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A Sample Gym #038; Fitness Center Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a gym or fitness center? If YES, here#8217;s a complete sample gym or fitness center business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for of an essay, starting a gym/fitness center. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample gym/fitness center marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for gym/fitness centers. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section.
Executive Summary Market Analysis SWOT Analysis Financial Projection Marketing Plan Marketing ideas Strategies. If you very much agree with the saying that goes ‘ health is wealth’, then you may also very well agree that one of the college cover, ways of staying healthy is by keeping fit and having a good BMI. It is very important to not be complacent when the issue of staying fit comes to fore. This is one of the reasons why there has been the craze for fitness lately all over the globe. A Sample Of An. Those who are particular about staying fit know that it is a part of life. In the United States of America for instance; the rate at service which folks get obese have continued to be an alarming thing.
This is no thanks to of an the junk type of diet that these folks subject themselves to. However, truth is that one can curb being obese and even totally eradicate those unwanted fats in essays on power and politics, the body by simply enrolling in of an essay, a gym and eating healthy. Essays On Power And Politics. This is one of the sole aims which those who are in the gym business try to pass across. How Easy Is It to Start a Gym Business? Starting a gym is a very interesting and profitable venture. This is because much more than wanting to help other people realize their weight goals, you also can keep and stay fit always. It is pertinent to state that it might be a little capital intensive, as you will have to procure all valuable and vital exercising equipment that will promote your business. You do not want to be found wanting when clients call for of an essay, certain types of community college letters for teaching, equipment.
You will also need to hire the best of a sample of an essay, instructors that can assist the people reach their goals pretty faster and community college, systematically. One of the basic steps that you will need to take if you want to start on the right path of any business at all is by writing a business plan. This also applies to the gym business. Of An Essay. You will need to put pen down the community cover, various sales projections you have, your vision, mission and all what not. Essay. This is so that you can have the paper, opportunity to always refer to of an essay the drawing board whenever it things seem vague. Writing a business plan to on power many may not come easy, but the truth is that you can use an existing template to write yours.
Here below is a sample Gym business plan that you can effectively use to write yours. A Sample Gym Fitness Center Business Plan Template. Gym business is gaining more grounds in a sample, recent times as it was in the 20th century. People are now more aware of the immeasurable benefits they stand to doesn't gain when they enroll in a gym. It is now obvious to a myriad of people that they can stay healthy, improve their lifestyle and live longer if they exercised regularly. Of An. Statistics has it that there is short black history a steady increase in the number of a sample of an, people that enroll in gyms and the fact that gym facilities is now closer to residential areas make this possible. In order words, with the increase in the number of for teaching, people that enroll in gyms, comes the increase in the revenue generated by gyms. Some people enroll in a sample, gyms not because they don’t have the money to purchase some of the basic gym equipment, but because exercising regularly requires discipline and that is part of what they stand to get when they enroll in essay questions, a gym with an instructor at hand. Loads of a sample of an, factors are responsible for the springing up of gyms in homework doesn't, various locations in the United States of America; chief amongst them is the rise in the number of obese people.
Being obese is essay a risk to one’s health, which is why obese people who thoroughly want to on power and politics stay healthy and fit enroll in gyms that are close to them. Different people visit gyms and fitness centers for various reasons. Some people register in the gym basically to shed some weight through proper exercising, whilst others go to the gym to train and increase their biceps (muscles) i.e. body building and other enroll in gym for a sample of an, cardio sessions et al. Researchers, engineers, health and fitness experts are always improvising and inventing fitness equipment that can help people and gym owners achieve their aims. Structure Of A Scientific. Although gym equipment can be expensive, but the truth is a sample essay that most of the equipment last longer if they are well utilized. Aside from the fact that they last longer, acquiring any gym equipment is an investment that is worth the while. Starting a gym business in the United States of essay on community service benefits, America is less stressful; it requires enough cash to equip the gym facility to essay meet the structure scientific, standard expected by gym users. As a matter of fact, building a swimming pool around the gym facility is one of the factors that could attract clients to enroll in gyms. A Sample Of An. The gym industry is not going to go out of essay questions, fashion anytime soon, but rather the number of people that enroll in gyms will continue to of an be on the increase and that of for siddhartha, course will translate to more monies for gym owners. Sample Fitness Center Business Plan Template MARKET ANALYSIS.
The trend in the gym and fitness industry is such that if a gym is well positioned in a residential area or a place where people can easily access without much stress, there is the likelihood that the gym will enjoy high patronage. A Sample Essay. Just like in other business venture, the paper, owner of gyms and fitness clubs are always looking for ways to increase their market share; they go as far as signing deals with high schools and also offer home services. What they do is that they offer pro bono services for a period of time, and essay, then thereafter introduce a fee gradually and before too long they would have successfully converted some of the people that benefited from homework doesn't help their pro of an essay bono services to loyal members. Structure Of A Paper. It is common trend that as gyms grow, it becomes necessary for them to develop new service offerings or install new facilities that will help them attract more people. Little wonder some gyms now have juice bars within their facility to encourage people towards healthy drinking.
In order words, it is very important for gyms to continue to improvise if they want to grow their business and generate their target revenues. The target market for gyms cuts across people of essay, different walks of life. The fact that people register in gyms and fitness clubs for various reasons makes marketing the business interesting. The target market for gym and fitness centers can be categorized into three various groups. The first group is the people who are looking towards shedding some weight through proper exercising and doesn't help, under the guidance of a qualified instructor.
The other group of a sample essay, people are those who are interested in building their biceps (body building), and the last group of people are those who just want to enroll for essays, cardio sessions under the watchful eyes of a sample essay, a qualified trainer. These sessions are a combination of light weights, treadmills and bikes. Fit as Fiddle Gym and homework, Fitness Club will work towards providing services, facilities and environment that will help us reach out to our target market. These are the category of people that we intend marketing our gym and fitness club to; Corporate Executives Business People Household Sportsmen and Sportswomen Schools Young Couples. Our Competitive Advantage. Fit as Fiddle Gym and Fitness Club is centrally located in a densely populated – residential area in essay, Irving, Texas; this is obviously going to give us an community cover letters for teaching positions, edge amongst our competitors. We equally have a team of a sample essay, highly qualified professionals who will work with all our clients to achieve their aims or enrolling in our gym and lastly our membership package is one of the best that anybody living in Texas can get; it is cheap and affordable. We can confidently say that the location of our gym will definitely count as a positive for us amongst any competitor that might start a gym and fitness business in same location where ours is located. Short Black History Essay. We will continue to work hard to ensure continuous improvement in our facility and service delivery.
As a matter of fact, our services will be second to none in Texas. Essay. Sample Gym Business Plan Template SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. Our marketing strategies will be directed towards achieving specific objectives that support the strategic goals of the organization. The truth is college letters for teaching that all that we do will be geared towards creating new market channels, increasing sales and increase our market share. We will leverage on improving on a sample essay our services and questions for siddhartha, facility to ensure that we win new clients and retain old members. At Fit as Fiddle Gym and Fitness Club, our marketing strategies will be consistent throughout the marketing mix and we will take into consideration product improvement, promotion, and a sample essay, price. As part of our sales and marketing strategies, we will pay attention to essay for siddhartha the promotion of our gym so as to attract people to enroll and become members of a sample essay, our gym. Our unique selling proposition is and politics that we are well positioned and people can easily access our facility, our prices are affordable and we have a complete package for families. Parts of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt are; Open our gym and fitness club with a big party in the neighborhood.
Advertise our gym and essay, fitness club on national dailies, local TV stations and local radio station Promote our gym and fitness club online via our official website and all available social media platforms Continuously Improve the performance of our brands Hire the services of experts to research paper make our brands the first choice for people in Irving, Texas Deliver consistent customer experiences to all our members; making our first impression count positively to those making use of our gym facility for the first time Make use of attractive hand bills to a sample essay create awareness and also to give direction to essays on power our gym and fitness club Adopt direct mailing coupon marketing approach Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our consistent members especially those that registered as a family Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our gym and fitness club. Our Pricing Strategy. Our pricing system is going to be based on what is obtainable in the industry, we don’t intend to charge more (except for premium and customized services) and we don’t intend to charge less than what our competitors charge their members in Irving, TX. Be that as it may, we have put plans in place to offer discount services once in a while and also to reward our loyal customers especially when they refer clients to us or when they register as a family. The prices of our services will be same as what is obtainable in a sample of an essay, the United States’ open market. Our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available to clients who want to make payment / register for our gym program; Payment by cash Payment by check Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any difficulty. Sample Fitness Center Business Plan Template Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Fit as Fiddle Gym and essays, Fitness Club is in Irving for of an, serious business, which is research paper why we have identified key platforms that will enable us achieve our goal of promoting and advertising our business so as to attract the a sample essay, crop of people that we designed our business for. We have been able to essays on power and politics enter into of an essay, alliance with key stakeholders in short black, Irving, Texas to essay help us use their good will to essay questions for siddhartha promote our business.
We will ensure that we leverage on all conventional and non – conventional publicity and advertising technique to promote our gym and a sample of an essay, fitness club. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Sean and homework doesn't help, Sharon Hotel, Las Vegas; Encourage our loyal members to help us use Word of Mouth mode of advertisement (referrals) Advertise our gym and fitness club in of an, sports magazines, local newspaper, local TV stations and community college letters positions, local radio station Promote our gym and fitness club online via our official website List our gym and of an essay, fitness club on local directories (yellow pages) Sponsor relevant community sport events Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations Direct coupon mailing approach to introduce our gym and fitness club to residence Engage in road show from time to time to create awareness of our gym and fitness club in the residential areas around our facility Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas. These are the types of exercise equipment that we will make available in our gym and fitness center; Resistance bands Weight machines Flexion machines Pull-up bars Wall bars Weight training Elliptical trainer Street Strider (elliptical cross trainer on wheels) Exercise machine Dumbbell Kettle bell Exercise Fitness (biology) Treadmills Hojo undo Pull-up bar Medicine balls Boxing Gear Gym flooring Barbells Cable Attachments Weight plates Benches Wearable items as proper footgear, gloves, and hydration packs. Filing Cabinets Notice board Employee Uniform. Essay. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Fit as Fiddle Gym and Fitness Club. Fit as Fiddle Gym and a sample, Fitness Club is a family business and it will be financed by the owner who is also the gym manager. These are the areas where we intend sourcing for fund for questions, Fit as Fiddle Gym and Fitness Club; Generate part of the a sample essay, start – up capital from personal savings and community, sale of his stocks Generate part of the start – up capital from family members and friends (soft loans and gifts et al) Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the banks (loan facility). Of An Essay. Sample Gym Fitness Center Business Plan Template Sustainability and Expansion Strategy.
We are in essays on power, business to a sample of an make profits and to build a popular gym and fitness brand in Irvin, Texas, hence we must do all it takes to structure of a grow the of an essay, business and to help ensure that the business survives generation after generation. Part of the plans we have put in place to sustain our business is to ensure that we continue to deliver quality services, acquire latest gym and a sample essay, fitness equipment and improvise on better and cheaper packages four members and intended members. Our workers will sure continue to enjoy working with us because we will deliberately make it our work environment very conducive and accommodating. Furthermore, we are quite aware that our customers are key components to the growth and survival of our business hence we are going to service continuously engage them to give us ideas on of an how to serve them better. We will not waste time in diversifying our services; expand our product and essays, service offerings once the need arises.
Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for of an essay, business license and permit: Completed Purchase of essay, Insurance for the Business: Completed Acquiring facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of a sample essay, Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed gym and fitness equipment, electronic appliances, office appliances and suppliers: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and short black history, Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress.
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malta essay Transcript is a. ESSAY: Incongruity and Scale by essay Ivan Callus. The case of the essay service benefits Maltese editor Mark Camilleri and a sample of an, writer Alex Vella Gera, accused of distributing obscene or pornographic material and structure of a research, undermining public morals following publication of the short story ‘Li tkisser sewwi’ in the student newspaper Ir-Realta , distributed on the University of Malta campus and in a sample of an Sixth Form colleges in Autumn 2009, has been amply commented. Questions! I do not wish to assess the a sample essay various positions struck. (For an appraisal from the perspective of literary criticism, see Grima, 2011). This article is not primarily about the structure scientific case. The Ir-Realta debate does give me my cue, however, when drawing attention to one consideration that appears to have been largely overlooked. It prompts the further comments I would like to make about Maltese literature and the conditions of peripherality in which—sometimes inevitably, sometimes despite their best efforts, and sometimes wilfully - Maltese writers operate. Malta lacks professionally edited and refereed literary magazines for general circulation which could serve as outlets for critical ideas, for the publication of new fiction and poetry, and for incisive review of the most recent work in the arts. Examples of such magazines elsewhere abound.
Wasafiri, Granta, The London Magazine, Lire, Meanjin, Shenandoah, Brick are among those which quickly come to mind. Available to an inquiring readership driven by an interest in words and ideas, and quite often available online as well as on the newsstands, such magazines facilitate the dissemination of trenchant creative and critical work. (I use the word magazine here in the same specific sense designated by the way these publications use the term in their covers or front matter. I use the word literary in the synecdochal way in which these magazines use it to cover their reviews of fiction, poetry, cinema, theatre, music, the arts, news, and of an, popular culture). What they publish, following searching selection procedures, are pieces that would have been submitted in awareness that acceptance—or rejection—is consequent upon college cover for teaching, decisions that are finely and critically responsive to the aesthetic and other merits of what, in the end, they choose to print. Essay! If that avenue existed in Malta, then pieces both like and on power, unlike ‘Li tkisser sewwi’ would have the option of of an, being submitted for consideration there. Short Black History Essay! Analysis of new work, too, would be able to attempt the of an pitch and penetration that were not always easy to locate in the Ir-Realta debate. If the absence of literary magazines were at least made up for by a less tenuous tradition of ‘little magazines’, as they are known—non-commercial periodicals committed to essay, publishing niche new work—then the whole debate might have taken a different turn or never needed to happen.
That the debate has instead taken place, in its print manifestations, almost entirely away from literary or little magazines rather than even minimally within their nonexistent pages is one of the incongruities in a sample of an essay the Realta affair. It is symptomatic of cover letters, a malaise in essay Maltese literary culture which, I would contend, goes deeper than any issue over censorship. That is because the homework help censorship issue will, in time, resolve itself, as it must. It is of an essay, not at all clear, however, that there is broad perception of how serious and structure of a scientific paper, consequential the lack of literary or little magazines is, and how it speaks of broader problems in Maltese literature. I would like to pick up on the theme of incongruity. Any short literary piece—poem, short story, or extract from a sample work-in-progress—published outside its most natural market, the pages of a literary magazine, risks appearing misplaced. In Maltese literary culture, where there are no literary magazines or little magazines to make that option available, this leads to a curious situation. Practically all short pieces, of whatever literary temper, appear in help the next best alternatives: daily or Sunday newspapers, for instance, or in the pagna letterarja [the literary page, in the deadening singular] of other periodicals. In other words, they have been published in the wrong places. A Sample Of An! If there is and politics, a wish that this statement be softened, we could agree that they have been published in accommodating contexts where the identity is a sample essay, not predominantly literary or critical.
I would go further, broadening this point to college cover letters for teaching positions, the statement of a general principle. This will not be popular, but it is of an, a dare which I think it is important to accept. It has to be said: incongruity is part of the cover Maltese literary unconscious. This incongruity takes various forms. A Sample Of An! To start with, Maltese writing almost surprises itself by its very existence. Precariousness is to some degree the condition of any language, but it is more so still for Maltese. And except among its most bullish readers, there will be an and politics irrepressible sense of the essay odds against Maltese literature acquiring perceivably comfortable coexistence with writing from elsewhere. If international readerships are not going to structure scientific, read Maltese, then Maltese-language literature depends upon translation, and upon making itself available in the language of the other. This means that its dissemination will always already have been displaced from its ground. A Sample! I would not want to fall into what Adorno calls ‘the jargon of authenticity’, but it does seem that the specificities of Maltese writing’s peripheral condition and their literary representation are, in essay on community service a cruel double bind, rendered inauthentic in the very effort of making them visible to the reading gaze of the less peripheral other.
There is a lot I would like to say about this, and I said some of it in a previous article about the a sample of an essay subject which these days I would want to update (Callus 2008). This is structure of a, not the appropriate context for of an that, but there is one related point which is help, worth making. If incongruity is part of the Maltese literary unconscious, it is of an essay, also because there is abroad (in all sense of this word, including its local extensions and indeed particularly and on power, most regrettably so) some disbelief that Maltese writing generally could bear representation among World Literature. And while it would be important to problematize that statement in the wake of critiques of the recently burgeoning study of World Literature following, for instance, the work of David Damrosch, or of misgivings about ‘international literature’ by commentators like Tim Parks, I do not think that I need to spell out what motivates this disbelief. And so, to the extent that we might want to constrict the justifiability for that disbelief and to act upon a sample, any of the conditions that might underpin it, and to the degree that we are still exercised by of a scientific paper the Realta debate, let us see how a constructive and essay, positive outcome might somehow emerge from this affair. Essay! It appears that revisions to the country’s legal frameworks in the regulation of censorship and public morality are being contemplated. It would be dispiriting if things were to be limited to of an, that. (It was noticeable, incidentally, that once the matter went to the courts nobody appears to have drawn attention to literature’s apparent inscrutability to law, as if nothing at all has been learned from recent literary criticism and theory on that question, not least—though these are only a few examples among many possible others—from Derrida’s essays ‘Before the Law’ and ‘Demeure’ on and politics the nature of testimony, literature, and gatekeeping. These are not any the less relevant or cautionary or urgent in a sample of an analysis of the controversy simply because they are perceived as ‘difficult’ or ‘philosophical’.) An equally desirable and ultimately more far-reaching outcome would be the launch of at least one literary magazine that could reasonably bear some comparison to those mentioned above. Ideally, such a launch would occur independently of the diverse authorities and organizations bestriding civil, political, religious, cultural and educational life in Malta.
That is black essay, because what distinguishes the kind of magazines referred to above is an editorial policy to which anything other than full autonomy is unthinkable. Such magazines, in any case, are not concerted by any centralized impulse. They rather tend to arise from the energy and drive of one person, and to a sample of an essay, bear their stamp: people like Bill Buford or Philippe Sollers, for instance, or, from a quite different time, John Middleton Murry or Cyril Connolly. But in Malta, where the economies of scale in of a scientific paper publishing are what they are, with circulation rates unlikely to rise above certain levels, with the tenor of debate standing where it does, and of an essay, with Bufords and Sollers and letters for teaching positions, Connollys and a sample essay, Middleton Murrys not thick on the ground, a different approach might be necessary: one which could ensure editorial autonomy while maintaining viability, durability and rigour. Here, therefore, is a proposal. I do not think it is quixotic. The University, possibly through the Faculty of Arts, might wish to consider facilitating a refereed literary magazine—perhaps, in order to ensure reach and feasibility, one available online—in which literary and critical work could be published on essay on community service the basis of the editorial and selection procedures similar to those governing the selection of pieces for magazines like those indicated above. Doubtless there is a sample of an, a concentration of short black history essay, expertise within the a sample of an Faculty of Arts which could be deployed to facilitating the launch of such a magazine, and essay questions, other interested parties from other Faculties, Centres and Institutes—indeed, demonstrable competence from anywhere—could also be drafted into this. But it may be a bad idea to link the magazine too closely to the input of academics. That could give it too much of an establishment whiff. Encouragingly, there are good numbers of graduate students from various Departments as well as various members of the public, all very discerning and all well informed about a sample of an essay recent trends in art, culture and critique, who could contribute to such an undertaking.
The input of such individuals in the ‘Seminar on Publishing’ organized in August 2010 by the Department of essays on power and politics, English Students Association, or in the ‘New Writing Spaces’ seminar jointly organized in January 2011 by the Faculty of Arts and the British Council, indicated the readiness for of an such an initiative. At both events, and unbidden, the suggestion of the launch of such a magazine was made from one or two quarters. It was, indeed, strongly encouraged at the latter event by the participating writers: Patricia Duncker, Simon Mawer and Maureen Freely. Doubtless the idea will have been floated at other events held locally. And I must say I was struck that the suggestion resonated as much as it did when it was made in the rounds of history, consultative meetings last year on the new Cultural Policy. Ideally, it bears repeating, the magazine’s launch would, so to speak, just happen rather than be made to happen. It should be the result of the insight and zest of a committed individual or team. It does not need to take place on campus. But in the circumstances, and if such a magazine were to be a University initiative, the campus, which is where the Ir-Realta debate arose in a sample essay the first place, could also be the scientific research ground where the debate could find some resolution. That would be timely because the debate is in the stage it is, because there are signs of a quickening of literary life in Malta that would be helped by accompanying evolutions in editing, reviewing and publishing, and because of a further reason too. Talk of literary magazines at of an, fraught times like these, with upheaval in North Africa and the Middle East and economic uncertainty everywhere, is not remote or detached.
Rather, and precisely, the talk in the magazines creates the spaces for the re-imagination of such times and for the engaged rethinking that good writing can uniquely provide—as, indeed, the pages of the magazines mentioned above strongly demonstrate. Perhaps, indeed, it is always the time for a literary magazine. Clearly, a lot of thought and planning would need to scientific research paper, go into this. A number of questions immediately suggest themselves. A Sample Of An! Here are a few. How might an essays on power editorial committee be put together, assuming one should even contemplate inducing a committee to of an essay, establish itself? (Let me say, here, lest this be construed as some kind of positioning on my part, that I would like to exclude myself from this task; I am already assisting the launch of other magazines, and must concentrate on that. The many good people well suited to contributing to a literary magazine should, rather, be allowed their space.) Should prospective editors, independently of University structures, work towards the launch of possibly more than one magazine? (Most definitely: this is work which needs a plurality of outlooks, not the sole perspective of benefits, one magazine; but where none exist, it is vital to get one magazine going in the hope that others will follow.) Should the magazine(s) publish solely Maltese or English work, or might work in either language be accepted? (The different Schlock Magazine, edited locally—http://schlockmagazine.net—went for English; its pitch and a sample essay, its focus on flash fiction prevents it from having the discourse of the kind of essays on power and politics, literary magazine contemplated here, but its freshness, design and editorial tightness show that what is being proposed is a sample of an essay, configurable.
What Schlock can do is short black, surely replicable in a sample other Maltese periodicals, whether monolingual or bilingual.) Also, and to of a scientific, consider different modalities: is it possible that among the magazines which accompany the essay Sunday papers, one could not viably be put together that might answer to of a scientific, what is being envisaged here? (Perhaps it could, but its credibility would depend on balancing out editorial concerns and of an, commercial considerations.) Would online publication solve the scientific problem? (It cannot worsen it, and this is a sample of an essay, doubtless the most feasible option, as long as it is kept in mind that with online journals the importance of rigorous refereeing and tight editorial input becomes all the greater.) Efforts towards such magazines were made in black essay the past. The results have not been enduring. A Sample! Perhaps, now, the circumstances for success are more auspicious, though with something of a last-chance aura about them. Let me indicate one absurd consequence of lack of homework help, success (there are others). It is that Malta could be the a sample of an European Capital of cover for teaching positions, Culture in 2018 while still not having one literary magazine to a sample of an essay, serve as an help outlet for the publication and a sample essay, review of the compelling new work that we should hope to see both around that time and in the years leading up to the event and thereafter. The culture pages of the newspapers, together with all the views and soundbites in various blogospheres and debates on the regular and the social media, are all very well. Questions For Siddhartha! They help us to work through whatever needs to a sample of an essay, be worked through in matters like the Ir-Realta affair. As a society, however, we are surely capable of configuring this other order of discourse, too. It is time to attempt it. It would be one practical and essay, generous way of moving from the cracks, discordance, tkissir in this debate to tiswija, repair, refashioning.
Maltese literary culture presents some singular aspects which are fascinating to those with a researching interest in minor literatures. Minor literatures, it should be stressed, is not a derogatory term. The term has a trajectory of some distinction in critical idiom. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, in a key chapter in Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature (1975) called ‘What Is a Minor Literature?’ which I quote here from a sample essay its 1983 English-language translation by Robert Brinkley in Mississippi Review, explain: ‘A minor literature is not the literature of a minor language but the literature a minority makes in a major language’ (Deleuze and Guattari 1983: 16). By this token, Maltese literature does not even qualify as minor literature. Not, that is, unless it writes itself in, say, French, English, Spanish, Arabic, Mandarin, German, Italian.
There is an obvious resentment that any Maltese, the member of a minority in literature’s territories, will feel in that regard. Let me note immediately, however, that there is already some anticipation of objections in Deleuze and Guattari. They add: ‘[T]he primary characteristic of history essay, a minor literature involves all the ways in of an essay which the language is affected by a strong co-efficient of deterritorialization’ (16). Short History Essay! Before commenting on this and problematizing it, it is best to indicate how Deleuze and Guattari confer upon minor literature the potentiality for empowerment rather than the of an fatalism of disenfranchisement. Here is a crucial passage.
It is hard to overemphasize its importance. The three characteristics of minor literature are the deterritorialization of the language, the connection of the essays and politics individual and the political, the collective arrangement of utterance. Which amounts to this: that “minor” no longer characterizes certain literatures, but describes the a sample essay revolutionary conditions of any literature within what we call the great (or established). Everyone who has had the misfortune to be born in the country of a major literature must write in its tongue, as a Czech Jew writes in German, or as an Uzbek Jew writes in Russian. … And to do that, to find his own point of underdevelopment, his own jargon, a third world of his own, a desert of his own. There has been a great deal of discussion on: What is a marginal literature?—and also: What is a popular literature, a proletarian literature, etc? Evidently the criteria are very difficult to structure of a scientific paper, define so long as we do not work first in terms of a sample, a more objective concept, that of a minor literature.
It is only the possibility of instituting from within a minor use of even a major language, which makes it possible to define popular literature, marginal literature, etc. Only at this price does literature really become a collective machine expression that can sweep contents along with it. Homework Help! Kafka says precisely that minor literature is more fit for a sample working the doesn't help material. (18) Let me pick up on a few points here. Essay! There is a resonance in the statement, ‘Everyone who has had the misfortune to be born in the country of a major literature …’. It is easy, however, to see why it might be scorned.
What about ‘everyone who has had the misfortune to be born in the country of a minor literature’, a bitter writer might retort, ‘but with the double misfortune of writing in a minor language’? ‘Who, without translation, will read me?’, she or he might add. The Maltese writer, writing in Maltese, might well say that. She or he becomes deterritorialized from community positions most of the vantage and access points from a sample which availability to reading by the other could be secured. The poignancy of Maltese literature lies in this. It lies in its desire to be read by the other, but more specifically in its uncertainty over essay questions for siddhartha, reciprocity in that desire. The other might, after all, not especially want to read Maltese writing. This is a sample of an, not something that can be forced. ‘Read me: I insist!’—that is not something one thinks or says. It is a further reason for for siddhartha incongruity being part of the unconscious of Maltese literature. Maltese literature might be so inured to its own marginality that its occasional move upon any centre, the most casual acknowledgment of its existence, are feted for of an their novelty, cherished in their rarity. Are we therefore supposed to think that Maltese literature cannot know its place, or knows it all too well, because there is no place for it to know except the periphery of the periphery? Is it possible to be relational there, on the periphery of the homework doesn't periphery, or is it a place turned forever inward?
Devastatingly, even when figures like Deleuze and Guattari turn their gaze onto minor literature to counter-intuitively assert its greater fitness for ‘working the a sample essay material’—and hence to deconstruct, as Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak also does, the whole issue of ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’—Maltese literature is, implicitly, ineligible for the exemplification of on community benefits, even that marginality. Deleuze and Guattari’s deconstruction of one of the hegemonies of literature, in other words, does not envisage an overturning that could re-conceptualize the place of a sample of an essay, a literature like Malta’s, or address the condition of incongruity in which such a literature ineluctably operates. The sense of the scale of Maltese literature emerges in the shock with which that stark fact must be registered. And, in a further cruel turn to that registering, it is palpable that it is a registering whose scale is not truly apparent to the other, who does not so much as notice the problem. That overlooking occurs even when attempting to be counter-hegemonical and giving an empowering answer to the question, ‘What Is a Minor Literature?’—an answer, as it happens, which not only does not feature the condition of a literature like Malta’s, but sweeps dismissively past it with the claim that ‘a minor literature is not the literature of help, a minor language’ without stopping to glimpse the implications, much less probe them further. Only a sensibility like the Maltese, locked in the conditions of its language and literature, can truly apprehend the shock involved there. A Sample Of An! The shock is that Maltese literature is structure scientific, minor in a scale and to a degree that makes it indiscernible to the other’s critique. The other, it seems, will not be bothered. This can seem dismal. It need not be. Not, that is, if the situation is looked at squarely, and seen and accepted for what it is, and then worked with and worked from.
But it will require clarity of thought and essay, clarity of vision. Short History Essay! And therefore, painful though it might be, let us probe things a little further and look at the problem once more, going to the heart of its grimness before seeking to navigate away from it with tact, discretion and canniness, toward hope. Let us return to the quotation from Deleuze and Guattari, and look at it again. Of An! Deleuze and Guattari’s point is that literature’s complacencies are most effectively unsettled from college letters positions minor places. The ‘underdevelopment’ of the minor, the ‘jargon’ in which they write, the ‘third world’ (not, in this usage, an essay economic term) and the ‘desert’ (best understood in of a paper the poststructuralist tradition of the a sample of an essay exploration of desertification) to which they give representation in their writing, can renew literature (Deleuze and Guattari 1983: 18). ‘Instituting [emphasis added] from within a minor use of even a major literature’, they claim, is where the energies arise from. Granted, those energies remain a function of the state of minority within a major language. Apart from black history Kafka, Deleuze and Guattari’s preferred examples are therefore Joyce and a sample of an, Beckett.
Positioned in structure of a scientific paper Irish literature, they benefit from the rare privilege of essay, its status as a minor literature. In Deleuze and questions, Guattari’s words, It is the glory of such a literature to a sample of an, be minor, that is, revolutionary for any literature. Doesn't! The use of English and every tongue in a sample essay Joyce. The use of English and French in Beckett.
But Joyce constantly works with exuberance and overdetermination; Joyce constantly works to achieve global reterritorializations. Beckett works drily, soberly, in deliberate poverty, and on community service, pushes deterritorialization to the point where nothing but intensities remain. (19) That is all very well, it might be said by a sample of an essay the Maltese writer. Short History! But how am I to stand comparison with the single-person canons that are Kafka, Joyce, Beckett? My literature is smaller than Iceland’s, let alone Ireland’s, she or he might add. Nor can I forget that Iceland’s has the ancient cachet of the sagas, a winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in Halldor Laxness, and the contemporary triumph of the a sample of an emergence there of a popular genre—in the recent sway of crime fiction from that country—all of essay service, which the essay other does look like wanting to read. There are also market availabilities to Icelandic literature in Scandinavian countries that have no corollaries in the Maltese. As to essays on power, Irish literature, it is written in English when it reaches the other, to reach the other. Perhaps we should not fail to notice, either, the complexes of disaffiliation that Kafka, Joyce and Beckett had in regard to a sample of an, their literatures.
They suggest that major writing will want to sublimate or problematize any minority literature characteristics from which it springs. Following all of which, it might be concluded, Maltese literature cannot be Maltese-language literature if it is to impinge upon literature more broadly, if it is to bring its potential to the other’s notice with greater immediacy. It must, always already, write itself in essays the language of the other. For the Maltese writer already writing in English, French or any other major language, that is a confirmation that they should persist in their chosen course. A Sample Of An! For the Maltese writer committed to Maltese, however, the challenges thereby become bigger, and the questions loom larger. What does Maltese-language Maltese literature do next? Before I answer that question, let me invite participation in a thought-experiment that is not entirely fanciful. Imagine a hypothetical great work of literature (for the purpose of this exercise, you may interpret greatness in whichever way you want to), but imagine it written in short essay a language like Maltese. Can that great work exist?
More pertinently, if it does, will it be noticed? If it isn’t noticed, does it exist? Have you found yourself assuming that it couldn’t, possibly? If you have answered yes to that last question, what does that say about perceptions of a literature like Malta’s, of its incongruity, of the scale of the achievement to which we will allow it to be open? These questions are important because whereas Maltese literature can, thinkably, register on the other’s notice if it writes itself in a language other than its own—one must recall here, Deleuze and Guattari’s question, ‘How many people live today in a language that is not their own?’ (19)—the route of Maltese-language Maltese literature towards that outcome is more challenging. It depends on a sample translation. College Letters Positions! More specifically, it depends on sensitive translation published with the appropriate presses in the most apposite markets. Indeed, it is what we must think of next. We must respond to what it is in Maltese literature that the other will want to a sample of an essay, read, and how it could be brought to the other’s notice more effectively. More vitally, we must be convinced of what the history essay other would miss if it didn’t.
In other words, if we can’t see a way to answering ‘yes’ in the thought-experiment above, then we might as well stop here. Which brings me to the next section. There are only two good reasons why anyone would really want to of an, read Maltese-language texts in translation. (If they cannot read the Maltese, the essays on power desire to see the Maltese language used literarily is a sample of an, not one they will be able to doesn't help, satisfy, and we must therefore move on to other considerations). A Sample Of An Essay! The first is the structure scientific research paper existence of a text or texts that are compelling, in whichever way one wants to define that. (An unputdownable text, for instance, would qualify, and perhaps it is as well for Maltese writers to always remember that it is perfectly okay to simply tell a good story, that profundities in theme and depth in character and amplitude in ideas are not what exclusively make a text have a claim on translation. Lowbrow and middlebrow—if we want to use those terms¬—are fine, and can be very fine when done well, and tend to essay, sell and to compel when they are.). And Politics! The second is the encounter with places, situations and experiences that are almost unique to Malta, or that acquire a special charge in a place like Malta, with its particularizing circumstances of scale and a sample, the desires and complexes which stem from that. In both cases, Maltese critique will need to be discerning in identifying the works which deliver on structure of a scientific paper either or both of these counts. This is crucial, because the a sample of an other won’t be able to discover the texts in question unless they are brought to notice by the Maltese themselves, and unless the Maltese are ready to decide what is a little more deserving and what isn’t.
Extrapolating from this, and recasting Deleuze and Guattari, an important minor literature could be one which finds itself disaffiliated from the publishing, reviewing and critical infrastructures elsewhere which can help to make a text mainstream or canonical to the increasingly borderless international readerships of today, but which nevertheless strategically works within and from that disaffiliation to transform its own seeming incongruity and its non-registering on any scale of essay on community benefits, notice into the very rationale behind its matter(ing). That is to essay, assume, of community college cover letters for teaching, course, that there are texts configuring that potential. It is to essay, accept that only when Maltese literary culture comes to reconcile itself to the other’s implicit perception of its insignificance—to work with it and from it—that it can hope to transcend it and start to register on scales of significance. The problem, however, is that Maltese literary culture sometimes contrives to questions for siddhartha, behave like it does not know what is good and important about it. It does not always know, it seems, what to think or make of that word, deserving. We cannot afford to react viscerally to a sample essay, that word. It tests us with the very pressing challenge of discernment where Maltese literature is essays on power, concerned.
In Maltese literature, as in a sample any other, there are some deserving works and some others that are less deserving. (I include, under the essays on power label ‘deserving’, well-made popular literature, as distinct from bad bad writing.) Extraordinarily, that banal point is not self-evident. This simplest of points is not being made. If it is being made, then it is not being demonstrably acted upon. As far as I can see the essay distinctions and the consequences that follow upon it are not being dared. Perhaps this is not surprising. The self-evident and the urgent do not have the privilege of being unobjectionable, or popular, or easily accepted. If they did, things would be easier. If they did, the positions staked out here would not be found to be displeasing about Maltese literature, as some will doubtless find them to be (though, as I would otherwise hope is clear, that is very far from what is intended). The thing is, however, that while we might want to argue about black history essay criteriology, with emotions about a sample relative merit running high, the lack of well established or very credible winnowing processes will remain.
Indeed, Maltese literary culture demonstrates the exact opposite of what recent resistances and counter-movements to canonicity in other literatures have responded to. Other literatures can afford to undo the canon. Maltese literature, by contrast, must work to homework help, afford itself canons. It lacks the structures and infrastructures for canon formation (and again, one can have canons for essay the popular, as well as for the highbrow.) I worry that it also lacks the will and the nerve for it (on this topic, see also Grima 2010). There are, of homework doesn't, course, literary prizes; there is the accolade, which I have seen people get testy about, of essay, having one’s work placed on a University syllabus; there are literary evenings and book launches and talks and seminars and symposia and exchanges, and they all go some of the community college for teaching positions way and very occasionally even a long way to what is necessary. A Sample Of An Essay! Some of all that is quite splendid. But it is not enough. Help! This is seen, for instance, when and where reviewing remains bland or hesitant. Essay! It is seen when and where critical appraisal is short black, counter-typically carried within the covers of a novel or a collection of poetry, as in of an essay an introduction or afterword, rather than in structure an academic journal or literary magazine, where one would expect to find it. In that guise, it stretches out the genre of the two-line or three-line blurb endorsement to essay length, constraining itself to appreciation rather than critique. And while it is true that canonicity and its processes can be invidious, and the relations between the centre and the margins ripe for deconstruction, the absence of any mechanisms that help to orient readers towards relative value and worth, otiose though that operation can be, in fact very arguably leads to a much worse situation.
If incongruity is part of the Maltese literary unconscious, it is essay, also because of this undifferentiated state of Maltese literature. The result is that when and where it occurs, literariness—that most problematic of literary categories which forever calls forth the imperative of essays, discernment—coexists indistinctly with the a sample more or less evenly praised, and essay for siddhartha, therefore becomes harder to remark or remark upon. It has to be hoped that nobody will say that this is directing itself towards elitism. I am the a sample of an essay first to agree that literature is too important to letters positions, be left to the so called experts or litterateurs. I would also add, however, that it is too important to be left to its own devices, to be left untended, to a sample, subsist in a miasma of insipid, undifferentiating critical sentiment. Literature does not just somehow happen. At the very least, it has to be reliably pointed out whenever and wherever one finds it. For, contrary to what sometimes appears to be the homework local belief (and I am afraid I do not exaggerate), il-letteratura Maltija, Maltese literature, cannot be made up of every book of poetry or fiction published in Maltese.
It is not too much to of an, hope for, to wish that there could be processes to fairly and reliably (though contestably) suggest, ‘This is an unpretentious work which will however prove popular’; or, ‘This is essays and politics, a work which is quite flawed, and a sample, which should not be allowed its pretentions’; or, ‘This is a text of some merit, with an appeal to a broad/distinct/ readership’; and then, selectively and where warranted, ‘This is a rare work, a book of genuine literary achievement …’; and then, further and crucially, to make fine distinctions within these over-schematic categories, especially the essay service last. But where are the a sample of an spaces for the reviews, for the journals, for the literary magazines and the little magazines that will say all that, contest that, reassert it, reject it again: doing so knowledgably, discerningly, disinterestedly? Kumitati and konkorsi, committees and questions for siddhartha, competitions, are not adequate substitutes. Nor is the approbation of of an essay, one latter-day clerisy (see Knights 2010), murmured in meetings or symposia where talk on help literature becomes chatter (a word I use in of an essay the sense intended by Peter Fenves, not in the sense of the conversation of the chattering classes; see Fenves 1993). Community Cover Letters For Teaching! Orality is all very well, but I find myself thinking that printed commentary and critique, where arguments must be articulated beyond the level of a sample essay, opinion and salon talk, are in fact a condition of the emergence of literature. From what I can see, there is too much prospecting on behalf of the odd work here and there, which might become the darling of of a scientific research, one group or another, and not enough of a sense of informed interpretative communities (Fish 1980) more or less consensually affirming, through carefully articulated critical writing, the value of any given text or texts.
In that respect, what this edition of Transcript exemplifies in online form is a sample of an essay, a response to the need for an enhanced critical infrastructure for Maltese literature. A few further reflections suggest themselves, but here I shall limit myself to four. Structure Scientific Research Paper! Firstly, in minority literatures especially, as Lady Gregory demonstrated long ago when she was one of the catalysts in of an the Irish Literary Revival, the conditions sometimes need to short black history essay, be created for good things to happen, and for choices and judgments to be made about who might be creating them. As we know, the twenty-first century is no longer an environment for a Lady Gregory in any literary culture. A much more collective, cannier effort is needed. And ultimately, the energies must come from of an writers and their circles, not anyone else.
Here, too, the task is too important to be abdicated. After all accusations against the State, the government, the political parties, the Church, the establishment in its sundry manifestations, hegemonies in both their palpable and shadowy variations, colonialism, postcolonialism, intellectuals, the University, the education system, the homework help courts, the literary market in Malta, the realities of translation and re-publication in Europe and the world, the Maltese reading public, Malta and a sample essay, the Maltese have died down, it becomes time to knuckle down, to do what is doable. I mentioned, above, one absurd consequence of the lack of having a certain reviewing and benefits, critical infrastructure in place. Let me mention another absurd circumstance. As things currently stand, and increasingly evident as it is that Maltese literature must disseminate itself through translation, there is still no deliberated schedule of literary translation in place anywhere in Malta: nothing, as far as I am aware, that sets up a sustained programme of translation of Maltese writing into a non-peripheral language, or even more than one non-peripheral language at the same time. Consequently, while it is gratifying to learn, for instance, that the a sample translation rights to Pierre Mejlak’s work have been secured, or that translations of the works of Dun Karm or Francis Ebejer or Oliver Friggieri are available in more than one language, or that Inizjamed has been proactive in seeking markets for its members’ works, there appears to service benefits, be no prioritizing sense of how to strategically move along this road, how to create slipstreams of consequence and desire in publishing markets both locally and abroad, how to bring Maltese literature to the other in way that the a sample other might be moved to bother. One practical consequence of this is structure scientific research, that up to the time of writing (though, I hope, not for much longer, as it appears that the suggestion is being taken up) is the following.
A key text in the evolution of Maltese prose, Gwann Mamo’s Ulied in-Nanna Venut fl-Amerka (1930), has astonishingly never been offered in English translation to a sample essay, a publisher in the United States, as if the doesn't help difficulty of a translation is an adequate excuse for this most evident of moves not being attempted. And if we don’t bother, it is hard to fathom why the other should. Secondly, and objectively, there are—thankfully—already many positives. Maltese language and a sample essay, Maltese literature already have their lexicons: they are both established and authoritative. Prof. Oliver Friggieri and structure of a paper, Prof.
Joe Friggieri, in their work on dictionaries of a sample, literary terms and on introductions to philosophy respectively, have killed the of a paper canard that certain conceptualities are inexpressible in Maltese. The work of Maltese translators in Brussels and Luxembourg on technical documentation and decrees is extending the language’s reach and registers. Inizjamed has done as much as any organization, and more, in bringing Maltese writing to the notice of the other, and in having Maltese writers co-participate in events and on a basis and scale where no doubts about incongruity need arise. The Malta Council for Culture and the Arts has been proactive in helping with the dissemination of Maltese writing. So the idea of facilitating a more evolved critical infrastructure is not one we need be overdramatic about. It is the next link in the chain. A Sample Of An Essay! Once it has been pointed out, it can be made to happen. Thirdly, the unique value of essay service, Maltese literature as a minor literature can be discerned in a quite singular fact. A Sample Of An! The pieties of essay questions, literary criticism and theory find themselves unsettled when applied to a sample of an essay, Maltese contexts. For instance, and as we have seen, orthodox views on counter-canonicity or subaltern or postcolonialist writing do not quite hold with Maltese literature—which (very interestingly) does not fall easily in any of these categories though superficially it looks like it could; which is in effect canonless if not entirely so; and which can provide the ground for essay the counter-deconstruction of the a sample of an deconstruction of essay, established positions within literary criticism. Of An! On those principles, Maltese writing matters, if only the critique around it can be discerning enough to see how and essay, why.
It can serve as the a sample of an ground for a rethinking of homework, minor literature generally. Essay! It is something the other would do well to bother about. We need to be half-bothered ourselves first though, and to be a little more discerning about what is merely bothersome on essays the fuller and more meaningful scale of things and what is of an essay, more finely worth bothering about. The fourth reflection is given below, and provides my conclusion. On the basis of the Deleuze and Guattari definition, Chile’s is a minor literature.
It has, however, acquired a higher profile through the work of the late Roberto Bolano, who wrote in on community service Spanish and who leapt to prominence with works like The Savage Detectives (1998) or 2666 (2004). It is the of an misfortune of minor literatures that they find themselves swamped when a major figure emerges: as a Colombian friend of mine once wryly observed, the worst thing that happened to Colombian literature was Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Bolano, however, has written in ways which are sensitive to the lot of minor literature and of minor writers. Last Evenings on essays Earth (2007), a collection of short stories translated into English and selected from Llamadas Telefonicas (Telephone Calls, 1997) and Putas Asesinas (Killer Whores, 2001) should be read by anyone who writes or reads within a minor literature, and by anyone who is interested in the marginal spaces in literature. These are truly terrible tales. They are terrible not because they are macabre. Essay! They are terrible because so many of them are uncompromisingly honest and unflinching about the homework sterility of essay, writing from the margins. They are forthright, too, about how the marginal spaces of literature contrive to make their own marginality worse. An example of that occurs when one of Bolano’s characters is forced into a painful question: ‘I asked him if they had editors at the magazine.’ (Bolano 2008: 40) I have space to comment on only one of service benefits, Bolano’s tales, the astounding and powerful parable, ‘Henri Simon Leprince’.
This is a tale about a writer who knows himself to be minor and who suspects himself, even, of being a bad writer. Naturally, he is a failed writer, barely scraping a living in the Paris gutter press, and his stories and poems (which the bad poets regard as bad and the good poets don’t even read) are published in provincial magazines. (Bolano 2008: 23) Leprince knows his place, however. Indeed, perhaps he knows it too well. He has a respect and a sample of an, a deference toward better writers. In wartime France, he joins the of a scientific Resistance. He helps writers—good writers—escape. ‘[B]ut once the episode is over the writers evade Leprince and he fades from their minds like an unpleasant but forgettable dream’ (26-27). A Sample! This does not worry Leprince. He has come to a realization: Never before has he fully grasped the abjection of his place in the pyramidal hierarchy of literature. Never before has he felt so important. (25)
With surgical scrutiny, the tale exposes that abjection and has us understand how he is ‘completely forgotten, so negligible, so insubstantial is Leprince’s work and public stature’ (28), but also how he comes to matter in that apparent insignificance. I mention all this because Bolano has made major literature out of the experience of literary peripherality. His emigre writers are not like those who populate Vladimir Nabokov’s early English-language works, for instance: writers secure in their talents, if uprooted from their natural haunts of on community service, consequence. They are, rather, unimportant exiles from unimportant literary spaces, and know it. And yet, they are made to matter, hugely, in literature which comes to matter because it makes the experience of not mattering on any literary scale literary. Significantly, ‘Henri Simon Leprince’, this story about insignificance, ends with these words: For some, his presence, his fragility, his terrifying sovereignty serve as a spur and a reminder. (31; emphasis added) Adorno, Teodor W. (1973 ). The Jargon of Authenticity . Trans. Of An Essay! Knut Tarnowski and Frederic Will. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Bolano, Roberto (2008). Last Evenings on Earth . Trans. Chris Andrews. London: Vintage. Callus, Ivan (2008). ‘Maltese Literature in the Language of the Other: A Case Study in Minority Literatures’ Pursuit of “Majority”’. Scientific Research Paper! Acta Scientarum: Human and Social Sciences , 31.1. Damrosch, David (2003). What Is World Literature? Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari (1985). A Sample Of An! ‘What is a Minor Literature?’ Trans. Robert Brinkley. Mississippi Review , 11.3. Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari (1986 ). Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature . Trans. Community Cover For Teaching Positions! Dana Polan. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Derrida, Jacques (1992). ‘Before the Law’. Trans. Avital Ronell and Christine Roulston.
In Acts of Literature . Ed. Derek Attridge. New York and London: Routlege. Derrida, Jacques (2000). ‘Demeure’. In Maurice Blanchot/Jacques Derrida, The Instant of My Death/Demeure . Trans. A Sample Essay! Elizabeth Rottenberg. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Fenves, Peter (1993). “Chatter”: Language and History in Kierkegaard . Homework! Stanford: Stanford University Press. Fish, Stanley (1980). Is There a Text in of an this Class?: The Authority of Intepretive Communities . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Friggieri, Joe (2000; 2007).
In-Nisga tal-Hsieb . 2 vols. Malta: Media Centre. Friggieri, Oliver (1996). Dizzjunarju ta’ Termini Letterarji . Malta: PEG. Grima, Adrian (2010). ‘Works in Search of a Literature’. In The European Literary Canons . Berlin: ALG. Grima, Adrian (2011). ‘Dark Sides - Censorship in Malta’. Transcript 37 (2010). Knights, Ben (1978). The Idea of the Clerisy in help the Nineteenth Century . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (1988). ‘Can the Subaltern Speak’?
In Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg, Marxism and of an, the Interpretation of Culture . Basingstoke: Macmillan. Parks, Tim (2011). ‘The Nobel Individual and the Paradoxes of ‘International Literature”’. The Times Literary Supplement . 20 April 2011. Vella Gera, Alex (2009). ‘Li Tkisser Sewwi’. Ir-Realta . October 2009.
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Macbeth Summary and Analysis of Act 1. On a heath in Scotland, three witches, the Weird Sisters, wait to meet Macbeth amidst thunder and lightning. Their conversation is filled with paradox and equivocation: they say that they will meet Macbeth when the battle's lost and won and a sample of an essay when fair is foul and foul is fair (10). The Scottish army is at war with the Norwegian army. Duncan, king of Scotland, meets a captain returning from battle.
The captain informs them of Macbeth and Banquo's bravery in battle. For Siddhartha! He also describes Macbeth's attack on the castle of the treacherous Macdonald, in which Macbeth triumphed and planted Macdonald’s head on the battlements of the castle. The Thanes of essay, Ross and Angus enter with the on community service benefits, news that the Thane of Cawdor has sided with Norway. Duncan decides to execute the disloyal thane and give the title of Cawdor to Macbeth. The Weird Sisters meet on of an, the heath and wait for Macbeth. He arrives with Banquo, repeating the witches' paradoxical phrase by help stating So foul and fair a day I have not seen (36). The witches hail him as Thane of Glamis (his present title), Thane of Cawdor (the title he will soon receive officially), and king hereafter (46-48). Of An! Their greeting startles and seems to frighten Macbeth.
When Banquo questions the witches as to who they are, they greet him with the phrases Lesser than Macbeth and short black history greater, Not so happy, yet much happier, and a man who shall get kings, though [he] be none (63-65). When Macbeth questions them further, the witches vanish into thin air. A Sample Essay! Almost as soon as they disappear, Ross and Angus appear with the news that the king has granted Macbeth the title of Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth and Banquo step aside to homework, discuss this news; Banquo is of the opinion that the title of of an essay, Thane of Cawdor might enkindle Macbeth to homework, seek the crown as well (119). Macbeth questions why such happy news causes his seated heart [to] knock at [his] ribs / Against the use of nature, and his thoughts turn immediately and with terror to murdering the king in a sample of an essay, order to black history, fulfill the of an essay, witches' second prophesy (135-36). Cover Letters Positions! When Ross and Angus notice Macbeth's distraught state, Banquo dismisses it as Macbeth's unfamiliarity with his new title. Duncan demands to know whether the former Thane of Cawdor has been executed.
His son Malcolm assures him that he has witnessed the former Thane’s becoming death. While Duncan muses about the fact that he placed absolute trust in the treacherous Thane, Macbeth enters. Duncan thanks Macbeth and Banquo for their loyalty and a sample essay bravery. He consequently announces his decision to make his son Malcolm the heir to the throne of Scotland (something that would not have happened automatically, since his position was elected and not inherited). On Power And Politics! Duncan then states that he plans to a sample of an, visit Macbeth at his home in Inverness. Macbeth leaves to prepare his home for the royal visit, pondering the stumbling block of Malcolm that now hinders his ascension to the throne. The king follows with Banquo.
At Inverness, Lady Macbeth reads a letter from Macbeth that describes his meeting with the witches. She fears that his nature is questions, not ruthless enough-- he's too full o' th' milk of human kindness” (15)—to murder Duncan and assure the completion of the a sample of an, witches' prophesy. Essay Service Benefits! He has ambition enough, she claims, but lacks the of an essay, gumption to black essay, act on it. She then implores him to hurry home so that she can pour [her] spirits in [his] ear (24)—in other words, goad him on to the murder he must commit. A Sample Of An! When a messenger arrives with the news that Duncan is for siddhartha, coming, Lady Macbeth calls on the heavenly powers to unsex me here and fill her with cruelty, taking from her all natural womanly compassion (39). When Macbeth arrives, she greets him as Glamis and Cawdor and of an essay urges him to look like the innocent flower, / but be the serpent under’t (63-64).
She then says that she will make all the preparations for the king's visit and subsequent murder. Duncan arrives at Inverness with Banquo and exchanges pleasantries with Lady Macbeth. The king inquires after Macbeth's whereabouts and she offers to short black history essay, bring him to where Macbeth awaits. Alone on stage, Macbeth agonizes over whether to kill Duncan, recognizing the act of murdering the king as a terrible sin. He struggles in a sample of an essay, particular with the essays on power and politics, idea of murdering a man—a relative, no less—who trusts and loves him. He would like the king's murder to be over and regrets the fact that he possesses “vaulting ambition without the ruthlessness to ensure the a sample of an essay, attainment of his goals (27). As Lady Macbeth enters, Macbeth tells her that he will proceed no further in this business (31). But Lady Macbeth taunts him for his fears and ambivalence, telling him he will only be a man when he carries out the essay, murder.
She states that she herself would go so far as to take her own nursing baby and dash its brains if necessary. A Sample Essay! She counsels him to screw [his] courage to college for teaching, the sticking place and details the way they will murder the king (60). They will wait until he falls asleep, she says, and thereafter intoxicate his bodyguards with drink. This will allow them to a sample of an, murder Duncan and essay service benefits lay the blame on the two drunken bodyguards. A Sample Of An Essay! Macbeth is astonished by her cruelty but resigns to follow through with her plans. Just as the Porter in Act 2 extemporizes about the sin of equivocation, the play figures equivocation as one of its most important themes. Starting from the essays on power, Weird Sisters' first words that open the play, audiences quickly ascertain that things are not what they seem. According to the Oxford English Dictionary , the word equivocation has two different meanings—both of which are applicable to this play. The first is: “The using (a word) in more than one sense; ambiguity or uncertainty of meaning in a sample of an essay, words; also . . . misapprehension arising from the ambiguity of homework doesn't, terms.”
This definition as simple verbal ambiguity is the a sample of an, one that audiences are most familiar with—and one that plays an important role in the play. Community Cover Letters For Teaching! The Porter’s speech on equivocation in Act 2, however, refers to a more active type of equivocation. A Sample Of An! The second definition in essay benefits, the OED: reads: The use of words or expressions that are susceptible of a double signification, with a view to mislead; esp. the expression of a virtual falsehood in the form of a proposition which (in order to satisfy the speaker's conscience) is a sample essay, verbally true. This kind of equivocation is similar to lying; it is intentionally designed to mislead and confuse. The intentional ambiguity of terms is what we see in the prophesies of the Weird Sisters.
Their speech is full of paradox and confusion, starting with their first assertion that fair is foul and foul is fair (I i 10). The witches' prophesies are intentionally ambiguous. The alliteration and rhymed couplets in which they speak also contributes to the effect of history essay, instability and confusion in a sample, their words. For many readers, more than one reading is required to grasp a sense of homework help, what the witches mean. It is not surprising, therefore, that these imperfect speakers can easily bedazzle and confuse Macbeth throughout the course of the play (I iii 68). Just as their words are confusing, it is a sample of an essay, unclear as to whether the witches merely predict or actually effect the structure of a paper, future. Banquo fears, for a sample of an, example, that the witches' words will enkindle [Macbeth] unto the crown—in other words, that they will awaken in Macbeth an ambition that is already latent in him (I iii 119). His fears seem well-founded: as soon as the witches mention the crown, Macbeth's thoughts turn to murder. The witches’ power is thus one of prophecy, but prophecy through suggestion.
For Macbeth, the witches can be understood as representing the final impetus that drive him to his pre-determined end. The prophecy is in this sense self-fulfilling. The oracular sisters are in essays, fact connected etymologically to the Fates of Greek mythology. The word weird derives from the Old English word wyrd, meaning fate. And not all fate is self-fulfilling. In Banquo's case, in contrast to essay, Macbeth’s, the witches seem only to predict the future. For unlike Macbeth, Banquo does not act on the witches' prediction that he will father kings—and yet the benefits, witches' prophesy still comes true. The role of the weird sisters in the story, therefore, is a sample of an essay, difficult to define or determine.
Are they agents of fate or a motivating force? And why do they suddenly disappear from the play in the third act? The ambiguity of the Weird Sisters reflects a greater theme of doubling, mirrors, and schism between inner and outer worlds that permeates the work as a whole. Throughout the play, characters, scenes, and ideas are doubled. As Duncan muses about the treachery of the Thane of Cawdor at the beginning of the play, for example, Macbeth enters the scene: KING DUNCAN: There's no art.
To find the mind's construction in the face. He was a gentleman on whom I built. An absolute trust. Enter MACBETH, BANQUP, ROSS, and ANGUS. To MACBETH: O worthiest cousin,
The sin of my ingratitude even now. Was heavy on me! (I iv 11-16) The dramatic irony of Duncan’s trust is realized only later in the play. Similarly, the captain in Scene 2 makes a battle report that becomes in effect a prophecy: For brave Macbeth—well he deserves that name!— Disdaining fortune, with his brandished steel. Which smoked with bloody execution,
Like valour’s minion. Carved out his passage till he faced the essay questions, slave, Which ne’er shook hands nor bade farewell to him. Till he unseamed him from the nave to th’chops, And fixed his head upon our battlements. (I i16-23) The passage can be interpreted as follows: Macbeth “disdains fortune” by disregarding the natural course of action and becomes king through a “bloody execution” of Duncan; Macduff, who was born from a Caesarian section (his mother being “unseamed. A Sample Essay! . Essay On Community Service! . from the nave to th’chops”) and who “ne’er shook hands nor bade farewell” decapitates Macbeth and a sample hangs his head up in public. As in all Shakespearean plays, mirroring among characters serves to heighten their differences. Thus Macbeth, the positions, young, valiant, cruel traitor/king has a foil in Duncan, the old, venerable, peaceable, and trusting king. Lady Macbeth, who casts off her femininity and a sample essay claims to feel no qualms about killing her own children, is doubled in Lady Macduff, who is a model of community cover for teaching, a good mother and wife. Banquo's failure to act on the witches' prophesy is mirrored in a sample of an, Macbeth's drive to realize all that the questions, witches foresee. Similarly, much of the play is also concerned with the relation between contrasting inner and outer worlds.
Beginning with the equivocal prophecies of the a sample essay, Weird Sisters, appearances seldom align with reality. Scientific! Lady Macbeth, for example, tells her husband to look like the innocent flower, / but be the a sample of an, serpent under’t (63-64). Macbeth appears to be a loyal Thane, but secretly plans revenge. Lady Macbeth appears to be a gentle woman but vows to be unsexed and swears on committing bloody deeds. Macbeth is of a paper, also a play about the inner world of of an essay, human psychology, as will be illustrated in later acts through nightmares and guilt-ridden hallucinations. Such contrast between being and seeming serves as another illustration of equivocation. The Macbeths and The Corruption of Nature.
One of the most ambiguous aspects of the play is the character of Macbeth himself. Unlike other Shakespearean villains like Iago or Richard III, Macbeth is homework help, not entirely committed to his evil actions. When he swears to commit suicide, he must overcome an enormous resistance from his conscience. At the same time, he sees as his own biggest flaw not a lack of moral values but rather a lack of of an, motivation to carry out his diabolical schemes. Doesn't! In this he resembles Hamlet, who soliloquizes numerous times about of an, his inaction. But unlike Hamlet, Macbeth does not have a good reason to kill, nor is the man he kills evil—far from it. And finally, while Macbeth becomes increasingly devoted to murderous actions, his soliloquies are so full of eloquent speech and pathos that it is homework doesn't help, not difficult to of an, sympathize with him. Thus at black history the heart of the play lies a tangle of uncertainty. If Macbeth is indecisive, Lady Macbeth is just the opposite—a character with such a single vision and drive for advancement that she brings about her own demise.
And yet her very ruthlessness brings about another form of ambiguity, for a sample of an, in swearing to help Macbeth realize the Weird Sisters' prophecy, she must cast off her femininity. In a speech at homework doesn't the beginning of Scene 5, she calls on the spirits of the air to take away her womanhood: Come you spirits. That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, And fill me from the crown to the toe top-full. Of direst cruelty. Make thick my blood,
Stop up th'access and passage to a sample of an, remorse, That no compunctious visitings of nature. Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between. Th'effect and it. (I v 38-45) Lady Macbeth sees remorse as one of the names for feminine compassion—of which she must rid herself. Thus she must be unsexed. This does not mean, however, that in rejecting her femininity she becomes manly. Instead, she becomes a woman devoid of the sexual characteristics and sentimentality that make her a woman. She becomes entirely unnatural and inhuman.
Like the supernatural Weird Sisters with their beards, Lady Macbeth becomes something that does not fit into the natural world. The corruption of nature is a theme that surfaces and resurfaces in the same act. When Duncan greets Macbeth, for example, he states that he has “begun to plant thee and will labor / to make thee full of growing (I iv 28-29). Essays And Politics! Following the metaphor of the future as lying in the “seeds of time,” Macbeth is compared to a plant that Duncan will look after (I iii 56). By murdering Duncan, then, Macbeth perverts nature by severing himself effectively from the a sample, very root that feeds him. For this reason, perhaps, the thought of murdering Duncan causes Macbeth's heart to on community, knock at [his] ribs / Against the use of a sample, nature (I iii 135-36). Essays On Power And Politics! Just as the Weird Sisters pervert the normal course of nature by telling their prophecy, Macbeth upsets the course of nature by his regicide. Reflecting the disruption of nature, the dialogue between Macbeth and Lady in the scene following the a sample of an essay, murder becomes heavy, graceless, and almost syncopated.
Lady Macbeth, for example, says: What thou wouldst highly, That wouldst thou holily; wouldst not play false. And yet wouldst wrongly win. Thou'd'st have, great Glamis, That which cries Thus thou must do, if thou have it, And that which rather thou dost fear to do, Than wishest should be undone. (I v 28-23).
The repetition of the phrase thou wouldst, in all its permutations, confounds the structure of a scientific paper, flow of speech. The speech is clotted with accents, tangling meter and scansion, and the alliteration is almost tongue-twisting, slowing the rhythm of the words. Just as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth have corrupted nature, the language Shakespeare uses in of an essay, these scenes disrupts the homework help, flow of his usually smoothly iambic meter. Yet another part of the theme of corruption of nature lies in the compression of time that occurs throughout the act. Of An Essay! When Lady Macbeth reads Macbeth’s letter, she states: Th[ese] letters have transported me beyond / This ignorant present, and I feel now / The future in the instant (I v 54-56). By telling the future to Macbeth and Banquo, the Weird Sisters upset the natural course of essay service benefits, time and bring the future to the present. Thus when Macbeth vacillates over whether or not to kill Duncan, he wants to a sample essay, leap into the future: If it were done when ‘tis done, then ‘twere well / It were done quickly (I vii 1-2). He wants the murder to be over essay for siddhartha quickly—indeed so quickly that it is over before the audience even registers it. Just as equivocation twists the meaning of words, Macbeth's murderous desires twist the meaning of time.
Thus beginning with the Weird Sisters, equivocation in all its permutations is threaded throughout the fabric of the first act. Over the course of the a sample of an essay, play, the structure of a scientific paper, breach between the worlds of essay, reality and illusion that is the core of equivocation grows ever wider. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/macbeth/study-guide/summary-act-1 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Macbeth Macbeth Summary Character List Glossary Themes Summary And Analysis Act 1 Act 2 Act 3 Act 4 Act 5 Other On Shakespearean Theater Shakespearean Adaptations Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store William Shakespeare Biography. The Question and Answer section for Macbeth is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Banquo raises the topic of the prophecy as Macbeth enters the scene, Macbeth pretends that he has given little thought to the witches' prophesy. Macuff is structure of a, fighting for the honor of his family, revenge against the man responsible for their deaths (Macbeth).
Macbeth is essay, fighting for money and position. That way the noise is. Tyrant, show thy face! If thou beest slain, and with no stroke of. Macbeth study guide contains a biography of William Shakespeare, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Macbeth essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by homework help students and provide critical analysis of Macbeth by of an essay William Shakespeare.
Macbeth e-text contains the full text of Macbeth by William Shakespeare.
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40 Office Team Work Speech Topics Boost. Good luck with choosing the right one for a sample of an essay, your presentation and with applying all my tips on this site when you start writing a spoken or written essay on the subjects I suggest below! Office team work speech topics on employment: 1. A good business supervisor takes employees serious. Praise in public and essays criticize or punish in private. Punishing is meant to be a constructive action, and expressing your approval is meant to stimulate the work attitude of other collegues and enhance teambuilding. 2. Solid job security is better than an uncertain but satisfying special vocation.
This is an interesting one: I admit there is a huge gap between manual labor and rocket science jobs, but there are many studies and statistical surveys that show most of the people are confident with a job if it is secure on the long term. 3. Adventure incentives increase employee loyalty. Part of teambuilding efforts in most companies. It will motivate your sales managers and keep them at the top of their fields. 4. Benefits of working for a sample, a large company. Good salary, solid launch pad for making a career change due to talent training programs.
Access to great expertise. The disavantages of working for a large corporation are aspects you could cover as office team work speech topics. 5. Companies should not hire employees for questions, life. Employees like a job for a sample, life, but managing directors reject this thesis. It frustrates the development of a business. 6. Companies that do not return calls of job applicants should be punished.
It is a form of basic decency to let candidates know you received the doesn't help resume and return calls if they ask questions related to essay job vacancies. 7. On Power And Politics. Family leave time is a basic employee right. Most of us agree with this statement. The catch is: is it paid or not. To be more specific paid by the boss or by the employee her/himself? 8. Future generations have to keep on their job till they drop. Crisis in the banking world, economic budget cuts, tumbling estimate house values and prices. There is only one sad conclusion: we should work till we are old and gray. 9. Hiring cheaper foreign employees hurts our economy. This problem is known for decades. Our system with fundamental primary labor conditions including good and high monthly paychecks must compete with foreign workers from countries that lack such a costly system.
10. It is crucial for women to of an essay have a career before marriage. They have no kids, no household, young and cheaper than older women, corporations like to invest in and politics the capabilities of a sample of an essay young female professionals. 11. Right to structure of a scientific research paper work laws are useless. Essay. In many states there is opposition against those laws. For example the Texas Right To Work Law state that employment may not be conditioned or denied on the basis of membership or non-membership in a union. Perfect office team work speech topics I should say. 12. The money you earn is not the most important about service a job.
Yes, money is a good thing, but there is of an essay, more, such as self assessment, training and on community service benefits education facilities, working conditions, etcetera. 13. Trust is the major characteristic my co-worker must have. No one want to work with someone who do not trust you. Especially in dangerous working conditions or jobs that need full support and concentration the a sample instrument of teambuilding is compulsory for example in a dealing room of black essay a financial institution. 14. Women have not achieved as much as they will achieve in equal status with men. Research the leading scientific studies on this subject, offer the arguments, and persuade or inform what should be done. 15. Working in night-shifts costs you ten years of your life. In many nations about a sample essay ten percent of the and politics working population consistently works in of an night shifts.
What are the symptoms or negative effects? 16. Yes, there is essay, a glass ceiling for a sample of an essay, women. Beneath the top of the corporate ladder is an invisible barrier for women. Why? How to short history crack the glass? Office team work speech topics on working hours and and your workplace: 1. Employees should be tested for drugs on the work place. 2. Flexible working hours could reduce traffic jams. 3. Labor unions provide value in the workplace.
4. Mothers should be at home every afternoon their children return from school. 5. A Sample Of An. We should decide on ourselves what our working hours are. 6. Women often are victim of discrimination in the workplace. 7. Workplace dating is wrong. Office team work speech topics on striking: 1. Labor unions have too much to say, too much influence. 2. Strong unions are necessary in essay times of economic growth. A Sample. 3. Unions have caused ridiculous regulations. 1. Teambuilding activities, games, icebreakers, and essay benefits camps. 2. Communication skills tests, education programs, and workshops. 3. Leadership skills, management qualities and reflexive abilities.
4. Business speeches about the a sample of an essay necessary skills in charity organizations when it comes to following proper financial rules and legal regulations. 5. Community Letters. The fundamentals of essay effective leadership in your business field. 6. Professional ethics in corporate decision making. 7. Integrity ethics and codes of conduct. 8. The limits of team sizes in relation to directing, collaboration and project completion. 9. Community Cover. Business plan presentations without fear, but open minded and persuasive. And what do you think of these office team work speech topics? 1. General strikes harm people who are not involved. 2. Strike is not the only weapon workers have. 3. Strikers should be fired. 4. Why workers are not allowed to strike when they like.
5. Wildcat strikes should be legalized. Yep, those are advocating and controversial, but actually highly attention-getting public speaking topics for business people #128578;
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The Assignment 1: Essay Date of assignment
documentary essays Introduction to Literature: Creative Writing and Literature. ENG 273 001 (CRN: 74989) Class Meets: MWF, 1230-1320, in KUY 302. Professor Susan M. Schultz Ms. No`u Revilla, Ph.D. apprentice. 214 Kuykendall Hall 314 Kuykendall: [email protected] Office hours: M,W, 1:30-2:45 by appointment.
English 273: Introduction to Literature; CW Lit. Required Texts: available at Revolution Books. Kamau Brathwaite, Trench Town Rock. R. Of An? Zamora Linmark, Leche. Kaia Sand, Remember to Wave. W.G. Sebald, The Emigrants. Eleni Sikelianos, The Book of Jon. Other materials will be available on-line, including the all-important Purdue Owl site: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ (Answers all questions having to college cover letters positions, do with grammar, citation form, works cited, and much more!) --To make you aware of—and well versed in—a cutting edge literary form that brings together public and private concerns, literary and journalistic writing, poetry and a sample prose, writing and collage. --To make you better thinkers and writers about literary texts. To show you how to on community service, read analytically and as a creative writer.
--To make you better creative writers, using the format of documentary writing. --To have some serious fun. --You are responsible for knowing what's on of an the syllabus. History Essay? Bookmark this page and that of our blog. Check often, as there will be additions and emendations along the a sample of an, way. --Attendance is required. Short Black History? You may miss three classes without a valid excuse.
Beyond that, your grade will suffer. Of An Essay? You must complete all the work for the course in order to pass. --Participation is crucial. Homework? Do the reading for the day before class. Write 300 words or so on the class blog by Friday of every week.
Look up words, place names, historical facts before class. Google is of an essay your friend. Come to class with something to say, or a question to ask, about the reading. You will be rewarded for good preparation. --Our blog is at http://documentarywriting.blogspot.com/. Say yes to the invitation to join, then go directly to the blog to questions for siddhartha, post (under “new post” at of an the top). It helps to have a non-UH gmail account for short blogging purposes. We will keep track of your postings, but not alert you if you are behind, so stay on track! Be good citizens on the blog.
Treat each other with respect. A Sample? Read each others' posts, because you will learn from each other, as well as from your instructors. --Every Friday there will be an in-class exercise. Essay Benefits? You are welcome to use these exercises to of an, generate your poems and essays for the class, but you will need to elaborate on the exercises, and intensively revise what you write in class. Benefits? Ms. Revilla and I are available to talk you through the process.
--Write two short essays and four documentary pieces (poems 1 2; proses 1 2). A Sample Of An Essay? You will make a final chapbook (explanation to come) out of your documentary pieces as a final project. You may revise and scientific research resubmit your essays for two weeks after you get your grades and comments. A Sample Of An Essay? If the revision is successful, your grade will go up. If it isn't, your grade will remain the on community, same. --Meet with our Ph.D. graduate student apprentice, No`u Revilla, for conferences at least three times this semester to talk about a sample of an essay, your work. Meet with me at least once. You are responsible for keeping your appointments.
If you can't make it on time, let us know beforehand. --If you have any disabilities, I'm happy to homework doesn't, work with KOKUA. Please visit their website to find out what services they offer. Here: http://www.hawaii.edu/kokua/services.htm. --Do not plagiarize. A Sample? Plagiarism will result in an F for the course. Essays On Power? (This issue gets a bit tricky with documentary writing, and we'll talk about that when we get to it.) --I will let you know when to of an, use electronics, such as laptops or iPads, in class. Otherwise, turn off your phones and other electronics. Absolutely no texting or facebooking or other use of your devices! Ms. Revilla will be our fact checker. I will confiscate electronics until the end of the class if you start texting, etc..
--25% second essay. --25% final project. --5% instructor's discretion (based on effort, improvement, etc.) Page numbers will be provided when we start reading each text. Monday, August 20: Introductions, expectations, a question or two. Pay special attention to the ways in which Brainard's private memories meld with more public concerns (history, culture, sexuality, advertising and so on). Friday, August 24: In-class exercise. Collages. Read the poems he writes about; there are links in the headings to essay questions for siddhartha, his discussions of the poems. A Sample Essay? We will talk about a couple of these poems in class, so bring your laptops or iPads with you.
Wednesday, August 29: Read Sikelianos, The Book of community college letters for teaching Jon, Introduction and 1-33 ; Listen to her interview with Leonard Schwartz on Cross-Cultural Poetics here: http://writing.upenn.edu/pennsound/x/Sikelianos.php. Friday, August 31: In-class exercise. Wednesday, September 5: Sikelianos: keep reading! (at least to 59) Friday, September 7: In-class exercise. Monday, September 10: Sikelianos: finish the book.
Poem #1 is due. Wednesday, September 12: Start Sand , Remember to Wave; Take a careful look at Sand's website and figure out what's important to a sample of an, her and of a her work: http://kaiasand.net/ Read her introduction. Friday, September 14: In-class exercise. Monday, September 17: Sand; Listen to Sand's voice here: http://poetryproject.org/tag/kaia-sand; read the title poem. Wednesday, September 19: Sand: Spend 15 minutes or so on this site about internment of Japanese-Americanst: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/learning_history/japanese_internment/internment_menu.cfm Read the afterword to a sample of an, the title poem. Friday, September 21: In-class exercise. Monday, September 24: First Essay is due. Wednesday, September 26: Sand: read the rest of her book.
Friday, September 28: In-class exercise. Monday, October 1: Kamau Brathwaite; Listen to Leonard Schwartz's interview of Brathwaite here: http://writing.upenn.edu/pennsound/x/Brathwaite.php Poem #2 is due. Wednesday, October 3: Brathwaite. Friday, October 5: In-class exercise. Monday, October 8: Brathwaite. Wednesday, October 10: Brathwaite.
Friday, October 12: In-class exercise. Monday, October 15: Topics for your second essay. Finish Brathwaite. Friday, October 19: In-class exercise; Read Linmark, 45-85. Monday, October 22: Linmark: find a good on-line source or timeline for Philippine history and read it.
Get a cursory sense of the culture, the religion, the linguistic complexities, and the economy of the short history, Philippines. Read 86-136. Wednesday, October 24: Linmark ; read 139-174. Friday, October 26: In-class exercise. Read Linmark 175-202/
Monday, October 29: Linmark Prose piece #1 is due ; Read Linmark 203-241. Wednesday, October 31: Linmark Read 242-268. Friday, November 2: Second essay is due. Discuss in class. Wednesday, November 7: Linmark; Finish the a sample of an essay, book!
Friday, November 9: In-class exercise. Monday, November 12: No classes: Veterans' Day Observed. Wednesday, November 14: W.G. Sebald; read the HIstory Channel material on the Holocaust: http://www.history.com/topics/the-holocaust. Friday, November 16: In-class exercise. Monday, November 19: Sebald: listen to this interview with Sebald, done eight days before his death in a car accident: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pSFcTWIg-Pg Prose piece #2 is due. Wednesday, November 21: Sebald. Friday, November 23: No classes: Thanksgiving break. Monday, November 26: Workshop your creative pieces. Wednesday, November 28: Workshop.
Friday, November 30: Workshop. Monday, December 3: Workshop. Wednesday, December 5: Last day of class. English 273: CW Literature. 14 September 2012. Prof. Susan M. Schultz.
Paper Topics: Essay #1. I want you to use this first essay to go back to some ideas we covered, but also to investigate them more closely and more expansively. You will need to write 3-5 pages, double-spaced, of reasonable font (12 point), and to use MLA style. Essay? (Put pages quoted in of an essay, parentheses.) There should be an argument, which is clear from the structure research paper, beginning of the essay. You will need to use quotations. A Sample Of An Essay? Your ideas should come from the poems, not be imposed upon them. You need to essay for siddhartha, put a title on your essay—not “Essay #1,” but a title that tells your reader what you’re writing about (poem idea about the poem). --Write an essay in which you do a close-reading of a section of The Book of Jon that we have not read together in class.
Consider some or all of the following questions as you think about your essay: why is the section written in a sample essay, this form (whether letter or paragraph or story or list or poem, etc.)? What are the significant details and what are their effects? What pronouns does the poet use and why? In what order does she tell a story, and why? (Your questions here: _______________________?) --Like other documentary writers, Sikelianos is essay questions for siddhartha interested both in the private world of her family and in her father’s public world. The first world offers us memories; the second gets written as history. Write an essay in which you show how she balances the personal with the essay, public in her book. Essays On Power And Politics? What are the a sample of an, influences of the college cover letters positions, public on Jon’s private world? Don’t restrict yourself to one section of the book; instead, look through the of an, whole book for short history essay relevant passages and quotations.
--Documentary writing often sounds quite flat. Charles Reznikoff is nowhere obvious to a sample, be found in his poems, which convey no emotion of their own. Often, the writing sounds more like journalism than like poetry. Essay Service? Same goes for Muriel Rukeyser in her poems on the Gauley Bridge disaster, and for Carolyn Forche in her poem about the central American colonel. Perform an essay, experiment in which you rewrite one of these poems, using a highly emotive language. Then write an essays and politics, essay in a sample essay, which you talk about what happened when you changed the “objective” surface of the documentary poem into positions, the “subjective” voice of a sample of an essay your rendition.
Is the second poem as effective as the first? Why or why not? Why do you suppose that documentary writers use such a neutral tone much of the time? --Sikelianos often gestures at stories she never tells us. She makes lists of stories to be told, sketches out a film that contains no images, leaves information out (like the name of the song she put on the jukebox at the bar). Find places in the book where important details, stories are left out. Why? What is the effect on the reader of this lack of information? --I’m auditing a course on community college cover letters for teaching Modern American Poetry out of the University of Pennsylvania (it’s on-line).
One of the a sample essay, statements made by the head TA is that “poetry does not include information.” Clearly, documentary poetry does include information, and this student has written to tell her so! Write an essay in which you discuss what happens to information when it enters a poem, and what happens to the poem when it includes information. Lest you wander too far astray, choose one poem or section of a book (Sikelianos’s or Sand’s) as a focus for for teaching positions your argument. --Use MLA form. A Sample? Double-space your essays and on power and politics put them in a reasonable font size (12). You can find MLA guidelines on Purdue's Owl website, here: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/ --Have a main point, an of an, argument, and state it toward the beginning of the essay (in the first paragraph, say). You may feel that your main point is obvious and structure scientific research not want to come out with it, but I can't read your minds. So tell me what you're about to a sample, show me before you show it. Then you can elaborate and complicate your argument with the help of quotations from the source text. --Do not generate your argument out of thin air.
Instead, spend time getting to know the doesn't, poem or poems you're working on. Look carefully at word choice, meter, rhyme, line endings, enjambment, and the rest of a sample your arsenal. Allow the essays and politics, argument to come to essay, you, rather than imposing it on the poem. You may feel that this is a less ambitious approach, but paradoxically, it leads to more ambitious work. --Use quotations from the text, but be sure to integrate them into doesn't help, your prose. Don't just plunk them down, unattended, rather use them to guide the a sample of an, reader to an awareness that your interpretations are persuasive. --Do NOT write a five paragraph essay for the sake of five paragraphs. You're in college now, and five paragraphs tends not to get the work done. Essays? Use your paragraphs to develop your ideas, and launch each paragraph with a crisp topic sentence or an equally crisp transition.
--Your introduction sets up a problem and proposes to solve it. A Sample Of An? Your conclusion is a different sort of beast. Your conclusion is not a summary (“I just wrote this, and here it is again”), but an ending to your essay that explores some of the implications of your argument. (If, for example, you've written about how Emily Dickinson fails to maintain her rhyme scheme in a poem, you might write a conclusion that steps away from her specific poem and talks about the way in which the breaking of essay service forms affects our reading of poems.) --You must have a title on your essay, one that does (a lot) more than announce that it's Essay #1. The title should let the reader know what poem is a sample of an essay being discussed and community college cover for teaching positions what your main point is. A Sample Essay? Good titles are hard to write, so save some time to compose yours. --Proof-read your work, or ask a friend to short black history essay, look it over before you turn it in. Get rid of pesky errors, typos, mis-spellings, and so on. They do affect the way your paper gets read, because they (can) reflect on the amount of care you've put into your work. Topics for the first prose piece and essay the second essay. 15 October 2012. Prof.
Susan M. Positions? Schultz. Topics for a sample of an essay your first prose piece your second essay. Monday, October 29 (prose piece) Friday, November 9 (essay) First prose piece : two typed pages (can be double-spaced). On Community Service? These are all based on our reading of R. Of An Essay? Zamora (Zack) Linmark's Leche. --Pick a term and write a definition for it.
Then write a story that goes with the word. --Write a series of cover positions “tips.” They do not have to be for tourists. Then write a brief story that relates to one or more of the tips. --Write a very short story based on something that happened in your family. Include historical background.
--Write a series of five postcards that tell a story. Essay? Make sure to pick good postcards. --Write a story about a word with more than one meaning or write about a misunderstood word (because of accent or deafness). --Write a very short story about on power, a moment of essay cultural confusion. --Tell a very long story in a very few words, perhaps in one paragraph, or two. Second essay topics: 4-5 pages, double-spaced. --Discuss the way in essay service, which Kamau Brathwaite's uses of font sizes, shapes, and spelling determines the way in which a reader performs and a sample essay interprets one section of his book. Use several very specific examples, but create a story around them that includes them all. Each example may be unique, yet all of them should work toward an homework doesn't, idea or message you find in the book. --Discuss Kaia Sand/Bao Ngygen's uses of lay-out and space in Remember to of an essay, Wave . How do non-verbal sections of the book contribute to the work's meaning?
You may write on “Uptick,” if you choose. Remember that that poem is based on questions a movie. -- Show how Linmark uses documents in LECHE to a sample, develop characters (choose one). Community College For Teaching? Consider documentation that has to do with national, sexual, age-related identities. How do we get to know a character by way of the documentation s/he carries? --Analyze Book II or Book III of of an essay LECHE for the way in which Linmark tells his story.
What happens first, second, third? What are the effects of his discourse in telling the story (remember our discussion of the black, difference between story (what actually happened, in the order it happened) and discourse (how the a sample of an, story is told). Think about how switching the order of some elements of the book would change the story. --Linmark's book was written for several very different audiences at short history once. There's the inside audience of a sample essay Filipino readers from and politics, Hawai`i who immigrated as children (as some of you did); there's the a sample of an, audience of scientific research people from Hawai`i who did not come from the Philippines; there's the a sample of an, audience of Americans who don't know Hawai`i or the Philippines, and so on. Show your reader how Linmark manages, in short essay, one section of the book, to address all of these audiences without losing any of them (through too much information, or too little). 8 November 2012. Prof. Susan M. Schultz.
Final Project Prompts. Choose one, and enjoy yourselves! --Make a chapbook out of your creative work for this class. Here is a description of the chapbook: And here is where to find images of chapbooks (professional ones): And here are directions on a sample how to make a chapbook: Consider binding your chapbook with recycled materials. Make between 2 and 22, either one for me and one for you, or one for short essay every member of the class. Feel free to be adventurous with materials, shapes, everything about your little book. --Make a video of one of the of an, poems or pieces of prose we've read (or written) this semester.
Then write a 3-4 page essay on history essay the process of making it (why you chose the text you chose, where you set the a sample of an, video, what background your chose, what music, if relevant, and so on). On Power? You may make your video by yourself or with others, but each of you must then write a separate short essay. Here are some poetry videos off the internet: This is Yamanaka reading the poem Bob Holman mentioned in class. This was a project initiated by a poet laureate, Robert Pinsky, which shows people reading their favorite poem and talking about it. 16 November 2012. Prof. Susan M. Schultz.
Your prose piece should be two pages long, double-spaced, and will be due before Thanksgiving. There will be a free pass on email submissions this time, just be sure to send as attachments to [email protected] and to a sample, send again, if your piece gets lost amid the tens of thousands of other emails. Doesn't Help? And have a wonderful Thanksgiving! This is a class I wouldn’t mind sharing my turkey with . . . All of these prompts are based on our reading of W.G. A Sample? Sebald’s novel/memoir. Feel free to mix fact and fiction in what you write. If fact doesn’t work, make something up; if fiction doesn’t work, fact is often stranger. Here are prompts.
Choose one, or mix and match: --Take a walk, either in black essay, reality or in a sample of an, your mind (sans devices!) to a place you do not know well. Describe that place in structure of a paper, precise detail. Then allow your mind to wander to another place you remember, one that reminds you of the of an essay, place you’re visiting in structure scientific, the present. Write a digression of several sentences on that place, and a sample then return to the place you’re visiting now. Your memories can be personal, historical and—as this is a documentary writing class—they can be both at once. In fact, you’re encouraged to mix personal and historical in this piece. --Write a non-fiction or fictional piece about a personal/historical event. Incorporate two photographs into your piece. These photographs do not need to be directly related to the event, but should complement your writing about it.
--Write a piece of non-fiction or fiction in which you relate a coincidence. Questions? No cheesy coincidences allowed, just the really surprising ones like the hiker found in the ice and then found decades later on a sample of an a newspaper headline, or the interesting people who come your way after a death in the family, who may or may not seem to be messengers from the deceased person. Friday, November 23: No classes: Thanksgiving break. Monday, November 26: Finish Sebald (extra day on him) Wednesday, November 28: Workshop. Friday, November 30: Workshop. Monday, December 3: Workshop.
Wednesday, December 5: Last day of class; present projects. Do either of the questions, following two projects: --Make a chapbook (google it!) out of a sample of an essay your creative work for this semester. You may make your book out of any material, recycled or new. I would prefer that you make enough copies for the entire class, but if your wallet is thin, please make at least two of them, one for me and one for service benefits you. Think about of an, size, shape, covers, illustrations, title, and write a short bio of yourself to put at essay questions the back of the book.
You can find instructions for a sample of an how to make chapbooks on-line. Start early, and letters enjoy! --Make a video of up to five minutes based on a poem or a prose piece we read this semester. Then write a three to four page essay on how you made your video. Why did you set it in the place you set it? Did you use music and, if so, why? What did you try to draw out of the text? Was there anything you left out, and a sample why? If you choose to make your video with another student, you must each write separate essays on the project. You can have a friend be camera-person or extra, but you're the point person here! Sign up for workshop days, when we'll form groups and talk about your work.
Be sure to bring a full draft of your project, not just some stray ideas.