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Rosemarie willett thesis

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Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats Essay. Pets bring happiness to rosemarie thesis a person’s life. John! They create a special bond with their owners. This bond can help an owner and his pet live in harmony. People usually get pets to rosemarie willett thesis have a companion in homework their homes. Rosemarie Thesis! Couples get pets before having a child because taking care of on poverty, a pet is similar in rosemarie willett taking care of breakfast john steinbeck essay, a child. Thesis! Pets usually are fish, birds, mammals, and muscle building, sometimes reptiles, but insects like spiders and rosemarie willett, ants are still owned by some people that consider them as pets. Dogs and cats are one of the most popular pets to have. Dogs and building essays, cats make a big percentage in the world’s populations of pets, according to willett thesis the Humane Society of the United States (2011) there are 78.2 million owned dog and 86.4 million owned cats.

Dogs show that they are loyal to are the characteristics of a good essay an owner and that are easily trained, cats on willett, the other hand can take care of themselves better than dogs and can remove rat infestations from the house of the owner. Both dogs and cats have their pros and cons, but dogs are better pets than cats because they show more qualities of a better pet than a cat. Dogs provide an active lifestyle for characteristics, an owner. Dogs are very energetic which requires constant walks. This makes the owner and a dog have a healthier lifestyle than having a cat. Have you ever seen a person walk their cat? If someone would ever see a person walk their cat, that would be their first time seeing that sight. Thesis! Cats are known as to stay at their home and wait for time to scholarships for college essay pass by. The energy of a dog can also excite their owner making them play together for a certain time.

Dogs also learn a variety of tricks and can learn them easier than cats. Willett! The capability of a dog in learning tricks can simply amaze a person, training a cat to sit, rollover, or play fetch can be weird sight to see. I personally have not seen a cat do the tricks a dog can do. If I ever see one, I do not know what would my reaction would be. While training a dog, the essays, time spent in training can help in establishing a good relationship with their owner. A dog can also provide protection to a home. Dogs can be trained to alert owners when seeing a stranger in their yard or attack on command when the rosemarie, owner says so.

Certain breeds like German Sheperd and Labrador Retriever can be trained to for college be police dogs. Willett! These dogs help in assisting police with their work, providing them help in searching for missing people or objects or in detecting firearms or illegal substances on cost accounting term, people. Dogs were also used for hunting purposes; their keen sense of smell has helped humans hunt their prey easily. Dogs can also be trained to guide blind people to destinations. Rosemarie Willett! Cats can help out in rat infestations at home but they cannot help in sniffing out essay people with firearms or guiding people to rosemarie willett thesis destinations. Another reason dogs are better than cats is that dogs can understand humans better than cats.

Training a dog requires hand gestures, these hand gestures when repeated over and over can be easily understood by a dog that will trigger the action that the owner wanted. Many people think that dogs show more affection than cats. According to the journal Animal Cognition, University of in pakistan in urdu, London, researchers have found that dogs are more likely to approach a crying person than someone who was humming or talking, and that they normally respond to rosemarie weeping with submissive behaviors. Cats are known to muscle essays have an attachment with their owners because cats know that their owners bring them food every day. Lastly, dogs provide better companionship with their owners. Every time an rosemarie willett, owner spends time with his/her dog, it develops their relationship to something better. Dogs are called a man’s best friend because they are always at your side, wanting to play with you, or trying to cheer you up. The bond between a dog and their owner is similar to homework a parent and a child. A child knows when their parent is around or not. Rosemarie Willett! The child becomes happy when they see their parents while sad and distressed when they see that they are gone.

Cats can have a bond with their owners too, but they are more adept at get answer, being independent on their own. Dogs are better pets than cats but that does not mean that cats are not bad pets. Cats also have their positive sides like, independency. Rosemarie! As mentioned earlier, cats are independent; they can feed off food that they find from the home of their owners, an muscle essays, example would be rats and mice. Willett! Cats also can bathe on their own, so they do not need their owners to give them a bathe regularly. The dependency of a dog can sometimes frustrate an owner, the feeding it needs regularly, the cleaning of the dog’s dirt, and the bath it needs to keep clean are the factors that can frustrate an owner. Cats are more silent than dogs. The barking of a dog can irritate an owner and the neighbours. A cat’s “meow” cannot be loud enough to wake people up at midnight.

According to term Douglas (2004), dogs can vocalize their moods, meaning the loudness of their bark depends on what emotion they have at the moment. Thesis! Cats on cost term, the other hand do not, if they are happy, sad, or excited they will “meow” at the same level but evidence from rosemarie willett (McComb et al., 2009) suggests that cats are capable of purring with a frequency that has a subliminal effect similar to that of a human baby#8217;s cry. This purr, known as the #8220;solicitation purr,#8221; is are the good, slightly different from the regular purr and rosemarie, is used to ask for john steinbeck, food. I have never experienced owning a cat, my family has always owned dogs. From stray dog to a breeded one, it has always been dogs. The loyalty shown by willett, the dog, companionship to their owner, the active lifestyle given by the dog, and capability of the dog to learn tricks are the reasons why my family would own a dog than a cat. Term! I have never thought of having a cat, even in the future. The cats of our neighbours have helped me in making that decision. Every time we leave a door open, a cat would manage to go inside, hop on the dining table and get some of the rosemarie thesis, food prepared. Another case would be that some cats bear their children at our garage which would make our dogs bark out loud.

These cases have lead me to make the decision that dogs are better pets than cats. Animal Cognition (May 30,2013), University of London, http://www.livescience.com/20823canine-comfort-dogs-understand-emotion.html Arden Moore (2007), The Cat Behavior Answer Book, http://www.petfinder.com/cats/catbehavior-and-training/why-cats-meow/ APPA National Pet Owners Survey (2011), The Humane Society of the United States, http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/pet_overpopulation/facts/pet_ownership_statistics.html Douglas, K. (9 December 2009).#8221;Dogs vs. Cats: The Great Pet Showdown. New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20427381.200-dogs-vs-cats-the-great-petshowdown-.html McComb, K., Taylor, A., Wilson, C., Charlton, B. (2009). In Urdu! #8220;The Cry Embedded Within the Purr.#8221; Current Biology, 19(13). Retrieved 17.

December 2009 from the Academic Search Premier database. University/College: University of willett, Chicago. Papers! Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 21 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want?

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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an willett thesis, Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by essay Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and rosemarie thesis, Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the Conditions of Production [1]

I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in homework, my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to rosemarie be possible. That was a passing hint. Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. For College Essay! [2] The ultimate condition of production is willett therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them).

Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the on poverty reproduction of the conditions of willett thesis production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an are the good manager, empiricist type) of the point of view of rosemarie willett production alone, or even of get answer that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to rosemarie willett thesis the point of view of reproduction. Essay! Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and willett, examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the scholarships for college essay process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce.

It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of rosemarie Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of of a good manager production (machines), etc. I say the rosemarie thesis average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the for college firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.

But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of rosemarie willett thesis Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of scholarships production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for rosemarie thesis, his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on cost term the national and willett thesis, even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is cost accounting term necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in particular the relations of the thesis circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of john essay means of consumption), and rosemarie willett thesis, the realization of on poverty in pakistan in urdu surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and rosemarie, Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing. We have discussed the what are the characteristics of a manager reproduction of the means of production – but not the reproduction of the productive forces.

We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the rosemarie thesis productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in cost papers, the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and willett, investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in what are the characteristics good manager essay, which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at willett least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of essay each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in willett thesis, fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only essays, that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the willett thesis labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in scholarships, short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for thesis, raising and educating the children in whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. Scholarships Essay! ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum.

I should also like to point out that this minimum is rosemarie thesis doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against scholarships essay, the reduction of thesis wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the get answer material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to work in thesis, the complex system of the get answer process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the rosemarie willett productive forces at get answer homework a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to rosemarie be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to homework the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the rosemarie willett skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by good manager essay the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for thesis, manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by muscle every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination.

They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to rosemarie willett ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to homework ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of rosemarie thesis its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of john steinbeck production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in willett, this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the on poverty in pakistan in urdu tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the rosemarie willett thesis exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in for college essay, the forms and under the thesis forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the breakfast john steinbeck essay skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of thesis production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other.

But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it. But in homework, order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society?

Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. Rosemarie Willett Thesis! I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of muscle building essays its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. Rosemarie Thesis! What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of building every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is thesis a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of john essay this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in the economic base.

Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the rosemarie willett thesis ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the what essay floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in willett, their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by cost accounting the determination in rosemarie willett, the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in breakfast steinbeck essay, the last instance determines the rosemarie whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to essay on poverty the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base.

The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in thesis, the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to building essays think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on the basis of rosemarie willett reproduction. Once one takes the point of scholarships essay view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the rosemarie thesis point of cost term view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on willett thesis the one hand, and from that of reproduction on scholarships the other. The Marxist tradition is rosemarie willett thesis strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the for college specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to willett thesis the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and breakfast essay, its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the rosemarie head of State, the for college government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on willett the essential point, and not for breakfast john steinbeck, one moment can there be any question of rejecting the rosemarie thesis fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the in pakistan State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out willett with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is essay on poverty necessary in order to remove any ambiguity.

Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the willett edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the scholarships for college essay science of social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to rosemarie willett the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of papers ‘contradiction’. Willett Thesis! In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in good, which the theory is rosemarie thesis presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the papers form of rosemarie willett thesis ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the cost accounting term papers Marxist theory of the State, and willett, that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of term every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is willett perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in scholarships for college essay, the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object.

Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by rosemarie willett Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the breakfast john steinbeck direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of rosemarie thesis political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the building bourgeoisie. And yet the rosemarie thesis descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in muscle building, the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of rosemarie willett thesis this phase. For it is on poverty in pakistan in urdu clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of willett thesis facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the on poverty in pakistan in urdu definition of the State, i.e. the rosemarie willett thesis scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in what characteristics of a good manager, order to rosemarie understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the essays State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State.

By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and rosemarie willett, conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of what characteristics State power), the willett objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the cost possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by rosemarie thesis the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the on poverty repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of rosemarie willett fractions of cost accounting classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in rosemarie willett thesis, so many words. But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development.

The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to cost term papers the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in rosemarie willett thesis, fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the scholarships for college essay state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is rosemarie willett indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and are the characteristics good, state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by willett its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the cost accounting term papers State Apparatus (SA) contains: the rosemarie willett Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of get answer homework distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of willett these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the scholarships for college essay reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the thesis different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the on poverty in pakistan ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Willett! Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the breakfast unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for rosemarie willett, the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. Essay On Poverty In Pakistan In Urdu! The domain of the rosemarie willett thesis State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. Muscle Essays! What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. Rosemarie! A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the scholarships for college essay (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by rosemarie willett correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by john steinbeck essay ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to willett thesis confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and get answer, predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by thesis ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is scholarships for college very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of rosemarie willett thesis punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. The same is what are the characteristics manager essay true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and thesis, the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of essay in pakistan this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of rosemarie willett what constitutes the steinbeck unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by thesis which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the accounting term fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is rosemarie thesis realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions.

Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and essay in pakistan in urdu, decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into thesis the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity. To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in accounting papers, the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and rosemarie willett, proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and get answer homework, often of thesis bitter forms of class struggle.

The class (or class alliance) in for college essay, power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and willett, occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by breakfast john steinbeck conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and rosemarie thesis, the State Apparatus on get answer homework the other. Willett! But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the body of term Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the rosemarie willett role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is of a good their importance based on?

In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in rosemarie willett, suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is secured by characteristics the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by rosemarie the exercise of State power in accounting term, the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and thesis, predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. In Pakistan In Urdu! Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an rosemarie thesis, objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the accounting papers clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the rosemarie willett unity of the homework (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in rosemarie thesis, power executing the cost accounting term politics of the rosemarie class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class.

Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the papers relations of production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation. Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to rosemarie willett thesis open and tacit censorship) the what are the characteristics of a good manager essay political conditions for the action of the rosemarie Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to muscle building essays envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production.

Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in rosemarie willett, the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the breakfast steinbeck modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the willett thesis Villes ). Scholarships! There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and willett, more independent of it. In the muscle building essays pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only rosemarie thesis, religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the get answer sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the willett thesis Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the accounting term French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to rosemarie willett thesis attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of muscle building new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the rosemarie willett religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by building essays the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for rosemarie willett, decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in homework, advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the rosemarie Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in essay, the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in willett thesis, the ideological representation that the building bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the rosemarie willett thesis dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. Breakfast! In England this is even clearer.

The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of willett view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of homework good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the willett Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of what good manager essay its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the rosemarie thesis moment it must suffice to say:

1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of muscle building essays exploitation. 2. Each of rosemarie willett thesis them contributes towards this single result in papers, the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by rosemarie cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of cost term nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by thesis means of the press, the radio and television. Scholarships Essay! The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in willett thesis, chauvinism is of the breakfast john first importance), etc.

The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. Willett! The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and essay on poverty in urdu, afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and rosemarie, the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism. 4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the for college essay sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to rosemarie willett thesis fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the essays agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is rosemarie willett thesis practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the in pakistan in urdu workers orders and thesis, speak to essay them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to rosemarie willett the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium.

But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in breakfast, a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to rosemarie willett exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the essay School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is . Willett! lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and are the characteristics manager essay, ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by rosemarie their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to breakfast john the freedom, morality and thesis, responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the essay in pakistan in urdu few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped. They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the rosemarie willett ‘work’ the system (which is muscle essays bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of rosemarie willett thesis this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and essay, generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School.

It is coupled with the Family just as the willett thesis Church was once coupled with the breakfast john Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in willett, the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the steinbeck essay Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of willett a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an essay in pakistan, Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by thesis Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). As for essay in urdu, Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of thesis ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in cost accounting term, general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory. The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at least to justify, the project of willett thesis a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of breakfast john steinbeck ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of willett production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is for college clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to thesis put forward the project of a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in cost papers, so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in thesis, a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. Cost Accounting Term! For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the rosemarie willett reality of the essay day. This is thesis exactly the essay in urdu status of philosophy and rosemarie thesis, ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of john essay concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of rosemarie thesis concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by muscle essays who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is rosemarie willett thesis no history in it (on the contrary, for it is essay in urdu merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the rosemarie thesis thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an cost term, omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in rosemarie willett, which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies.

To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and characteristics of a good essay, must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is rosemarie willett thesis eternal , i.e. that it has no history. If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the john steinbeck extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and thesis, write ideology is eternal , exactly like the what good manager essay unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by thesis the fact that the accounting papers eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to rosemarie the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in homework, proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into rosemarie account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the what characteristics of a good manager essay Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the rosemarie willett thesis second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the for college imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’.

Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the rosemarie willett ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the accounting papers ethnologist examines the rosemarie myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. What Are The Essay! that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and rosemarie, that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and what good, the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). Rosemarie Willett Thesis! The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at accounting term the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of willett existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to term ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in willett, their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the papers ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the rosemarie thesis existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and what of a, exploitation of the rosemarie thesis ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for of a manager, word by thesis Marx in breakfast essay, his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and rosemarie willett thesis, finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of for college men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. Rosemarie Thesis! This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an essay in pakistan, alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of rosemarie existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of for college essay alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’).

All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of rosemarie men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to breakfast themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the rosemarie thesis ‘cause’ which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the on poverty imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology.

To speak in a Marxist language, if it is rosemarie thesis true that the representation of the real conditions of in pakistan in urdu existence of the individuals occupying the rosemarie willett posts of breakfast steinbeck essay agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in rosemarie willett thesis, the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and term papers, from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of rosemarie thesis production and on poverty in pakistan in urdu, the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the rosemarie willett thesis real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of essay in pakistan their (individual) relation to rosemarie the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in building essays, this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the thesis great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. Cost Term! For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. Thesis! I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and essay on poverty in urdu, spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of willett thesis what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. Muscle Building Essays! what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven.

I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the rosemarie thesis nature of ideology. Or rather, it is get answer merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical. While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of rosemarie willett these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to essay on poverty this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices.

This existence is rosemarie willett material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. Scholarships For College Essay! But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in rosemarie willett thesis, many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on building and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the rosemarie willett thesis world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to cost accounting papers their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the thesis following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc.

This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in steinbeck essay, an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from willett him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the get answer ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and rosemarie thesis, naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the scholarships for college essay corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in rosemarie, Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the john essay ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of rosemarie willett thesis his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of breakfast steinbeck essay ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of rosemarie thesis a human subject exist in on poverty in pakistan, his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is thesis not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform.

This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices. And I shall point out that these practices are governed by building the rituals in rosemarie thesis, which these practices are inscribed, within the breakfast essay material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of willett that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. Get Answer! A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to rosemarie willett leave Pascal to the arguments of essay in urdu his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the rosemarie thesis existence of the accounting ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject.

Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by rosemarie thesis different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to muscle essays mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the rosemarie thesis cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of john steinbeck essay a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of willett a theory of the for college differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the willett terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the cost accounting following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is rosemarie willett inscribed in the actions of breakfast practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by willett an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions.

From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the essay on poverty in pakistan notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in thesis, an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only breakfast john steinbeck essay, appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the rosemarie willett function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects.

In the homework interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to realize that both he who is thesis writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. In Pakistan! that the author and the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’. That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is willett thesis no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in scholarships essay, ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. Thesis! ). Are The Of A Manager! Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an rosemarie willett thesis, ideological effect, the accounting term papers elementary ideological effect. Rosemarie Willett Thesis! [16] It is scholarships for college essay indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to rosemarie thesis recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’

At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. Get Answer! And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’. Rosemarie Thesis! To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in get answer, France, at rosemarie thesis least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for get answer homework, us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and rosemarie willett, the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you.

But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in homework, no sense does it give us the rosemarie willett (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to john steinbeck dare to be the rosemarie beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to get answer represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by rosemarie willett thesis the functioning of the category of the subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject. Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else).

Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the get answer homework one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the rosemarie large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and essays, clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing.

But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology. What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to rosemarie willett be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in essays, ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is rosemarie well known, the term papers accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the rosemarie thesis same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at scholarships the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail.

But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on willett it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in for college, which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to rosemarie making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by john steinbeck essay ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an willett thesis, individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all. Essay On Poverty In Pakistan In Urdu! Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the rosemarie expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an in urdu, unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is rosemarie thesis certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Steinbeck! Before its birth, the child is rosemarie thesis therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. Get Answer! ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and rosemarie, all the rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the essays unconscious. Rosemarie Thesis! But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the characteristics of a good manager essay way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the thesis same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and for college, ‘make it speak’, i.e. Rosemarie! collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in breakfast john steinbeck, order to rosemarie tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. Essay In Pakistan In Urdu! It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of willett God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for muscle essays, ever on ‘nice’ points). Rosemarie Willett! It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by get answer homework God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of rosemarie thesis Our Lord! This is your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the scholarships for college essay ‘law of willett thesis love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ!

Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to scholarships essay ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in rosemarie willett thesis, such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of scholarships possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is willett convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of cost accounting papers a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects.

All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. And the Lord cried to rosemarie willett Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the breakfast steinbeck individual named Moses. Rosemarie Thesis! And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments.

God is thus the Subject, and breakfast steinbeck, Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to rosemarie willett thesis ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to muscle building essays become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to rosemarie willett the hands (see St.

Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the cost Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. Willett! re-enter the Subject. [21] Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and what characteristics of a good manager essay, Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the willett Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in muscle building essays, the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and rosemarie thesis, future) the get answer homework guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. Willett! those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously:

1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of get answer himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on condition that the rosemarie willett thesis subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in breakfast john steinbeck, this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and rosemarie, of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. Accounting Term Papers! They ‘recognize’ the existing state of willett affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and not otherwise’, and essay in urdu, that they must be obedient to willett thesis God, to homework their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Thesis! Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the get answer homework inscription in rosemarie, life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’.

Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’. Muscle! There are no subjects except by rosemarie willett thesis and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in accounting papers, the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Rosemarie Willett! Indeed, what is really in question in muscle building essays, this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the rosemarie willett thesis guarantee given by the Subject to characteristics good manager the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from them.

P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the rosemarie willett thesis realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the point of view of homework their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the willett effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes.

The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and muscle, distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in rosemarie, the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of breakfast essay labour is the form and mask of willett a social (= class) division and essays, organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only willett thesis, be a class undertaking. It is in urdu realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of rosemarie willett thesis production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of scholarships for college essay view of this class struggle.

To adopt the point of view of reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the rosemarie willett ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in accounting, general is one thing. Rosemarie! We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in what are the characteristics manager, Freud, define the unconscious in rosemarie thesis, general ). If there is scholarships for college any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the rosemarie willett relations of are the good manager essay production. Willett! But the point of view itself however real, is still an essay in pakistan, abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the willett thesis point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of on poverty in pakistan in urdu class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. But there is willett no class struggle without antagonistic classes.

Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the get answer homework realization of ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. Thesis! It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on essay the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against willett thesis, the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of building view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the rosemarie willett thesis ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. John Essay! Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to rosemarie thesis defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the what of a good essay ideolog ies existing in a social formation.

Not only is it from this starting-point that it is thesis possible to explain the homework realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and rosemarie thesis, above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and are the characteristics manager, confront one another there. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the willett thesis ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the essays social classes at grips in willett thesis, the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the get answer homework struggle, etc. 1. Rosemarie! This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to on poverty in pakistan a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and willett thesis, 1970 respectively).

5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. For College Essay! A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at rosemarie willett thesis the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the essay on poverty in pakistan in urdu ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in rosemarie thesis, the state of what manager acute but fragmentary notes (cf.

Gramsci, Selections from the rosemarie thesis Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. What Of A Good Essay! English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of rosemarie labour power. For College! In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of rosemarie willett consumption. 9. Get Answer! The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs.

10. Thesis! In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of get answer homework Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. Willett Thesis! What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the get answer homework class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of rosemarie willett thesis Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of cost papers production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is rosemarie willett thus expressed and for college, exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the rosemarie thesis ISAs.

But the essay in pakistan in urdu class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is willett thesis because it extends beyond them that the homework struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the rosemarie thesis ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the homework ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in willett thesis, the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for breakfast essay, class relations. 12. Rosemarie! For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately.

For even in homework, Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Rosemarie! Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against essay on poverty, difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is rosemarie thesis ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18.

Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the term individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.

The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the thesis theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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Tips for rosemarie willett, Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Essays? Yet bad grammar, bad style, and thesis poor organization will make it very difficult for you to convey your ideas clearly and essay professionally, and will limit your academic and professional success. I strongly recommend that you work to eliminate any of these problems that may apply to thesis, your own writing. -- Dr. James A. Bednar. Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Steinbeck? Formal writing is used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to thesis, a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions.

Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to cost papers, be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured. Formal writing is not just dictated conversation In general, it is inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. In conversation, the rosemarie, listener can ask for essay on poverty in pakistan, clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from topic to topic freely, and so on. Formal writing must instead stand on its own, conveying the rosemarie willett, author's thesis clearly through words alone. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis.

The best formal writing will be difficult to what are the characteristics good essay, write but very easy to read. The author's time and effort spent on writing will be repaid with the time and effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and conclusion. Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. In a short essay, the main point should usually conclude the introductory paragraph. Willett? In a longer essay, the muscle, main point generally concludes the rosemarie, introductory section.

The reader should never be in any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the essay on poverty in pakistan, reader again. When in doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and thesis books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to the topic. At each level, you need to tell the reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to homework, cover all the willett thesis, relevant material, clearly relating it to muscle, your stated point, and finally you need to tie the subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the point that you promised. Stay on topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to your main thesis. You can write other papers later for anything else you might want to say. The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of yours is that he or she wants to know about your main topic, not simply about rosemarie, everything you might want to say (unless for what are the characteristics essay, some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about them. If you do bring something up, say something important about it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to rosemarie, acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument. It is quite appropriate to muscle building essays, discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to the main topic of your paper. For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and arguing that it was not written well overall, it is usually a good idea to rosemarie willett thesis, point out the what characteristics good manager, few things that were done well, e.g. so that the reader does not get the impression that you just like to complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow.

Whenever you do include such material, i.e. things that go in rosemarie willett thesis, the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to building, put it into rosemarie thesis only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily. In every case, try to essay on poverty, make your point as clearly as possible, while at rosemarie thesis, the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the scholarships, preceding paragraph. The world is arguably an unstructured jumble of rosemarie thesis, ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to on poverty, read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of thesis, how the get answer, paragraph begins and ends. If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from rosemarie thesis, start to finish.

In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at first, and actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. Papers? One rule of rosemarie willett thesis, thumb is breakfast steinbeck, that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to rosemarie, add these words between most of your sentences, not just the papers, paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. In that case you need to thesis, reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only what good, when necessary. Once the organization is good, all you can do is read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the words literally indicate.

For instance, we often speak informally of going the rosemarie, extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the building essays, words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about willett thesis, its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is what, obvious even to those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and thesis those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the world. Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written.

Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to accounting term, avoid that temptation. Thesis? When two words will do, there is essays, no need to use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to rosemarie, see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to breakfast john essay, write concisely is far more important than your ability to willett thesis, fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an essay of the appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space. In the breakfast john, real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and willett diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Muscle? Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and rosemarie willett thesis the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Of A? Thus it is willett thesis, crucial to are the characteristics of a manager essay, avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to willett, the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result.

At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is breakfast john steinbeck essay, rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an willett imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is essay, just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to thesis, pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out scholarships for college essay, which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the thesis, sentences in of a good essay, what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . . Willett? Of course, an occasional imperative in parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. Muscle Building Essays? (see Walker 1996 for more details).). A formal document needs to be structured at all levels, whether or not the rosemarie willett thesis, structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues.

Overall structure The standard format for are the characteristics manager essay, an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of your thesis in the body of the paper, and rosemarie thesis (3) restate the essay, thesis in willett, the conclusion so that the essay in urdu, reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in willett, a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the term papers, main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in willett, the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the beginning of a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. Scholarships For College Essay? The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences.

Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. Rosemarie? However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of term papers, your commas in turn. If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to willett thesis, leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for what are the characteristics good essay, an article should say exactly and succinctly what the rosemarie willett, reader will get out of that section.

In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Building? Section standards vary in willett thesis, different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion. If you do not use the breakfast, standard titles, e.g. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about what is in rosemarie thesis, that section. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the get answer, document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to rosemarie willett thesis, be reading the scholarships essay, paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at willett thesis, least skim the muscle building essays, introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in thesis, depth will remember those two sections the cost term, best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections.

Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to thesis, be the case. Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged. Essay On Poverty? Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into figure captions.

Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the main article. That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to read the whole article. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the rosemarie willett thesis, main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the cost accounting term papers, article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and rosemarie willett thesis proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the breakfast steinbeck, figures being understandable only willett, when reading the main text. Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in breakfast john steinbeck essay, the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is clear. Rosemarie Thesis? You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to achieve, i.e. whether you want the caption to be readable on its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of essay, it and this. It is rosemarie willett, a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for scholarships, this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?.

For such a reference to willett, make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. Scholarships? Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to which you refer is explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is willett, any chance that the reader might not know to which of several items you might be referring. E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the get answer, actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'.

Watch out for willett, homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. Essay? As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the rosemarie willett, difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the what good, spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is thesis, surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. Breakfast Steinbeck Essay? But it is rosemarie willett, much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation.

I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of cost papers, these buts and rosemarie howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in steinbeck essay, some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for a single, atomic item. Rosemarie Willett? Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of a point, etc.

Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in for college, English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of willett, research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case.

Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only scholarships for college, when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Rosemarie? Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. President Bush. When in accounting, doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing.

Hyphenate phrases only rosemarie thesis, when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. Cost Accounting Term Papers? That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is rosemarie willett, a mistake to use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from accounting papers, England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the thesis, hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into an adjective, and scholarships essay a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect).

An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an rosemarie adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in term, the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the rosemarie thesis, en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the for college essay, en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read. But in rosemarie, such cases it is often clearer just to muscle essays, reword the willett thesis, sentence to on poverty, avoid the ambiguity, as in rosemarie, a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to avoid ambiguity. For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to homework, be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from rosemarie willett thesis, chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous.

In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is in pakistan in urdu, not a property of the phrase, but of rosemarie, how you are using the phrase in the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation). Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. all the are the manager, papers in a certain edited volume use the willett, same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Unfortunately, you do have to muscle building, pay for rosemarie willett thesis, the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and homework reasonable margins, following the willett, typical format used for similar documents.

If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of john steinbeck, Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and rosemarie seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for for college, a short paper or report is distracting and makes it difficult to rosemarie thesis, photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the breakfast john steinbeck, results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by willett their first names, as if they were your friends. Building? They are not, and rosemarie even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance.

Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of in pakistan in urdu, a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an willett author's last name is like the key in a database lookup -- if the get answer homework, name is misspelled (e.g. Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work. So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time.

Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. Willett Thesis? If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the essay on poverty in pakistan in urdu, authors' last names, not he or the author. Rosemarie Thesis? If there is only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the scholarships for college, author or the author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the title of an article when you refer to it in rosemarie thesis, the text. Italics are reserved for homework, books or other works of similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of rosemarie thesis, indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about scholarships for college, another author.

If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to thesis, you. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to avoid the muscle building, hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. if the work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct. Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to willett thesis, mention explicitly reading the cost accounting term papers, paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . Rosemarie? and In this paper the authors . . Try to avoid this redundancy. If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa.

Similarly, it is cost accounting term papers, clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the willett, paper; we do not need to cost accounting papers, be reminded of this. Academic writing is always about papers and authors, and thesis thus those topics should only cost accounting term papers, be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of doing it properly. First you say what the thesis, research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is are the characteristics good essay, going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to willett, do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Unless you want to essay in pakistan, make an willett enemy, you should always mention something positive about homework, existing work before exploring the willett, limitations, and you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote.

Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to breakfast steinbeck, make an rosemarie willett thesis enemy, e.g. to homework, draw attention to rosemarie thesis, yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only essay, that you are planning to study topic X. In the rosemarie willett thesis, context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. What Are The Of A Good Essay? Studying is willett thesis, something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the john steinbeck essay, right answer; research is rosemarie, not like that. In research, you need to scholarships for college essay, spell out the rosemarie, specific questions you are going to try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to cost accounting term, see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to rosemarie, be relevant. The reader is steinbeck essay, more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and rosemarie explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to cost accounting term papers, think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember.

Although there is rosemarie willett thesis, a vast array of scholarships for college, different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in thesis, order to fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an for college essay author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of who published it. Willett? Without having every bit of scholarships essay, this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the rosemarie willett thesis, article, such as the cost of reprints. As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for papers, the reader to find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to willett thesis, follow. Homework? One common approach is to willett thesis, use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine.

If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . known [1], ( not . known[1]). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the sentence is concerned, and on poverty in pakistan thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Thus the rule is thesis, simply to put the cost accounting papers, parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to thesis, omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . What Are The Of A Manager? as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is rosemarie willett, usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and get answer homework we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and rosemarie willett thesis we (and their various forms) in academic work. Characteristics Of A? Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and willett scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Others argue that omitting I and we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences.

Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to emphasize the role of the characteristics good manager essay, authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and rosemarie we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in get answer homework, other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the thesis, rules commonly accepted for English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for on poverty in urdu, points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i.e. an rosemarie willett obvious bug in the English language. For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in homework, fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error.

Spaces around dashes An em-dash is rosemarie thesis, a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for term, an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. Rosemarie Willett Thesis? However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and accounting after the dash. Thesis? Without the spaces the dash appears to essays, be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Rosemarie Thesis? Grammatically, the function of the dash is to separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the on poverty in urdu, dash. Again, in my opinion the rosemarie willett, accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to building essays, end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at the place they were heading to.

However, in practice it is often very difficult and rosemarie willett thesis awkward to get answer homework, reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thesis? Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the building, comma is often omitted before an 'and' in a list. For instance, they will write of rosemarie, ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. Lists are generally meant to in pakistan in urdu, be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips.

In many cases, omitting the rosemarie thesis, serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in muscle building essays, the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by willett thesis the computer programmer in cost accounting, me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and thesis e.g. Breakfast Steinbeck Essay? used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. The inspiration for this rule is willett, that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. translating to that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an important distinction to know). However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. For College Essay? Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and modern readers treat the thesis, abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and scholarships essay then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the thesis, one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree.

This document is in the public domain. Muscle Building Essays? You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for thesis, any other non-fraudulent purpose. If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.

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Alastair Cook and Joe Root hit centuries as England dominate hapless West Indies in day-night Test. A lastair Cook and Joe Root - former and current captain, old master and new - made hay while the sun shone to share a superlative third-wicket partnership of willett 248 which dominated West Indies in the first day/night pink-ball Test in England. What Are The Characteristics Good Essay. Cook’s unbeaten 153 was his first century since resigning as England’s Test captain and his 31st in all. Although the ball was pink, the rosemarie willett, primary colour on the opening day of this three-Test series was the West Indians’ greenness, and Cook took full advantage of the tourists’ immaturity in bowling and fielding as he piloted England to 348 for three by the close at 9.30pm. Nowhere was the West Indian naivety more apparent than when they delayed taking the second new ball by what of a good, two overs after the willett thesis, Birmingham night had closed in. If there is any consensus yet about scholarships for college essay, day/night Tests - and this is the fifth of rosemarie willett them worldwide - it is that batting is hardest against the pink new ball under lights, but West Indies failed to take full advantage by bowling only six overs of pace with the scholarships for college essay, second new ball, not ten.

R oot reached 50 for willett thesis the 11th consecutive Test - he will equal the breakfast, world record by AB de Villiers if he does it again in willett the second Test at Headingley - and raced to his 13th Test century, his second as captain, with barely a false stroke. Root was bowled during the twilight period but his 136 off only cost, 189 balls had long since demonstrated how, in day/night Tests, a batsman has to cash in when the going is good. I n the opening session, starting at 2 pm, the pink ball was clearly visible against the background of the green outfield. Against the background of the light brown pitch however - so dry that it will soon turn plenty for Moeen Ali - the pink ball was much less distinct, especially when it had aged. Thesis. Not that it seemed to homework, trouble Cook and Root, who gorged themselves on the inaccuracy which South Africa’s pace attack never had, except for Chris Morris. Otherwise, in the first session, the thesis, pink ball behaved much as the red would have done. Good Essay. It swung for the first 20 overs, and claimed a couple of early wickets in Mark Stoneman and Tom Westley, then the willett, movement died down and England’s two main batsmen got completely on top. A standard script, no matter that it was being read at a different time of scholarships essay day or in an unusual light.

S toneman was dismissed by a corker which shaped in then hit the top of his offstump; already though he had been more positive in his movements than Keaton Jennings, crisply clipping and rosemarie willett thesis, cover-driving a couple of fours. Westley, on scholarships for college essay the other hand, missed a straight ball by playing round it. The best England number three on show yesterday appeared at tea-time in thesis the parade of players who had participated in john essay Edgbaston’s 50 Tests: either Ted Dexter or Jonathan Trott, according to rosemarie willett thesis, taste. C oming together at 39 for two, Cook and Root soon turned the Test into a contest between men and, not boys, but young men. The West Indian pace bowlers could not string together dot-balls and maidens, thereby building pressure; lacking the discipline and county experience of their illustrious predecessors who were watching, like Sir Andy Roberts and Sir Curtly Ambrose, they offered England 22 fours in cost papers the 27 overs before the rosemarie willett thesis, first interval. Essay. Since West Indies beat England at Edgbaston in 2000, they have won two Tests outside Bangladesh and Zimbabwe, to set against willett, 55 defeats. T he tourists must bat well on day two to stay in this series, but they may not start to do so until the are the manager, final session when the new pink ball will be in rosemarie willett thesis hands of England’s master-craftsmen James Anderson and Stuart Broad. In the second session, with the ground still bathed in sunshine, Cook and Root saw the pink ball like a football.

West Indies eventually posted a sweeper at deep point, such as South Africa had devised for Root, but the essay, new captain had scored 67 by then. Rosemarie Thesis. Boundaries flowed, if not quite in the full spate of the opening session, while Cook worked his way to 85 before the homework, second interval, when the floodlights were switched on. Rosemarie. S unshine however did not depart from Edgbaston until 8pm, so the occupants of the old Hollies stand, England’s most patriotic, were able to drink and sing and bask until the final 90 minutes - and the bars did not close until the end of play. N ever did the crowd have to summon up the animosity which they direct at essays Australian cricketers as England were always on top. After 8pm, a bit of playing and missing set in with the twilight, culminating in Roach bowling Root through the gate. Willett. Dawid Malan came in, later than most nightwatchmen, and played the best of his five Test innings to date, looking the muscle building, part of thesis a number five. Dew appeared to be no problem as the final overs were played out, the outfield having been sprayed twice against it earlier in cost term papers the week, not that anything troubled Cook. C enturions Joe Root and rosemarie willett, Alastair Cook broke West Indies' resolve and essay on poverty in pakistan in urdu, England are in a mightily strong position.

OVER 90: ENG 348/3 (Cook 153* Malan 28*) R oston Chase takes over from the other end. Michael Holding is audibly gritting his teeth on rosemarie thesis Sky Sports. Malan and accounting papers, Cook exchange singles. Off the willett, last ball of the are the of a manager, day, there is a West Indies mis-field that allows the batsmen through. That sums it all up. Rosemarie Willett. England's day. And night. OVER 89: ENG 345/3 (Cook 152* Malan 26*) B rathwaite is essay, back. That feels like a surrender.

Malan milks a single. Willett Thesis. OVER 88: ENG 344/3 (Cook 152* Malan 25*) J oseph cannot get off that leg stump. Cook flicks his 22nd and 23rd boundaries between exchanging singles with Malan. The second four of the over gets him to 150 . For College Essay. told you he fancied going big. OVER 87: ENG 333/3 (Cook 143* Malan 24*) C ook turns his wrists over rosemarie willett thesis Roach's delivery to pick up four through square leg. A legside single follows and john steinbeck, we are at all the threes. Rosemarie Willett. OVER 86: ENG 328/3 (Cook 138* Malan 24*) C ummins goes, Alzarri Joseph arrives.

Four times he strays legside to Cook, who connects on the second attempt to squeeze out two tuns and the fourth to breakfast steinbeck, get a single. There is no change of line when Malan faces up. Malan milks two then pulls a four. Poor set from rosemarie Joseph. OVER 85: ENG 319/3 (Cook 135* Malan 18*) R oach starts with one that is angled across Malan and called a wide. Michael Holding is on commentary duty, and scholarships essay, is bagging the West Indies for coming into the day/night Test with no plan. That new ball episode was certainly strange. The ball is rosemarie, swinging, and Malan is on poverty, beaten once before unfurling a drive through the covers for rosemarie thesis four. Great hands. Scholarships For College. Roach smiles ruefully.

He actually won't be too disheartened by that. Willett Thesis. OVER 84: ENG 314/3 (Cook 135* Malan 14*) C ummins is Roach's new ball partner. Cost Papers. He starts with a no ball that Cook works off his hip. Malan is hurried on facing his first delivery, but then leans on a cut shot to pick up a boundary. A flicked single follows. Six overs left in the day. Willett Thesis. OVER 83: ENG 307/3 (Cook 134* Malan 9*) That might be the dumbest 10/15 minutes of cricket by Jason Holder/West Indies i have ever watched in my life. #ENGvsWI. K emar Roach is finally taking the new ball. Term. It's totally bizarre how this didn't happen before now.

Cook leaves the first one and there is movement. He nibbles at the next, with soft hands, and gets four past second slip. A single completes a dangerous-looking over, but the West Indies still look extremely flat. OVER 82: ENG 302/3 (Cook 129* Malan 9*) S till no new ball. Still Brathwaite. Still inertia. Rosemarie Thesis. Stuart Law is sending on the 12th man. Cook cuts a single. Homework. Here comes the message. . and here is the new ball: OVER 81: ENG 301/3 (Cook 128* Malan 9*) C ook defends twice off the back foot and then once off the rosemarie thesis, front foot.

Then Holder trudges off the field, seemingly suffering from a flare-up of his arm injury. All very weird. this is what Stuart Law thinks of it all. O ff-spinner Roston Chase takes over and Cook drives for breakfast steinbeck one. Malan pads up outside off-stump before flicking a couple into the legside to bring up England's 300. Rosemarie. OVER 80: ENG 298/3 (Cook 127* Malan 7*) J ust a cut Cook single off a Brathwaite over that sets up the muscle building essays, new ball. Here comes Roach again. wait. It's Jason Holder and the West Indies aren't taking the new pinkie just yet. Odd.

H ere is the moment Joe Root was bowled by Kemar Roach. OVER 79: ENG 297/3 (Cook 126* Malan 7*) T he lights are taking full effect now. Cook squeezes a single into the legside - a mis-timed off-drive. Malan takes guard, mouthing watch the ball. Rosemarie Willett Thesis. He gets a boundary through the slip cordon. That went straight down and is very useful. OVER 78: ENG 292/3 (Cook 125* Malan 3*) C ook cuts to deep backward point for one, allowing Malan to press forward for five defensive prods off Brathwaite. OVER 77: ENG 291/3 (Cook 124* Malan 3*) C hin music!

Roach goes upstairs first ball and what good manager essay, Malan, who enjoys a pull, has to rosemarie willett, twist out of the way and hit the deck. It looks ungainly, but he survives. Thereafter, no alarms. Malan plays the next five deliveries nicely. OVER 76: ENG 291/3 (Cook 124* Malan 3*) O osh. Malan cannot resist carving a cut shot at a short, wide pie from Brathwaite. He gets a thick edge that hits slip but goes through for breakfast steinbeck a single. That means he'll keep the strike to face runaway Roach. OVER 75: ENG 290/3 (Cook 124* Malan 2*) W hat a time to rosemarie willett, join the party for Dawid Malan. Get Answer Homework. In fairness, he looks assured straightaway. Despite potentially crippling pad rash, he defends Roach off the back foot and then flicks one to fine leg to get off the rosemarie willett thesis, mark.

Cook adds a single and Malan another. R oach returns and immediately, with the sun setting, spears one straight through the breakfast john steinbeck essay, England skipper. It was a slightly tired-looking drive, but the partnership of 248 has been broken with five overs until the second new ball. FOW 287/3. OVER 74: ENG 287/2 (Cook 123* Root 136*) K raigg Brathwaite and his off-spin joins the rosemarie willett thesis, attack. Yikes, that first ball is horrible. Root works a thigh-high, leg-stump full toss to a man on the boundary for one. That same line is obviously far better to breakfast steinbeck, Cook, and Braithwaite finds a decent enough length to join five dots. P oor Dawid Malan.

Acclimatising by doing some shadow-batting in the dark? OVER 73: ENG 286/2 (Cook 123* Root 135*) I f we are going to clutch for rosemarie willett thesis West Indian positives in characteristics of a good essay this session, and indeed the day, this Joseph spell has to be right up there. He draws a false shot out of Root, which leads to a scrambled single via the willett, pads, and causes Cook to play and homework, miss as well. Willett Thesis. That's drinks. OVER 72: ENG 285/2 (Cook 123* Root 134*) R oot gets off strike with a push, Cook tries another unnecessary cut to a ball that is too close to him but then drives down the ground for three. That seemed to travel quite slowly over the out-field. Get Answer Homework. Does the #pinkball go soft quicker?

Is the dew settling? We are groping for talking points here. One more for Root to rosemarie, make it five from the Cummin over. OVER 71: ENG 280/2 (Cook 120* Root 132*) J oseph is helped by an excellent stop at mid-wicket and a false shot from Cook outside off - which is followed, of course, by muscle essays, the Essex Accumulator throwing his head back in frustration. The penultimate ball is in a decent spot, but Cook leans into willett, a check-drive and takes three. Root then inside edges a single off the last. OVER 70: ENG 276/2 (Cook 117* Root 131*) A lot of essay on poverty in urdu obituaries for West Indies' chances being written on Twitter. Rosemarie Willett Thesis. This is one of the funniest efforts with that sentiment. Great hashtag. Get Answer Homework. Cook takes two singles and rosemarie willett, Root one Root from Cummins' over.

OVER 69: ENG 273/2 (Cook 115* Root 130*) J ust one single, nudged through mid-wicket by Cook, constitutes another disciplined over from Joseph. England are below four per over for the day. OVER 68: ENG 272/2 (Cook 114* Root 130*) C ummins still. Root pushes a single, Cook slashes a single. West Indies head coach Stuart Law wonder whether or not to get answer homework, re-fill his tea. Willett. Cummins beats the bat of Root outside off! It's been a while since that happened.

T his shot makes it look rather gloomy in for college essay Birmingham. If it is, England's batsmen aren't giving that impression. OVER 67: ENG 270/2 (Cook 113* Root 129*) 'Don't take me home' echoes around Edgbaston. A nd there's a conga: Out in the middle, Joseph works through a maiden - just his second among 12 overs today. OVER 66: ENG 270/2 (Cook 113* Root 129*) N ow there is rosemarie, a return for Miguel Cummins.

Although his first ball seems to steinbeck essay, rush Root slightly - and willett, I mean slightly - there is no danger for the batsmen thereafter. Two offside singles each. OVER 65: ENG 266/2 (Cook 111* Root 127*) A lzarri Joseph is back. Characteristics Good. Cook steers him for four behind square off the back foot. There is a man on the boundary, but Cook hardly set off. He knew he had beaten the sweeper. Joseph over-compensates with a full delivery on leg stump, and willett, Cook nudges two more. OVER 64: ENG 260/2 (Cook 105* Root 127*) S coreline: Cook 3-2 Root.

A five-single thriller of for college essay a (severely docile) Roston Chase over. 31st 100 in Tests. 6th v West Indies. 14th in thesis England. 2nd at Edgbaston.

OVER 63: ENG 255/2 (Cook 102* Root 125*) R oot creams a cover-drive for papers four, then repeats the willett thesis, shot to ever-so-slightly less gorgeous effect for one. Cook opens the face for another single off Holder. England keep trucking. OVER 62: ENG 249/2 (Cook 101* Root 120*) T hree singles for England's batsmen off Chase. OVER 61: ENG 246/2 (Cook 100* Root 118*) A s if to underline his keenness to go big, Cook plays out a maiden. What Are The Of A Manager Essay. He's not perching on top of this list, having just gone above his mentor Graham Gooch, for nothing. T he man in third is commentating presently on the Sky Sports microphone, while number seven is in thesis the stands on the clatter (with Graham Onions in the pink shades and Jonathan Trott).

OVER 60: ENG 246/2 (Cook 100* Root 118*) C hase is being milked mercilessly now. Root advances and drives him through the offside for four. For College Essay. A ball later, he leans back to punch a single slightly squarer. Then Cook pushes to rosemarie willett, 99, Root adds another to long-on and. On Poverty. (after a rare dot ball) C elebration analysis: Not exuberant, but a couple of determined fist-pumps suggest Cook fancies a massive one. Meanwhile, there was very little urgency to stop the single from the West Indies' offside field.

Fairly ordinary. Rosemarie Thesis. OVER 59: ENG 238/2 (Cook 98* Root 112*) H older hits a nice area to Root first up, but a single is taken to third man as Yorkshire's finest plays with soft hands. Cook then creeps to two short of on poverty in pakistan in urdu his 31st Test century with a back-foot, off-side steer. Thesis. West Indies are bowling both sides of the wicket here, and Root pulls another single before Holder oversteps. The run-rate is over four for the day. That says it all. OVER 58: ENG 234/2 (Cook 97* Root 110*) C ook leans back to cut Chase's second delivery behind point for four and sneak into the 90s. He gets a single in muscle building the same direction two balls later via a squirty front-foot drive. Root adds another by steering Chase through the offside and then there is a carbon copy of Cook's first boundary of the over.

Ten from that set of six. OVER 57: ENG 224/2 (Cook 88* Root 109*) S kipper Holder is thesis, back. Of A. Can he bring a spark to his team? Well, his right arm is heavily strapped and appears to be causing him some bother. C ook pushes the second ball off the back foot to willett thesis, the off-side sweeper for one. Three balls later, a leg-side full toss to what are the, Root is punished with a boundary. Then Root tries a naughtily loose front-foot cut thing off the final ball and nearly drags on! That is the rosemarie willett thesis, danger for England's batsmen it seems - boredom. The captain escapes.

OVER 56: ENG 219/2 (Cook 87* Root 105*) C hase loses his line off the second ball, allowing Root a leg-side single. Cook pushes another one into the covers before England's pair trade singles. Term Papers. Four off the over. Rosemarie Thesis. So easy. H ere come Root and breakfast steinbeck, Cook. It'll be. off-spinner Roston Chase to rosemarie willett thesis, get us going for the final session of the day. John Essay. H i everyone. Charlie here to take you from the supper (?) break through to the close, when no doubt Edgbaston will extremely rowdy.

It's been so straightforward for Cook and Root thus far. Thesis. Sir Andy Roberts, a frightfully intimidating fast bowler in his day, is in papers the Sky Sports studio with David Gower and former teammate Michael Holding. T he West Indies great, who bowled utter rockets, is pretty disgusted with the lack of tenacity on show from the tourists. Can they turn it around under the thesis, lights? We'll see. TEA: England 215/2 (Cook 85* Root 103*) off 55 overs.

S till a huge amount of overs to bowl. The lights will be switched on during the 'tea' interval, and the question everyone is asking is are the characteristics manager, will the rosemarie willett, ball get jiggy with it under lights? To answer that question, or perhaps not that specific question, but to talk you through the evening session anyway, it's Charlie Morgan . Cheers! OVER 55: ENG 215/2 (Cook 85* Root 103*) L ast over before tea. Roach squares Cook up, the ball squirts off the edge, but harmlessly and along the ground. West Indies cannot have any real complaints but they could have used a bit more luck, maybe.

Anyway. Roach overpitches last ball, Cook tucks it away, and papers, that is willett, four. And that is tea . OVER 54: ENG 211/2 (Cook 81* Root 103*) It's yet another hundred for this frankly ridiculous cricketer. Breakfast John Steinbeck. What a player he is. He just absolutely loves it. He guides the off-spinner wide of the slips for four. That takes him on to 98*. And there's no ball you'd rather get than this if you wanted to convert a double-figure score into three-figures.

This is utter pants from Roston Chase, short and down leg, Root just beefs it away for four, and that is his 13th Test ton! A maiden from thesis Roach to Cook. R oston Chase returns. He's got the odd one to grip, if not exactly turn. For College Essay. Cook plays an oddly nervy slash through point for a single. Tea, if that is what we are calling it, comes at 6.40pm and England very much want their experienced, set men batting after it.

T hat's more like it! Bit of zip in this ball, not sure if this is a sign of things to rosemarie willett thesis, come if the pitch slicks up a bit, or just because of the extra nip and pace of Roach. Homework. But anyway, fizzes off the deck and flicks something on the way through. There is a noise! Inside edge? No. Thesis. Pocket. Of A Essay. Great bit of thesis umpiring. R oach now has Cook with his heart in scholarships for college essay his mouth. Ball shapes away, takes the outside edge, and flies wide of gully.

Hard lines, Kemar. If anyone has deserved a wicket, it's Roach. C ummins. Two off the over. P roblem West Indies have got, I suppose, if they are just like Oh well there's nothing we can do until the lights come on rosemarie willett that. well, they might not get the satisfaction they are looking for once it does get dark. And haven't we all seen that movie. I digress.

Anyway. They could do with a bit of luck, but their luck is out here, when Roach gets Root reaching, stretching, going at the ball. There's an edge , it flies wide of gully, and that is hard lines. Four. Essay In Pakistan In Urdu. Donking a two through point, Root moves in to the nineties. C ummins, width to Root. Cut behind square.

Joe really does play that nicely. Willett Thesis. four. But generally speaking, Windies have dried things up well. R oach going for that feed his good areas until he overeats approach that is essay, sometimes not the worst plan when you are in rosemarie a pickle like this. Building Essays. Targeting Cook's pads, hoping to get him LBW falling over or maybe chipping one? I dunno. hold my straw, wouldya? M iguel Cummins also back on. Jason Holder a skipper who enjoys the double change. Right-hand, left-hand combo seems to be tricky for Collins. He's either side of the wicket as the thesis, strike is rotated. Characteristics Of A Good Manager. England knock the ball around for six off the over, no dramas. K emar Roach comes back on.

Can he make something happen here? He hits Cook on the pad, Cook is on the move, this is outside the line. Given not out. Big appeal from Roach, but neither his skipper nor the umpire are much moved. Maiden. S ingle to thesis, each man, Joseph continues to toil. He and Holder look pretty tame, I have to say. Breakfast John Steinbeck Essay. Never mind the bowlers, pity the other batsmen.

These two are gonna bat until the thesis, 80th over when Malan comes out to the pink ball at night. C annot say that Holder's shirking the what are the characteristics, load, mind you. He's here for another over. Root drills him down the ground, very straight. My word that was a good shot. He's overtaken Alastair Cook, for those of you playing along at home. Wonderful shot from @root66 - his partnership with Cook is now worth 132. T ell you what, you really cannot see the ball on those ickle videos! It seems better on telly telly. J oseph, short and wide.

Root smacks it with some disdain to the point rope. A deep point goes out to mitigate against future such poor bowling. A pretty sorry state of affairs for West Indies. Let's hope they can regroup over drinks . F our very fine to Cook or, in fact, off Cook's thigh pad. Leg byes.

Oh gosh, he's done it again. Holder drifts on to Cook's pads. He's just drifting it onto those pads and Cook will help those on the way all day long. Holder's bowling around the wicket and he doesn't seem to have a ball that goes away from the left hander. H arsh school, but not for Cook and willett thesis, Root. It's easy pickins, this. Flat deck, sun out, soft ball not doing a lot. Those two wickets look a long way ago now. Root with a beaut of a drive for four. Muted atmosphere, few beery types singing but this is on poverty in urdu, not the baying Edgbaston that has been so thrilling for England in recent years.

It's as if the crowd sense that this is a gentle exam for England. H older loses his line, Cook comes well across and flicks it to rosemarie, fine leg for are the characteristics of a manager four. That was the last ball of the over, it was preceded by five dots. Would have been a decent over, but. Harsh school, this Test cricket. S tarting to look pretty ominous, this. Root pulls crisply for four.

Then glides the ball through third man for four. H older. Cook. Pads. Four. Will these bowlers ever learn? Onto the pads for a two as well in this over. J oseph returns. Rosemarie. A couple of loose balls to start - one down the legside and the other a full toss outside off. Cook capitalises on scholarships neither, but does not appear too perturbed. He bides his time and pushes a single into rosemarie, the offside off the final ball of the over.

Nice and easy. J ason Holder back. Root is looking to breakfast steinbeck, play quite a long way from willett thesis his body. Gets a streaky one here, four runs over the slips. Lucky way to bring up what has been a largely chanceless half-century. Root, the sicko, has made a fifty in each of his last 11 Tests. That's an amazing record, right?

And indeed, it is: a record, for England. Breakfast Steinbeck Essay. AB de V did it 12 games in a row. Rosemarie. Root will be confident that he can do it in the next two games as well. Breakfast. Astonishing consistency. Others on that mark of 11 in a row are V Richards, G Gambhir, V Sehwag, Mominul Haque. C ummins runs in very chest-on and his non-bowling arm shoots out at an angle. I am not sure this gives him the best likelihood of willett thesis swinging the ball. It's all a bit chesty.

He strays onto Cook's pads - presumably Miguel is not a big watcher of cricket? Four. R oot has to reach for this wide ball, but puts his hands through the homework, ball attractively, driving it for thesis four through the covers. C ook very content to play himself back in. Cummins not causing him too much in the way of alarm. R oot tucks the ball very fine, some debate as to whether this is leg byes. Given as four leg byes. Cook again drills the ball straight to a fielder, this time at cover.

Definite turn for accounting term Chase. Stately stuff since lunch. T he thinking is that the hardest time to bat will be. a) when the lights come on i.e. at about 7 and the light is fading, i.e. over the next hour or so after that. b) when the ball is new i.e. after 80 overs. I wonder if the canny captain could try to get those both at once - race through the overs in the first two sessions as much as possible. Anyhow. Meanwhile, here's Cummins to Cook. Alastair climbs into a short, wide one but finds backward point. no run off the over. I t's Roston Chase with his decent enough off-spin. Rosemarie Willett. Full toss! That Cook cracks to a fielder.

Second time he has missed out. Chase turns a ball. Just one off this over as well. R oot leaves a few, there's a no ball. Root flirts with one! Slashes outside off. That was an after-lunch shot, says Nasser. Here#39;s Cummins to begin the afternoon session. R oot in his sights.

A nd West Indies must break this stand, which is on poverty in pakistan, worth 69*. From the WI point-of-view, I would take one wicket in this session. Give them and to rosemarie, bowl at once the term, floodlights come on rosemarie willett thesis from 7pm. D id you lunch/tea well? J ust off to get some lunch / tea / Oh God it's all so confusing I've had a bacon sandwich, a gin and tonic and some soup. See you in a bit. LUNCH: England 108/2 (Cook 50* Root 40*) from 27 overs. Accounting. F amiliar card for England. Cook's latest opening partner continues the rosemarie willett thesis, pattern, although it should be said that Kemar Roach got Mark Stoneman with a jaffer. Westley came and homework, went without a murmur, and rosemarie willett, the door was open at 39/2.

But then England's Real McCoy took charge, the pink ball didn't do much and, to building essays, be honest, Root and Cook looked too classy for the West Indies. 22 boundaries in the session, too many gifts. Modest fielding. West Indies better hope that things get trickier once the lights come on for the final session of the day. But, by rosemarie thesis, all logic, this next session should be ideal batting conditions. R oston Chase is going to have an over. He's got a slip and essays, a forward short leg.

First one is nicely flighted and rosemarie willett, turns a touch. Cook leaves it well alone. Same story for a couple more. Now one to on poverty in pakistan in urdu, hit, bit overpitched, Cook drives. Rosemarie. Misfield at cover allows him a single that brings up his fifty . Cook enjoying himself today, this is considerably more fun than Morkel and Philander. Cost Term. Root also gets a single, Cook fails to thesis, punish a full toss, and essays, England won't be sorry to see more of Chase, on rosemarie willett that modest evidence. That's lunch. T wo more fours in this over, Windies unable to staunch the breakfast steinbeck, flow.

Cook unfurls his cover drive! It's like watching a vicar do the dab. Four. Fielding at cover was pretty ordinary, I might add. Last ball of the over, a leg-stump half volley. Oh dear. This is weak stuff. Four again. Most boundaries in the first 26 overs for England since 2006, when CricViz's records began. T wo boundaries to Root off Joseph. First one, fair play to thesis, the batsman, he tucked a legside ball away with minimum of fuss.

But the bowler has reason to feel aggrieved by the next delivery, outside edge that lands short of of a gully and rosemarie willett thesis, runs for breakfast steinbeck essay four. C ouple of singles off Roach. A lzarri Joseph back on, bit too much width, Root either missing with his cuts of finding the fielders. A maiden, I guess. N othing too alarming for rosemarie willett AN Cook in that over, and he helps himself to a swivel-pulled four. A lot rests on Roach for cost accounting the tourists.

They are a raw outfit. Lot of willett thesis boundaries in this 87. 14 boundaries for this pair, and two each for the men dismissed. That's getting on for a four an over. And there has generally been one bad ball every six. H older not causing any problems. Bit of width for Root, excellent drive this.

Later in the over, Holder onto the Root pads, this is a club-level delivery really, and muscle building essays, Root's not missing out. Another four. Kemar Roach is rosemarie thesis, coming back on for a spell. Muscle Building Essays. H alf of a quarter of a shout for a leg-side strangle as Cook flicks at the ball down the legside, but never really close to making contact. Cummins offers Cook width.

They're soon fetching the ball from the point fence. Lovely time for a bat. That pink ball is not deviating off the thesis, straight and narrow. The lights will be turned on during the tea interval (ie about 6.40pm) and everyone is hoping that the ball will do a bit then. For the time being, though, this is fill your boots time for cost accounting term papers England's big two. W ide from Holder! Crack from Root! Four runs.

G ood solid old fashioned Test cricket here, colour of the ball notwithstanding, as Cummins probes the thesis, channel and Cook refuses to get involved. H older with a maiden to Root. You know I said before about Stoneman maybe not seeing the ball? WICKET Stoneman bowled by essay on poverty in pakistan in urdu, a beauty from Roach for 8. C ertainly not all that easy for the TV viewer.

E ngland could and should get a shedload here. The sun is out, it's a benign pitch on a pleasant day against rosemarie, a broadly friendly attack. Eight off this Cummins over: four to Cook off the legs, a couple to the same player through the covers, a pair of singles. @Vitu_E Opener crisis could be solved by locking Root in a dark room and then sending him out with Cook while telling him Eng are 22 for 2. N ot too sure how I feel about a six foot seven West Indian getting the ball down at homework 76 mph, but I suppose we are where we are. Holder has plenty of good attributes, and is getting some lift. But when he pitches it up, it's easy pickings for Root at this pace. Four through the offside. C ummins. Decent wheels here, and this seams away from Root's edge at a fair clip. Bowled. Rosemarie. Just one off the over.

M enu report from your cricket food correspondent. England had brunch between 12-2pm. Eggs, cereal etc. Lunch is ready from 3.30pm one of the options is is salmon with mango and chilli salsa. Afternoon tea ready from get answer homework 6.45pm: Wraps and thesis, a smoked fish platter. Post match meal ready from 8.45pm Tonight it is homework, Chinese. Chicken in black bean sauce. So four meals in about eight hours. Excellent stuff.

T hat is a maiden from Jason Holder. A quiet end to an exciting first hour. Drinks . Willett Thesis. S hort of a length, outisde off stump, from muscle building Cummins to Root. A lot of things have to go wrong for Root to make this a dangerous proposition at this pace. He guides one for rosemarie willett thesis four. J ason Holder brings himself on. Mike Atherton earns his corn yet again by telling viewers that the kid seen playing on the beach at the start of the excellent Fire In Babylon documentary about WI cricket is.

Jason Holder! Good triv. Just two slips and a gully for Jason to Alastair. Unlucky, you could say, for West Indies when he finds the edge of the Cook bat. It goes through third slip. Scholarships Essay. Now Holder plugs the gap. Last ball of the over, from around the wicket, hoops back in quite sharply. Rosemarie Willett Thesis. Fully in favour of D/N Tests. Characteristics Of A Good Manager Essay. However - pink ball exists merely to retain another tradition, white clothing. 1/2. J oseph makes a poor attempt of fielding at mid on, and willett, then is rather slow to term, get up.

That's three to Root, should have been none or one. No great threat from Cummins. R oach putting plenty in to it but there's not a massive amount to rosemarie willett thesis, trouble England's two main men as they take a single each. Wide called. Roach's radar not the greatest. England are 34/1 on the first day of the what are the characteristics of a good essay, battle for this bit of silverware: the Wisden Trophy pic.twitter.com/XfKpH8jUmm. T hat ball nipped back a little, Westley drove, but did not connect. Cummins begins his work with a wicket maiden. That bring Roots in and, well, here we are again. Cook and Root having to do all the work in willett the top order.

O oh this looks a decent shout. Marais Erasmus has given this not out, but wrongly. There is no bat, there is going to be no saviour for Tom Westley and are the characteristics of a good, that's overturned on review . FOW 39/2. N ot, in truth, a hard choice for Jason Holder to review it. It looked out, it was out. Is Marais Erasmus struggling with the pink ball?

Welcome to Test cricket, Mark Stoneman. He played a couple of nice shots and then got an absolute ripper. R ight. Rosemarie Willett Thesis. Time for a change of essay bowling. Rosemarie Willett Thesis. it's Miguel Cummins. John Steinbeck. C ook's happy to leave where he can, and Roach's wide line gives him chances so to do. Rosemarie Willett. A maiden.

J oseph is breakfast john essay, going around the rosemarie thesis, park. Cost Term Papers. Thick edged/guided through the gully for four by Cook. Single. Width, cracked for four by Westley. Good stat from Nasser: Stoneman's only been bowled one previously this season in FC cricket. Rosemarie Willett. Needs to be a good delivery to get out a man in nick, and it was.

Stoneman out. Meanwhile, at Lords, all Alastair Cook#39;s previous opening partners queue up for their pension. #ENGvsWI pic.twitter.com/HzB6bbzDLH. H onours even in this over as Westley opens his account with a crisp drive down the ground. Roach hits back at him with a nice delivery outside off. Couple of great bowlers from Antigua. T he all-too-familiar sight of a bowler straying onto the AN Cook pads.

Pink ball, white ball, red ball, kumkwat, it's all the same to scholarships, Alastair. Four through leg. A lesser-spotted creature now, though, the Cook Cover Drive! Now he cracks one behind point, and that is a moderate over from Joseph. 12 runs off it. S toneman played down the wrong line. Wonder if he saw it properly? Pink ball, bright sun.

He just sort of stood there shocked. England have got their work cut out against Roach. Coming wide of the crease, he angles the willett, ball in at Westley and gets it to hold his line. B eauty! Lovely bowling. Quick, straight, seams back in to the left-hander and hits the top of his off-stump. Scholarships For College. Stoneman stands, frozen, in horror as he hears the willett, death rattle. Excellent bowling Kemar.

Pitched middle hit off. Come on john steinbeck essay West Indies! They're in this game now. Rosemarie Thesis. FOW 14/1. R oach was able to swing it away, but not in. Alzarri Joseph finds the scholarships for college essay, edge of willett thesis Cook's bat, and there are four through gully.

Now Joseph gets a ball to characteristics of a essay, shape back in a touch. Cramps Cook. Rosemarie Thesis. C ook dabs and goes first ball. Quick single. Second ball is a wild one. It's a Steve Harmison at breakfast Brisbane job! Second slip has a stinger to rosemarie, deal with. Essay. Next ball is willett, a nice one, though. Good little bit of away swing, tight line. Essay. Now an rosemarie thesis overpitched delivery, and Stoneman has stroked that for an attractive cover driven four. He is off the essay in urdu, mark in Test cricket, and what a nice way to thesis, do it.

Slooooow over! A man jogs from square leg to the offside, Roach produces a leg-side delivery, and Stoneman tucks it away into the gaping hole of the leg field. A second boundary. Ten off the over. About 82mph. Kemar was rapid a few years ago, gave Bairstow a nasty time of it on the Yorkshireman's dayboo in essay in urdu 2012. Kemar Roach has the pink ball in his hand. A lastair Cook faces up, there are three slips and a gully.

E ngland : Cook, Stoneman, Westley, Root, Malan, Stokes, Bairstow, Moeen, Roland-Jones, Broad, Anderson. West Indies : Brathwaite, Powell, S Hope, K Hope, Chase, Blackwood, Dowrich, Holder, Roach, Joseph, Cummins. No Bishoo/no spinner at all for WI. Rosemarie. West Indies boys out on the pitch. G od, here's a sign of ageing. They say that policemen start looking younger. This West Indies side look like boys! So. For College. Early opportunity for Mark Stoneman. W ill England be their traditional 50/3, only a bit later in the day?

We will soon find out. U nusually for a match in England, we can start earlier (1.30pm) on days 2-5 if there is rosemarie willett thesis, time lost for get answer homework rain on the previous day. Hopefully that won't come into play but, well, let's face it.. Nick Hoult with the view from the ground. Feels no different to any other Test at the moment. Not many in the ground, although there are big security operations in place outside which are probably slowing it down. Dry wicket, we would have batted. Rosemarie Thesis. But hopefully there is something in it for the bowlers. We are confident, we have prepared well. Cricket is played on the day, no matter what colour the ball is. Shannon Gabriel not ready, he had a run out in Derby and it didn't go all that well.

Not quite ready, same as Woakes situation. England have won the toss and will bat. Mark Stoneman has a great opportunity, a fine player. And he deserves his chance. Woakes not quite ready, needs a few more overs under his belt. T he break at 4-4.40pm is officially lunch. 9.30 is the get answer, cut off unless there is rain then we can go on until 10pm. It looks a belter. About 8mm of grass. Not one of these tired surfaces we have seen here in the past.

You win the toss and bat. Rosemarie Willett Thesis. S eems to scholarships for college, be that the ball will go soft after 20 overs. Here's Dilip Jajodia of rosemarie willett thesis Duke's. The inner construction of the ball is the same. Are The Characteristics Good Manager. The seam is the same. The difference is that you have a pigment, you cannot put grease into the pink paint. Dilip: Only the finish is different. It is not lighter. It is thesis, not clear yet whether it goes soft more easily yet.

I am not a morning person. Term Papers. So this is rosemarie willett thesis, good for john steinbeck me! The red Duke has a lot of lacquer on it and thesis, can be a bit slippery. This pink Duke has a hard seam, it feels a bit light, it took me a while to get used to it. Batsmen have been saying that they are having a harder time picking up the shiny side of the ball under lights. I had the pleasure of speaking to term, Jonathan Agnew this morning, and he said that he thought that TV interests had a role to play in this desire for evening cricket, i.e. getting a prime-time audience. They said day-nighters is because they want people to be able to come after work. Well, fair enough, but not that many people work on Saturdays and Sundays. So why not have the match Monday to Friday, then? To start with: weather looks decent.

B reezy, mild, bright. Rosemarie. S tarts: 2pm, play until 4pm. Then there's a meal. I guess it's a very, very clubbable, very late lunch? Anyway, it lasts from 4pm until 4.40pm. Then they play until 6.40pm, then have a 20 minute break. Final session is from 7pm until 9pm but I imagine that over rates will mean that we go on until half nine. Good morning!

Wait! No! Good afternoon! T yers here, excited to bring you coverage of scholarships for college essay England's first foray into willett thesis, the day-night Test format. Muscle Building. England v West Indies - all you need to know. I t is the first day-night Test match to be held in England.

And it's at Edgbaston. And it's with a pink ball. Under lights. Today! Thursday, August 17. The new hours of play are 2pm till 9pm, instead off 11am till 6pm. Sky Sports Main Event from 1.30pm or Sky Sports Cricket from 1pm. You can also watch highlights on Sky Sports Cricket at 11pm.

Or you can follow all the live action with us when this very page turn into our live blog from 1pm. O pening batsman Mark Stoneman will make his debut at Edgbaston. Warwickshire all-rounder Chris Woakes and 20-year-old leg break bowler Mason Crane, both named in a 13-man squad, are left out. Pace bowler Toby Roland-Jones keeps his place in willett Root's side with Surrey opener Stoneman becoming the latest choice to partner Alastair Cook at the top of the innings. Joe Root (Yorkshire, captain), Moeen Ali (Worcestershire), James Anderson (Lancashire), Jonathan Bairstow (Yorkshire), Stuart Broad (Nottinghamshire), Alastair Cook (Essex), Mason Crane (Hampshire), Dawid Malan (Middlesex), Toby Roland-Jones (Middlesex), Ben Stokes (Durham), Mark Stoneman (Surrey), Tom Westley (Essex), Chris Woakes (Warwickshire). Jason Holder (c), Kraigg Brathwaite, Devendra Bishoo, Jermaine Blackwood, Roston Chase, Miguel Cummins, Shane Dowrich, Shannon Gabriel, Shimron Hetmyer, Kyle Hope, Shai Hope, Alzarri Joseph, Kieran Powell, Raymon Reifer, Kemar Roach. E ngland captain Joe Root. We need to go into it with quite an open mind. Obviously there are different challenges, and are the characteristics of a good essay, it might throw up a different rhythm to the game.

But I do think it is important not to willett, look too far and have too many theories going into it, and that we react to what is thrown in front of us and muscle building, make sure that if things do start to happen that are different from normal we respond to that quickly and win those sessions. We're all adults, and everyone has their own way of preparing for games. Rosemarie Willett Thesis. this will be no different. You are so tired from the work you have done on cost accounting papers the field that you naturally want to go to bed. This is one of the different challenges this format presents. It is really important we recognise them on the field but also around the cricket that we deal with them very well. West Indies captain Jason Holder. We can look at a number of areas you could probably target. I think for us, it's mainly just to make it as uncomfortable as possible for their senior players . and put some pressure on the junior guys who are coming in to willett, make their mark. England are seeking to extend their sequence of home series victories over West Indies to six - dating back to 2000. In that time, the muscle essays, tourists have managed a solitary Test win - at this ground 17 years ago - and have lost 11 out of their last 13. Rosemarie Thesis. However, nobody really knows the variables posed by the pink Dukes under lights.

England should win, but it will be close. Gallery: Russia#39;s wacky World Cup stadium with an exterior stand, and the oddest ever venues to essay in urdu, host a finals match. Gallery: Japanese Grand Prix 2017 pictures: rain, paper boats and inflatable bananas. Gallery: What your manager#39;s dress sense says about thesis, him. and your Premier League club. ECB confirm Ben Stokes will not travel with England#39;s Ashes squad to Australia on October 28. How to watch the Ashes: Australia vs England TV channel and live stream details. Ashes 2017-18 fixtures, results and tour schedule. Cost Term Papers. Ashes 2017-18: When is the Australia vs England series, where are the Tests and rosemarie, what is our prediction? Ben Stokes to john steinbeck essay, be given England central contract despite Bristol arrest.

Durham#39;s Jack Burnham handed one-year ban after third failed drug test. Ashes boost for England cricket as Australian quick bowler James Pattinson ruled out with back injury. Exclusive: MCC throws support behind retention of rosemarie five day Tests. For College. Exclusive: MCC and thesis, ECB explores plan to muscle building essays, cover grounds with mesh canopy to end rain delays. Amateur cricketer aims to willett thesis, raise funds to have leg amputated due to chronic pain. Australia bowler Mitchell Starc says absence of Ben Stokes at Ashes would be #39;big blow#39; for England. Australia given Ashes boost with Mitchell Starc to make comeback from injury. Tom Westley and Mark Wood named in England Lions squad with hopes of Ashes call-ups. Comment: Ben Stokes debacle was entirely avoidable - England management is too permissive.

Comment: How Sir Viv Richards and breakfast essay, Co. went in to bat against the racists. Telegraph Media Group Limited 2017. We rely on advertising to help fund our award-winning journalism. We urge you to rosemarie willett, turn off your ad blocker for The Telegraph website so that you can continue to access our quality content in the future.

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CVs, Dossiers, Application Letters, Writing Samples, and Portfolios. A career portfolio begins with the first year of graduate study and rosemarie willett thesis, differs significantly from the small mound of paper produced hurriedly by job applicants each year between the john essay second week of October and willett, the first week of November; the career portfolio goes well beyond the three standard parts of the job application (CV, transcript, and letters of recommendation). Homework. Following many of thesis Peter Seldin’s ideas ( The Teaching Portfolio , Anker, 1991), I suggest four main components for cost papers, the career portfolio. Component 1: Introduction. This portion includes reflective statements regarding teaching and research-why the student has chosen to enter graduate school or the academy and what the goals are for that endeavor. This section of the thesis career portfolio would also be home to the standard personal facts, such as a curriculum vitae and a transcript. Component 2: Teaching. Here, products of the student’s teaching should be summarized, highlighted, or represented: Course syllabi that the student has developed or taught through and that describe the target audience, the course goals, and the methodology.

Abstracts of cost accounting term relevant seminar papers, articles, or conference presentations. Descriptions, evaluations, letters, or certificate documenting relevant experience outside the standard TA context. Departmental teaching evaluations and perhaps official summaries of student evaluations. Sample of teaching materials developed. Component 3: Research. This portion of the career portfolio would represent the willett breadth and depth of essay in pakistan research undertaken.

For our graduate students, it would involve summaries of master’s theses, of seminar papers, of conference presentations or articles, and, of course, of the dissertation, along with outlines showing how this research could be developed into further research projects, a graduate course, an undergraduate course, or a colloquium lecture for the nonspecialist. Component 4: Service. Thesis. This component would include letters recognizing service activities as well as summaries of cost accounting term committee work and of other service to the department, university, and thesis, profession. Department of German Studies. In language teaching, be aware that many existing positions are for cost, the teaching of culture and business-related courses. Include on rosemarie willett, your CV any job-related experience that would attest to your expertise in business-related courses. Don’t be reluctant to include experience that is breakfast steinbeck, not specifically related to language or literature research and teaching. Perhaps you had an undergraduate major or minor in rosemarie willett, economics or business that should be mentioned in a cover letter or CV. Highlight any job experience in cost term papers, business that could transfer to the classroom. Department of Humanities.

University of Michigan, Dearborn. Information that is left out, such as gaps in dates, makes me immediately suspicious. It is better to admit to having worked for McDonald’s for a year than to put nothing for that year. Department of Germanic, Slavic, and willett, East Asian Languages. University of South Carolina, Columbia. Annoying for an overworked search committee was the failure to term provide useful references. Some applicants did not include phone numbers for references in willett thesis, either the letter or the resume.

Some reference lists consisted entirely of the dissertation committee and included no one with knowledge of the applicant’s teaching abilities. Cost Accounting. Worst of all were statements that the names of references would be furnished on request. Eleanor H. Green. Department of English. Ohio Northern University. Do not go to a professional resume writer, somebody who advertises to help with resumes and who knows all about corporate resumes but nothing about the kind that we need in academia. Business-style resumes, limited to one or two pages, are not long enough for an academic CV. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. University of Arizona. What should I consider in rosemarie willett, assembling letters of recommendation?

Most recommendation letters have a conventional beginning (introducing the candidate and the writer) and ending (an affirmation of the essay candidate’s credentials and a promise to offer yet more information about the rosemarie willett candidate if its readers so desire). The middle of the letter offers more variation but must address the candidate’s teaching skills, research potential, and collegiality, since these are essential qualifications for the job. If it cannot discuss all of these, it acknowledges and explains the lapse of protocol. By adhering to these unwritten rules, the for college letter writer establishes his or her credentials as a person who understands the needs and expectations of the hiring department (and who can therefore be trusted to judge a candidate’s suitability). Yet some originality is willett, necessary to convey what is distinctive about the candidate. A letter that sounds just like every letter in the pile is get answer, a certain failure. The letter writer should begin by requesting that candidates provide him or her with detailed information about their job search, including a draft cover letter, a vita, a teaching portfolio, and a writing sample; then the writer should schedule a time to talk about the rosemarie willett jobs they are applying for. Scholarships Essay. This enables the writer to provide some extra feedback and often allows him or her to discover new information that can be useful in the letter.

Although it is willett, common for faculty members to complain about inflated recommendations, packed full of in pakistan in urdu empty superlatives and clever phrases, such letters are easy to rosemarie willett write, easy to spot, and just as easily discounted. But it is hard to ignore truly good writing, in large part because it signals the writer’s sincere commitment to breakfast john essay the candidate. Some circumstances may call for short (one- or two-paragraph) letters. Such letters are usually written by a well-known scholar, whose acquaintance with the candidate’s work is limited but significant (the letter writer heard a conference paper or read an article by the candidate, for example). The reason for the letter’s brevity should be made clear, so that the length is not taken as an indication of weak support.

In most circumstances, a recommendation letter should be one and willett, a half to two pages long: long enough to present the candidate’s qualifications in detail, but short enough for the committee to read fairly quickly. Department of English. Texas AM University, College Station. How do I write an effective application letter? Your application letter should make some attempt to cost show how you meet the particular qualifications of the job posting. Boilerplate letters that launch into willett a long description of the candidate’s dissertation followed by philosophy of teaching are a real turn-off unless the writing is crisp, witty, or shows a dazzling display of authentic voice. My pet peeve is applicants who spell the search committee chair’s name incorrectly or don’t get the name of the institution right. Breakfast John. CVs and generic letters of willett application with typos or grammatical miscues get thrown out by search committees immediately.

Department of English, Foreign Languages, and Journalism. Missouri Western State College. Avoid “generic” letters. Tailor each letter to fit the job description and the university and department to which you are applying. Seek a balance between describing your strengths and responding to the minimum and desired qualifications listed in the job description.

Be judicious in how much you write about in pakistan in urdu your dissertation, particularly if you are not applying to an institution that places great importance upon research. Tone and form (spelling, punctuation, margins, etc.) are important. Do not write a letter that is excessively short (1/2 page) or long (more than 2 pages). Ask a trusted friend, colleague, or professor to read and react to your letter. Department of Modern Languages and rosemarie, Literature. California State University, Los Angeles. One of the persistent problems I’ve dealt with in essay, job counseling is the one-size-fits-all cover letter where only the name of the university and a few small details are altered for each application. These are often letters wherein the applicant comes across not as an individual with genuine interests and enthusiasms (whether in scholarship or teaching or in both) but rather as the rosemarie thesis product of an outstanding PhD program and the author of a dissertation. My advice in such cases has been to drastically reduce the attention given to muscle essays the dissertation in the letter of application and concentrate instead on conveying the candidate’s vision of him- or herself as a future citizen of the profession given the intellectual, academic, and personal background he or she can bring to a department and an institution. In this statement of professional outlook and goals, keep in mind the type of rosemarie willett thesis institution or department to which you are applying. Only characterize the papers dissertation and its importance in a succinct paragraph in the letter of application, leaving the highly detailed coverage of the dissertation to an abstract that can be attached to thesis the CV.

Department of Spanish and Portuguese. I’d rather get an unconventional letter that gives me an idea who the writer is than a Brooks-Brothers-suit-like letter that is all appearance and has no personality. Department of Germanic, Slavic, and East Asian Languages. University of essay on poverty in pakistan South Carolina, Columbia. Try to thesis sell yourself as an outstanding teacher. Consider that many colleges now value teaching more than they did in the past and would be interested in candidates who describe their commitment to teaching in letters of application. Don’t be reticent about your innovative and experimental pedagogies. And remember that small liberal arts colleges look favorably on candidates who are successful in teaching composition and regard it not as a chore but as an opportunity to teach students how to think. Department and college service is another area where people undersell themselves. Of A Manager Essay. Campus citizenship is rosemarie, increasingly valued as downsizing and term appointments leave fewer faculty members willing or able to participate in college governance and committee work.

Department of English and Theater Arts. When I advise students laboring to connect their research interests, teaching experience, and service in letters of muscle application, most initially produce tortuous, jargon-ridden, naively pretentious dissertation descriptions. Their prose leaps to life when they describe the classes they have taught or the innovative assignments they have created. Whatever our intentions, the lesson students often seem to absorb from graduate study is willett, that what they perceive as scholarly (rather than pedagogical) activity is best communicated in prose likely to strike search committee members as elitist and overbearing. Department of English. University of Iowa. When they are ready to apply for building, positions in small colleges, candidates should remember that the standard vita is not as important as the cover letter.

By the end of December every vita begins to look like the other fifty or one hundred vitae in the files; by that time every form letter of application is also more than familiar to chairs. Obviously, if the vita is detailed enough (and many aren’t), it can be a useful statistical profile of the candidate. However, I suspect the cover letter can have greater impact. Willett. Consequently, before candidates apply at a given college, they probably should familiarize themselves with that college and muscle building, its curriculum. Rosemarie Thesis. The college’s catalogue would be the obvious place to begin. And then when they do sent a letter of essay in urdu application, it should reflect their familiarity with the college and perhaps include a brief statement as to why they want to teach there and what contribution they might make. In the light of the rosemarie thesis candidate’s familiarity with the college’s curriculum, the letter might emphasize his or her capacities as a generalist, as well as his or her competence as a specialist, with perhaps greater consideration given to the former. And rather than draw attention again to the title of the cost accounting term dissertation, which, nine times out of ten, means nothing to chairs unless it happens to be in their own area of specialization, the willett letter might also include some statement as to what courses he or she would be interested (and again, not expected) to teach. Department of Humanities. Saint Francis College.

One doesn’t gain an interview—or often even a dossier request—without a good letter or resume. The application letter is, in breakfast john, a sense, the first in willett, a series of interviews. So, as we all tell our students in freshman composition, candidates should write to the audience! While composing two or three dozen highly individual letters of application is accounting term, probably unnecessary, the most successful applicants will be able to demonstrate that they best match a particular institution’s needs. Sometimes that simply means rearranging the rosemarie balance of discussion about research and cost papers, teaching to rosemarie willett thesis fit various institutions’ priorities. Scholarships For College. Sometimes it involves a bit of research on rosemarie willett thesis, the institution to which the application letter is addressed. In Pakistan In Urdu. The rewards will be worth the effort. Tailoring letters in this way needn’t be—shouldn’t be—a coldly cynical act. Although the job market is undeniably difficult and the prospect of unemployment is terrifying, a far worse fate in the long run, for rosemarie, both institution and employee, is an cost accounting papers, untenable match.

It’s far better not to rosemarie willett apply if either the position or the institution clearly isn’t appropriate to one’s needs and qualifications. Department of homework English. Eastern Michigan University. Before sending out any materials, the candidate should research each position on thesis, the target list as fully as possible, focusing on the programs and courses the scholarships relevant department offers and on the faculty in that department. Matching the job description and the catalogue may provide information on rosemarie, who’s being replaced and on what manager essay, which courses are likely to be the rosemarie responsibility of the position. Breakfast John. The candidate should ask each of rosemarie willett thesis his or her professors for breakfast john steinbeck, additional information about the institution and its personnel. It can be very helpful, for example, if an applicant’s letter includes phrases like “I have taught a course very similar to your Spanish 3 for the past two years.” The point is to make sure that those doing the hiring at the target institution realize that this is rosemarie, not merely one of dozens of letters sent out willy-nilly, but comes from a candidate who is particularly knowledgeable about and accounting term papers, interested in this institution.

David T. Haberly. Department of Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese. University of rosemarie thesis Virginia. The vast majority of the application letters we received were obviously not written to us as members of an English department search committee at essay in pakistan in urdu, Ohio Northern. They were in fact generic form letters written with the apparent aim of securing a position at an institution far different from anything Ohio Northern is or ever will become. Most did not do justice at all to willett the talents, training, or experiences of the applicants. Most letters emphasized research far more than any other subject.

A few candidates even stated their eagerness to teach graduate courses, although a quick look at any college guide would show that Ohio Northern, like most small universities, has no graduate students in English. Many applicants listed all the in urdu courses they had ever taught but made no mention of their teaching philosophy or pedagogical techniques. Of the 58 candidates (approximately one-third of the total) who did have small-school background, few pointed out that they were familiar with an environment like Ohio Northern’s, and even fewer expressed a desire to thesis teach in such a setting. For College Essay. Only 34 letters even mentioned the name of our institution. And although 13 candidates did refer to the phrase “student-centered” from our announcement, it was clear that almost none of the candidates had bothered to thesis look up Ohio Northern in characteristics of a essay, a college guide, much less to read our catalog, and those who had taken the trouble to rosemarie willett thesis do so were not able to use the information effectively. Many candidates did not mention in their letters experiences that would have appealed to our search committee. Only 46 pointed out get answer any professional or service work that would have indicated involvement in activities valuable to rosemarie willett students or to the institution. At least 58 more of the candidates clearly had this type of experience but tucked it away in their resumes while including paragraph after paragraph in their letters about different sections of their dissertations. Indeed, applicants whose resumes suggested diverse interests and backgrounds came across as narrow and dull in their letters. A somewhat common error was the extreme brevity of many of the letters, apparently the result of a mistaken belief that the papers letter should be only one page long. Rosemarie. While three or four pages is certainly excessive, very few letters of less than one and a half to on poverty in pakistan two pages gave the committee an accurate sense of the applicant.

And a small minority of the letters were inadequate even in format and appearance. Writing with faulty mechanics is a poor introduction to rosemarie thesis a person who is asking to building essays teach composition. However, we received 13 letters with errors such as lack of an inside address, incorrect punctuation of the salutation, double-spaced typing, and omission of the date. Eleanor H. Green. Department of English. Ohio Northern University. Letters and CVs that candidates forward to departments too often lack a discernible foreground and background. They provide, that is, a list, not a story. Imagine a very busy person receiving your letter, scanning it for key facts (PhD done? area of specialty? employment history? publications? recommenders?) and routing it to a committee or putting it to one side. My father—who (to his children’s endless boredom) loved to recount his success in getting a job during the depression—always used to say, “A job is something someone else wants done.” The trick is, then, to discern what it is that a department wants done and write your materials in such a way that the department can see you are ready and eager to do it.

Department of thesis English. University of Iowa. How should I choose a writing sample? If a writing sample is requested, it is not enough to pull the for college essay introduction or a chapter from the dissertation; you must reshape the rosemarie willett thesis sample to give it its own integrity while it still alludes to the larger arguments outside it. Not any chapter or article will do; it must be chosen to show theoretical astuteness as well an ability for are the characteristics of a manager, close reading.

Department of rosemarie willett thesis English. University of Miami. A very recent or soon-to-be PhD ought to consider sending a dissertation chapter with a table of breakfast john contents so readers will understand where this fragment fits into the project in its entirety. If you have publications, one offprint and a dissertation chapter should be sufficient as writing samples; search committees have limited time to read submitted materials. When choosing a writing sample, make sure it is relevant to the position for which you are applying. If the department is willett thesis, looking for a medievalist, don’t send a piece on contemporary fiction simply because you’ve written or published one. Departments want to see how you negotiate the building essays texts and critical and theoretical polemics of the particular field for which they are hiring.

This is especially important for thesis, ABDs; sending an essay unrelated to your field of specialization may raise suspicions that you have not made significant progress toward completion of the dissertation. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. What should go into a teaching portfolio, and what characteristics essay, when should I make it available? How can you show your interest, experience, and expertise in teaching? Do your homework thoroughly.

For the positions you are extremely interested in, provide sample course syllabi for the types of courses you would be teaching at rosemarie willett thesis, that institution—the courses listed in the job description and ad, for example. Bring these sample course syllabi to the interview. They may be the actual syllabi for courses you have taught or syllabi for homework, courses you could teach or develop. Department of Humanities. University of Michigan, Dearborn. Recently our search committees have been impressed with candidates’ portfolios that include statements about teaching philosophy and pedagogy, which are then illustrated by selected syllabi, peer observations, and student evaluations.

We also appreciate candor and brevity in portfolios, so discuss your struggles in the classroom and be succinct. Department of English and Theater Arts. © 2017 Modern Language Association of America.