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My Daughter’s Homework Is Killing Me. What happens when a father, alarmed by his 13-year-old daughter's nightly workload, tries to do her homework for a week. When Working From Home Doesn’t Work. These Brexiteers Would Like a Do Over. Memorization, not rationalization. That is the advice of my 13-year-old daughter, Esmee, as I struggle to make sense of thesis nokia a paragraph of the disadvantages of human essay notes for an upcoming Earth Science test on minerals. “Minerals have crystal systems which are defined by the # of axis and the length of the axis that intersect the crystal faces.” That’s how the notes start, and they only get murkier after that.
When I ask Esmee what this actually means, she gives me her homework credo. Esmee is in the eighth grade at the NYC Lab Middle School for Collaborative Studies, a selective public school in the Chelsea neighborhood of Manhattan. Thesis Nokia? My wife and essay children I have noticed since she started there in February of last year that she has a lot of homework. We moved from Pacific Palisades, California, where Esmee also had a great deal of homework at nokia Paul Revere Charter Middle School in Brentwood. I have found, at both schools, that whenever I bring up the homework issue with teachers or administrators, their response is that they are required by the state to cover a certain amount of material. There are standardized tests, and everyone—students, teachers, schools—is being evaluated on those tests. I’m not interested in inspirational essays on teachers, the debates over teaching to the test or No Child Left Behind. What I am interested in is what my daughter is doing during those nightly hours between 8 o’clock and midnight, when she finally gets to bed. Thesis Nokia? During the essay poverty children, school week, she averages three to four hours of nokia homework a night and six and a half hours of sleep. Some evenings, when we force her to go to bed, she will pretend to go to sleep and then get back up and continue to do homework for another hour. The following mornings are awful, my daughter teary-eyed and exhausted but still trudging to school.
I wonder: What is the exact nature of the and technology, work that is thesis nokia turning her into a sleep-deprived teen zombie so many mornings? I decide to do my daughter’s homework for one typical week. By late afternoon, I am tired after filing a magazine article on websites to write for you, deadline. I’m not looking forward to nokia, homework. When I arrive home, a few minutes ahead of Esmee, I consider delaying my week of homework, but then I realize that Esmee can never put off her week of homework. So I am relieved when she tells me she doesn’t have much tonight. Websites Essays For You? We have 11 algebra equations. Thesis Nokia? (Esmee’s algebra class is essay doing a section on polynomials, a word I haven’t heard in decades.) We also have to read 79 pages of thesis nokia Angela’s Ashes and find “three important and essay poverty powerful quotes from the section with 1–2 sentence analyses of its [ sic ] significance.” There is thesis nokia also the essay on negative effects of science, Earth Science test tomorrow on nokia, minerals.
I am surprised by the amount of essay on negative of science reading. Reading and writing is what I do for a living, but in my middle age, I’ve slowed down. So a good day of reading for me, assuming I like the book and I’m not looking for quotable passages, is between 50 and 100 pages. Seventy-nine pages while scanning for usable material—for a magazine essay or for homework—seems like at least two hours of reading. But the math is thesis easier than I thought.
We are simplifying equations, which involves reducing (–18m 2 n) 2 ? (–(1/6)mn 2 ) to children, –54m 5 n 4 , which I get the hang of again after Esmee’s good instructions. I breeze through those 11 equations in thesis, about 40 minutes and even correct Esmee when she gets one wrong. Essay Children? (I think. I may be overconfident.) I then start reading Angela’s Ashes while Esmee studies for Earth Science. We have only one copy of the thesis nokia, book, so we decide it will be more efficient to to write essays, stagger our work. I’ve never read Angela’s Ashes , and it’s easy to see the appeal.
Frank McCourt, whom I once saw give a beautiful tribute to Peter Matthiessen at a Paris Review Revel, is engaging and funny. But after 30 minutes I am only about 16 pages in, and Esmee has finished studying for Earth Science and needs the book. So we switch. It is now time for me to nokia, struggle with Earth Science. The textbook Esmee’s class is using is simply called Earth Science and was written by Edward J. Tarbuck and Frederick K. Lutgens. “The term synergistic applies to the combined efforts of Tarbuck and Lutgens,” says the biographical note at the beginning. “Early in their careers, they shared frustrations with the inspirational, limited availability of textbooks designed for non-majors.” So they rolled up their sleeves and nokia wrote their own textbook, which reads exactly like every other textbook. “If you look again at Table 1,” begins the websites, section on silicates, “you can see that the two most abundant elements in Earth’s crust are silicon and oxygen.” I spend the next five minutes looking for Table 1, which is 12 pages earlier in the book. Then come carbonates, oxides, the sulfates and sulfides, halides, and—I am asleep after about 20 minutes. When I wake up, I go out to find Esmee in nokia, the living room, where she is buried in essay poverty children, Angela’s Ashes. I struggle with Earth Science for another half hour, attempting to memorize rather than understand, before I give up and decide I have to get my reading done. Since Esmee is thesis using our copy of Angela’s Ashes , I figure I will just read another 63 pages of the novel Mr.
Penumbra’s 24-Hour Bookstore , which I started yesterday. I don’t make it. I’m asleep for good after about 15 pages. Esmee stays up until a little after midnight to finish her reading. I don’t remember how much homework was assigned to me in eighth grade. On Negative? I do know that I didn’t do very much of thesis nokia it and that what little I did, I did badly. My study habits were atrocious. After school I often went to friends’ houses, where I sometimes smoked marijuana, and then I returned home for essay of science and technology dinner; after lying to thesis nokia, my parents about not having homework that night, I might have caught an hour or two of television. For Science? In Southern California in nokia, the late ’70s, it was totally plausible that an eighth grader would have no homework at all. If my daughter came home and said she had no homework, I would know she was lying. It is inconceivable that her teachers wouldn’t assign any.
What has changed? It seems that while there has been widespread panic about American students’ falling behind their peers in reference format for science papers, Singapore, Shanghai, Helsinki, and everywhere else in science and mathematics, the length of the nokia, school day is on teachers about the same. Thesis Nokia? The school year hasn’t been extended. Student-teacher ratios don’t seem to have changed much. No, our children are going to catch up with those East Asian kids on their own damn time. Every parent I know in of human, New York City comments on how much homework their children have. Thesis Nokia? These lamentations are a ritual whenever we are gathered around kitchen islands talking about our kids’ schools. Well, imagine if after putting in a full day at websites to write essays the office—and school is nokia pretty much what our children do for a job—you had to come home and do another four or so hours of office work. Essay On Negative Of Science? Monday through Friday.
Plus Esmee gets homework every weekend. If your job required that kind of work after work, how long would you last? My younger daughter, Lola, 11, is a little jealous that I am spending my evenings doing homework with her sister. I tell her she should be happy she doesn’t have so much homework that I find it worth investigating. Thesis? She agrees with this, but still makes me feel so guilty about it that I let her watch Pretty Little Liars , her favorite show. The co-op board meets—and over my objections makes me secretary—before I can start on cloning, Esmee’s homework. Tonight we have 12 more algebra equations, 45 more pages of Angela’s Ashes , and a Humanities project for which we have to write one to thesis nokia, two pages in the style of The Absolutely True Diary of essay poverty a Part-Time Indian , the young-adult novel by Sherman Alexie.
There is also a Spanish test tomorrow on irregular verbs. The algebra is fast becoming my favorite part of thesis this project. I may have picked an easy week, but something about combining like terms, inverting negative exponents, and then simplifying equations causes a tingle in in football, a part of my brain that is usually dormant. Also, the work is thesis finite: just 12 equations. The Spanish, however, presents a completely different challenge. Children? Here, Esmee shows me that we have to memorize the conjugations of the thesis nokia, future tense of regular and irregular verbs, and she slides me a sheet with tener , tendre , tendras , tendra , tendremos , etc., multiplied by dozens of verbs. Poverty? My daughter has done a commendable job memorizing the conjugations. But when I ask her what the verb tener means (“to have,” if I recall), she repeats, “Memorization, not rationalization.” She doesn’t know what the words mean.
I spend a few minutes looking over the material, attempting to memorize the list of verbs and conjugations. Then it takes me about thesis nokia, half an hour to memorize the three most common conjugation patterns. I decide to essay poverty children, skip the irregular verbs. Esmee already worked on thesis, her Spanish this afternoon, so she goes right to the Humanities project, which she has been looking forward to. She calls her project “The Ten Secrets to Being the poverty, Only Sane Person in nokia, Your Family.” No. 6: Don’t Listen to Anything Your Father Says. I decide that the diary I am keeping about doing homework will be my Humanities project. Soon it’s 11 p.m., and I start bugging Esmee to go to bed. She takes a shower, then reads in of science and technology, bed for thesis nokia a few minutes before nodding off at about 11:40.
I sneak in websites for you, and grab her copy of thesis Angela’s Ashes and catch up on my reading, getting all the way to page 120. The hardship of too much homework pales in comparison with the McCourt family’s travails. Still, because we are sharing our copy of Angela’s Ashes , I end up going to bed an hour after Esmee. One evening when Esmee was in sixth grade, I walked into her room at 1:30 a.m. to find her red-eyed, exhausted, and starting on her third hour of math. This was partially her fault, as she had let a couple of days’ worth of worksheets pile up, but it was also the nature of the work itself. One assignment had her calculating the area and perimeter of a series of shapes so complex that my wife, who trained as an essay poverty children architect in thesis nokia, the Netherlands, spent half an hour on it before coming up with the right answers. The problem was not the complexity of the work, it was the amount of calculating required. The measurements included numbers like 78 13/64, and on negative and technology all this multiplying and dividing was to be done without a calculator. Another exercise required Esmee to find the distance from Sacramento—we were living in California—to every other state capital in thesis nokia, America, in miles and kilometers. This last one caused me to question the to write essays for you, value of the homework.
What possible purpose could this serve?, I asked her teacher in a meeting. She explained that this sort of cross-disciplinary learning—state capitals in a math class—was now popular. She added that by now, Esmee should know all her state capitals. Nokia? She went on cloning essay, to say that in class, when the thesis nokia, students had been asked to name the technology, capital of Texas, Esmee answered Texas City. But this is a math class, I said. I don’t even know the state capitals. The teacher was unmoved, saying that she felt the nokia, homework load was reasonable. And Technology? If Esmee was struggling with the work, then perhaps she should be moved to a remedial class.
That night, in an e-mail chain started by the class parent to seek chaperones for thesis nokia a field trip, I removed the teacher’s name, changed the subject line, and then asked the other parents in the class whether their children found the homework load onerous. After a few minutes, replies started coming in from parents along the lines of “Thank God, we thought we were the only ones,” “Our son has been up until 2 a.m. crying,” and so forth. Half the class’s parents responded that they thought too much homework was an issue. Since then, I’ve been wary of Esmee’s workload, and I’ve often suspected that teachers don’t have any idea about the websites to write essays, cumulative amount of homework the kids are assigned when they are taking five academic classes. There is little to no coordination among teachers in most schools when it comes to nokia, assignments and test dates. This morning, we attended Lola’s class “celebration” of the Revolutionary War. The class had prepared dioramas of the in football essay, role women played in the Revolution, the Boston Massacre, the Battle of Yorktown, and other signal events of the period. In hand-drawn murals explaining the causes of the conflict, the main theme was that excessive and unfair taxation had caused the colonies to thesis nokia, rebel. Children? The British had run up massive debts in thesis nokia, the French and Indian War and essay on negative effects of science and technology wanted the nokia, colonists to repay them. The colonies also wanted, several children added, freedom.
When pressed as to what that meant, they seemed unsure, until one boy came up with “Freedom to do what they want!” I came home and took a nap. My older daughter’s homework load this evening is just seven algebra equations, studying for a Humanities test on industrialization, and more Earth Science. This algebra unit, on polynomials, seems to be a matter of remembering a few tricks. Though I struggle with converting from standard notation—for example, converting 0.00009621 to scientific notation is tricky (it’s 9.621 ? 10 ?5 , which makes no intuitive sense to me)—it is pleasing that at some point I arrive at an answer, right or wrong, and my work is done and essay poverty children the teacher will give me credit for doing my homework.
Earth Science is something else. Nokia? I’ve been dreading returning to Tarbuck and Lutgens since our first meeting. And tonight, the chapter starts in for science, the familiar dispiriting monotone. “Rocks are any solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter occurring naturally as part of our planet.” But I am pleasantly surprised when TL take a turn into nokia, the rock cycle, laying out the for science papers, differences between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock in terms that are easy to understand and nokia visualize. The accompanying charts are helpful, and as I keep reading into the chapter on igneous rocks, the differences between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks make clear sense. The upcoming test in Humanities will focus on John D. Poverty? Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, monopolies and trusts, laissez-faire capitalism, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the foundation of labor unions, the imposition of factory safety standards, and the populist response to the grim conditions of the working man during the nokia, Industrial Revolution.
My daughter has a study guide she is ready to print out. But our printer has just broken. We end up borrowing our neighbor’s printer. The logistics of picking up the websites to write essays, printer, bringing it over to nokia, our apartment, downloading the software, and then printing take about technology, half an hour. The study guide covers a wide range of topics, from how Rockefeller gained control of the oil industry, to the rise of monopolies and trusts, to the Sherman Antitrust Act, to the Triangle Shirtwaist fire. Nokia? Esmee and I have a pretty long talk about the causes of the tragedy—the locked doors that prevented the young girls from taking breaks, stealing merchandise, or escaping the poverty children, flames; the flammable waste material that had been allowed to nokia, accumulate—that leads to a discussion about trade unionism and then about capitalism in general. This is, I realize, a logical continuation of the children, conversation in my younger daughter’s class this morning, which started with unwieldy dioramas and implausible impersonations of nokia King George. Freedom, in the form of unfettered capitalism, also has its downside.
I tell her my view: laborers have to essay on negative of science, organize into thesis, unions, because otherwise those who control the capital have all the power. “That’s why it’s called capitalism,” Esmee says, “not laborism.” She falls asleep reading Angela’s Ashes . My daughter has the misfortune of living through a period of peak homework. It turns out that there is no correlation between homework and achievement. According to a 2005 study by the Penn State professors Gerald K. LeTendre and David P. Baker, some of the countries that score higher than the U.S. on testing in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study—Japan and Denmark, for essays example—give less homework, while some of those scoring lower, including Thailand and Greece, assign more. Why pile on the homework if it doesn’t make even a testable difference, and in fact may be harmful? “It’s a response to this whole globalized, competitive process,” says Richard Walker, a co-author of the book Reforming Homework . “You get parents demanding their children get more homework because their children are competing against the whole world.” The irony is that some countries where the school systems are held up as models for our schools have been going in the opposite thesis nokia direction of the U.S., giving less homework and implementing narrower curricula built to technology, encourage deeper understanding rather than broader coverage. In the U.S., or at least in the schools my daughters have attended, there has been no sign of thesis teachers’ letting up on homework.
According to a University of Michigan study, the average time spent weekly on homework increased from two hours and 38 minutes in 1981 to three hours and 58 minutes in 2004. Data from a 2007 National Center for Education Statistics survey showed American students between grades nine and 12 doing an technology in football average of 6.8 hours of homework a week—which sounds pretty reasonable compared with what my daughter is assigned—and 42 percent of students saying they have homework five or more days a week. Esmee has hours of homework every night. She would be jealous of her Finnish counterparts, who average only 30 minutes a night. Attitudes toward homework swing in cycles of roughly 30 years, according to Harris Cooper, a professor of thesis nokia education at essay Duke University and the author of The Battle Over Homework . We went from thesis nokia, piling on the homework because of fears of a science gap brought on by Sputnik in the late 1950s, to backing off in the Woodstock generation of the ’70s amid worries about essay, overstressing kids, to the ’90s fears of falling behind East Asian students. The current backlash against homework has been under way so long—expressed in books like 2006’s The Case Against Homework , by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and in the 2009 documentary film Race to Nowhere —that we may now be living through a backlash against the backlash, at least in elite schools. “We’re in a heavy-homework part of the cycle,” Cooper says. “The increasing competition for thesis elite high schools and the disadvantages of human cloning colleges has parents demanding more homework.” Back in California, when I raised the issue of thesis nokia too much homework on poverty, that e?mail chain, about half the parents were pleased that someone had brought this up, and many had already spoken to the math teacher about it.
Others were eager to approach school officials. But at least one parent didn’t agree, and forwarded the whole exchange to the teacher in question. As the person who instigated the conversation, I was called in to the vice principal’s office and accused of cyberbullying. I suggested that parents’ meeting to discuss their children’s education was generally a positive thing; we merely chose to have our meeting in cyberspace instead of the school cafeteria. He disagreed, saying the teacher felt threatened. And he added that students weren’t allowed to cyberbully, so parents should be held to the same standard.
I explained that we never intended for the teacher to read those notes. This was a forum where we were airing our concerns. What was frustrating me was that the underlying issue of ridiculous amounts of busywork was getting buried beneath the nokia, supposed method we had used to discuss the issue. Even when I showed the vice principal examples of the homework assignments, he didn’t see them as outside the usual in terms of content or time commitment. I left believing I hadn’t solved the problem. Yet something did change. Papers? Over the next few months, the math teacher assigned a more manageable workload. My daughter now went to bed before 10 o’clock most nights. Parent-teacher conferences at thesis nokia the Lab School are similar to what I imagine speed dating to be like. Each conference is three minutes, and children parents can attend an afternoon or evening session.
My wife and I choose the afternoon. The conferences are strictly first come, first served. Thesis? At noon, my wife and I sit in chairs outside each classroom waiting our turn, sometimes for as long as 45 minutes. A student is supposed to be timing each conference, but the students often wander off, and the teachers ignore the parents’ knocking after three minutes. In each conference, I urge the teachers to give less homework. A problem often arises, I explain, in the total lack of coordination among classes. A Humanities assignment requiring the kids to render in words, pictures, or both a scene from Angela’s Ashes , say, can take an hour or two, yet most teachers don’t seem to consider anything creative to be homework. The creative stuff, like drawing or writing a short story or preparing a scene from a play, is all extra, to be completed in addition to the hours of humanities, math, science, and Spanish. The teachers usually respond in one of poverty children two ways.
They nod sympathetically and agree that the kids do have a lot of work, as if they have nothing to do with the assigning of it. Or they say that time management is one of the skills that a successful high-school student will need, and if my daughter wants to thesis, perform in an elite high school, she had better learn that in middle school. Both answers amount to essentially the websites essays for you, same argument: the vast amounts of nokia homework are somehow handed down from on high, and mere teachers can do nothing to tamper with the ordained quantities. Because I happen to be in the middle of my week of in football homework when this year’s parent-teacher conferences take place, I am uniquely equipped to discuss the work Esmee is doing. And over the years, I have noticed that the amount of thesis homework does let up, slightly, after the conferences—if enough parents complain. However, there is always a clique of parents who are happy with the amount of homework. In fact, they would prefer more . I tend not to get along with that type of parent.
At a meeting with Esmee’s Earth Science teacher, I find out that my daughter has in fact not been giving me all the work. There is websites essays a worksheet, for nokia example, requiring a reinterpretation and annotation of the rock cycle that Esmee never handed over. The teacher finds an extra copy for me. So I have another date with Tarbuck and essays on teachers Lutgens. When I get home, Esmee tells me she got a C on her math homework from the night before because she hadn’t made an answer column. Thesis? Her correct answers were there, at the end of websites essays each neatly written-out equation, yet they weren’t segregated into a separate column on the right side of each page. I’m amazed that the pettiness of this doesn’t seem to thesis nokia, bother her.
School is training her well for the inanities of adult life. Our math homework this evening is practicing multiplying a polynomial by a monomial, and we breeze through it in reference format papers, about half an hour. Then we have to translate some song lyrics from thesis, Spanish to essay poverty, English. Thesis Nokia? Esmee’s Spanish teacher already told my wife and on negative effects of science and technology me in our conference this afternoon that she can tell when the kids use Google Translate—which is all the thesis, time. It’s a wonder: simply type in the lyrics, copy down the translation, and then, in to write essays for you, an attempt to throw off the nokia, teacher, add a few mistakes. So Si te quedas a mi lado, si te subes en el tren , which Google renders as “If you stay by my side, if you get on the train,” becomes “If you stay by my side, if you go up on the train.” And, at last, more Angela’s Ashes . The more immersed I become in essay on negative, Esmee’s homework, the nokia, more reassured I am that the in football essay, teachers, principals, and school-board members who are coming up with this curriculum are earnest about their work. Thesis? They are making difficult decisions about what to teach or not teach in the limited class time they have. The overall education being imparted is secular, humanistic, multicultural, and intensely quantitative.
The math Esmee is doing at 13, for example, is cloning essay beyond what I was doing at thesis nokia that age. Of course, there are gaps—so far as I can tell, Esmee has spent her entire life studying American history, with several years on Native Americans, and absolutely nothing on, say, China, Japan, India, England post-1776, France after Lafayette, Germany, Russia, etc. Reference Format? Like many parents, I wish there was more emphasis on creative work, on writing assignments that didn’t require Esmee to use eight “transition words” and seven metaphors. Thesis? This school has clearly made choices—these kids are going to get very good at algebra and maybe a little less good at creative writing. I can’t say I fault them in this, though I know what I would prefer to spend my days doing. If Esmee masters the the disadvantages of human cloning essay, material covered in her classes, she will emerge as a well-rounded, socially aware citizen, a serious reader with good reasoning capabilities and a decent knowledge of the universe she lives in. What more can I ask of her school? But are these many hours of nokia homework the inspirational essays on teachers, only way to achieve this metamorphosis of child into virtuous citizen? According to my daughter’s teachers, principals, and administrators, the answer is an emphatic yes. Certainly, they have told me, all the thesis, homework does no harm.
As I watch my daughter struggle through school days on too little sleep and feel almost guilty if she wants to the disadvantages of human cloning, watch an thesis hour of of human cloning television instead of nokia advancing a few yards in the trench warfare of her weekly homework routine, I have my doubts. When would she ever have time to, say, read a book for essay on negative and technology pleasure? Or write a story or paint a picture or play the guitar? I can’t imagine there will be a magical reduction in homework assignments anytime soon. But what I will continue to do at every opportunity is remind teachers that if each is assigning an hour of homework a night, and the average kid is taking four or five academic classes, then that is simply an unrealistic cumulative workload. Give the kids a break. Once in a while. I don’t expect teachers to thesis, drastically curtail their assignments, just to occasionally lighten the technology essay, load.
Of course, I may just be balancing the scales against thesis those parents asking for extra assignments for their child. Has this worked? Well, it did in Brentwood, even if it took parental pressure. And though I can’t draw a causal line between my day of essay poverty children speed dating—I mean, going to parent-teacher conferences—at the Lab School and a reduction in homework assignments, it did seem to me that in the months afterward, Esmee was able to thesis, get more sleep. Poverty Children? At least a couple of minutes’ worth. Esmee just started high school.
She has told me she feels that the many hours of homework in middle school have prepared her well. “There is no way they can give me more homework,” she reasons. I have my doubts. As for Lola: When it came time to select a middle school, she took the admissions test for Lab and listed it as her first choice, despite my telling her that in my view, the school is too rigidly focused on academics and assigns too much homework. Lola, always competitive with her older sister, replies that she is good at homework. She’s going to need to be. Thesis Nokia? She was accepted at Lab. Lola is sleeping over at a friend’s house. Essay Poverty? Esmee hasn’t started her weekend homework yet. Instead, she’s watching episodes of Portlandia on her computer.
The weekend homework includes another 15 algebra equations, studying for a Spanish test on Monday, and, of course, more Angela’s Ashes . She also has an thesis nokia algebra midterm on Tuesday. I tell Esmee that this seems strange—didn’t she just have an algebra midterm? She says that in her class, they have more than one midterm every term. My wife and I decide to reference for science papers, go out to dinner, and on our way up Hudson Street, we run into another couple we are close friends with. This couple’s oldest daughter also goes to Lab.
She’s at home doing homework. We stand on the sidewalk for a few minutes, chatting. The husband is thesis smoking a joint, and essays he hands it over. Nokia? I haven’t smoked in a few months, but it’s Friday night and I’ve been doing homework all week. I take a few tokes. We part ways, and my wife and I go to a Japanese restaurant, where, as soon as I am seated, I regret smoking. Poverty? It’s going to be hell trying to do algebra tonight with the nokia, head I have on right now. Nonetheless, when I’m home, I sit at on teachers the dining table and attempt to work my way through the thesis nokia, polynomial worksheet. I am immediately lost in all the 2x(–3y5+ 3x2)6s. Essay On Negative Effects And Technology? The numbers that were so familiar and reassuring just yesterday have become repellent. Thesis Nokia? I realize, sitting there, failing to solve my algebra homework, that I have inadvertently yet perfectly re-created my own eighth-grade homework conditions: getting stoned, attempting math, and failing at websites to write for you it.
I consider my daughter, who to my knowledge has never smoked marijuana. That’s a good thing, I think in my hazy state. I wouldn’t wish this condition—attempting algebra when high—on anyone. One of the reasons I believe my daughter hasn’t yet tried marijuana is because she simply doesn’t have the time. I decide to give up on algebra for thesis the night. It’s only Friday, and in football essay I have until Monday to finish my homework.
Mass Shootings in the United States: 'This Is Who We Are' In the thesis nokia, wake of essay poverty Las Vegas, only one thing is thesis certain, according to James Fallows: it will happen again. Tim Piazza fought for his life for 12 hours before his Beta Theta Pi brothers called 911. Reference Format For Science Papers? By then, it was too late. At about nokia, 3 p.m. on reference papers, Friday, February 3, Tim Piazza, a sophomore at Penn State University, arrived at nokia Hershey Medical Center by helicopter.
Eighteen hours earlier, he had been in the kind of raging good health that only teenagers enjoy. He was a handsome, redheaded kid with a shy smile, a hometown girlfriend, and a family who loved him very much. Effects Of Science? Now he had a lacerated spleen, an thesis abdomen full of blood, and multiple traumatic brain injuries. He had fallen down a flight of inspirational on teachers stairs during a hazing event at his fraternity, Beta Theta Pi, but the members had waited nearly 12 hours before calling 911, relenting only when their pledge “looked fucking dead.” Tim underwent surgery shortly after arriving at Hershey, but it was too late. Thesis? He died early the next morning.
When Working From Home Doesn’t Work. IBM pioneered telecommuting. Now it wants people back in the office. I n 1979, IBM was putting its stamp on the American landscape. For 20 years, it had been hiring the greats of modernism to erect buildings where scientists and reference for science salespeople could work shoulder-to-shoulder commanding the burgeoning computer industry. But that year, one of thesis its new facilities—the Santa Teresa Laboratory, in Silicon Valley—tried an essay children experiment. To ease a logjam at the office mainframe, it installed boxy, green-screened terminals in the homes of five employees, allowing them to nokia, work from home. The idea of telecommuting was still a novelty. But this little solution seemed effective. By 1983, about 2,000 IBMers were working remotely.
The corporation eventually realized that it could save millions by selling its signature buildings and institutionalizing distance work; the number of essays on teachers remote workers ballooned. In 2009, an IBM report boasted that “40 percent of IBM’s some 386,000 employees in 173 countries have no office at all.” More than 58 million square feet of office space had been unloaded, at a gain of nearly $2 billion. IBM, moreover, wanted to help other corporations reap the same officeless efficiencies through its consulting services. Leading by nokia example was good marketing. A small group of programmers wants to change how we code—before catastrophe strikes. T here were six hours during the night of technology essay April 10, 2014, when the entire population of Washington State had no 911 service. People who called for help got a busy signal. One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to break into her house.
When he finally crawled into thesis, her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. The man fled. The 911 outage, at the disadvantages the time the largest ever reported, was traced to software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Operated by a systems provider named Intrado, the server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to 911 dispatchers around the thesis, country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for the disadvantages essay how high the thesis, counter could go. Inspirational On Teachers? They picked a number in thesis, the millions. The president’s call for a Senate investigation into news outlets for publishing unflattering stories about websites, him is an attack on freedom of the nokia, press. Frustrated with a set of damning reports about his relationship with Secretary of State Rex Tillerson—including the nugget that Tillerson called him a “moron” (perhaps with an R-rated modifier)—the president offered a new suggestion on Twitter Thursday morning: Why not explore government censorship of the press? Why Isn't the Senate Intel Committee looking into the Fake News Networks in the disadvantages essay, OUR country to see why so much of our news is just made up-FAKE!
Trump had been relatively quiet on Twitter for a few days, following the thesis nokia, massacre in Las Vegas and his trip to inspirational essays on teachers, hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico, but the Tillerson stories on Wednesday set off a new tirade of tweets against the press. Most of them are the standard “Fake news!” variety—never mind that there have been stories of Trump-Tillerson tension for months, and that multiple outlets have confirmed the “moron” anecdote—but the president is thesis nokia calling for something different here. Websites For You? He is suggesting that the Senate bring its investigative powers to bear on news reports that are, from thesis nokia, all indications save Tillerson’s non-denial denial, entirely accurate. These Brexiteers Would Like a Do Over. Life among the Bregretters. On June 26th of last year, 54-year old Sandra Pengelley walked into her local polling office in the Tory constituency of Mid Bedfordshire to cast her vote on of science, the Brexit referendum. Partly on the basis of how a well-known radio host described the thesis nokia, European Union, Pengelly decided she’d had enough of its “dictatorship,” and voted Leave. “But then I started to have a sinking feeling,” she said. When, exactly? “When the results came out.
The next day.” Two weeks later, Nigel Farage (the radio show host in question) resigned from his position as the head of the UK Independence Party, the pro-Brexit pop-up party; the full weight of essays on teachers her mistake hit her. “It turned my stomach,” she said. “You have simply walked away from nokia, politics and on teachers left everyone else to pick up your dirty work.” Photographing the Microscopic: Winners of thesis Nikon Small World 2017. Nikon just announced the winners of the 2017 Small World Photomicrography Competition, and on negative effects of science they’ve shared some of the winning and honored images with us here. Nikon just announced the nokia, winners of the 2017 Small World Photomicrography Competition, and they’ve shared some of the winning and honored images with us here. The contest invites photographers and scientists to submit images of all things visible under a microscope. More than 2,000 entries were received from 88 countries in 2017, the 43rd year of the cloning essay, competition. Writing Advice From a (Newly Minted) Nobel Winner. Kazuo Ishiguro wrote the nokia, bulk of The Remains of the Day in four weeks. Format Papers? All it took was extreme dedication—and a willingness to thesis, be terrible. It’s tempting to talk of in football writing—the art of it, the craft of it, the lifestyle of it—as a kind of romance. Thesis? Writers of for you serious literature (according to, at least, many writers of serious literature) do not simply type stark words onto blank pages; instead, they stare into an abyss and reach into their souls and find, if they are fortunate, the swirling fires of nokia Prometheus. “We write to technology essay, taste life twice, in the moment and in retrospect,” Anais Nin said, which is beautiful and true and also objectively incorrect: Writing is delicious work, but it is for the most part simply work.
It’s often lonely. It’s rarely romantic. (I am not a writer of serious literature, but I am a writer, and I am writing this while sipping stale coffee from a mug that’s in bad need of a wash.) Writing is a craft in the way that carpentry is thesis nokia a craft: There’s art to it, sure, and a certain inspiration required of it, definitely, but for the most part you’re just sawing and sanding and essay poverty children getting dust in thesis nokia, your eyes. The rules for essay children discussing firearms in the United States obscure the obvious solutions. A village has been built in the deepest gully of thesis a floodplain. At regular intervals, flash floods wipe away houses, killing all inside. Less dramatic—but more lethal—is the steady toll as individual villagers slip and drown in technology, the marshes around them. After especially deadly events, the villagers solemnly discuss what they might do to protect themselves.
Perhaps they might raise their homes on stilts? But a powerful faction among the thesis, villagers is always at hand to explain why these ideas won’t work. “No law can keep our village safe! The answer is that our people must learn to be better swimmers - and poverty children oh by the way, you said ‘stilts’ when the proper term is ‘piles,’ so why should anybody listen to you?” Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? More comfortable online than out partying, post-Millennials are safer, physically, than adolescents have ever been. But they’re on the brink of a mental-health crisis.
O ne day last summer, around noon, I called Athena, a 13-year-old who lives in Houston, Texas. Nokia? She answered her phone—she’s had an iPhone since she was 11—sounding as if she’d just woken up. We chatted about essay, her favorite songs and TV shows, and I asked her what she likes to do with her friends. “We go to thesis, the mall,” she said. Inspirational On Teachers? “Do your parents drop you off?,” I asked, recalling my own middle-school days, in the 1980s, when I’d enjoy a few parent-free hours shopping with my friends. “No—I go with my family,” she replied. Thesis? “We’ll go with my mom and brothers and walk a little behind them. I just have to tell my mom where we’re going. I have to technology, check in every hour or every 30 minutes.” Those mall trips are infrequent—about once a month.
More often, Athena and thesis nokia her friends spend time together on on negative of science, their phones, unchaperoned. Unlike the teens of nokia my generation, who might have spent an evening tying up the family landline with gossip, they talk on Snapchat, the inspirational essays, smartphone app that allows users to send pictures and videos that quickly disappear. They make sure to keep up their Snapstreaks, which show how many days in a row they have Snapchatted with each other. Sometimes they save screenshots of particularly ridiculous pictures of thesis friends. “It’s good blackmail,” Athena said. (Because she’s a minor, I’m not using her real name.) She told me she’d spent most of the summer hanging out alone in her room with her phone. That’s just the way her generation is, she said. “We didn’t have a choice to know any life without iPads or iPhones. I think we like our phones more than we like actual people.” What Harvey Weinstein's Apology Reveals. On Thursday, The New York Times published an article reporting “decades of sexual harassment accusations” against the mogul.
Weinstein responded—with a statement that perfectly captures this chaotic moment in American culture. The apologies, taken together, read like poetry—or, perhaps, an excruciatingly bad game of Mad Libs. This was a wake-up call. On Negative Effects Of Science? I’m so sorry. It’s not okay. I have more work to do. I’ll do better. Please help me do better. I’m sorry. I’m very sorry. I’m so very sorry.
I really do respect women. The latest person to add his own verses to nokia, this collective document of the way we live now—the latest man to apologize for sexual misconduct revealed and regretted—is Harvey Weinstein. Hollywood’s extremely powerful king (and queen)maker, The New York Times reported on Thursday, has been repeatedly accused of sexual harassment and unwanted physical contact by women who have worked with him at both Miramax and the Weinstein Company. Poverty? “An investigation by The New York Times ,” Jodi Kantor and Megan Twohey write, “found previously undisclosed allegations against Mr. Weinstein stretching over nearly three decades, documented through interviews with current and former employees and film industry workers, as well as legal records, emails, and internal documents from the businesses he has run.” What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef? What can an individual do about climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch.
Depression, anxiety, overeating, addiction, and all other mental disorders share a common mechanism. Mass Shootings in the United States: 'This Is Who We Are' In the wake of Las Vegas, only one thing is nokia certain, according to James Fallows: it will happen again. Get 10 issues a year and save 65% off the essay poverty, cover price.
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Action Verbs #8212; By Skills Categories. Remember to use the nokia, below action verbs when describing your skills and accomplishments in a resume or cover letterby doing so, you’ll maximize the effectiveness of poverty children your accomplishments, and thesis, make potential employers take notice. Be sure to essay on negative of science and technology use these action verbs in their proper context. Thesis Nokia! Always use action verbs in the past tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments from reference format for science papers, a previous job . Here’s an example: Trained, led, and thesis, supervised a team of content editors in the development, structuring, and essay children, writing of thesis online classes. Always use action verbs in the present tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments in a current job . In Football Essay! Remember, these are leads words that start off each descriptive bullet point of a job description. Train, lead, and thesis, supervise a team of content editors in reference format for science papers, the development, structuring, and thesis nokia, writing of format papers online classes. Addressed Advertised Arbitrated Arranged Articulated Authored Clarified Collaborated Communicated Composed Condensed Conferred Consulted Contacted Conveyed Convinced Corresponded Debated Defined Developed Directed Discussed Drafted Edited Elicited Enlisted Explained Expressed Formulated Furnished Incorporated Influenced Interacted Interpreted Interviewed Involved Joined Judged Lectured Listened Marketed Mediated Moderated Negotiated Observed Outlined Participated Persuaded Presented Promoted Proposed Publicized Reconciled Recruited Referred Reinforced Reported Resolved Responded Solicited Specified Spoke Suggested Summarized Synthesized Translated Wrote. Thesis Nokia! Acted Adapted Began Combined Composed Conceptualized Condensed Created Customized Designed Developed Directed Displayed Drew Entertained Established Fashioned Formulated Founded Illustrated Initiated Instituted Integrated Introduced Invented Modeled Modified Originated Performed Photographed Planned Revised Revitalized Shaped Solved. Administered Adjusted Allocated Analyzed Appraised Assessed Audited Balanced Budgeted Calculated Computed Conserved Corrected Determined Developed Estimated Forecasted Managed Marketed Measured Netted Planned Prepared Programmed Projected Qualified Reconciled Reduced Researched Retrieved Slashed Sliced.
Adapted Advocated Aided Answered Arranged Assessed Assisted Clarified Coached Collaborated Contributed Cooperated Counseled Demonstrated Diagnosed Educated Encouraged Ensured Expedited Facilitated Familiarized Furthered Guided Helped Insured Intervened Motivated Prevented Provided Referred Rehabilitated Represented Resolved Simplified Supplied Supported Volunteered. Administered Analyzed Appointed Approved Assigned Attained Authorized Chaired Considered Consolidated Contracted Controlled Converted Coordinated Decided Delegated Developed Directed Eliminated Emphasized Enforced Enhanced Established Executed Generated Handled Headed Hosted Improved Incorporated Increased Initiated Inspected Instituted Led Managed Merged Motivated Navigated Organized Originated Overhauled Oversaw Planned Presided Prioritized Produced Recommended Reorganized Replaced Restored Reviewed Scheduled Secured Selected Streamlined Strengthened Supervised Terminated. Approved Arranged Catalogued Categorized Charted Classified Coded Collected Compiled Corrected Corresponded Distributed Executed Filed Generated Incorporated Inspected Logged Maintained Monitored Obtained Operated Ordered Organized Prepared Processed Provided Purchased Recorded Registered Reserved Responded Reviewed Routed Scheduled Screened Submitted Supplied Standardized Systematized Updated Validated Verified. Analyzed Clarified Collected Compared Conducted Critiqued Detected Determined Diagnosed Evaluated Examined Experimented Explored Extracted Formulated Gathered Inspected Interviewed Invented Investigated Located Measured Organized Researched Reviewed Searched Solved Summarized Surveyed Systematized Tested. Adapted Advised Clarified Coached Communicated Conducted Coordinated Critiqued Developed Enabled Encouraged Evaluated Explained Facilitated Focused Guided Individualized Informed Instilled Instructed Motivated Persuaded Simulated Stimulated Taught Tested Trained Transmitted Tutored. On Teachers! Orlando Haynes is an author, speaker, CEO, and founder of The Inside Recruiter LLC, a full service career coaching company with one mission: #8220;Taking you from the job seeker to the sought after.#8221; The Inside Recruiter offers a wide array of thesis nokia career enhancement services, including resume writing, interview coaching, job search assistance, career workshops, and much more. Orlando brings 14 years of experience and insider knowledge to essay on negative of science the game, and nokia, is ready to help job seekers realize their career goals and dreams. Learn more here. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over to write for you, 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and nokia, writing guides and on teachers, our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.
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essay on news media Robert G. Kaiser. I n 1998, Ralph Terkowitz, a vice president of The Washington Post Co., got to know Sergey Brin and Larry Page, two young Silicon Valley entrepreneurs who were looking for backers. Terkowitz remembers paying a visit to nokia, the garage where they were working and keeping his car and driver waiting outside while he had a meeting with them about the idea that eventually became Google. An early investment in Google might have transformed the Post 's financial condition, which became dire a dozen years later, by which time Google was a multi-billion dollar company. Poverty Children! But nothing happened. “We kicked it around,” Terkowitz recalled, but the thesis nokia, then-fat Post Co. had other irons in other fires. Such missteps are not surprising. People living through a time of revolutionary change usually fail to grasp what is going on around them. Essay Children! The American news business would get a C minus or worse from any fair-minded professor evaluating its performance in the first phase of the Digital Age. Big, slow-moving organizations steeped in thesis, their traditional ways of doing business could not accurately foresee the next stages of essay effects a technological whirlwind.
Obviously, new technologies are radically altering the ways in nokia, which we learn, teach, communicate, and are entertained. It is impossible to know today where these upheavals may lead, but where they take us matters profoundly. How the digital revolution plays out over time will be particularly important for journalism, and therefore to the United States, because journalism is the the disadvantages cloning essay, craft that provides the lifeblood of a free, democratic society. The Founding Fathers knew this. They believed that their experiment in self-governance would require active participation by thesis nokia an informed public, which could only be possible if people had unfettered access to information. James Madison, author of the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of inspirational speech and of the press, summarized the thesis, proposition succinctly: “The advancement and diffusion of knowledge is the only guardian of true liberty.” Thomas Jefferson explained to his French friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, The only security of on teachers all is in a free press. The force of thesis public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to essays on teachers, be expressed.” American journalists cherish another of Jefferson's remarks: “Were it left to nokia, me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” The journalistic ethos that animated many of the Founders was embodied by a printer, columnist, and essay children, editor from thesis Philadelphia named Benjamin Franklin.
The printing press, which afforded Franklin his livelihood, remained the engine of American democracy for more than two centuries. But then, in the second half of the 20th century, new technologies began to undermine long-established means of sharing information. First television and then the computer and the Internet transformed the for science papers, way people got their news. Thesis Nokia! Nonetheless, even at the end of the century, the business of providing news and analysis was still a profitable enough undertaking that it could support large organizations of professional reporters and editors in print and broadcast media. Now, however, in the first years of the 21st century, accelerating technological transformation has undermined the business models that kept American news media afloat, raising the possibility that the great institutions on which we have depended for news of the world around us may not survive. These are painful words to write for essays someone who spent 50 years as a reporter and editor at The Washington Post . For the first 15 years of my career, the Post 's stories were still set in lead type by linotype machines, now seen only in nokia, museums.
We first began writing on essays for you, computers in the late 1970s, which seemed like an thesis nokia, unequivocally good thing until the rise of the Internet in the 1990s. Then, gradually, the ground began to inspirational essays on teachers, shift beneath us. By the time I retired earlier this year, the thesis, Graham family had sold the Post to Jeff Bezos, the founder of to write essays for you Amazon, for $250 million, a small fraction of thesis its worth just a few years before. Donald Graham, the chief executive at the time, admitted that he did not know how to save the newspaper. In fact, digital technology has flummoxed the owners of essay poverty children traditional news media, especially newspapers, from the nokia, beginning. For example, in 1983, in inspirational essays on teachers, the early years of nokia computerized production of newspapers when almost no one knew what was coming, The New York Times almost committed digital suicide. The Times decided it only needed to retain the rights to the electronic versions of technology in football essay its stories for 24 hours after publication. To make a little extra money, the Times sold rights to everything older than 24 hours to Mead Data Central, owners of the Lexis-Nexis service. Mead Data Central then sold electronic access to Times stories to law firms, libraries, and the public.
By the early 1990s, as the nokia, Internet was becoming functional and to write essays, popular, this arrangement was a big and growing problem: newspapers, including the Times , were planning “online,” computerized editions, but the nokia, Times had sold control of its own product to essay, Mead Data. Luckily for the country's best newspaper, the thesis, Anglo-Dutch firm Reed Elsevier bought Mead Data in 1994. The sale triggered a provision in the original Times -Mead contract that allowed the Times to reclaim the electronic rights to essay on negative effects, its own stories. That enabled the Times to put its journalism online in 1995. But putting newspapers online has not remotely restored their profitability. For the moment, The New York Times is making a small profit, but its advertising revenues are not reassuring. The Washington Post made profits of more than $120 million a year in thesis, the late 1990s, and today loses money—last year more than $40 million. Newsweek magazine failed, and Time magazine is teetering.
Once-strong regional newspapers from Los Angeles to Miami, from Chicago to Philadelphia, find themselves in desperate straits, their survival in doubt. Essays! News divisions of the major television networks have been cutting back for more than two decades, and are now but a feeble shadow of their former selves. Overall the economic devastation would be difficult to exaggerate. Thesis! One statistic conveys its dimensions: the advertising revenue of essay all America's newspapers fell from $63.5 billion in 2000 to about $23 billion in 2013, and is still falling. Traditional news organizations' financial well-being depended on thesis nokia, the willingness of advertisers to pay to websites for you, reach the mass audiences they attracted. Advertisers were happy to pay because no other advertising medium was as effective. But in nokia, the digital era, which has made it relatively simple to target advertising in very specific ways, a big metropolitan or national newspaper has much less appeal. Internet companies like Google and Facebook are able to sort audiences by the most specific criteria, and thus to offer advertisers the possibility of technology in football essay spending their money only on ads they know will reach only people interested in thesis, what they are selling. Essay On Negative! So Google, the master of targeted advertising, can provide a retailer selling sheets and towels an audience existing exclusively of people who have gone online in thesis, the last month to shop for sheets and towels. This explains why even as newspaper revenues have plummeted, the ad revenue of to write essays Google has leapt upward year after year—from $70 million in 2001 to an astonishing $50.6 billion in 2013.
That is more than two times the combined advertising revenue of every newspaper in America last year. And the situation for proprietors of newspapers and thesis, magazines is likely to get worse. One alarming set of statistics: Americans spend about 5 percent of the time they devote to essays, media of all kinds to nokia, magazines and newspapers. But nearly 20 percent of advertising dollars still go to print media. So print media today are getting billions more than they probably deserve from technology in football essay advertisers who, governed by the inertia so common in thesis, human affairs, continue to buy space in publications that are steadily losing audience, especially among the young.
When those advertisers wake up, revenues will plummet still further. King County Journal. Union City Register Tribune. Halifax Daily News. Rocky Mountain News.
News organizations have tried to adapt to websites to write, the new realities. As the Internet became more popular and thesis, more important in the first decade of the 21st century, newspaper proprietors dreamed of paying for their newsrooms by mimicking their traditional business model in the online world. Their hope was to create mass followings for their websites that would appeal to effects and technology, advertisers the way their ink-on-paper versions once did. Thesis! But that’s not what happened. The news organizations with the most popular websites did attract lots of eyeballs, but general advertising on their sites did not produce compelling results for advertisers, so they did not buy as much of it as the in football essay, papers had hoped. And the price they paid for it steadily declined, because as the Internet grew, the number of sites offering advertising opportunities assured that “supply” outstripped “demand.” Advertising revenues for the major news sites never amounted to even a significant fraction of the revenues generated by printed newspapers in the golden age. There seems little prospect today that online advertising revenues will ever be as lucrative as advertising on thesis, paper once was. The other online innovation that has devastated newspapers is Craigslist, the websites essays, free provider of what the newspapers call “classified advertising,” the small items in small print used by individuals and businesses for generations to buy and sell real estate and merchandise, and to hire workers. Twenty years ago classifieds provided more than a third of the revenue of The Washington Post . Craigslist has destroyed that business for the Post and every major paper in the country. The Philadelphia Inquirer/Daily News headquarters building on Broad Street in Philadelphia, October 6, 2005.
The paper is one of many major newspapers facing cutbacks and dwindling circulation. D espite two decades of nokia trying, no one has found a way to make traditional news-gathering sufficiently profitable to assure its future survival. Serious readers of websites for you America's most substantial news media may find this description at odds with their daily experience. After all, The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , and The Washington Post still provide rich offerings of good journalism every morning, and they have been joined by numerous online providers of both opinion and news—even of thesis classic investigative reporting. Digital publications employ thousands of reporters and editors in reference, new and sometimes promising journalistic enterprises. Thesis Nokia! Is this a disaster? Of course not—yet.
But today's situation is probably misleading. The laws of for you economics cannot be ignored or repealed. Nokia! Nor can the actuarial tables. Only about a third of to write essays for you Americans under 35 look at a newspaper even once a week, and the percentage declines every year. Thesis! A large portion of today's readers of the on negative of science, few remaining good newspapers are much closer to the grave than to high school. Today's young people skitter around the Internet like ice skaters, exercising their short attention spans by looking for fun and, occasionally, seeking out serious information.
Audience taste seems to be changing, with the result that among young people particularly there is a declining appetite for the sort of nokia information packages the great newspapers provided, which included national, foreign and local news, business news, cultural news and criticism, editorials and opinion columns, sports and obituaries, lifestyle features, and science news. Alas for those who continue to want access to that kind of product, there is no right to reliable, intelligent, comprehensive journalism. Reference Format! We only get it when someone provides it. And if it doesn’t pay someone a profit, it’s not likely to be produced. New York City. 1959. Nokia! TV news anchorman Walter Cronkite.
© Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos. B efore digital technology changed the world, the news was quite orderly and predictable. To find out what was happening, you bought a paper, listened to the radio, or watched television. Most people relied on websites essays, one or two sources for all their news—a newspaper and a TV network, for example. A few institutions and a few individuals dominated the provision of news: Walter Cronkite and John Chancellor; The New York Times and The Washington Post ; Time and Newsweek . The universe of news providers was small and also remarkably homogeneous. David Brinkley could move from NBC to ABC without causing much of a stir. When Roone Arledge, whose first big accomplishment was to make ABC the leading network for sports, was empowered to build a new ABC News, he did it by raiding the staffs of thesis NBC and CBS. Similarly, when Ted Turner launched CNN, he poached talent from the networks. This small, nearly-closed world rarely provided any surprises. Politically, the websites to write, big news organizations cast themselves as fair-minded and even-handed, never partisan.
Time magazine may have been somewhat more conservative, The New York Times more liberal, but none drifted far from the center of the political spectrum. For nearly four decades after World War II, mainstream journalism was notably non-ideological. At the thesis, height of their success, all the best news organizations shared two important qualities: a strong sense of responsibility about their roles as providers of news and analysis, and plenty of money to spend on those missions. In their heyday, roughly the last third of the 20th century, these institutions tended to unify American society. News anchors like Cronkite, Chancellor, Tom Brokaw, Dan Rather, and Peter Jennings were reassuring, avuncular figures with whom millions of Americans shared the dramas of the day. All the mainstream print and broadcast media sought to provide an information supermarket whose aisles—from sports to business to politics, foreign affairs, entertainment news, and websites essays for you, gossip—would hopefully attract mass audiences across all classes of society. And they made money—a lot of it—by selling those mass audiences to nokia, advertisers. NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images.
The money allowed for on negative and technology an extravagant approach to news. Editors and producers could put their news instincts ahead of other considerations, including profits—at least occasionally. I did this myself, dispatching reporters around the country and the world with something awfully close to abandon when I was a senior editor of The Washington Post . The best newspapers—the best of a much more crowded field than exists today—invested in Washington bureaus, foreign correspondents, and nokia, investigative reporting teams, not to mention luxuries almost unheard of websites essays for you now. Thesis Nokia! For years, for example, no reporter for the Los Angeles Times had to websites for you, suffer the nokia, indignity of flying in coach; business or first class was the norm. The broadcast media enjoyed even more extravagance. In the of human cloning, 1970s the three television networks each maintained large corps of foreign correspondents stationed in bureaus across the globe, and also domestic bureaus in the major American cities. Thesis Nokia! They all did serious documentaries and showed them in prime time. Editors and producers pursued stories that interested them, without much concern for how readers or viewers might react to the journalism that resulted. Essay! Members of this tribe of journalists shared a sense of what “the news” was. The most influential of them were the editors and thesis nokia, reporters on the best newspapers, whose decisions were systematically embraced and echoed by other editors and writers, as well as by the producers of television news.
As many have noted now that their power has declined, these news executives were gatekeepers of a kind, deciding which stories got the most attention. The most obvious examples of their discretionary power came in the realm of investigative reporting. One of the cardinal events of this era was Walter Cronkite's decision in technology in football essay, late October 1972 to nokia, report in detail on the CBS Evening News the findings of two young Washington Post reporters, Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, on the developing Watergate scandal. Cronkite’s decision highlighted the strength of the news culture, while also helping to essay, put the Post —then still emerging as a leading newspaper—at the center of national attention. This was a golden era in journalism, a time when a prosperous and thesis nokia, widely-respected press demonstrated an unprecedented willingness to confront a sitting president. Watergate and the Vietnam War both made it much easier to challenge authority. Newspapers especially began to show increasing self-confidence—sometimes it felt like arrogance—by moving away from reactive journalism that focused on the events of the previous day and devoting more space and technology essay, energy to “enterprise” journalism, which included not just in-depth investigations, but stories about trends in society, profiles, and feature stories. Thanks to this new boldness, the relationship between reporters and government deteriorated and thesis, became quite contentious. Deference gave way to skepticism and, often, cynicism about the essay, believability of public officials and government agencies.
One of the great symbolic moments of this era was the decision by the Nixon administration to seek a court order to stop The New York Times from publishing details of a secret Pentagon history of the Vietnam war that a disgruntled official had leaked to the paper. Initially a federal district court accepted the government’s argument that publication endangered “national security,” and issued an order to the Times to nokia, cease publication of stories based on essays on teachers, the “Pentagon Papers.” The Times 's source, Daniel Ellsberg, then leaked another set of the papers to nokia, The Washington Post , which hurriedly began preparing stories about them. Reference Papers! The government sought court action to block the Post as well. The Supreme Court agreed to take the case. The Times and Post hired some of the best (and most expensive) lawyers in the country to argue for publication. The court quickly decided in favor of the newspapers' right to publish. Nixon's attempt to impose “prior restraint” on the American press had failed.
Two private corporations, the Times and Post companies, had defied the government and then persuaded the Supreme Court to let them get away with it. Journalists still remember this as a critical moment in the history of their business. 1902-03: Ida Tarbell profiles John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company The progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries was a time of thesis social activism as Americans and the disadvantages of human cloning, their president, Theodore Roosevelt, fought corruption and monopolistic practices in government and industry. Tarbell, a former school teacher, wrote a series of articles for McClure’s Magazine about the thesis nokia, giant Standard Oil Company and its owner John D. Rockefeller. The series was published in book form in 1904, and in 1911 the format papers, U.S. Supreme Court found the company to be in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, causing its breakup. Ironically, Tarbell didn’t like the term “muckraker,” which was applied to her and thesis, other reform-minded journalists of the era. 1906: Upton Sinclair exposes conditions in Chicago's meatpacking plants Chicago was America’s center of meat processing and packing around the turn of the century in 1900. Although Sinclair’s famous 1906 work, The Jungle , was a novel, he based it on essays, seven weeks in disguise working in Chicago’s meatpacking plants.
His exposé of conditions that immigrant workers faced in the stockyards and nokia, the unsanitary practices of the industry coincided with passage of the cloning essay, Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906. Sinclair later focused on American journalism itself, calling attention in nokia, 1920 to reference format, the practice of “yellow journalism” in his book The Brass Check . 1953: Murrey Marder dogs Sen. Joseph McCarthy's witch hunt In February 1950, U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy declared that more than 200 Communists were working at the U.S. Thesis Nokia! State Department. After his re-election in 1952, McCarthy conducted a series of reference hearings on the matter and implicated Army personnel in espionage. Thesis! In 1953, Murrey Marder, writing for The Washington Post , began full-time coverage of Sen. McCarthy and his hearings. Marder investigated the senator's accusations against Army personnel stationed at Fort Monmouth in New Jersey, finding that the senator's charges against them were all false. Essays! Marder later opened the London bureau of the The Post , and after his retirement, helped create the Nieman Watchdog Project.
1962-64: David Halberstam calls foul on the U.S. military's rosy Vietnam claims In October 1963, President John F. Nokia! Kennedy was so upset about David Halberstam’s reporting from Saigon that he asked Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, the publisher of The New York Times , to transfer David Halberstam out of Vietnam. Of Human Essay! Since the previous year, Halberstam had offered dogged and skeptical coverage of U.S. Thesis Nokia! government officials’ optimistic portrayals of their and the South Vietnamese government’s efforts against North Vietnam. “The job of the reporters in Vietnam,” Halberstam wrote in 1965, “was to report the news, whether or not the news was good for websites to write essays America.” In 1964, Halberstam earned a Pulitzer Prize for thesis nokia his Vietnam reporting. 1969: Seymour Hersh exposes the My Lai massacre and cover-up In March 1968, U.S. Army soldiers massacred hundreds of civilians in My Lai, a South Vietnamese village. In the months following, Army commanders downplayed the incident, keeping it hidden from the public. However, due to pressure on the chain-of-command from a soldier in the infantry company involved, Lieutenant William Calley, Jr. was court martialed in websites for you, September 1969 for his role.
The public wouldn't learn of My Lai until Hersh, acting on a tip, interviewed Calley and his lawyer. Hersh's story was published by thesis nokia Dispatch, a small news agency with a tiny staff, and then picked up nationally. Calley was the only soldier convicted in relation to the massacre. Hersh won the format for science papers, 1970 Pulitzer Prize for his reporting. 1971: The Pentagon Papers leaked and thesis, published. In 1971, with the poverty, Vietnam War still going after almost a decade, a military analyst named Daniel Ellsberg leaked a seven-thousand page history of U.S.-Vietnam relations that had been prepared for internal use by the Pentagon. Lengthy sections of these “Pentagon Papers” were published in The Washington Post and The New York Times , revealing the covert origins of a war that was exceedingly unpopular at home. Nokia! The Nixon administration ordered the newspapers to cease publication of any of the documents. This led to essay of science and technology, a Supreme Court case ( New York Times Co. v. United States ) that eventually ruled in favor of the press. 1972: Woodward and Bernstein expose the Watergate break in In June 1972, five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee offices at thesis nokia the Watergate Complex in Washington, DC. Two young reporters at The Washington Post , Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, were intrigued that one of the burglars was on the payroll of President Richard Nixon’s reelection committee and in football essay, began digging further.
Woodward and Bernstein uncovered a series of political crimes and “dirty tricks” that connected the burglary back to the White House. Their reporting led to indictments of 40 administration officials and the eventual resignation of President Nixon. The paper won the 1973 Pulitzer Prize for the investigative reporting. 1992: Florence Graves reveals sexual misconduct in nokia, Congress In 1992, shortly after the Anita Hill controversy, Florence Graves, founder of essays Common Cause magazine, began an nokia, investigation into format papers, sexual misconduct on Capitol Hill. Thesis! She quickly found a pattern of charges pointing to Senator Bob Packwood. In the fall of 1992, The Washington Post published Graves'story detailing allegations from 10 women of sexual misconduct by the Oregon senator. The story not only led to essays, the first-ever Senate Ethics Committee investigation of thesis sexual misconduct and the eventual resignation of Senator Packwood, but also to the passage of the landmark Congressional Accountability Act, subjecting Congress to the same discrimination laws as the essay, rest of the nation. 2010: Dana Priest and William Arkin detail secret government organizations On July 19, 2010, Washington Post reporters Dana Priest and thesis nokia, William Arkin published “Top Secret America,” a series of children investigative articles revealing the massive and what they characterized as mismanaged post-9/11 growth of the U.S. Thesis! intelligence community. The series, benefiting from the work of more than a dozen other journalists at The Post , compiled hundreds of thousands of children records over two years, identifying 45 government organizations (1,271 sub-units) and 1,931 private companies engaged in thesis, top-secret intelligence work. The series highlighted the oversight challenges facing such a fast-growing and secretive system with such an important agenda: maintaining the safety of the disadvantages of human cloning American citizens. Reuters/Jason Reed JIR.
2013: The Washington Post and The Guardian report on NSA surveillance In early June 2013, The Post and thesis nokia, The Guardian broke nearly-simultaneous stories about National Security Agency surveillance activities being conducted on U.S. citizens and foreign officials. Both sets of articles, led by Barton Gellman at The Post and Glenn Greenwald at The Guardian , along with Laura Poitras and Ewan MacAskill, initially relied on a confidential source who was a former NSA analyst and reference for science papers, then-employee at a private sector consulting firm. The source had told Gellman that he was operating out of nokia conscience and knew that he would be exposed. That person was Edward Snowden. Both newspapers shared the Pulitzer Prize this year for their articles. Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein (center) and Bob Woodward (left), the on negative of science and technology, team who broke the Watergate story.
Washington, D.C., 1974. © Wayne Miller/Magnum Photos. T he golden era had its shortcomings, to be sure. A herd mentality too often prevailed, especially in thesis, Washington coverage. Self-important journalists were too common. And both the conventional wisdom and conventional attitudes remained strong. So, for inspirational essays on teachers example, when confronted by a story like the AIDS epidemic, the thesis nokia, great news organizations reacted slowly and clumsily. Few journalists paid serious attention to cloning essay, the rising disparities in American society. Thesis Nokia! Toward the end of the era, in the first years of the cloning, 21st century, the news media succumbed to thesis, the national anxieties produced by the 9/11 attacks and failed to essay, challenge effectively the Bush administration's rush to war in Iraq. Many journalists joined the rush.
This was an embarrassment for our major journalistic institutions and a disservice to thesis, the country. Nevertheless, America's best news organizations have proved their value again and again, even in recent years, as their fortunes have declined. Essays On Teachers! The culture of journalistic skepticism born in the 1960s and thesis nokia, 1970s has continued to serve the country well. Repeatedly, journalists have broken significant news stories that government officials hoped would never be revealed, from essay on negative and technology accounts of thesis Americans torturing terror suspects to technology, revelations of the systematic mistreatment of veterans at Walter Reed Hospital; from accounts of the government's eavesdropping programs to descriptions of its vast, post-9/11 intelligence apparatus. The major journalistic revelations of the last decade altered the country's image of itself.
They mattered. And society has benefited in less tangible ways, too. “How would this look on the front page of thesis The Washington Post ?” has been a question asked in essay on negative effects of science, offices in Washington ever since the time of Watergate, to good effect. Of course this deterrent to illegal, unethical, or embarrassing behavior is unevenly effective; many miscreant public officials have ignored it, and will in the future, whether or not there continues to be a front page of thesis nokia The Washington Post . But this sense of accountability has had a salutary effect. The best journalism has most often been produced by those news organizations that have both the children, resources and the courage to defend their best work when it offends or alarms powerful institutions and individuals. The public may perceive journalism as an individualistic enterprise carried out by lone rangers of rectitude, but this is rarely the thesis, case. The best work is usually done by a team that has the backing of an websites for you, organization committed to maintaining the highest standards of seriousness and integrity, and to nurturing talented reporters and editors. In the trickiest realms of investigative reporting on matters that touch on “national security,” the team—including the writers and editors as well as the lawyers and often the publisher too—can be critically important. Thesis Nokia! News organizations that can afford to support such teams are now at risk.
A healthy democratic society requires referees—authority figures with whistles they can blow when they perceive infringements of the in football essay, rules. Prosecutors and judges fulfill this role in matters of law enforcement, but their writ is limited by the scope of the law. “I am not a crook,” insisted Richard Nixon, and perhaps he wasn't, but he was a kind of political criminal nevertheless, and he was first called to account by journalists. Will such whistle blowers be on the job to confront the next Nixon? Paul Starr, the distinguished Princeton scholar, has put the matter succinctly: “By undermining the economic basis of professional reporting and by thesis fragmenting the public, [the digital revolution] has weakened the ability of the press to act as an inspirational, effective agent of thesis nokia public accountability. If we take seriously the idea that an independent press serves an essential democratic function, its institutional distress may weaken democracy itself. And that is the danger that confronts us.”
Bill O'Reilly vs. Jon Stewart 2012: The Rumble In The Air-Conditioned Auditorium at George Washington University on October 6, 2012. Jamie McCarthy/Getty Images for The Rumble 2012. I f today's providers of the best journalism—often referred to these days, somewhat ominously, as “legacy media,” meaning the old stuff—cannot survive their continuing tribulations, what will take their place? Predicting the future is a fool's errand, but some trends are clear. The Internet promotes fragmentation by encouraging the development of like-minded communities, from you and your Facebook friends to for you, avid Tea Party supporters who love Breitbart News, a highly readable, relentlessly ideological right-wing news site. Surveys by thesis nokia the Pew Research Center for the People the Press show that increasing numbers of American get their “news” from ideologically congenial sources.
The news media are fragmenting just as American society is fragmenting—by class, by inspirational on teachers region, by religious inclination, by generation, by ethnic identity, by politics and thesis nokia, more. The rise of the essay, fragmented news media is quite a recent phenomenon. It really became significant after the inauguration of Barack Obama in January 2009. President Obama came into the White House in the midst of the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. He had run as a unifier who would bring a new era of bipartisan collaboration: “Yes we can!” But no, he couldn't. Republicans in Congress decided at nokia the outset of his administration that they would try to for science papers, deny the new president any victories. Thesis Nokia! Obama's early legislative successes, based on the disadvantages, the big Democratic majorities in the House and Senate produced by the 2008 election, disguised the fact that partisan gridlock lay just around the corner.
After 2010, when Republicans regained control of the House, the nokia, gridlock set in. The politicians made an essay on negative effects and technology, uneasy peace with the idea of nokia perpetual partisan warfare. Voters also took increasingly ideological positions, and looked with increasing suspicion on those who disagreed with them. Today's politicians, especially on the right, communicate to “their” voters through “their” media, most notably, of course, Fox News. Similarly, liberal Democrats like to appear on MSNBC. More ideological politicians like a world without Cronkites—without recognized gatekeepers and arbiters. So “the news” that once helped unify the country is now just another source of division. Poverty! Daniel Patrick Moynihan used to argue that “everyone is entitled to thesis nokia, his own opinion, but not to websites to write essays, his own facts.” No longer. Politicians and commentators now seem perfectly happy inventing their own reality when it suits their political or ideological purposes. Fox News's determination to ridicule the Affordable Care Act—”Obamacare”—had nothing to do with traditional journalistic truth-seeking. Rather, it was part of a propaganda campaign.
The MSNBC cable network, part of NBC, which used to be a serious news organization, saw a business opportunity in making itself a liberal alternative to thesis, Fox, the most profitable cable news network, and now unabashedly propagates a liberal view of the news. Fox and MSNBC have both decided to cater to their audiences not with original reporting of the news (which is expensive), but with commentary on in football, the news interspersed with broadcasts of set-piece events like presidential news conferences. Curiously, or revealingly, there is little outrage in the culture about nokia these developments. We seem to have adapted to the demise of the old expectations about accuracy, fairness, and reporting without much of reference format papers a fight. Some of the new online products produce interesting and thesis, informative journalism, but none has the ambitions or the sense of responsibility of the inspirational on teachers, best publications. They couldn't afford those luxuries.
A great news organization is nokia expensive. The newsroom of The New York Times costs about $230 million a year. The news operation of The Washington Post , already substantially diminished from the height of its profitability and influence, still costs more than $90 million a year. Without the revenues to support them, newsrooms all over the country have been decimated. Newspapers employed 59,000 journalists in 1989, and inspirational on teachers, 36,000 in 2012 (and fewer since then).
Once-formidable institutions including The Baltimore Sun , Chicago Tribune , Los Angeles Times , and Miami Herald are vastly diminished. Others have gone out of business altogether. The significant news organizations that have survived are under terrific pressure now. A revealing document emerged this spring from The New York Times , a 96-page report written by a committee of Times employees on thesis, the digital future. Reading it makes clear the extent to which even Times reporters and essay, editors now see the demands of the digital age as incompatible with their traditional pursuits.
The committee argues that The New York Times must become a “digital first” organization. “That means aggressively questioning many of our print-based traditions and their demands on our time, and determining which can be abandoned to free up resources for digital work.” One example cited in the report: “Packaging, promoting and sharing our journalism” on the Internet—three activities that have nothing to nokia, do with reporting and writing news stories—must become a priority for the newsroom. Even when journalists are allowed to pursue traditional reporting, the reference for science, requirements of online journalism limit their opportunities to do so. Thesis! Before the big papers had websites, a reporter could take all day to cover an event, talk to sources to get background information, consider the implications of the new developments, and write a story for the next day's paper. For Science Papers! Today the same reporter has to file multiple versions of the same story as the day progresses, adding new tidbits as she acquires them. There is thesis nokia much less time available to dig into a story and discover its ramifications. Inspirational! The quantity of original reporting has surely declined as the importance of the Internet has grown. One immediate effect of all these changes and cutbacks is that there's no paper in America today that can offer the same coverage of its city, suburbs, and nokia, state that it provided 20 or even 10 years ago, and scores of city halls and in football, state legislatures get virtually no coverage by any substantive news organizations. Thesis! Television remains the inspirational essays, primary source of news for most Americans, but local stations have dramatically reduced their reporting staffs, and the networks no longer try to cover the world and the country as they once did. It’s true that the nokia, federal government in Washington still gets a lot of websites to write attention from reporters.
But one large category of Washington coverage has virtually disappeared: journalism about members of Congress by news organizations “back home.” A generation ago scores of local newspapers and television stations employed Washington correspondents who kept an eye on the members of the House and Senate from their cities and thesis, states. Senator Christopher Dodd recalls that in his early years in the Senate, in the 1980s, a dozen reporters from Connecticut outlets were based in Washington and essays for you, reported regularly on his activities. By the time he retired in 2010, that number had fallen to zero. No Connecticut newspaper or television station had a reporter in thesis, the nation's capital. Facade of The Newseum, incorporating the text of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. David Monack/Wikimedia Commons. A re there no grounds for optimism, or even hope? Of course there are. The Disadvantages Cloning! In this age of thesis creative destruction, the destruction is essay more obvious than the creativity, but some of the new, online providers of news are doing interesting work that helps compensate for the shrinkage of thesis nokia traditional outlets' reporting staffs. For example, in Connecticut there are now several bloggers reporting on the state's members of Congress, and technology, CT Mirror, a non-profit news site, has a full-time Washington reporter.
Around the country dozens of news websites have sprung up to thesis, provide some local coverage, many of them employing their own reporters, and inspirational essays on teachers, a few of them are quite good. There are also several web-based operations that sometimes break important national stories. Thesis! The very best of them is ProPublica, a non-profit organization founded by Paul Steiger, the technology essay, former managing editor of The Wall Street Journal , that is devoted to investigative reporting, an thesis, expensive specialty that has suffered in the era of disappearing newspaper profits. ProPublica provides pro bono journalism of the highest quality, as good as the investigative projects of the major newspapers. Its budget of $12 million a year, nearly all raised from donors, funds a staff of 45 reporters and editors. But as its journalists acknowledge, the ProPublica stories that have the poverty children, greatest impact are those done in collaboration with legacy news media that publish or broadcast them. Its own excellent website has a relatively small audience.
AP Photo/Jason DeCrow. Other non-profit organizations are also providing reporting at a level that only the major news organizations used to offer. The winner of the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting was Chris Hamby of the Center for Public Integrity in Washington, a non-profit watchdog organization that maintains vast electronic files tracing the flow of money into our politics. Marcus Brauchli, who has served as the senior editor of thesis nokia both The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post , observed recently that thanks to essay on negative effects, Internet offerings, the quantity of American journalism has never been greater. It used to be the case that newspapers like the Times and nokia, Post offered their readers what was usually the very best coverage available in essay, a wide range of news categories—there were no serious competitors. Today there are competitors in every one: ESPN in sports, Politico in Washington coverage, BuzzFeed in the world of thesis nokia popular culture, and so on. We at the Post used to reference, have a corner on the market in Washington—no competitor could challenge us in any of nokia our major categories. No corners are available now. New York Times Building. Jleon/ Wikimedia Commons.
I f there is some good news, it's hardly enough to be reassuring. Something more substantial has to the disadvantages of human, happen to sustain the thesis, kind of journalistic excellence that a democracy requires. Poverty Children! Of course there can be technological surprises. A group of young people could be working in a Silicon Valley garage right now on nokia, an idea that could re-establish a healthy revenue stream for major news organizations. I certainly hope so. Efforts to save serious journalism enjoy one natural advantage: smart people playing influential roles in society know that they need good information about many subjects. It is conceivable that these citizens, who are a significant audience albeit a small fraction of the total population, will be willing to pay the full cost of the journalism they consume. At first blush this may sound painfully obvious. Don't people usually pay for the services they use? Not the news. Before websites, readers paid a pittance for their news in newspapers that were deliberately priced below the cost of websites to write essays for you a cup of coffee to try to maximize circulation (and therefore advertising dollars).
And then for the better part of two decades—the first decades of the World Wide Web—online consumers got used to the idea that news was not just cheap but free. In the United States The Wall Street Journal was the only major publication that charged for thesis nokia online access to its journalism. Of Science And Technology! Everyone else gave their work away on the theory—or hope—that this was the way to build the thesis, audiences that advertisers would eventually pay to reach. Then in March 2011, The New York Times announced a paywall that required regular online readers to pay for its journalism, a risky gambit that has proven remarkably successful. At the beginning of technology in football April the nokia, Times had 800,000 “digital subscribers,” people paying to read the paper on electronic devices only. (The daily ink-on-paper Times is bought by 680,000 people, and 1.2 million on Sundays.) Digital subscriptions currently bring in more than $150 million a year, money that has saved the company from the grave financial crisis caused by declining revenues for the print edition. The Washington Post and most other large newspapers followed the Times , if they were not already charging for online access.
Though none of the others has had as much success signing up digital subscribers as the cloning, Times , the newspaper’s ability to persuade online readers to pay is heartening. It suggests at least the possibility that over time, consumers of news might follow the path of television viewers, who once thought—before the arrival of cable television—that TV was free, but eventually got used to nokia, paying substantial monthly cable bills. Technology In Football Essay! Some version of that transition could save the traditional news business—if some clever inventor can figure out how to make it happen. Until now no one has, and even the nokia, Times 's encouraging numbers fall short of a solution that could save its $235 million-a-year newsroom. A morning edition of the Washington Post- August 6, 2013.
Amazon.com Inc founder Jeff Bezos bought the technology essay, newspaper in a surprise deal that ended the Graham family's 80 years of ownership. “Design the electronic classifieds now.” see the full memo. L ast fall, when he met the staff of The Washington Post soon after buying the paper, Jeff Bezos of Amazon spoke about the importance of “the bundle,” as he called the variety of news, opinion, useful information, and thesis nokia, entertainment that the Post offers each day. The goal in the digital age, Bezos said, had to be to make the bundle attractive to a lot of people—so attractive that they would be willing to pay for it. The average age of the of human cloning, readers of the printed paper, Bezos noted, goes up “about one year every year.” It's no secret where that leads, he quipped. Now that he owns the money-losing Post , Bezos faces the challenge of how to sell that bundle. Michael Moritz of Sequoia Capital, one of the country's most successful venture capitalists, summarized the problem: “How [can] an Internet property, dedicated to broad-based news and information, ever generate a lot of money? Without solving that riddle, there is no path to prosperity.” Of course, a large organization offering “broad-based news and information” is not the nokia, only conceivable model. Personally I am convinced that our society will be best served by the survival of a few distinguished news organizations committed to holding powerful people accountable for the ways they use their power. This view is certainly a product of my lifetime's service in one such organization.
But there are other possibilities. The news supermarkets we are used to may not survive, but “disaggregated” news organizations specializing in specific subjects might, over time, provide the accountability journalism we need. One interesting example is the SCOTUS blog, which provides excellent coverage of the the disadvantages of human essay, Supreme Court. It makes no profit, but is supported by thesis Bloomberg. Of Human Cloning Essay! Politico's coverage of Washington and thesis, politics, though uneven, is better than that of any but the on negative of science and technology, very best news organizations. And Politico, thanks to thesis, revenue from its Capitol Hill newspaper edition, actually makes money. It is also possible that “prosperity” won't be necessary. The $250 million Bezos paid for The Washington Post was a tiny sliver of websites to write for you his $30 billion net worth. Thesis! For him to cover the essay effects, Post 's losses now costs the thesis nokia, equivalent of lunch money for effects an ordinary mortal—something Bezos could easily afford for nokia decades to come, if he chooses to play the angel's role indefinitely.
The money-losing Boston Globe , sold at a huge loss by The New York Times in 2013, has a deep-pocketed new owner in John Henry, principal owner of the Boston Red Sox, who similarly could keep the paper afloat indefinitely if he wants to. There might be comparable angels in the futures of other news organizations. New Yorkers have speculated for years that their former mayor, Michael Bloomberg, worth $34 billion, might play that role some day for The New York Times . The wealthiest giants in this brave new world are companies that did not exist 20 years ago, inventive outfits that have capitalized on digital technologies most effectively. Facebook and Google, for example, bestride the globe like modern-day King Kongs, catering to billions of people and earning scores of billions of essay dollars. Both exploit the work of traditional providers of nokia news that create information useful to Facebook friends and Google searchers.
They lead large numbers of readers to the journalism of the legacy media. For You! But they contribute relatively little to the survival of those providers. These firms were created by a new generation of young people whose self-interest may lead them either to realize the importance of the thesis nokia, legacy institutions, or figure out how to create new ways to do what the old news organizations did in the past. Financially, it would be easy for Google to rescue The New York Times . The annual cost of the Times 's newsroom represents less than 2 percent of Google's 2013 profits. Google, or someone else, could also create new news organizations dedicated to excellent coverage of narrow fields. The future, in Mort Sahl's wise words, lies ahead—but remains invisible. News as we know it is at of human cloning essay risk. So is democratic governance, which depends on an effective watchdog news media.
Both have been undermined by changes in thesis nokia, society wrought by digital technologies—among the most powerful forces ever unleashed by mankind. We have barely begun the technology in football essay, Digital Age, and there is no point in trying to predict just where it will take us. News certainly has a future, but what that will be is thesis unclear. All that we know for certain is that we are lighting out for new territory. Join the conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on Facebook . This Essay is also available as an eBook from websites for you these online retailers: Amazon Kindle, Barnes Noble, Apple iTunes, Google Play, and on nokia, Kobo. Like other products of the Institution, The Brookings Essay is intended to contribute to discussion and stimulate debate on important issues. The views are solely those of the author. Graphic Design: Marcia Underwood and Jessica Pavone.
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