book they enjoyed cannot be science fiction even if it contains spaceships, aliens, time travel, etc. You could take your article, change a few keywords, and it would work perfectly well for intro to logic and critical salmon SF/fantasy. September 22 2012 / 10:21 am. Oh, absolutely – I really wanted to mention the my playground time where, as a part of his column on to logic and critical reading, Nick Hornby picked up a random George Martin sci-fi cinderblock as a test of whether or not genre could be any good (because he didn’t like Tolkien and hadn’t tried since then) and then tossed it after a few paragraphs because he found it incomprehensible, and declared that clearly sci-fi/fantasy was an irredeemable genre.

Then a few months later he got ahold of some genre YA fiction and found that he ASTONISHINGLY enjoyed it, and generally behaved as if he had discovered a new continent. He didn’t seem to essay make the connection that perhaps the Martin novel just wasn’t written in a style to his taste, and wasn’t representative of to logic thinking salmon every book set in mental health, a reality that isn’t explicitly our own. The sorts of readers who proudly declare that they have a bias for books set “in our world” or “in the here and now” seem to forget how many great works of literature are also works of intro to logic thinking salmon wild imagination, but because they don’t have spaceships or dragons they aren’t classified as sci-fi/fantasy. And these readers also seem to of lawvere disregard the possibility that not all works of to logic salmon fantasy or speculation are about pure escapist entertainment, but that some might actually be providing valuable commentary on “our world in the here and now.” It’s essentially the same line of thinking that leads people to dismiss or avoid comic books. Not everybody is going to and zooey thesis statement like a medium or a genre, but assuming that every work on and critical salmon a shelf is the resume paper same merely because of the shelf is missing out on the sorts of mind-opening reading experiences that lead us all to become readers in the first place. September 22 2012 / 2:31 am. I love me some blood diamonds, though. September 23 2012 / 2:59 am.

Read the article and not convinced. In fact it was so precious and defensive about the medium as to intro to logic and critical salmon almost prove in of itself how frivolous it is. Comics are for fun, leave it at that. Great literature requires the expression of ideas, and thesis, the expression of intro to logic and critical salmon ideas requires words, lots and lots of words. Get over it, and then read a real book.

September 23 2012 / 11:52 am. Hi Gary! I think you’re quite wrong about comics, and your response suggests that your reading list could use broadening – you’re really missing out on some incredibly thoughtful books of write a psychology thesis paper genuine merit. Intro To Logic And Critical? (I’d tell you to give Alison Bechdel’s “Fun Home” a go.) I would also tell you that there are many readers of exclusively prose who read nothing but thrillers, romance, horror, or humor, and enjoy nothing else; there’s nothing wrong with that, but it also says nothing about the possibilities of intellectually ambitious books. Danielle Steele and James Joyce aren’t mutually exclusive. The same is true of my playground comics. Many of my favorite comics are fun and intro to logic thinking salmon, frivolous (brilliantly so!); many of them are by contrast quite serious and trenchant.

And most of them do have words. And Zooey? Lots and lots of words. Also lots and lots of pictures, which are quite capable of presenting complex information in intro thinking, a mode inaccessible to the abstractions of prose (unless you think all of franny statement art history is a canard, in intro to logic and critical thinking, which case, godspeed). Is film incapable of conveying complex thought? Or theater? Both of those combine words and how to write, images to salmon create narrative.

Perhaps you simply only enjoy funny comics, in the way that plenty of thesis people only enjoy thriller novels. But that is something to do with your tastes as a reader. Intro Salmon? You are supported in this by the historical trend in English-language comics, which means there’s more frivolity on sale than profundity. But novels were also considered to be frivolous when they first appeared (as many of them were); poetry and scholarly monographs were what serious readers were supposed to stick to. Luckily nowadays we can have our cake and eat it too. And I promise you that I’m an ardent prose-reader; on a given evening, odds are 85-15 in favor of me reading a book without pictures. I’m happy to bang on about The Greats, my favorite novel is my playground Middlemarch, I can tell you all about terza rima in Dante, I have suffered through Heidegger, I can drone all you like about to logic christological symbolism in write a psychology thesis, 20th century Russian surrealist fiction, yadda yadda yadda. I’m no genius, but I’ve had a so-called classical education. I loved it. Intro To Logic And Critical Salmon? I also love comics. I do know the difference between fizz and substance.

And I also know from personal experience as a reader and creator that comics are perfectly capable of being either. It’s a young medium, and one I’m excited to contribute to. Maybe comics hasn’t had its James Joyce yet; that just means that position hasn’t yet been filled. How exciting is that for a young creator? It’s quite a shame you haven’t found the comic book that changes your mind, but I can’t force you to be curious. Luckily, there are enough titles on this earth to read online keep us all satisfied indefinitely. October 1 2012 / 5:00 pm. If the expression of ideas requires words, that would mean that fine art and music are worthless, including all classical music and intro thinking salmon, the work of the greatest Renaissance masters. After all, they didn’t use words to express themselves, which I guess makes them ‘frivolous’ and ‘just for fun’.

September 23 2012 / 3:53 am. How not to write how-not-to articles: use the paper phrase ‘still not a very dominant medium’ . Intro And Critical Thinking? Even if you don’t know why this is technically wrong the my playground essay sound of it ought to wound your ear enough to avoid it. September 23 2012 / 3:02 pm. Your tone is annoying and victim-y. September 23 2012 / 3:28 pm. I’m not a victim at to logic thinking, all; I do something that I love for a living. Of Lawvere? I can’t hide my frustration with something that affects me as a professional, but I can temper my response with humor and try to focus on providing helpful information instead of just whining or trying to nail people to the wall.

I’m sorry it’s not your flavor; I more than welcome alternative takes on this subject. Cheers! September 24 2012 / 9:58 am. (^Oh god, just delete the intro to logic and critical salmon one-sentence-or-less-unpleasant-jackass-comments, if they don’t see other troll comments they won’t bother writing any. Thesis? Trust me, it works, and it doesn’t make you a bad person.) Anyway, as Someone Who Makes Comix For Some Reason i just wanted to thank you for to logic thinking salmon sticking up for the medium like this, it’s really a necessary article. Resume Paper? It’s so hard to intro and critical thinking get any goddamn media attention to begin with, and franny and zooey thesis statement, then even if you’ve got a bestselling graphic novel odds are the intro and critical thinking reviews will be just as asinine as the examples you cite above (although this seems to be less of a problem in the UK, in my experience of thesis of lawvere reading various reviews over intro and critical time, so there IS hope). I’m just glad you took the time to actually write all this out, you do us all a favor for sure. I think the key sentence is this one: “A critic reads a comic book (“Book A”) and finds some aspect of it striking. The critic has only read one other comic book (B). The critic then adds two and two and gets seventeen: clearly, Book A is deeply influenced by Book B. ” That is, after decades, we’re unbelievably STILL in the phase where the medium is seen not as a medium but as a genre (or sub-genre), and thesis, thus if you like one comic you’ll like them all, or vice versa.

And there’s some truth to intro that, unfortunately! As a kid i would read anything that came in dissertation read online, comics format regardless of to logic subject matter, and i know i wasn’t alone in that, and i also know that’s completely untrue of any other medium. In addition, there’s still a narrow range of voices operating in the medium compared with things like music or prose literature, which certainly contributes to any accusations of and zooey thesis statement sameness among any two given graphic novels. To Logic Thinking Salmon? It is NOT a genre obviously, it most certainly IS a medium, but there are certain internal peculiarities that contribute to it being erroneously seen as one big set of interrelated content. There’s the semi-famous (?) Brad Bird quote about and zooey statement how animation is not a genre, it’s a technique, and that’s the intro same battle we have in comix. And the and zooey thesis statement answer of course is to grow the to logic and critical medium, to have it appear to thesis a greater variety of people as An Option when they’re deciding what to intro and critical do with their lives (and webcomics have been a HUGE step forward in this regard, the increasing diversity is outstanding). And the ONLY way to get over the tipping point in essay, that regard is with the help of the media. And the only way they’ll help is by and critical thinking, actually taking the medium seriously. Thesis Of Lawvere? And i reckon articles like this are most certainly a step in that direction, so, again, cheers, and a firm handshake in your direction. September 24 2012 / 11:45 am.

Haha! Don’t worry, I only respond to and critical salmon short comments when I think my response will be instructive to other people reading the post. Thesis? Thanks for your thoughtful response! September 24 2012 / 10:15 am. Excellent stuff. Intro To Logic Thinking? I’d only add that comics didn’t stop being for kids in the 1960s. Franny And Zooey Thesis Statement? In the USA at least they STARTED OUT not being for kids – from the very beginning. Mutt and Jeff, perhaps the first successful daily newspaper strip, started out on and critical salmon the sports pages of an SF newspaper (under the how to write a psychology paper title of A. Mutt) and and critical thinking salmon, was clearly aimed at adult readers. Comics in my playground essay, the USA are initially a newspaper phenomenon (something you’d think more journalists would understand) and it was GROWNUPS who bought newspapers – not kids. Not that I have anything against to logic and critical great children’s literature or comics that are created for an all-ages audience.

Some of my favorite comics are kids comics. Essay? Just because something is aimed at to logic and critical, children doesn’t mean it can’t be insightful, profound, moving, and artistically important. BTW, some of us academics are working on trying to a psychology thesis create a whole new generation of historically informed comics scholars. Check out the link: Thanks again for this witty piece. Intro To Logic And Critical Thinking? Hope it does some good. September 24 2012 / 10:39 am. Great article.

I make comics, and read them. Don’t review much, but I noticed all the faux-pas you mentioned that bugged me for resume glitter paper years, even from to logic, my favorite websites. Thanks for writing this. September 26 2012 / 12:19 am. “Certainly, some adult humans will be shocked to learn that they cannot simply pick up a comic book and hurl it at glitter, the nearest child.” Oh god, I am laughing so hard at to logic, the mental image. Dissertation Read Online? Thank you, that was wonderful!

October 1 2012 / 5:03 pm. One of my grandparents once bought her young nephew a copy of Viz. If you don’t know what that is, it features characters such as the Two Fat Slags. To Logic And Critical? Enough said. September 28 2012 / 9:15 pm. I think you’re unduly harsh in your criticism of some of the critics. Who cares if a critic admits that they don’t normally read something, as long as they don’t disparage it? People are entitled to write paper their own personal preferences. “I don’t normally read comics” = no big deal, and intro and critical thinking, a positive review will be all the better from someone that doesn’t normally read them. “Comics are stupid and I was forced to read this” of course not good, but you didn’t seem to mental health be mentioning people saying that. Personally I don’t think a bibliophile, or book reviewer without a comic-reading background, should review comics, period.

Sure, they could evaluate the written portions, but how in the world could they properly evaluate the art? Not simply the drawn figures, but also the panel spacing, text flow, etc. One of my biggest beefs with many comics is they lay down panels wherever… Simply put, I don’t feel it’s the critics fault, but the editor’s. Assigning an individual to and critical thinking review a comic that has so far only reviewed books, and never read a comic is like taking someone who’s never read a book and asking them to type up a review on a novel. September 28 2012 / 9:18 pm. Honestly, to follow-up, what editors should do is hire comic-readers to mental essay questions review graphic novels.

September 29 2012 / 6:57 pm. Now if only intro thinking someone could explain to me why Anthony Lane of the New Yorker insists on franny reviewing superhero movies when he obviously hates comic books and superheroes! October 1 2012 / 3:53 pm. Anthony Lane is an entertaining subject writer but I find him very frustrating as a critic. I think his heart lies in writing longer pieces about cultural figures and that short reviews must irritate him or bore him enough that he uses them as target practice. September 30 2012 / 11:26 pm. Good article, though the problems you’ve listed are not quite so widespread, since most serious comic reviewers tend to know about the world of comics already. Many of these problems are more common with movie reviewers and critics, theres a LOT of really bad film critics out there.

October 1 2012 / 11:21 am. I write about comics for intro thinking salmon a publisher’s blog in Brazil (among other venues) and just published a piece about this post of yours. It’s in Portuguese, so I guess it won’t mean much, but I hope you like it. October 1 2012 / 5:11 pm. I think a large part of the problem is why people look down on any visual medium – because unlike literature, we can instinctively understand them without needing to learn how to comprehend them first. That’s why I usually compare comics, movies or videogames to music – we can easily comprehend them, but learning to mental health ‘read’ those mediums and fully understand why you’re enjoying them and how their structural elements combine so effectively takes intelligence and thought. To Logic And Critical Thinking Salmon? The difference being that music, being as old as time, has long been accepted as an read online intelligent and intro to logic thinking salmon, valid art form, while the others still have stragglers who assume that having a natural comprehension of those mediums makes them less intelligent.

Accessibility does not equal lack of of lawvere intelligence, and failing to understand that is intro to logic and critical thinking what turns people from considered intellectuals into ignorant snobs. October 2 2012 / 9:58 pm. Really well-written and well argued article, and a valuable tool for thesis of lawvere anyone who works with or thinks about comics a great deal. The one thing I missed from intro and critical, your ten point list is dissertation a crucial one, and and critical thinking salmon, that is critics who treat or refer to the pictures as illustrations. This happens a lot when a work has been produced by a multi-person team, with a writer’s name at thesis of lawvere, the top of the masthead. The writer is then for intro to logic salmon the duration of the franny piece treated as the authorial force behind the and critical salmon work, the write paper artist(s) relegated to a perfunctory mention in intro and critical salmon, one of the health last few paragraphs. Intro To Logic Salmon? And/or, any remarkable effects achieved by the work is attributed to the writer, not the writer and artist(s) in tandem. This seems to me a problem that is prevalent even with more knowledgeable critics, not just the mainstream press writers your list is targeted towards. Anyway, thanks again for the article, and for taking the time to be so active in your comments section, it’s a much appreciated effort. October 3 2012 / 9:29 am.

It’s funny – in different venues, either the writer OR the artist involved in a collaborative comic book can be devalued. I’ve seen reviews that talk about franny and zooey thesis statement nothing but the art, and intro thinking salmon, reviews that talk about nothing but the franny and zooey writing. I think part of the problem is that the creative balance in comics can vary so wildly from project to and critical salmon project – there are author-driven books where the artist is given loads of direction and is basically a hired hand; there are artist-driven books where the writer is there to provide a structure for what amounts to an art showcase; there are completely collaborative books where the artist is dissertation very much co-authoring the book even though the writer is the one with a script document on her hard drive, or where the writer strongly specifies style and imagery. It’s a little more predictable when the work comes from a house like Marvel or DC, where editorial and scheduling expectations demand a certain conformity of process and more clearly defined roles. But the intro to logic thinking salmon kind of book most likely to essay be reviewed in publications with ‘New York’ in the title is intro to logic thinking salmon generally a mystery.

Short of interviewing the creators, there’s just no way of knowing who can be credited for specific elements. October 3 2012 / 9:31 pm. You’re certainly right about the authorial contributions of thesis different individuals involved in a comic being difficult to intro and critical thinking parse, and resume, difficult in intro thinking salmon, a different way from work to work. That’s precisely what makes it an important thing to consider when analysing a comic. Online? If you are widely read, it becomes a useful angle for approaching the thinking work, providing context for the contributions of the various people involved. And if you’re new to the medium, like the target audience for how to write thesis your list, it’s a crucial thing to remember when discussing authorial intent. Any thoughts on the whole “treating the pictures as illustrations for the text” approach a lot of literary critics tend to take?

October 3 2012 / 6:45 pm. Can you imagine if a professional acquaintance of yours grabbed a novel at random from the Goodwill book bin and judged all of literature by intro, it? Sadly, there are many people who actually do this. October 11 2012 / 5:23 pm. I just happened to my playground find out to logic and critical about this post yesterday. Today I happened to come across Richard Brody’s piece about resume middlebrow attacks on highbrow movies: (Not sure if your commenting software will allow links — if not google “Richard Brody O’Hehir Bailey”.) It’s kind of interesting to intro to logic thinking salmon see how similar your attack on middlebrow culture from “below” is to Brody’s attack on it from “above”. One thing that struck me about Brody’s piece is resume glitter his point that cinematic technique isn’t opposed to feeling; it’s how movies elicit and express feeling.

That got me thinking that perhaps your point 9 is too broad. I think I know what your real target is: “Like, OMG, the pictures actually convey something that couldn’t be put in words! Who knew?” But it is interesting to observe how the very basic formal features of comics work to convey meaning. Exhibit A is McCloud’s discussion of the gutter in “Understanding Comics”. His emphasis on the work that the reader has to do in filling in the space between panels is to intro and critical salmon me the most interesting single point in his book. But of course the gutter is a necessary feature of comics. You can’t have a series of drawings without having separation between them. In the right hands, absolutely basic formal features can be interestingly interpreted — even if the creator is not a “formalist experimenter” a la Ware.

October 16 2012 / 6:29 am. Alistair Gray, as well as Umberto Eco, seems to online be able to get away with pictures in his books (nice pictures they are too). October 16 2012 / 8:34 am. Came across this article about the recent ‘Marvel Comics the Untold Story’ book by intro and critical thinking, Sean Howe at, and look at the description of the article: “Bam! Pow! A new history of the iconic comics company reveals the my playground bare-knuckled scrapping behind famed superheroes”…looks like the author didn’t read your article, which is to logic and critical thinking great by resume glitter, the way. November 15 2012 / 4:10 pm.

My parents are in the category of to logic and critical thinking people who think when something like the NY Times reviews the new Chris Ware book they’ve lowered their standards as if they’re reviewing Tales of Suspense #32. They’re also in the category of how to write a psychology thesis people who think because something’s a comic, that means I’ll like it, which is like saying “PBS and MTV are the same thing because they’re both broadcast through a cathode ray tube.” January 18 2013 / 7:15 pm. June 10 2013 / 5:48 am. Where I come from the intro media has a problem with reporting of fmale comic artists. They are like: “LOOK! WOMEN CAN DRAW COMICS! WOW! BREAKING NEWS!” every time they talk about a female comic artist, ignoring that they have been around for quite some time now.

June 11 2013 / 9:31 am. That can happen in read online, North America, too, although most often about superhero comics. June 11 2013 / 5:36 am. BAM! POW! WHIZ! I can’t believe it’s not literature! Just kidding. So perfectly spot on.

Glad I ran across your wonderful article which is intelligent and to logic and critical thinking salmon, not defensive at all. This is essay how comics should be discussed. I was wondering if I can quote you and some of your points for a rhetorical piece on intro to logic and critical the non-acceptance of paper comics. Title: The Greatest Books You’ve Never Read. June 11 2013 / 9:30 am. Sure, go right ahead! June 11 2013 / 4:39 pm. June 21 2013 / 2:22 pm. I think critics should think of comics as a medium and not a genre, that way these mistakes would be avoided. The only common ground an thinking salmon action blockbuster has with a student short is the stock they’re shot on, but most of the same people that would agree look at “comics” as one thing painted with a big brush.

It’s like assuming Howard Stern and NPR are the same thing. June 21 2013 / 2:47 pm. Woops! I didn’t realize I’d commented on this before several months back. Sorry about that. I think most of these writers know better but feel the essay questions need for such condescension for a general public that feels that way. An article such as yours should be written for thinking salmon those people to franny and zooey prevent CAFKA journalism from being the norm. May 3 2014 / 2:33 am. Excellent article. Finally I have something to intro to logic and critical point people to when the whole graphic novel debate arises!

One thing: I’ve been reading comics for thirty years now, and read, never once have I seen those referred to salmon as word balloons! They’ve always been speech bubbles to read online me. I’m now thinking that maybe this is a British thing … ? June 1 2014 / 10:26 am. It’s rare to see a blog post about art that is intro to logic thinking salmon this entertaining, this on-point, and this insightful. I’ve read /lots/ of online blog posts, so I think my bona fides as a critic of the blog-post genre will hold up #128521; . Your anger is real, but your tone is helpful rather than hateful, and by quoting some of the thinking salmon egregious criticisms you’ve encountered, you prevent this post from devolving into mental essay questions a rant session (though it works on that level, too). So many pithy, quotable lines! I particularly loved the muffin ? bagel illustration and this snarky jewel: “while the grown-ups quaff sherry and discuss matters of international diplomacy.”

October 23 2015 / 4:42 am. This is terrible, and true. Another of my comics community in Melbourne, Australia sent me the to logic link to this, as here we are so far behind the rest of the civilized world with our comics journalism; there isn’t any! Even actual comics historians will call their exhibition at the State library Zap! Pow! Comics aren’t for resume paper kids anymore! *sigh* January 13 2016 / 4:51 pm. In 1979 or around then, the local paper ran a small feature on my roommate Sam and me, which actually used the line (as a headline or subhead), BIFF! BAM!

POW! COMICS NOT JUST FOR KIDS ANY MORE. And even then, we knew it was a goony cliche. It is intro thinking salmon true, though, that when I was managing a comic shop, I heard women walking by (probably tellers from the thesis of lawvere bank across the street or some such) say “Comic books!” and then giggle like Betty and Wilma. I told the owner it was a bad location for walk-in.

A year or two after firing me, he told me that I was right about that. (Thanks, Chuck!) January 13 2016 / 4:52 pm. Hell, I said the same thing in 2012, only with fewer words. Intro To Logic Thinking? Getting old is tough, kids.

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1996 albums , 2005 singles , Akira Kurosawa 1256 Words | 4 Pages. ?FINAL DRAFT OF DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY ‘NARRATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE WRITING’ READER 2013 Name : HAPSARI C. Mental Health Essay? . HANANDYA (Nanna) Student Numb. : 112012133 SATYA WACANA CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY “Tlatar” The Beautiful Sketch of God Painting Wandering the beautiful place always make me feel enchanted. To Logic And Critical Thinking Salmon? There are many beautiful place that God has given for us to dissertation read, be used and developed as best as possible. I remember one interesting place and intro to logic, always makes me want to visit it for the umpteenth time. Boyolali Regency , Central Java , Existential quantification 905 Words | 3 Pages. Chante Francisco Descriptive Essay - My Grandparent’s House My most favorite place has always been my . grandparent’s house. This is the place I would have to go to before and after school.

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Rushmore; however, he did not finish it. The carving, which is located on the top of the thesis, mountain, remained unfinished until it became a state park. The . establishment of and critical, Stone Mountain State Park took place in 1963. The carving represents three key figures of the Confederacy riding their horses. The men included are Ulysses Grant[-2], Robert E. Resume Paper? Lee, and Jefferson Davis. To Logic And Critical Salmon? The width of the carving is three-hundred yards. Along with historical museums, the my playground, park has campgrounds and intro to logic salmon, horseback riding. 1996 Summer Olympics , Atlanta , Atlanta Braves 857 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay A Horrid Memory My sweaty palms ran through-out the thin strands of my hair as I tried to comfort . Essay? myself for just a single moment. I felt scared, almost terrified as the screams of my nightmare echoed in my ears and made my head throb. Intro To Logic And Critical? Almost never did I have such vivid dreams, and when I did, I never remembered them the next day.

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Corporate Social Responsibility Essay. Competition is becoming more and intro to logic, more fierce while the market is becoming globalization. With higher consumer sovereignty, customers are no longer satisfied with qualify products and good services. The society concerned more about the business ethic and environmental issues. Companies are expected to act virtuously nowadays. The ideas of Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Citizenship are spreading faster than ever before and become one of the hottest business models in the recent decades. “Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)” is health essay questions defined as “the commitment of business to contribute to sustainable economic development, working with employees, their families, the intro and critical salmon local community and society at large to improve their quality of of lawvere life” at the World Business Council for Sustainable Development in 2000.

The main idea of CSR is that corporations should be responsible to the stakeholders which include the customers, shareholders, suppliers, employees or any other party that may be influenced by intro and critical thinking salmon the corporate actions. Different organizations may have formed different social responsible programs which can be categorized in four major components: the environment, the community, the work place and the market place. Different companies will emphasize on different aspects to create the social responsible programs. Franny Thesis Statement! “Particular CSR initiatives may do good, or harm, or make no difference one way or the other, but it is important to intro to logic thinking, resist the success of the CSR idea. “ (Briggs Verma, 2006) Mounting evidences show the benefits brought by the CSR Programs. For example, corporations made huge donation to disasters nationwide and to the bottom billions. However, not every CSR Program can be built up successfully. My Playground! Nestle had suffered from a boycott last over intro thinking salmon 30 years which is the result from its failed CSR Program. Dissertation Read! Known as the baby killer, Nestle is blamed to kill thousands of Babies in the less developed region. They promoted and distributed free instant formula milk powder to replace breastfeeding and led to severe health problems or even death to the babies (Sethi, 1979).

The two opposite results of CSR programs bring up queries for CSR programs. Is there a business case for CSR? How can corporations be benefitted from CSR? Theses questions will be discussed in this essay and to logic and critical, so as the answers. B. Resume Glitter Paper! Is there a business case for CSR?

“Corporations are expected to be good citizens” asserted by Briggs and and critical, Verma (2006). Customers are demanding more from the corporations. Responsible corporates are required to meet the “Triple Bottom Lines” which are the economic sustainability, environmental sustainability and social sustainability. Join Elington illustrate the interrelationship of the triple bottom line in dissertation online 1997, “Society depends on the economy – and the economy depends on the global ecosystem, whose health represents the ultimate bottom line” (Elkington, 1997). CSR programs can also help the company to achieve sustainable growth which is the ultimate goal for every CSR program. Sustainable development is development to satisfy the needs of to logic thinking present generation without sacrificing the ability of future generations to development (WCED, 1987). Study indicates that sustainable growth and business success cannot be achieved solely by maximising short-term profits, but instead through market-oriented and social responsible programs (Neal, 2006). The CSR programs may engage with the following four aspects: the write a psychology thesis paper environment, the community, the workplace and the market place (World Business Council, 2000). As the foundation of every human being in to logic the earth, responsible to environment is an write paper, essential part of thinking salmon CSR programs. Learnt from the Industrial Revolution when people sacrifice environment for how to a psychology thesis paper, business growth, private organizations today have worked to improve the environment. For example, Toyota has developed the intro thinking hybrid card models which can use both fuel and electricity as power source.

It can help to reduce the air pollution and a psychology paper, reduce the carbon dioxide in intro to logic salmon the atmosphere. This innovation is also being considered as long-term oriented and sustainable for resume paper, future development so both the customers and investors are satisfied with it. The second aspect of corporate social responsibility is the community. Corporations have to intro, be responsibility to the local community as they are the essential for the business success. Social responsible firms should hire local labour force in the work place. Corporations often make donation after huge disasters such as earthquake or hurricane. For example, companies had donated over US$547 millions after the catastrophe of Hurricane Katrina in mental essay questions 2005 (Briggs Verma, 2006). Although some criticize that the corporations are making disasters into opportunities for public relationship, the donation can certainly help the community to rebuilt their home afterward, The third aspect of corporate social responsibility is the workplace.

Companies are responsible to ensure the safety and ethnic in the workplace. The employees are generating the to logic and critical profit so the companies should be responsible to them by creating harmless and harmony working environment. For example, Nike, and other American and European sports wear production companies, promise to monitor the resume paper working conditions in its supplier factories in less developed countries (Vogel, 2005, 1). Corporations should also be responsible to the market place. Not just manufacturing quality product but also meeting the needs of various customers. Intro To Logic Salmon! For example, although smart phones are becoming popular in recent years, some people with visual disability may not able to use those products without assistant from other people. Resume! By introducing the intro and critical thinking Voiceover application, customers with visual disability can use the smart phone or other devices created by Apple easily. Besides the positive point of view, there have always been criticisms of CSR ever since it was invented.

In 1970, the Nobel Price winner, Friedman wrote “The Social Responsibility of online Business is to increase its Profits” and the three main arguments he stated in his article have become the foundation for the criticisms against CSR. In his first argument, Friedman claimed that only intro and critical thinking salmon, human beings have a moral responsibility for their actions (Friedman, 1970). As a collected entity, companies do not have the my playground responsibility of the decision made by to logic thinking the management. However, corporations act like human in many ways. For examples, in of lawvere legal terms, corporations are consisted as an to logic thinking salmon, artificial person whose behavior is decided by the corporate internal decision structure and the organizational culture. Many corporations are acting progressively to create a public perception of good citizenship to gain positive image and competitive advantages from the society (Brigs and how to write thesis, Verma, 2006). In the following article, Friedman pointed out that the government, instead of the private business section, should be responsible to solve the social issues and problems (Friedman, 1970).

Later scholars support his argument that with huge amount of tax collected by the government, the responsibility of social support should be transferred to the government and the public sectors. However, in some cases, government may not be able to intro thinking, take the responsibility due to insufficient funds or malfunction of government agent. Geoge Kell, executive head of the United Nations’s Global Compact Office, indicated that “So long as government fail to do their part and so long as business goes global, CSR helps fill an important void” (Brigs and Verma, 2006). The last argument of Friedman is that the franny thesis managers should be responsible for the interest of shareholders (Friedman, 1970). Charring out CSR programs may increase the cost and to logic and critical, weaken the company’s performance. In which way, the interests of the shareholders are harmed (Henderson, 2001).

This argument is resume proven wrong by the countless successful business cases of intro thinking salmon CSR programs. C. How can corporations be benefited from the CSR programs? 1. CSR can help the corporates to increase the profits. Corporations can be benefited from the CSR programs in many aspects. Since the most important goal for the company is maximise its profit, scholars and managers are working to figure out how CSR programs will influence the statement company’s profitability. To Logic! Companies generally increase their profitability by two means: Cut cost and Differentiation (Porter, 1985). An effective CSR Programs can help the corporations to my playground essay, achieve both points. Cost reduction can be achieved by CSR Programs directly or indirectly.

The direct way is to reduce the cost by using the raw material or energy in a more efficient way. For example, by reducing the packaging, companies can cut the unit cost of product and protect the to logic thinking salmon environment by producing less waste at the same time (Welford, 2000). The other way is to thesis of lawvere, reducing the to logic and critical indirect cost such as the employee training cost, the essay management cost. For example, the employee caring programs can lower the employee turnover rate and reducing the hiring and training cost for new employees. By this mean, the employees are more satisfied to the companies and will be less likely to resign and have better performance in the workplace. Google has been paid attention to to logic and critical thinking, this issue. The company created the “best” working environment in the world and create the most satisfied. The CSR program successes in increasing ability to attract and retain employees and reducing operating cost. Another way to increase profitability is differentiation. By using differentiation strategy, the products can be outstanding among the competitors (Welford, 2000).

Corporates have been using CSR programs as differentiation points long ago and achieve positive result. Take the Body Shop as an example. They differentiate their products from the my playground essay other skin care products by using all natural ingredients and making statements such as “no animal test” and “support community fair trade”. Thinking! By building such social and environmental responsibility image, the Body Shop successfully build up its brand image and reputation and create the customer loyalty. 2. Dissertation Read! CSR can enhance brand competitiveness. Today’s companies can no longer afford to ignore CSR. More and to logic and critical salmon, more corporates build up their own CSR programs to how to write thesis, enhance their brand competitiveness by to logic thinking salmon enhancing the image and reputation of the corporates. Firstly, customers nowadays focus more on the image and reputation of the brands.

They demand more than quality product and nice services. According to the research conducted by the PR firm Hill Knowlton, 79% of Americans take corporate citizenship into account when makings purchase decision (Briggs and how to write thesis paper, Verma, 2006). Corporate Social Responsibility Programs can help the corporate to gain the thinking salmon public trust and support which will enhance the brand competitiveness. Customer sovereignty has further supported the ideas that with high degree of freedom and information, customers can make their choices among different brands. The brand with better image or reputation will be more likely to my playground essay, win in the industry. Secondly, Corporate Citizenship is demanded by intro and critical salmon the government. Especially for some sensitive business that companies need to maintain nice relationship with the government. Resume Paper! For example, Casino Industry in Las Vegas and Macao are expected to make large donation to the “responsible gambling program” or the charity funds.

By making public donation, the firms may be able to build up better image to reduce the resist in the society and the government. Managers continually encounter demands from multiple stakeholder groups to to logic salmon, devote resources to corporate social responsibility (McWilliams Siegel, 2001). Investors consider more about the social responsibility of the invested firms nowadays. Companies cannot managing their impact on society and the environment if engaging in CSR (Brigs Verma, 2006) Corporate Social Responsibility is becoming the trend of my playground essay social public relationship strategies in the recent decades. In this essay, questions of CSR programs have been discussed in many aspects. With thousands of successful cases of corporate citizenship, companies all working hard to catch up with the trend and develop their own CSR programs. Although there are criticisms about the intention and and critical salmon, the necessity of corporate social responsibility programs, the effective of CSR programs is ascertained. Thesis! Later study shows that successful CSR program can benefit the thinking society and the company at the same time. Mental Health! The corporations can enjoy higher profits and better brand competitiveness by setting up CSR programs.

Therefore, companies should work with the community to achieve the “win-win” situation. Briggs, W. Verma, A. 2006. ‘Sharing the wealth’. Communication world. January – February 2006. pp. Intro To Logic And Critical Thinking Salmon! 25-28 Freeman, R.E. 1984 ‘Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach’. Mental Questions! Marshfield, MA: Pitman Publishing Inc. Friedman, M. 1970 ‘The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits’.

The New York Times Magazine, September 13, 1970 Henderson, D. 2001. ‘The Case Against “Corporate Social Responsibility”’. Policy Vol.17 no.2. Intro To Logic Thinking Salmon! pp. 28-32. Winter 2001 Neal, A. C. 2007. ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Gain or Laissez-Faire Figleaf?’. HeinOnline.

2007-2008. pp. 460-474 Robison, M. 2002. ‘RSA Wold Leaders Lecture – Beyond Good Intentions: Corporate Citizenship for a New Century’. United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. London, 7 May 2002. Sethi, S. P. 1979. ‘A Conceptual Framework for Environmental Analysis of Social Issues and Evaluation of Business Response Patterns’. The Acdemy of resume glitter Management Review, Vol.4, No. 1, pp.

63-74 Vogle, D. ‘The Market for Virtue: the Potential and and critical salmon, Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility’. 2005. Harrisonburg, Virginia WCED. 1987. ‘Our Common Future, World Commission on Environment and Development’. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Welford, R. 2000 ‘Corporate environmental management 3: Towards sustainable development’, London: Earthscan. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 7 December 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Corporate Social Responsibility. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want?

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